TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mu opioid agonist and antagonist on neurological outcome following traumatic brain injury in the rat. AU - Lyeth, Bruce G. AU - Jiang, J. Y.. AU - Gong, Q. Z.. AU - Hamm, R. J.. AU - Young, H. F.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - We examined the effects of an exogenous mu opioid agonist and antagonist on systemic physiology and neurological outcome following TBI in the rat. Experiment I: [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.1 nMol or 0.3 nMol in 5μl) (n = 10) or artificial CSF (n = 10) was administered 5 min prior to fluid-percussion brain injury (2.1 atmospheres). Motor performance was assessed on days 1-5 after TBI. The mu receptor agonist, DAMGO significantly reduced both beam-walking latency and body weight loss after injury (p , 0.05). DAMGO-treated rats (n = 5) did not differ from CSF-treated rats (n = 5) on either systemic arterial blood pressure or heart rate responses to injury. Experiment II: Beta-funaltrexamine (β-FNA) (20.0 nMol in 5.0 μl) (n = 10) ...
Our goal in this paper was to use the 2006-2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of annual patient number, patient demographics and hospital characteristics of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs); and to use the same database to estimate the available sample sizes for various clinical trials of pediatric TBI cases. National estimates of patient demographics and hospital characteristics were calculated for pediatric TBI. Simulation analyses assessed the potential number of pediatric TBI cases from randomly selected hospitals for inclusion in future clinical trials under different scenarios. Between 2006 and 2013, the NEDS database estimated that of the 215,204,932 children who visited the ED, 6,089,930 (2.83%) had a TBI diagnosis. During the study period in the US EDs, pediatric TBI patients increased by 34.1%. Simulation analyses suggest that hospital EDs with annual TBI ED visits >1000, Levels I and II Trauma
Some of these symptoms are harder to see in young children than adults, so it is important to watch the young child who may have had a traumatic brain injury to notice changes in behavior that he or she cannot otherwise express verbally. Along with the above symptoms, mild traumatic brain injury also presents with such emotional, mood or behavior changes as depression, confusion, problems remembering, trouble concentrating or problems thinking in general. The mild symptoms of traumatic brain injury may also occur in people with more severe brain injury as well. People with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury may have a stubborn headache that does not get better, repetitive nausea and vomiting, and dialated pupils. The person with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury may have trouble in many areas of thinking such as slurred speech, the inability to find words, and muscle problems that slurr speech. They may not be able to process launguage or pay attention, or may be slow to be able ...
In January 2020, Dr. Kochanek presented at the International Workshop on Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury that was held in Bergamo and Brescia Italy. The symposium was focused around the publication of 2019 Guidelines for the Medical management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and was attended by a large international audience. He gave lectures on Biomarkers in Pediatric TBI as Outcome Predictors, along with several presentations and panels addressing various aspects of the new guidelines, and a presentation on the future of pediatric TBI. It was an outstanding conference. A photo of the leadership and speakers of the Conference is provided.. ...
Title:18FDG-PET/CT in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: The Relative Hypermetabolism of Vermis Cerebelli as a Medium and Long Term Predictor of Outcome. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Andrea Lupi, Giannettore Bertagnoni, Anna Borghero, Alessandro Picelli, Vincenzo Cuccurullo and Pierluigi Zanco. Affiliation:Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale S. Bortolo - Via M. Rodolfi, 36100 Vicenza - ITALY.. Keywords:Brain trauma, imaging, prognosis, vermis cerebelli.. Abstract:Purpose: Both, the constant presence of apparent hypermetabolism of the vermis cerebelli compared to the cerebellar hemispheres in traumatic brain injury, and the presence of a good relationship between the intensity of this sign and the severity of the clinical conditions have been addressed in previous studies. Aim of the present paper is to evaluate the possible correlation between the intensity of the finding and the medium and long term outcome in a group of patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 105 patients consecutively ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), along with Rep Bill Pascrell (D-NJ) and Sen Robert Menendez (D-NJ), recently announced that CDC will form an expert panel to establish national guidelines for pediatric traumatic brain injury and concussion. This initiative was a major component of the Concussion Treatment and Care Tools (ConTACT) Act, legislation that was not passed into law but was supported by APTA in past congressional sessions. This announcement marks a positive step forward by the federal government through a united commitment by Congress and the Department of Health and Human Services to address the important issue of concussion management. The expert panel will define the need, scope, and expectations of federal guidelines for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, including those for student athletes. The national guidelines will take into account advice from experts across the country, laying the foundation for all 50 states to implement a standard and protect young ...
The Brain Trauma Foundation is presenting a free webinar on Assessment & Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury on Wednesday, April 25, 2012, 12-1 Eastern Time. This webinar is open to all. Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury face a wide range of possible prognoses, from nearly complete recovery to permanent unconsciousness. The ability to predict prognosis at an early point is limited, but the time until return of consciousness (e.g., command following) and orientation (e.g., duration of post-traumatic amnesia) are useful predictors in the early days and weeks. More specialized assessment techniques exist of those with persistent disorders of...
1 Botulinum Toxin Type A Treatment For Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Jaw-Opening Oromandibular Dystonia Karen Gisotti DO 1, Scott Fuchs DO 1, Gilbert Siu DO PhD 1, Sooja Cho MD 2, C.R. Sridhara MD 1,2 1 Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 2 MossRehab, Elkins Park, PA ABSTRACT Setting: Tertiary care rehabilitation center and electrodiagnostic laboratory Patient: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury. Case: 18-year-old female with severe traumatic brain injury due to a motor vehicle collision who sustained a right subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury along with right orbital and mandible fractures and remained minimally responsive at admission. She had upper motor neuron syndrome, severe spasticity, and hyperreflexia with minimal voluntary control. The patient also presented with severe jaw-closing impairment, which affected her oral hygiene, swallowing mobility, and speech presentation. Electrodiagnostic studies ...
Roozenbeek B, Maas AI, Menon DK. Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Nature Reviews Neurology. 2013;9(4):231. Bodien YG, McCrea M, Dikmen S, Temkin N, Boase K, Joan M, et al. Optimizing outcome assessment in multicenter TBI trials: Perspectives from TRACK TBI and the TBI Endpoints Development Initiative. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2018;33(3):147. Andelic N, Anke A, Skandsen T, Sigurdardottir S, Sandhaug M, Ader T, et al. Incidence of hospital-admitted severe traumatic brain injury and in-hospital fatality in Norway: a national cohort study. Neuroepidemiology. 2012;38(4):259-67. Andriessen TM, Horn J, Franschman G, van der Naalt J, Haitsma I, Jacobs B, et al. Epidemiology, severity classification, and outcome of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter study. Journal of neurotrauma. 2011;28(10):2019-31. Von Elm E, Osterwalder JJ, Graber C, Schoettker P, Stocker R, Zangger P, et al. Severe traumatic brain injury in ...
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About: Predicting Seizures In The Acute Stage Of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Blog by a compassionate yet aggressive San Francisco Injury Attorney.
Content for ASHAs Practice Portal is developed through a comprehensive process that includes multiple rounds of subject matter expert input and review. ASHA extends its gratitude to the following subject matter experts who were involved in the development of the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury page. ...
Doylestown, PA, November 3, 2020, ZEXPRWIRE - Leading Bucks County injury law firm, Cordisco & Saile, recently announced their new initiative on handling traumatic brain injury cases for residents of Bucks County and beyond. The new focus puts into consideration the fact that traumatic brain injuries, whether minor or serious, have lifetime consequences and costs as other serious diseases. According to reports by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 2.8 million people in the United States suffer from traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) every year. TBI has been proven to be a major cause of disability and death in the US. The CDC further notes that despite the fact that most TBI injuries may not seem to be life-threatening at first, the injuries can potentially lead to temporary or permanent impairment of brain function over time and leave the victim in a state of debilitation. Traumatic brain injuries or brain damage is often called the invisible injury says managing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities Following Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Hammond, Flora M.. AU - Corrigan, John D.. AU - Ketchum, Jessica M.. AU - Malec, James F.. AU - Dams-OConnor, Kristen. AU - Hart, Tessa. AU - Novack, Thomas A.. AU - Bogner, Jennifer. AU - Dahdah, Marie N.. AU - Whiteneck, Gale G.. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. N2 - Objective: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Six TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) centers. Participants: In total, 404 participants in the TBIMS National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Self-reported medical and psychiatric comorbidities and the onset time of each endorsed comorbidity. Results: At 10 years postinjury, the most common comorbidities developing postinjury, in order, ...
Aggression is a prevalent symptom after paediatric TBI and can significantly impede rehabilitation. Awareness of these predictors can aid in early identification of children at risk in order to help appropriately design rehabilitation programmes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment with Vitamin B3 Improves Functional Recovery and Reduces GFAP Expression following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats. AU - Hoane, Michael R.. AU - Akstulewicz, Stacy L.. AU - Toppen, James. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Previous studies have shown that administration of vitamin B3 (B3) in animal models of ischemia significantly reduced the size of infarction and improved functional recovery. The present study evaluated the effect of administration of B3 on recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI), incorporating the bilateral medial frontal cortex contusion injury model. Groups of rats were assigned to B3 (500 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg) treatment conditions and received contusion injuries or sham surgeries. Drug treatment was administered 15 min and 24 h following injury. Rats were examined on a variety of tests to measure sensorimotor performance (bilateral tactile adhesive removal), skilled forelimb use (staircase test), and cognitive ability ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of the dopamine D2 receptor T allele on response latency after mild traumatic brain injury. AU - McAllister, Thomas W.. AU - Rhodes, C. Harker. AU - Flashman, Laura A.. AU - McDonald, Brenna C.. AU - Belloni, Dorothy. AU - Saykin, Andrew J.. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Objective: The authors tested the hypothesis that the dopamine D2 receptor T allele (formerly described as the A1 allele) would be associated with poorer performance on memory and attention tasks following mild traumatic brain injury. Method: Thirty-nine patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 27 comparison subjects were genotyped. All subjects completed memory and attention tests, including the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task and the Continuous Performance Test. Results: In both groups the T allele was associated with poorer performance on the California Verbal Learning Test recognition task. There was also a significant diagnosis-by-allele interaction on measures of response ...
What is a brain injury? Brain injury can be defined as a type of head injury that is caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head during which the brain bounces off the inside of the skull. Brain injury can also be caused by a car accident, gunshot wound, or other external factor. What are the different types of brain injuries? There are many different types of brain injuries with varying levels of severity. The different types of brain injuries are: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Acquired Brain Injury, Open Brain Injury, and Closed Brain Injury. An Anoxic brain injury occurs when the oxygen supply is somehow cut off, and can cause serious and irreversible damage if it\s interrupted for even just a few minutes. What are the most common causes of brain injury? Some of the most common causes of brain injury include car accidents, motorcycle accidents, slip-and-fall accidents, gunshots, stabbings, and pedestrian accidents. This also varies according to an age group, as young children ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased adenosine in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. T2 - Association with severity of injury and excitotoxicity. AU - Robertson, Courtney. AU - Bell, M. J.. AU - Kochanek, P. M.. AU - Adelson, P. D.. AU - Ruppel, R. A.. AU - Carcillo, J. A.. AU - Wisniewski, S. R.. AU - Mi, Z.. AU - Janesko, K. L.. AU - Clark, R. S B. AU - Marion, D. W.. AU - Graham, S. H.. AU - Jackson, E. K.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives: To measure adenosine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children after severe traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the contribution of patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Outcome Score, and time after injury to cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentrations. To evaluate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations in this population. Design: Prospective survey. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit in a university-based ...
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The Traumatic Brain Injury Model System (TBIMS) program was created and funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) in 1987 to demonstrate the benefits of a coordinated system of neurotrauma and rehabilitation care and conduct innovative research on all aspects of care for those who sustain traumatic brain injuries. Each Center systematically collects important data about each individual who meets criteria for inclusion in the TBI National Database and sends this information to the TBI National Data Center at KMRREC. The Centers are currently located at 16 sites throughout the United States that provide comprehensive systems of brain injury care to individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury, from acute care through community re-entry. The mission of the TBIMS is to improve the lives of persons who experience traumatic brain injury, their families and communities by creating and disseminating new knowledge about the course, treatment and outcomes relating to
From the age of five through adulthood, trauma is the leading cause of death, and many traumatic injuries involve brain injury. Fortunately, the majority of traumatic brain injuries are mild, but nevertheless, some children will experience a severe traumatic brain injury.
What Is a Traumatic Brain Injury? Are There Different Categories or Classifications?. A traumatic brain injury (TBI), sometimes called an acquired brain injury, is an injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. A traumatic brain injury occurs when a sudden external force strikes the head or causes rapid movement with sudden deceleration. A TBI will obviously result from a penetrating injury to the brain, or when mechanical forces interact with the brain as a result of an explosion or blast. A TBI can be the product of a whiplash that causes the brain to move within the vault of the skull, followed by sudden deceleration of the head when the motion stops. A whiplash injury can cause damage to blood vessels, gray matter of the brain that makes up the cerebral cortex, and the white matter connections that permit the brain to function like complex electrical circuits.. A traumatic brain injury is distinguished from congenital brain damage (that occurs during gestation) and is ...
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Each year in the USA, over 2.4 million people experience mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can induce long-term neurological deficits. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is notably susceptible to damage following TBI, as hilar mossy cell changes in particular may contribute to post-TBI dysfunction. Moreover, microglial activation after TBI may play a role in hippocampal circuit and/or synaptic remodeling; however, the potential effects of chronic microglial changes are currently unknown. The objective of the current study was to assess neuropathological and neuroinflammatory changes in subregions of the dentate gyrus at acute to chronic time points following mild TBI using an established model of closed-head rotational acceleration induced TBI in pigs. This study utilized archival tissue of pigs which were subjected to sham conditions or rapid head rotation in the coronal plane to generate mild TBI. A quantitative assessment of neuropathological changes in the hippocampus was performed via
The current study investigated the extent to which neuropsychological and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) parallels that of moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery. A longitudinal design was employed to compare the neuropsychological and functional status of individuals with complicated MTBI and moderate TBI at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-year postinjury. The complicated MTBI group was comprised of 102 participants, each with an intracranial brain lesion documented via neuroimaging and a highest Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score in the Emergency Department between 13 and 15. The moderate TBI group was comprised of 127 participants, each with a highest GCS score in the Emergency Department between 9 and 12. The outcome measures of interest included the Functional Independence Measure, Disability Rating Scale, Community Integration Questionnaire, Logical Memory Test I and II, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test (A and B),
Bethlehem, PA, November 3, 2020, ZEXPRWIRE - Cordisco & Saile LLC, personal injury lawyers in the Lehigh Valley have taken a new initiative to proving traumatic brain injury cases in Pennsylvania. The new focus is meant to help residents of Lehigh County and Northampton County overcome the legal challenges involved in seeking compensation in brain injury cases.. In a recent radio interview, John F. Cordisco, Esq., a founding partner at Cordisco & Saile, described Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as a serious and debilitating head injury that often results from automobile, trucking, and motorbike accidents as well as from slips, falls, and trips. The problem is that TBI, which is often called the invisible injury is not easy to identify and prove in court. Personal injury claims with severe head injuries and severe brain damage involve skull fractures, coma, and brain bleeds. However, mild brain injuries, which have serious long-term consequences, are not always given the same attention as severe ...
Bethlehem, PA, November 3, 2020, ZEXPRWIRE - Cordisco & Saile LLC, personal injury lawyers in the Lehigh Valley have taken a new initiative to proving traumatic brain injury cases in Pennsylvania. The new focus is meant to help residents of Lehigh County and Northampton County overcome the legal challenges involved in seeking compensation in brain injury cases.. In a recent radio interview, John F. Cordisco, Esq., a founding partner at Cordisco & Saile, described Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as a serious and debilitating head injury that often results from automobile, trucking, and motorbike accidents as well as from slips, falls, and trips. The problem is that TBI, which is often called the invisible injury is not easy to identify and prove in court. Personal injury claims with severe head injuries and severe brain damage involve skull fractures, coma, and brain bleeds. However, mild brain injuries, which have serious long-term consequences, are not always given the same attention as severe ...
17, 10-13. Haarbauer-Krupa, J. (2012b). Taking care of children after traumatic brain injury. Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 13, 79-86. Halstead, M. E., McAvoy, K., Devore, C. D., Carl, R., Lee, M., Logan, K., . . . LaBella, C. R. (2013). Returning to learning following a concussion. Pediatrics, 132, 948-957. Hickey, E. M., & Saunders, J. N. (2010). Group intervention for adolescents with chronic acquired brain injury: The future zone. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 20, 111-119. Hotz, G., Castelblanco, A., Lara, I., Weiss, A., Duncan, R., & Kuluz, J. (2006). Snoezelen: A controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children recovering from severe brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 879-888. Hotz, G., Quintero, A., Crittenden, R., Baker, L., Goldstein, D., & Nedd, K. (2014). A countywide program to manage concussions in high school sports. The Sport Journal. Retrieved from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ACUTE GLUCOCORTICOID DEFICIENCY AND DIABETES INSIPIDUS ARE COMMON FOLLOWING ACUTE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND PREDICT MORTALITY. AU - Hannon, M. AU - Crowley, R. AU - Behan, L. AU - OSullivan, E. AU - OBrien, M. AU - Sherlock, M. AU - Rawluk, D. AU - ODwyer, R. AU - Tormey, William. AU - Thompson, C. PY - 2013/5. Y1 - 2013/5. U2 - 10.1210/jc.2013-1555. DO - 10.1210/jc.2013-1555. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 1555. JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. SN - 0021-972X. ER - ...
CC Grand Rounds: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Novel Biomarkers and Implications for Therapy
The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.
Recovery from a mTBI can vary, however generally speaking, the severity of the mTBI will have a direct impact on the likelihood of a positive recovery. Dr Shores states, Concussion and uncomplicated mTBI generally lead to full recovery, however repeat concussions and complicated or more severe injuries can lead to long term functional impairment. Dr Shores advises caution and care when evaluating an injury, as there are dangers in both over-estimating and under-estimating brain injury severity, particularly based on duration of PTA. Duration of PTA provides a guideline to the severity of brain impairment and has been shown to be a useful outcome predictor of cognitive-behavioural-social dysfunction, with longer duration of PTA predicting a worse outcome. A careful scrutiny of the results of existing measures is necessary in determining severity of the injury. In contrast to mTBI, Moderate to Very Severe traumatic brain injuries are expected to have more permanent neurocognitive disorder than ...
Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. It is not well understood how much of a contribution primary and secondary injuries respectively have to the clinical manifestations of TBI. Primary and secondary injuries occur in insults other than TBI as well, such as spinal cord injury and stroke. In TBI, primary injuries result immediately from the initial trauma. Primary injury occurs at the moment of trauma and includes contusion, damage to blood ...
Brain injury can occur in different ways. Trauma is often involved, such as a sports injury, fall or motor vehicle accident. Brain injury can also occur without trauma, for example, the result of a stroke or infection.. Medical care is the first step in treatment to stabilize and promote the brains healing. For long-term treatment planning, rehabilitation plays an important role. With a long track record of experienced, specialized brain injury rehabilitation, HealthSouth has restored hope and encouraged maximum outcomes for many patients and their families.. Brain injury rehabilitation focuses on: ...
Posted by Nigel on August 1, 2016 in Health , 0 comments. The brain is perhaps the most important organ in the human body. This is why it is located at the top portion of our head. The brain is the control center of all human activities such as thinking, judgment, and emotional reactions. For this reason, brain injuries can have a huge impact on the life of an individual. Such injuries will usually require intensive and long term care.. In general, the effect of a brain injury is partially dependent on its location. The more areas that are affected, the more severe the injury will be. Traumatic brain injuries for instance usually affect multiple areas of the brain. Let us now take a look at how brain injuries can affect functioning.. Physical Effects People who suffer from traumatic brain injury can regain their ability to walk and use their hands within 6 - 12 months after injury. In most instances, the individual can resume work and drive their cars. However, long term physical effects of TBI ...
Brain injury or damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injury can be caused by a variety of internal and external factors. A common category is traumatic brain injury that occurs after head damage from an outside source. Mild traumatic brain injury may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells. More serious traumatic brain injury can result in more extensive physical damage to the brain that can lead to long-term complications or death. Loss of brain function can also be caused by stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain, which deprives brain tissue of oxygen and food and causes consequent brain cell death.. Feinstein Institute researchers are studying different aspects of brain injury. They are developing smart catheters, the next generation of monitoring devices that will allow clinicians to continuously measure functional parameters in the injured brain during surgery. They are studying recovery from central nervous system injury, like spinal cord ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it. The risk of complications increases with the severity of the trauma; however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living. TBI can cause a variety of problems including physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral complications. Symptoms that may occur after a concussion - a minor form of traumatic brain injury - are referred to as post-concussion syndrome. Generally, there are six abnormal states of consciousness that can result from a TBI: Stupor is a state of partial or near complete unconsciousness in which the patient is lethargic, immobile, and has a reduced response to stimuli. Coma is a state in which the patient is totally unconscious and cannot be aroused even with strong stimuli. Persistent vegetative state is a condition in which ...
Patients who are hospitalized and who have suffered mild TBI (loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia; Glasgow Coma Score 13-15; admitted within 24 hours of injury; able to read, speak, and understand English) who do not have pre-injury dementia or significant cognitive impairment will undergo computerized neuropsychologic testing using a previously validated tool that has been effective in sports-related mild TBI. Sequential testing will be performed during recovery and patients who report disabling symptoms and/or functional impairment will be compared to patients who recover uneventfully. Goal is to identify those parameters that predict early who may suffer long term sequelae or functional impairment and therefore benefit from early cognitive rehabilitation. Secondary goals are to establish objective parameters for functional recovery after mild TBI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The p53 inactivators pifithrin-μ and pifithrin-α mitigate TBI-induced neuronal damage through regulation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, autophagy and mitophagy. AU - Yang, Ling Yu. AU - Greig, Nigel H.. AU - Tweedie, David. AU - Jung, Yoo Jin. AU - Chiang, Yung Hsiao. AU - Hoffer, Barry J.. AU - Miller, Jonathan P.. AU - Chang, Ke Hui. AU - Wang, Jia Yi. PY - 2020/2. Y1 - 2020/2. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. We investigated whether inhibition of p53 using pifithrin (PFT)-α or PFT-μ provides neuroprotective effects via p53 transcriptional dependent or -independent mechanisms, respectively. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI followed by the administration of PFTα or PFT-μ (2 mg/kg, i.v.) at 5 h after TBI. Brain contusion volume, as well as sensory and motor functions were evaluated at 24 h after TBI. TBI-induced impairments were mitigated by both PFT-α and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuroimaging in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Mu, Weiya. AU - Catenaccio, Eva. AU - Lipton, Michael L.. PY - 2016/3/28. Y1 - 2016/3/28. N2 - OBJECTIVE:: To summarize imaging findings in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. DESIGN:: Our structured review of the literature yielded 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), 18 diffusion tensor imaging, 9 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 3 positron emission tomography, 4 magnetoencephalography, 2 electroencephalography, and 1 single-positron emission computerized tomography studies. RESULTS:: Four of the 5 sMRI studies reported decreased cortical thickness and decreased thalamus and amygdala volume. Diffusion tensor imaging studies showed abnormal diffusion within white matter tracts commonly associated with traumatic brain injury, including the corpus callosum (8 of the 18) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (8 of the 18). Resting-state fMRI studies reported a variety of functional network ...
New Book - Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Symptom Validity Assessment and Malingering - Editors: Dominic A. Carone and Shane S. Bush Publication Date: 8/2012448pp SoftcoverISBN-13: 9780826109156. Price: $75.00 USDThis authoritative volume is the first book specifically devoted to symptom validity assessment with individuals having a known or suspected history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). It brings together leading experts in MTBI, symptom ... International Brain Injury Association - IBIA International Brain Injury Association - IBIA
Researchers have developed a predictive tool to help determine the outcome for older patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI).. The tool developed by the team of investigators at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, N.C., accounts for variables such as age and severity of brain injury to help physicians and hospital staff calculate a patients likelihood of survival and returning to independence after hospital discharge and to work with family members using those results.. They researchers reported their findings in a study published online as an article in press on the website of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons in advance of print publication.. Although TBI is the leading cause of leading cause of death for people age 45 and younger in the United States, but, as people live longer, this type of injury is becoming more prevalent in those 75 and older. Treatment and recovery of the elderly population is even more challenging for physicians and ...
Study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Data examined included patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Analyses showed significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium ...
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue. Like bruises in other tissues, cerebral contusion can be associated with multiple microhemorrhages, small blood vessel leaks into brain tissue. Contusion occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their respective definitions, the pia-arachnoid membranes are torn over the site of injury in laceration and are not torn in contusion. The injury can cause a decline in mental function in the long term and in the emergency setting may result in brain herniation, a life-threatening condition in which parts of the brain are squeezed past parts of the skull. Thus treatment aims to prevent dangerous rises in intracranial pressure, the pressure within the skull. ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is said to be one of the signature injuries of the conflict in Iraq, and accounts for a larger proportion of troop casualties than it has in previous wars fought by the United States. According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, the U. S. military formally diagnosed 2,121 cases…
Traumatic brain injury patients frequently undergo tracheal intubation. We aimed to assess current intubation practice in Europe and identify variation in practice. We analysed data from patients with traumatic brain injury included in the prospective cohort study collaborative European neurotrauma effectiveness research in traumatic brain injury (CENTER-TBI) in 45 centres in 16 European countries. We included patients who were transported to hospital by emergency medical services. We used mixed-effects multinomial regression to quantify the effects on pre-hospital or in-hospital tracheal intubation of the following: patient characteristics; injury characteristics; centre; and trauma system characteristics. A total of 3843 patients were included. Of these, 1322 (34%) had their tracheas intubated; 839 (22%) pre-hospital and 483 (13%) in-hospital. The fit of the model with only patient characteristics predicting intubation was good (Nagelkerke R2 64%). The probability of tracheal intubation ...
Problem Statement/Question: Severe pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines leave gaps in how to best implement and deliver standardized care on the local hospital level. Background/Project Intent (Aim Statement): We aim to improve clinical outcomes for severe TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8) with standardization of care according to updated evidence-based guidelines. We will target early guideline adherence (initial 72 hours of PICU admission) with a focus on 1) targeted temperature management (TTM40mmHg). Methods (include PDSA cycles): The Childrens Mercy Hospital Pediatric ICU Severe TBI Guidelines were updated after the 3rd edition of the Brain Trauma Foundation Pediatric Severe TBI Guidelines. The first PDSA cycle consisted of educational curriculum including multidisciplinary lectures, bedside algorithms and bedside audits for real-time education and process improvement. The second PDSA cycle focused on
Over the last couple years, traumatic brain injuries have become an increasingly common topic of discussion. The NFL player class-action lawsuit in Pennsylvania court may be one of the biggest inspirations for this conversation. Whatever the case, this talk has placed a particular importance on expanding medical research to better understand and treat this disabling injury.. Brain injuries frequently limit a persons motor skills and cognitive function. As such, many tasks that were simple before the injury can become nearly impossible afterward. In the wake of an accident that causes brain damage, injury victims may need to seek the assistance of Social Security disability insurance. Although these individuals may wish to continue working, the demands of maintaining full-time employment may just be too much.. According to estimates, traumatic brain injury will be the third highest cause of death and disability in the world by 2020. As this disability emerges as a more prominent medical issue, ...
Traumatic brain injuries are caused by physical bombardment of the head with an object. Reported causes of these injuries include violent collisions, accidents and hobbies such as sports which may involve accidental knocking of the head.. One of the main causes of the traumatic brain injury is accidents caused by motor vehicles. Motor vehicle accidents result in sudden motions and impacts that can lead to the head being knocked resulting to brain injuries. During an accident, a persons head can be stricken, suddenly jerked, or penetrated by a foreign object (Brain 1).. If such effects pass to the brain, then a traumatic brain injury may occur. The injury may be mild or severe depending on the degree of injury caused to the brain. Mild injuries may be temporary with inflicted short time unconsciousness while a severe traumatic brain injury causes prolonged and more extreme effects to the injured person. Motor vehicle accidents cause a large percent of total traumatic brain injuries ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on cognitive performance following experimental brain injury. AU - Pike, Brian R.. AU - Hamm, Robert J.. AU - Temple, Meredith D.. AU - Buck, Deanna L.. AU - Lyeth, Bruce G. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - An emerging literature exists in support of deficits in cholinergic neurotransmission days to weeks following experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, novel cholinomimetic therapeutics have been demonstrated to improve cognitive outcome following TBI in rats. We examined the effects of repeated postinjury administration of a cholinesterase inhibitor, tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA), on cognitive performance following experimental TBI. Rats were either injured at a moderate level of central fluid percussion TBI (2.1 ± 0.1 atm) or were surgically prepared but not delivered a fluid pulse (sham injury). Beginning 24 h after TBI or sham injury, rats were injected (IP) daily for 15 days with an equal volume (1.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury. T2 - Insights from shock-wave research. AU - Nakagawa, Atsuhiro. AU - Manley, Geoffrey T.. AU - Gean, Alisa D.. AU - Ohtani, Kiyonobu. AU - Armonda, Rocco. AU - Tsukamoto, Akira. AU - Yamamoto, Hiroaki. AU - Takayama, Kazuyoshi. AU - Tominaga, Teiji. PY - 2011/6/1. Y1 - 2011/6/1. N2 - Traumatic brain injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four phases: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. These phases of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury phase represents the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four phases of bTBI, there is a remarkable paucity of information about the cause of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shockwaves (SW) has given us insight into the mechanisms of ...
The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is rising, with over 60 million people affected annually across the globe.1 Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, which is readily available, easily administered, can be given in the prehospital phase and has been shown to have a good safety profile in trauma.2 Following the CRASH-2 trial, which showed a significant reduction in deaths from major extracranial bleeding in patients who had TXA administered within 3 hours of injury, CRASH-3 (Effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial) was established as a large international multi-centred randomised placebo-controlled trial which investigated the effect of TXA in patients with an isolated TBI.3. Patients were randomised to either TXA (1 g loading … ...
Background: Optimal management of increased intra-cranial pressure following severe traumatic brain injury comprises a combination of sequential medical and surgical interventions. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a cautiously recommended surgical option that has been shown to reduce intracranial pressure. Considerable variability in the timing and frequency of using DC across neurosurgical centres reflects, in part, the lack of clarity regarding long-term outcomes. The majority of previous work reporting outcomes among individuals who have received DC following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has focused predominantly on gross physical outcomes, to the relative exclusion of more subtle functional, social and psychological factors. Aim: This paper reviews the methodological aspects of previous studies that have reported outcomes following DC and provides recommendations to guide the future assessment of recovery to enable meaningful conclusions to be drawn from the literature describing outcomes ...
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In the state of Delaware, roughly eight people are treated in emergency rooms for traumatic brain injury every day, and it is estimated that more than 50,000 people die as a result of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in America annually. According to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA), 5.3 million Americans are currently living with conditions resulting from TBI, such as neuropsychological impairments or other disabilities that affect work life, family life, and social activity. Acquired brain injury, open head injury, closed head injury, or traumatic brain injury may occur as soon as the head hits a hard surface or is impacted by an object. Brain injury can be caused by everything from a skull fracture to penetration of the skull. Additionally, acquired brain injury occurs when the brain has been deprived of oxygen for an extended period of time. In some cases, traumatic brain injury is detected well after the accident or impact occurs, and swelling and bleeding into and around the ...
Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) remain as an important public health problem in most developed and developing countries and may also result in temporary or permanent disability. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence pattern of the burden of severe TBIs among young children in Qatar and to suggest practical prevention policies that can be implemented in Qatar. Methods: The study was conducted among children aged 14 years or less at the Children Rehabilitation Unit, Paediatric Department, Hamad General Hospital. Severity of TBI was assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Results: This study based on 65 children suffering from severe traumatic brain injury from January 2002 to December 2008, 12 of them died within the first month of admission in paediatric intensive care unit. The predominant gender was male (73.8 %), non-Qatari form 50.8%. In our study predominant mechanisms of injury were road traffic accident (84.6%), then falls (10.8%), other causes like
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral Hypoxia in Severely Brain-Injured Patients Is Associated with Admission Glasgow Coma Scale Score, Computed Tomographic Severity, Cerebral Perfusion Pressure, and Survival. AU - Dunham, C. Michael. AU - Ransom, Kenneth J.. AU - Flowers, Laurie L.. AU - Siegal, Joel D.. AU - Kohli, Chander M.. AU - Valadka, Alex B.. AU - Moore, Frederick A.. AU - Cohn, Stephen M.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of cerebral hypoxia with admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, brain computed tomographic (CT) severity, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and survival in patients with severe brain injury. Methods: CPP and noninvasive transcranial oximetry (Stco2) were recorded hourly for 6 days in patients with a GCS score ≤ 8 (3,722 observations). CT score was derived from midline shift (0/1) plus abnormal cisterns (0/1) plus subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (0/1) (range, 0-3). Results: Brain CT results were as follows: ...
Samir H Haddad and Yaseen M Arabi. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2012, 20:12. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI in adults is largely derived from the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The main objectives are prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and optimization of cerebral oxygenation. In this review, the critical care management of severe TBI will be discussed with focus on monitoring, avoidance and minimization of secondary brain insults, and optimization of cerebral oxygenation and CPP.. Read full article. « Back to Special Reports ...
Air blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a significant percentage of military personnel injuries observed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Prevalence of blast-induced TBIs is attributed to several factors, including improved body armor, improved diagnostic techniques, greater awareness, and the increased threat of attack by improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Though the mechanisms of blast-induced TBIs are not fully understood, this is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. The overall goal of the work presented in this report is to explore a possible improvement to the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) liner increasing the protection against blast-induced TBIs. The essential new element is the inclusion of moveable or deformable materials sandwiched within foam to dissipate the blast energy, reduce the peak transmitted pressure, and stretch the blast waveform before it reaches the brain. Filler materials explored in this work include ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the United States alone, 500,000 people suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually, making TBI a leading cause of death and disability. With improved accident scene and emergency care, mortality rates have declined, with 2-4 million people surviving TBI. Patients and patient families chiefly complain about post-concussive syndrome, involving alterations in cognition, aggression, emotional stability, disinhibition, and personality. In fact, post-concussive syndrome resembles the symptoms of amygdala resection or degeneration. In light of these post-injury deficits, the proposed project initiates experimentation focused on whether a subset of symptoms that define post-concussion syndrome are mediated by damage to the amygdala in a clinically relevant lateral fluid percussion model of brain injury in the mouse. The central hypothesis is: experimental TBI damages the amygdala bilaterally. Three aims test the hypothesis: (1) to demonstrate amygdala-dependent ...
Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (sTBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. At the Department of Neurosurgery Umeå University Hospital subjects with sTBI are treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) guided therapy based on physiological principles, aiming to optimise the microcirculation of the brain so avoiding secondary brain injuries. The investigations in this thesis are unique in the sense that all patients with sTBI were treated according to the guidelines of an ICP targeted therapy based on the Lund concept.. As the treatment is based on normalisation of the ICP, the accuracy and reliability of the measuring device is of outmost importance. Therefore the accuracy, drift, and complications related to the measuring device was prospectively studied (n=128). The drift was 0,9 ± 0,2 mmHg during a mean of 7,2 ± 0,4 days and the accuracy high. No clinical significant complications were noted.. In 1997 uni- or bilateral decompressive hemi-craniectomy (DC) was introduced into the ...
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-c …
The CDC defines a traumatic brain injury as a disruption of normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. A traumatic brain injury is considered a type of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) which is an injury to the brain that is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative, and one that has occurred after birth. There are 3 broad classifications of TBI: mild, moderate, and severe, with such designations roughly matching the symptom severity associated with each. Even a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), however, can be significant and produce life-long challenges.. When brain damage occurs before birth, it is referred to as an InBorn brain injury which can include brain damage caused by decreased oxygen (hypoxia) during delivery and/or decreased blood flow (ischemia) to a babys brain. These events are often associated with medical error and can cause hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and cerebral palsy (CP). We see this, for ...
Early and sudden menopause can put a woman at greater risk of dementia. Studies suggest traumatic brain injury can have the same effect. Now researchers are investigating possible links between the two that could lead to preventative treatments.. David Stock, a post-doctoral researcher at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, is trying to find out if traumatic brain injury affects the timing of menopause and, if so, how.. Previous research shows that women who suffer brain injury often have disrupted menstrual cycles, including long periods of time without menstruating. Stock wants to know if brain injury might also trigger early menopause.. During menopause, a womans estrogen levels decline. Thats important because brain regions linked to forming new memories, such as the hippocampus, are chock full of receptors for estrogen. In fact, the hormone is one of the keys to the hippocampus functioning and this part of the brain is often the first to be targeted by dementia.. Men, on the other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic failure in the maintenance of long-term potentiation following fluid percussion injury in the rat. AU - Sanders, Matthew J.. AU - Sick, Thomas J.. AU - Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.. AU - Dietrich, W. Dalton. AU - Green, Edward J.. PY - 2000/4/7. Y1 - 2000/4/7. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can produce chronic cognitive learning/memory deficits that are thought to be mediated, in part, by impaired hippocampal function. Experimentally induced TBI is associated with deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation, or LTP) at acute post-injury intervals but plasticity has not been examined at long- term survival periods. The present study was conducted to assess the temporal profile of LTP after injury and to evaluate the effects of injury severity on plasticity. Separate groups of rats were subjected to mild (1.1-1.4 atm), moderate (1.8-2.1 atm), or severe (2.2-2.7 atm) fluid percussion (FP) injury (or sham surgery) and processed for hippocampal ...
FRY, Jessica D.; GREENOP, Kirston e SCHUTTE, Enid. The effects of fatigue and the post-concussion syndrome on executive functioning in traumatic brain injury and healthy comparisons. Health SA Gesondheid (Online) [online]. 2010, vol.15, n.1, pp.1-8. ISSN 2071-9736.. In this study, behavioural manifestations of compromised executive control, including perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning, on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were investigated. Performance was affected by fatigue in both a head-injured and matched population, which has implications for health care professionals involved in rehabilitation and assessment. A fatigue condition was manipulated for 15 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) individuals through the course of a three-hour neuropsychological testing session. A comparison sample of 15 participants in a group of no history of TBI was fatigued through the same approach. All fatigued participants (with and without TBI) displayed trends towards increased ...
Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the drugs given at rehabilitation programs to people who suffered Acquired Brain Injury in order to expedite recovery and improve functioning.. A previous study examined the spatially asymmetric allocation of attention in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients demonstrated significantly worse performance with leftward than with rightward cross-hemi field shifts of attention. This is reminiscence of neglect patients. This difference was significantly reduced during and following treatment. Our objective is to investigate whether Amantadine Hydrochloride is effective in improving allocation of spatial attention and improving function in people with Traumatic Brain Injury. ...
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PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in estimating post-traumatic intra-cranial pressure early after severe traumatic brain injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: The group of 24 patients was analysed for the observation of an early post-traumatic cerebral haemodynamic by middle cerebral artery blood velocity measuring. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The standard method of measuring the mean blood middle cerebral artery velocity by transcranial Doppler ultrasonic device was performed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The increased duration of intra-cranial hypertension correlated to the middle cerebral artery low blood velocity (p = 0.042; r = -0.498) (n = 17) and to elevated pulsatility indices (p = 0.007; r = 0.753) (n = 11) significantly. The increased duration of lowered cerebral perfusion pressure correlated to the middle cerebral artery low blood velocity significantly (p = 0.001; r = -0.619) (n = 24). CONCLUSIONS: The significance of transcranial Doppler ...
Any personal injury case regarding a traumatic brain injury can be severe and emotional for all involved. It is important to contact an experienced brain injuries lawyer who has handled brain injury cases before. Hiring a brain injury lawyer can help retain a reasonable settlement, which can be difficult if you try to do this yourself.. During this challenging time, the only thing you should have to worry about is recovering from your injuries and living a healthy life. Our network of personal injury lawyers representing New York fight aggressively to ensure the responsible party is held accountable and that you receive the compensation you deserve.. Hill & Moin LLCs clients know that we will help you determine from your medical records and other evidence if you have suffered a traumatic brain injury resulting from someone elses wrongdoing. Our New York lawyers take immediate action and fight aggressively to ensure you receive compensation. We treat all our clients like family and will take ...
Br J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov 26:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]. Alavi SA(1), Tan CL(1), Menon DK(2), Simpson HL(3), Hutchinson PJ(1).. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may develop pituitary dysfunction ...
Vignesh Subbian, assistant professor in BME and SIE, is principal investigator on a new grant of just over $500,000 from the National Science Foundation, or NSF, to help better characterize traumatic brain injuries, or TBIs, and predict their outcomes - and, therefore, treat them more effectively.. With traumatic brain injury as the leading cause of death and disability for individuals under age 44, and an estimated 1.7 million cases occurring in the United States every year, its an area in dire need of better predictive tools and further research.. Using analytical techniques and data gathered from advanced monitoring of brain injury patients, researchers will develop methods to better classify TBI patients and predict what might happen next.. This grant -- funded by the Smart and Connected Health Program, a partnership between multiple federal agencies, including NSF and the National Institutes of Health -- brings together key researchers and clinicians from other institutions, including ...
Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than ...
Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) is an FDA approved α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist that is currently used to treat symptoms of pheochromocytoma. However, it has not been studied as a neuroprotective agent for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While screening neuroprotective candidates, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death in rat hippocampal slice cultures following exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Using this system, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death over a broad dose range (0.1 µM-1 mM) and provided efficacy when delivered up to 16 h post-OGD. We further tested phenoxybenzamine in the rat lateral fluid percussion model of TBI. When administered 8 h after TBI, phenoxybenzamine improved neurological severity scoring and foot fault assessments. At 25 days post injury, phenoxybenzamine treated TBI animals also showed a significant improvement in both learning and memory compared to saline treated controls. We further examined gene expression changes within the
Ali, J. I., Viczko, J., & Smart, C. M. (2020). Efficacy of neurofeedback interventions for cognitive rehabilitation following brain injury: Systematic review and recommendations for future research. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 26(1), 31-46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617719001061 Álvarez, X. A., Sampedro, C., Figueroa, J., Tellado, I., González, A., García-Fantini, M., ... Moessler, H. (2008). Reductions in qEEG slowing over 1 year and after treatment with Cerebrolysin in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna), 115(5), 683-692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-008-0024-9 Arciniegas, D. B. (2011). Clinical electrophysiologic assessments and mild traumatic brain injury: State-of-the-science and implications for clinical practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.03.004 Azouvi, P., Vallat-Azouvi, C., Joseph, P.-A., Meulemans, T., Bertola, C., Le ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial for treatment of severely brain-injured patients with hyperbaric oxygen. AU - Rockswold, G. L.. AU - Ford, S. E.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - There is considerable evidence that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces intracranial pressure by causing cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, while simultaneously supplying optimal amounts of oxygen for efficient cerebral aerobic glucose metabolism. The preliminary results of a prospective randomized clinical trial in a carefully defined group of patients with severe brain injuries treated with HBO are suggestive of a beneficial response. The rationale, protocol, and preliminary results of this ongoing study are presented.. AB - There is considerable evidence that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces intracranial pressure by causing cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, while simultaneously supplying optimal amounts of oxygen for efficient ...
Faculty members in the College of Health Professions have partnered with the Center for Excellence in Disabilities (CED) at West Virginia University to offer a local support group for those with traumatic brain injuries.. The support group held its first meeting Jan. 28 and continued with another Feb. 25 at the main branch of the Cabell County Library. Dr. Carrie Childers, group organizer and professor in the colleges Department of Communication Disorders, said the Brain Injury Group (BIG) was created to provide support, education and information about services for individuals with brain injuries and the people associated with them.. Future meetings are scheduled for Wednesday, March 25, and Wednesday, April 29.. According to a study conducted by the West Virginia University Injury Control Research Center, there are 22,000 new traumatic brain injury cases each year in West Virginia, Childers said. In addition, there have been 1.3 to 3.8 million sports-and-recreation-related traumatic brain ...
Purpose: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) is a signature injury of modern warfare. Unlike impact injuries, which are focal, blast-induced MTBI damage is diffuse, affecting multiple portions of the brain via impaired axonal connectivity, impairing operations involving memory, impulse control and prediction/planning (executive function.). Current MTBI testing uses highly subjective self-reporting and questionnaires. It is estimated that up to 25% of brain-injured veterans are not properly diagnosed, and may not receive treatment. Previously, we presented a saccade-based test that effectively detected decreased performance in MTBI. Here we present results for these same subjects on smooth pursuit tasks designed to evaluate executive function deficits, and compare their diagnostic value to saccadic testing.. Methods: We compared 11 controls with no history of closed-head injury, and 11 MTBI subjects involved in at least one close-proximity explosion. Subjects were excluded if they were taking ...
article{f476d972-e2ea-40d9-834f-c3cd9805e8a7, abstract = {,p,Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as key contributors to the secondary injury process after TBI. Here, pretreatment with the nitrone radical scavengers (alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) or its sulfonated analogue sodium 2-sulfophenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (S-PBN) were used as tools to study the effects of ROS on rCBF and glucose metabolism after moderate (2.4-2.6 atm) lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats. S-PBN has a half-life in plasma of 9 min and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In contrast, PBN has a half-life of 3 h and readily penetrates the BBB. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and glucose metabolism was estimated by using (99m)Tc-HMPAO and [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiography, respectively, at 42 min (n = 37) and 12 h (n = 34) after the ...
Working in the Boston area for thirty-three years, our Massachusetts brain injury attorney has handled hundreds of traumatic brain injury cases. Many of these cases have involved brain injuries that were difficult to detect.. As an assistant professor in rehabilitation medicine at a local well-reputed university, he is extremely familiar with and comfortable with discussing medical issues with his clients. He was the Co-Chairperson of the North American Brain injury Society (NABIS) and has served as the Medical Legal Editor for the Journal of Trauma Rehabilitation for twelve years. He also has written several articles on head injuries. In addition, he has served on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Massachusetts Brain injury Association. Our attorney in Massachusetts has recently been selected for inclusion in New England Super Lawyers magazine featuring the top 5% of attorneys in New England. He has also been designated a Massachusetts Super Lawyer for 2005, 2006, 2007, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fractal dimension brain morphometry. T2 - a novel approach to quantify white matter in traumatic brain injury. AU - Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran. AU - Das, Abhijit. AU - Zhang, Luduan. AU - Hillary, Frank Gerard. AU - Wylie, Glenn R.. AU - Yue, Guang H.. PY - 2019/8/15. Y1 - 2019/8/15. N2 - Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements. Anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were obtained using a 3 T MRI scanner ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prognostic performance of computerized tomography scoring systems in civilian penetrating traumatic brain injury. T2 - an observational study. AU - Lindfors, Matias. AU - Lindblad, Caroline. AU - Nelson, David W.. AU - Bellander, Bo-Michael. AU - Siironen, Jari. AU - Raj, Rahul. AU - Thelin, Eric P.. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. KW - Traumatic brain injury. KW - Penetrating traumatic brain injury. KW - Computerized tomography. KW - Prognosis. KW - Outcome prediction. KW - CRANIOCEREBRAL GUNSHOT WOUNDS. KW - HEAD-INJURY. KW - CLASSIFICATION. KW - MORTALITY. KW - PREDICTORS. KW - MANAGEMENT. KW - SURVIVAL. KW - MARSHALL. KW - 3112 Neurosciences. KW - 3124 Neurology and psychiatry. KW - 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology. U2 - 10.1007/s00701-019-04074-1. DO - 10.1007/s00701-019-04074-1. M3 - Article. VL - 161. SP - 2467. EP - 2478. JO - Acta Neurochirurgica. JF - Acta Neurochirurgica. SN - 0001-6268. IS - 12. ER - ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In cases of chronic mTBI, accurate diagnosis can be challenging due to the overlapping symptoms this condition shares with PTSD. Furthermore, mTBIs are heterogeneous and not easily observed using conventional neuroimaging tools, despite the fact that diffuse axonal injuries are the most common injury. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to diffuse axonal injuries and is thus more likely to detect mTBIs, especially when analyses account for the inter-individual variability of these injuries. Using a subject-specific approach, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities between groups with a history of mTBI (n = 35), comorbid mTBI and PTSD (mTBI + PTSD; n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 37). We compared all three groups on the number of abnormal FA clusters derived from subject-specific injury profiles (i.e., individual z-score maps) along a common white matter skeleton. The mTBI + PTSD
A brain injury, also referred to as head injury or traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurs when the head is struck or hit by some external force. A brain injury most often results when there is a blow to the head in a car accident or fall. The blow need not be that hard; a minor concussion could have serious long term consequences if it damages vital brain neurons.. When the skull is seriously hit, the brain may twist within the skull. The rotation and disruption of the brain inside the skull will sever or shear the brains long connecting nerve fibers. This damage can be microscopic and difficult to measure. In cases involving mild brain injury, the effects may not be long term, but more severe brain injury can result in permanent disability, unconsciousness, and coma.. The long term effects of traumatic brain injury include cognitive deficits and reduction in physical and psychological skills. The physical deficits can include walking, balance and coordination, fine-motor skills, and strength. ...
Wesana Health (CSE:WESA) (OTCQB:WSNAF) and the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) are teaming up to analyze the effectiveness of MDMA-assisted therapy in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI).. Wesana Health went public in May with a focus on developing psychedelic-assisted medicines and other therapies for victims of traumatic brain injury.. Wesana announced Monday that it has committed an initial $1.5 million to assess the viability of MDMA (also known colloquially as ecstasy or molly) of treating a subset of conditions resulting from TBI and that currently lack a cure or successful treatment, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy.. With the funding, MAPS will create a team to evaluate the scope of unmet need for traumatic brain injury treatment and help to define terms of a desired joint venture between MAPS and Wesana.. The proceeds will be used for legal support in drafting and finalizing a partnership agreement, business development and executive ...
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Oxidative stress, part of the secondary injury cascade of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), has been shown to have devastating effects on the functionality and conformation of essential proteins in the brain. Carbonylated proteins have been modified with the addition of excess oxygen, in turn, promoting loss of protein function. Gamma-glutamyl cysteinyl ethyl ester (GCEE) is an antioxidant precursor used in the production pathway of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant responsible for reducing reactive species. Antioxidants are free radical scavengers that can reduce reactive species through conjugation. This research is aimed at identifying proteins that are adversely affected by oxidative stress in association with moderate traumatic brain injuries. The major focus of the study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the amounts of carbonylated proteins in injured animals that have been treated with a glutathione mimetic versus those that did not receive treatment. Through these
OBJECTIVE In this study we compared the effects of early tracheostomy (ET) versus late tracheostomy on traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related outcomes and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on 152 TBI patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤8, admitted to Rajaee Hospital between March 1, 2014 and August 23, 2015, were collected. Rajaee Hospital is the main referral trauma center in southern Iran and is affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Patients who had tracheostomy before or at the sixth day of their admission were considered as ET, and those who had tracheostomy after the sixth day of admission were considered as late tracheostomy. RESULTS Patients with ET had a significantly lower hospital stay (46.4 vs. 38.6 days; P = 0.048) and intensive care unit stay (34.9 vs. 26.7 days; P = 0.003). Mortality rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P | 0.99). Although not statistically significant, favorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale |4) were higher
Over the past three decades there has been considerable interest in the use of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurological emergencies. An increasing number of observational cohort studies have described use of the procedure, most commonly following severe traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke and more recently in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial infection and in certain inflammatory conditions. Many of these studies have demonstrated that surgical decompression can lower the intracranial pressure in the context of medically intractable intracranial hypertension and many investigators have emphasized the life saving nature of the surgical procedure. However, surgical intervention will not reverse the effects of the pathological condition that precipitated the clinical deterioration and for many years, the concern has been that many survivors will be left with severe disability and dependency. An outcome that patients and their families may find to be
OBJECTIVE: Accurate and consistent outcome assessment is essential to randomized clinical trials. We aimed to explore observer variation in the assessment of outcome in a recently completed trial of dexanabinol in head injury and to consider steps to reduce such variation. METHODS: Eight hundred sixty-one patients with severe traumatic brain injury who were admitted to 86 centers were included in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial. Outcome was assessed at 3 and 6 months postinjury using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale; standardized assessment was facilitated by the use of a structured interview. Before initiation of trial centers, outcome ratings were obtained for sample cases to establish initial levels of agreement. Training sessions in outcome assessment were held, and problems in assigning outcome were investigated. During the trial, a process of central review was established to monitor performance. Interobserver variation was analyzed using the κ statistic. RESULTS: ...
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and/or concussions can negatively affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, coordination, and sleep patterns, particularly when more than one injury has been sustained. Additionally, repetitive brain trauma increases the risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicide and can lead to impulse control problems, aggressiveness, behavior and personality disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimers disease. Both active duty service members and athletes involved in physical contact sports are at an increased risk for suffering from mTBI and may be at increased for functional decline, neurodegenerative dementia, and possible death from repetitive mTBI. Diagnosing mTBI is difficult because it does not have a standardized definition, those with mTBI often do not seek treatment for some time following the injury, an mTBI diagnosis is based on the ...
Being obese or overweight presents a health risk in the years following rehabilitation for TBI, according to the new research, led by Laura E. Dreer, PhD, of The University of Alabama at Birmingham. The findings highlight the need for a proactive approach to managing weight and related health conditions in long-term TBI survivors.. High Body Weight Linked to Health Problems after Acute Rehabilitation for TBI. The study included 7,287 adults with TBI who had undergone inpatient acute rehabilitation. Inpatient rehabilitation consists of intensive therapy, provided by a team of specialists, designed to improve physical and mental functioning. Care was provided by rehabilitation centers participating in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program, sponsored by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research.. Click here to read more.. ...