Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont genes in strains representing the different Groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species. Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E strain were compared to examine their genomic organization, or synteny, and the location of the botulinum toxin complex genes. These comparisons identified synteny among proteolytic (Group I) strains or nonproteolytic (Group II) strains but not between the two Groups. The bont complex genes within the strains examined were not randomly located but found within three regions of the chromosome or in two specific sites within plasmids. A
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to humankind. It is essential to have a simple, quick, and sensitive method for the detection and quantification of botulinum toxin in various media, including complex biological matrices. Our laboratory has developed a mass spectrometry-based Endopep-MS assay that is able to rapidly detect and differentiate all types of BoNTs by extracting the toxin with specific antibodies and detecting the unique cleavage products of peptide substrates. Botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) is a member of a family of seven distinctive BoNT serotypes (A-G) and is the causative agent of botulism in both humans and animals. To improve the sensitivity of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the development of novel peptide substrates for the detection of BoNT/E activity through systematic and comprehensive approaches. Our data demonstrate that several optimal peptides could accomplish 500-fold improvement in ...
... is a natural substance which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum. Botulinum Toxin was originally approved to relax spastic muscles in order to treat dystonia, a neuromuscular disease. It was then discovered that it was also highly effective in the treatment of fine lines and wrinkles and has now become one of the most popular cosmetic procedures worldwide. Botulinum Toxin blocks the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles and is used to alleviate dynamic wrinkles. Dynamic wrinkles arise due to facial mimicry and hence manifest themselves as the well-known frown, on the forehead and around the eye area as crows feet. Because the muscle contraction is inhibited, fine lines and wrinkles are smoothed out. Besides that, botulinum toxin helps prevent the formation of new wrinkles. Extensive research has shown that this procedure is completely safe as Botulinum is naturally being degraded by the body after a certain period of time.. Depending on the extent of ...
0038]Botulinum toxin type A can be obtained by establishing and growing cultures of Clostridium botulinum in a fermenter and then harvesting and purifying the fermented mixture in accordance with known procedures. All the botulinum toxin serotypes are initially synthesized as inactive single chain proteins which must be cleaved or nicked by proteases to become neuroactive. The bacterial strains that make botulinum toxin serotypes A and G possess endogenous proteases and serotypes A and G can therefore be recovered from bacterial cultures in predominantly their active form. In contrast, botulinum toxin serotypes C1, D and E are synthesized by nonproteolytic strains and are therefore typically unactivated when recovered from culture. Serotypes B and F are produced by both proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains and therefore can be recovered in either the active or inactive form. However, even the proteolytic strains that produce, for example, the botulinum toxin type B serotype, only cleave a ...
The objective of the project is the development of in vitro detection methods for the different toxins (A, B, C, D, E and F) of Clostridium botulinum by optimizing both a competitive immuno-PCR test (icqPCR) and a quantitative immuno-PCR (iqPCR) and by comparing one to another with regard to the obtained specificity and sensitivity of detection for each type of botulinum toxin as well as to compare them to the reference method for detection of botulinum toxins being the mice toxicity test ...
Author summary The seven established Botulinum Neurotoxins serotypes (BoNT/A to G) and the many BoNT subtypes, the causative agents of botulism, are the most poisonous substances known (lethal doses in the low ng/kg range). Due to their toxicological properties, BoNTs are Janus-faced toxins: potent pathogenic factors and potential bioterrorism agents as well as safe and efficacious therapeutics. BoNTs exert their neuroparalytic action by cleaving SNARE proteins, either SNAP-25 or synaptobrevin/VAMP, which mediate neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction; BoNT/C is the only serotype shown to cleave SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 in vitro. Our study shows for the first time that this parallel cleavage also occurs in vivo. By using mutated toxins reported to be syntaxin-selective, we found that SNAP-25 proteolysis at the neuromuscular junction is the key determinant of BoNT/C lethality as it completely blocks nerve-muscle transmission. Conversely, syntaxin-1 cleavage only attenuates nerve terminal
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are category A biothreat agents which have been the focus of intensive efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based prophylaxis and treatment. Such approaches must take into account the extensive BoNT sequence variability; the seven BoNT serotypes differ by up to 70% at the amino acid level. Here, we have analyzed 49 complete published sequences of BoNTs and show that all toxins also exhibit variability within serotypes ranging between 2.6 and 31.6%. To determine the impact of such sequence differences on immune recognition, we studied the binding and neutralization capacity of six BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2, which differ by 10% at the amino acid level. While all six MAbs bound BoNT/A1 with high affinity, three of the six MAbs showed a marked reduction in binding affinity of 500- to more than 1,000-fold to BoNT/A2 toxin. Binding results predicted in vivo toxin neutralization; NlAbs or MAb combinations that ...
Hyperactive glandular conditions are treated using topically formulated botulinum toxin compositions. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, topical botulinum preparations are applied directly to the skin by a patient as needed to suppress his or her hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, chromhidrosis, nevus sudoriferous, acne, seborrhiec dermatitis or other glandular condition. In other embodiments, topical botulinum toxins are applied with the aid of mechanical, electrical, and/or chemical transdermal delivery enhancers.
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Clostridium botulinum Toxin A antibody [B364M] for ELISA, ICC/IF, RIA. Anti-Clostridium botulinum Toxin A mAb (GTX44113) is tested in Clostridium botulinum samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Myofascial pains are frequently found during the clinical examination of the patients presenting a painful chronic syndrome of the pelvis or the perineum. If the physiopathology of this component of the pain characterized by triggerpoints found in the clinical examination, remains uncertain; its coverage contributes to the improvement of the global pain of the patient. The physiotherapy can be useful but when it is not useful, we proposed injections of triggerpoints by local anesthetics. The injections of botulinum toxin on these triggerpoints have a legitimacy (action on the muscular cramp and action on the afferent fibers) but are they superior to the injections of local anesthetics of triggerpoints? The literature remains poor on the subject, justifying this randomized double-blind protocol comparing the efficacy of the botulinum toxin associated with a local anesthetic versus local anesthetic alone with a main criterion of evaluation in 2 months and a monthly follow-up as long as the patient ...
The botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent: molecular and pharmacological insights Roshan Kukreja,1 Bal Ram Singh2 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts, 2Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, USA Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most potent toxins known to mankind, are metalloproteases that act on nerve–muscle junctions to block exocytosis through a very specific and exclusive endopeptidase activity against soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins of presynaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This very ability of the toxins to produce flaccid muscle paralysis through chemical denervation has been put to good use, and these potentially lethal toxins have been licensed to treat an ever expanding list of medical disorders and more popularly in the field of esthetic medicine. In most cases, therapeutic BoNT preparations are high-molecular-weight protein complexes consisting of
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced bi the bacterium Clostridium botulinum an relatit species.[1] It prevents the release o the neurotransmitter acetylcholine frae axon endins at the neuromuscular junction an thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection wi the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is an aa uised commercially in medicine, cosmetics, an resairch. ...
Botulinum toxin injections in surgical wound closure immediately after surgery improve facial surgery scars, according to a small study published in the March i
Learn more about Botulinum Toxin Injections -- Medical at Regional Medical Center of San Jose DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall...
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Learn more about Botulinum Toxin Injections -- Medical at Medical City Dallas DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
Botulinum toxin A is a protein produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the same bacteria that causes botulism food poisoning. When injected into muscle in tiny amounts, botulinum A (Botox) can stop or reduce muscle spasm by blocking nerve signals to the muscle. This treatment has been used since the early 1990s...
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), mainly represented by subtype A1, is the most toxic substance known. It causes naturally-occurring food poisoning, and is among the biological agents at the highest risk of being weaponized. Several antibodies neutralizing BoNT/A by targeting its heavy chain (BoNT/A-H) have been isolated in the past. For the first time however, an IgG (4LCA) recently isolated by hybridoma technology and targeting the BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A-L), was shown to inhibit BoNT/A endopeptidase activity and protect in vivo against BoNT/A. In the present study, a phage-displayed library was constructed from a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) hyper-immunized with BoNTA/L in order to isolate scFvs inhibiting BoNT/A endopeptidase activity for clinical use. Diversity of the scFvs constituting the library was limited due to the frequent presence, within the genes intended to be part of the library, of restriction sites utilized for its construction. After screening with several rounds of increasing
Interpretive Summary: Botulism is a serious, often fatal neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals caused by a protein toxin (botulinum toxin, BoNT) produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. BoNT is considered the most toxic biological toxin known. Because of its high toxicity, the need for a long recovery period requiring extensive treatment, and the ease of producing BoNT, it is considered a class A bioterrorism agent. The gold standard for detection of botulinum toxin is the mouse bioassay. In a previous report we described the development of a simple, non-rodent-based rapid detection based on newly developed monoclonal antibodies. This simple assay will detect BoNT at levels below the mouse bioassay. In this report we describe the location on the BoNT that are bound by one of the antibodies used in the above assay. This information extends our knowledge of the parameters controlling the immunoassay and improves our ability to design even better tests for toxin and predict assay ...
The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise a family of eight related toxins: tetanus (TeNT) and seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), which cause the disease...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and ...
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We herein demonstrated that Tat PTD-mediated protein transduction was successfully applied to intact arterial strips. It was reported earlier that Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 tagged with Tat PTD inhibited the urotensin-induced contraction in the rat aorta.29 In the present study, the introduction of the protein into the cells by Tat PTD was clearly proved by the observation of GFP fluorescence in the TAT-GFP-treated strips, and by immunoblot detection of Tat PTD-tagged MYPT1 fragments in the extract of the strips. The introduction of protein is also supported by the observation that the MYPT1 fragments enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction only when tagged with Tat PTD. The time needed to obtain a significant enhancement of contraction suggested that the transduction of functional protein into the intact arterial strips takes place within 10 minutes, which is consistent with previous reports.22,23⇓. Treatment with TAT-MYPT11-374 enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction with no effect on ...
This chapter explains the mechanism by which botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causes its neuromuscular paralytic effects, and reviews the developments that led these effects to be harnessed therapeutically. It specifically focuses upon the conditions of dystonia and spasticity. Within the spectrum of these diseases, it discusses those situations where BoNT injections are the treatment of choice. The very accurate targeting of BoNT into specific muscles in many situations is both desirable and crucial in some situations BoNTs therapeutic neuroparalytic effect may need to be restricted to a single muscle fascicle.. In some cases, an inaccurately placed injection may be associated with unacceptable side effects. In order to achieve accuracy of BoNT injection delivery, intramuscular injections of BoNT aided by electromyography (EMG) guidance allows the very accurate targeting of specific muscles. The practical aspects related to the preparation of BoNT for injection and the methodology and techniques for
This year, <"http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/botox">Botox was linked to a number of hospitalizations and 16 deaths. Of the deaths, four victims of the poisonous Botox injections were children. An additional 87 people were hospitalized. Botox and Myobloc have been linked to the injuries and fatalities because the botulinum toxin spread inside the bodies of the patients, killing some and injuring others. The toxin spreading in the bodies of the children proved most serious, killing four children under the age of 16. In addition to the deaths, there have been reported problems of muscle weakness and difficulty swallowing. American consumer group Public Citizen says it has seen 180 reports sent to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about Botox and Myobloc.. Botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and is known commercially as Botox and Myobloc, is one of the most powerful nerve poisons known. Although best known for smoothing facial ...
Another company mining the bioterrorism threat is Pharmaleads, which is developing a fluorescence-based diagnostic test for detecting botulinum toxin in drinking water. "Botulinum toxin is easy to make and introduce into liquid," explained Jean-Pierre Rogala, COO. "Also the botulinum A and B toxins are lethal in doses as small as 5 ng/mL and 200 ng/mL, respectively. To be able to monitor drinking water requires a test that is robust and fast, and can be used either by security forces or other nonscientifically trained personnel in the field." To fulfill these needs the company developed a test that utilizes botulinum toxins zinc metalloprotease activity. The firm generated a zinc metalloprotease substrate containing a fluorescent reagent known as Fluofast®. Since botulinum toxins can recognize and cleave specific amino acids in the Fluofast substrate to release a fluorescent signal, the toxins presence can be detected via a fluorometer. To make field detection possible, Pharmaleads also ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known to humans causing respiratory failure upon poisoning. BoNTs lethality and ease of production has led to a category A bioterrorism agent designation for BoNT by the Department of Defense (DoD). Developing effective, post-exposure antagonists to BoNT is a top priority of the DoD. Despite their lethality, BoNTs have cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications and are currently FDA-approved for the treatment of glabellar lines (wrinkles), cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, cranial nerve VII disorders, and cosmoses. BoNT provides relief of muscle tension by silencing neurons that cause muscle contraction. For many disorders, BoNT-based treatments provide significant and long lasting reductions in pain. BoNTs exquisite specificity for neurons and long time of action make it a lead candidate for the treatment of neurological and muscle disorders where conventional treatments have failed. Development of ...
Botox is an injectable substance which is a medical grade form of the botulinum toxin, most often used to soften and relax forehead. Botulin toxin is compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is an enzyme that helps in breaking down one of the fusion proteins that allow neurons to release acetylcholine at a neuromuscular junction. By interfering with nerve impulses in this way, it causes paralysis of muscles in botulism. Its been found that botox injections can help children with cerebral palsy from agravating and suffering some other side effects ...
sufferers, they are ineffective in stopping the painful side effects of teeth grinding, and do nothing for daytime tooth grinding.. Dentists have been injecting small doses of Botox directly into the large muscle that moves the jaw (masseter muscle) thereby successfully weakening it enough to stop involuntary grinding of the teeth and clenching of the jaw. Botox significantly relaxes the muscle, reducing the wear and tear on the teeth, due to grinding. Although it is not a cure for bruxism, Botox appears to effectively control uncomfortable symptoms better than a night guard for some patients, and treatment typically lasts for three to four months.. A downside emerged a number of years ago, though, showing evidence that Botox treatment may trigger a dramatic loss of bone density in the jaw. In a 2012 study in the journal Bone, "Rabbits were injected with botulinum toxin on one side of the jaw and researchers found that after four weeks, the bone in the injected side was severely decreased. ...
Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) causes a potentially fatal disease called botulism. With an estimated LD50 of 1 ng/kg body weight, the family of BoNT serotypes, subdivided into more than 40 subtypes, are the most toxic naturally occurring substances known. The most widely accepted method for BoNT detection is the Mouse Lethality Bioassay (MLB) which has a sensitivity of 10-100 pg/mL. However, respiratory failure is the end point, large numbers of mice are required for serotyping and quantitation (, 100 per sample), and it has variable sensitivity and long readout times of 1-4 days. The purpose of the Botulinum NeuroToxin BLD-Test Performance Study is to validate a recently developed molecular-based BoNT assay so that it may be successfully adapted to replace the MLB for detecting and distinguishing the disease causing serotypes in a range of matrices (e.g. food, beverage, environmental, and human and animal samples collected for diagnostic purposes). The BLD-Test employs an automated, portable ...
The Australasian College of Cosmetic Surgery estimated that 1.5 million botulinum toxin injections or 250,000 wrinkle reduction procedures were administered in Australia in 2009. These figures are 30% higher than those reported for 2008. With the need for further and ongoing treatment in those who have previously received injections and the promise of new customers, these numbers are expected to double over the next five years. There are two formulations of botulinum toxin available for injection in Australia: • BOTOX® • DYSPORT® Both are purified from the toxic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. This bacterium has a claim to fame as the cause of the rare but serious condition known as botulism. In this condition, ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium or the toxins it produces, leads to progressive paralysis.. This usually starts with the muscles of the face and eyes and then spreads progressively over the body. It affects the face and eyes first because these are among ...
Authors noted that while the difference was statistically significant, it had uncertain clinical importance, and patients who received injections were more likely to develop urinary tract infections and to need transient self-catheterization.
In managing patients with spasticity, especially when injecting botulinum toxin, there is one motto that holds true. Its that the more one thinks he knows the more there really is to learn. Whether it is patient criteria, medication use or muscle selection for injection, nothing is as straight forward as it seems.. It is the goal of this article to review the factors that form the basis for selection of botulinum toxin therapy in adult patients. The features of botulinum type A and type B will be compared. Finally, techniques and resources available to the clinician in determining when botulinum might be effective and in which muscles will be introduced.. When considering spasticity management the physician needs to take into account the patients physical presentation as well as the goals that they and their care providers have. Positive symptoms of upper motor syndrome include spasticity, heightened reflexes, clonus, and synergy patterns of movement.. Negative symptoms include weakness and ...
Apparatus, systems and methods can provide improved detection of botulinum neurotoxins. In one aspect an isoquinolynyl compound can be used to enhance the sensitivity of both Forster resonance energy
Find Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins (BoNT and TeNT) research area related information and Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins (BoNT and TeNT) research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
Clostridium botulinum produces a transcription factor that can aggregate and self-propagate a prion-like form, leading to genome-wide changes in gene expression in E. coli, according to a study.. 1 Comment. ...
Clostridium botulinum produces a transcription factor that can aggregate and self-propagate a prion-like form, leading to genome-wide changes in gene expression in E. coli, according to a study.. 1 Comment. ...
The Botulinum Journal from Inderscience Publishers provides an international forum and refereed authoritative source of information encompassing varied fields involved with botulinum neurotoxins
Botulism is a rare but serious illness that causes paralysis and can be fatal. Its caused by nerve toxins made by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Botox is a wrinkle treatment derived from the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Learn how this versatile agent came to be as well as its other uses.
Botulinum: We have been blocking the deeply embedded and hardwired consequences of tens of millions of years of evolutionary trial-and-error product testing, writes Will Cairns
Syn®-ake designed to work much like Botox, which reduces muscular contractions in the face and reduces cell movement; thereby keeping the skin smooth. Syn-ake is a synthesized peptide that mimics the effects of the toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum Swiss Apple Stem Cell protects the longevity of the skins stem cells, helping to combat the aging process while improving skin renewal Peptides complex amino acids with multi-functional capacity to signal enzymes, promote collagen and relax muscle fibers and iron out the wrinkle. Vitamin C eases and prevents redness and dark circles while energizing the skin. Resveratrol assists the anti-aging process by delivering antioxidants and acting as a skin protectant, effectively preventing premature aging of skin cells. Hyaluronic Acid allows the skin to increase moisture retention, helping to improve skin elasticity as we age. Neodermyl® increases synthesis of collagen I & III (youth collagen) and elastin, helping to improve skin ...
This study is comparing the efficacy of botulinum toxin A [Dysport] injections in treatment-naive versus pre-treated patients (early-start vs medium-start vs
subtype A4 neurotoxin (BoNT/A4) is naturally expressed in the dual-toxin-producing strain 657Ba in 100 lower titers than BoNT/B. the clostridial appearance system. Comparative analyses of the actions of rBoNT/A4-L260F and rBoNT/A4 I264R demonstrated 1, 000-fold-lower activity than BoNT/A1 in both nonmutated and mutated BoNT/A4. This indicates these mutations usually do not alter the experience of BoNT/A4 holotoxin. In conclusion, a recombinant BoNT from a dual-toxin-producing stress was purified and portrayed within an endogenous clostridial appearance program, allowing analysis of the toxin. Launch Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) will be the most poisonous chemicals known and so are produced by specific types. ...
2) Even small amounts of participation is appreciated: This works better for first year students who often have little clinical experience, but I think it does help even with more experienced learners. In the botulinum toxin injection clinic, I will have the students only observe for the first day or so. After that I have them clean the injection area with alcohol swabs, and hook up the EMG ground and reference leads. Although that doesnt sound like much, for a student, it makes them understand that they are being helpful and are a valued part of your team. In truth, it does make things go faster as it takes about the same amount of time to wash my hands as it does to prep the patient for the injections. As possible, I also try to let the students do one injection in a relatively straight forward site by the end of the ten weeks. It doesnt always work out that a good patient/ injection works out on the last day of the rotation. But, even doing one injection for a student is potentially a big ...
Recovery of neuronal function is critical for overcoming botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-mediated paralysis. Strategies for promoting such recovery have proven near...
The database will only include epitopes of less than 50 residues in either a linear or conformational sequence. If the epitope is non-peptidergic, the mass restriction is to be less than 5000 Daltons to be included in the database. Important Exception: Epitopes greater than 50 residues will be curated for certain pathogens including Botulinum toxin and anthrax epitopes. A region or fragment of ,50aa from B. anthracis and C. botulinum will be curated as an epitopic region in the following cases: ...