The ability of pre-existing antibodies to neutralize locally-acting toxins of Bothrops asper snake venom was investigated. Hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and edema were markedly reduced in actively immunized mice, although none of these effects was completely abolished. In mice passively immunized with equine antivenom, hemorrhage was prevented completely, while myonecrosis and edema were partially reduced. Pre-existing antibodies did not modify the early stage ( , 3 hr) of venom-induced edema, but significantly accelerated the normalization of this effect within 24 hr. Passive administration of antivenom either 5 or 120 min before venom injection gave similar results, suggesting that the presence of antibodies in the intravascular compartment may fully neutralize locally acting toxins, in this experimental animal model. Overall, the homologous or heterologous origin of antibodies was not a significant factor influencing their in uit,o neutralizing efficiency against local venom effects. Antibody ...
Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are important components of Bothrops snake venoms, that can induce several effects on envenomations such as myotoxicity, inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation and edema. It is known that venomous and non-venomous snakes present PLA(2) inhibitory proteins (PLIs) in their blood plasma. An inhibitory protein that neutralizes the enzymatic and toxic activities of several PLA2s from Bothrops venoms was isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake plasma by affinity chromatography using the immobilized myotoxin BthTX-I on CNBr-activated Sepharose. Biochemical characterization of this inhibitory protein, denominated alpha BaltMIP, showed it to be a glycoprotein with Mr of similar to 24,000 for the monomeric subunit. CD spectra of the PLA(2)/inhibitor complexes are considerably different from those corresponding to the individual proteins and data deconvolution suggests that the complexes had a relative gain of helical structure elements in comparison to the individual ...
Order Recombinant Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 03015123706 at Gentaur Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2[Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2]
Presented by M di-T. BOTHROPS LANCEOLATUS.. B. lanceolatus, Wagler-Dumeril; synonyms, Coluber glaucus, Linn. Vipera c rulescens, Laurent; Coluber megara, Shaw; Cophias lanceolatus, Merrem; Craspedocephalus lanceolatus, Gray (Trigonocephale jaune, Cuvier; Vipera jaune; Fer-de-lance).. An Ophidian of the family Crotalid , found in the Island of Martinique.. Authority. Dr. Ch. Ozanam, LArt. M d., 19, 116 (A collection of cases (15) and general observations on the effect of the bite, quoted from Dr. Rufz, Enqu te sur le serpent de la Martinique.). MIND. ► Consecutive and long-lasting hypochondria. ► Ideas confused. ► Coma, becoming deeper until death ensues.. HEAD. ► Vertigo. ► Frequent dizziness. ► Hemicrania.. EYE. ► Amaurosis (sometimes immediately after the bite). ► Persistent amaurosis. ► Amaurosis, without perceptible dilatation of the pupil. ► Hemeralopic amaurosis; can scarcely see her way, especially after sunrise. [10.] ► Pupil a little dilated.. FACE. ► Altered ...
Angiogenesis and wound repair are mediated by several growth factors that are strictly released. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus induces in vivo angiogenesis as well as the cyclic peptide derived from its primary structure, with the ECD motif (ALT-C PEP). This study investigated the effects of ALT-C and ALT-C PEP on angiogenesis and expression of growth factors in a model of wounded rat skin. The rats were anaesthetized; one cutaneous excision (4 mm diameter) was made on the back of each animal, close to the cervical area. Animals were then divided into 7 groups (five rats/group): control (treated with vehicle); locally treated with 10, 60 and 100 ng ALT-C or 10, 20 and 100 ng ALT-C PEP ALT-C PEP for 1, 3, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of experiments animals were killed, the skin was removed; the cranial portion was used for histological analysis and from the caudal portion; protein were extracted, separated by SDS-PAGE and VEGF, ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Marcelo L Santoro, Tais S Vaquero, Adriana F Paes Leme, Solange M T Serrano].
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The local and systemic pathophysiological alterations induced by BjussuSP-I, a thrombin-like serine proteinase from the venom of the snake Bothrops jararacussu, were assessed in mice. BjussuSP-I induced a mild edema but no local myonecrosis or hemorrhage. It did not induce any microvascular alteration in the cremaster muscle. Intramuscular injection of BjussuSP-I promoted an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but it did not induce the activation of proMMP-2 or proMMP-9 synthesized in muscle tissue injected with a myotoxic phospholipase A2 homolog. BjussuSP-I induced defibrin(ogen)ation upon intravenous and intramuscular injections, with reduction in plasma fibrinogen concentration and increments in the levels of fibrin degradation products and D-dimer. When compared with animals having normal coagulation, mice defibrin(ogen)ated by BjussuSP-I developed a slightly larger hemorrhagic lesion in the skin when injected with metalloproteinase BaP1. Intravenous injection of sublethal doses of ...
A myotoxic phospholipase has been isolated from Bothrops asper venom by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. The toxin is a basic polypeptide with an estimated molecular weight of 10,700. It has both phospholipase A and indirect hemolytic activities, but is devoid of proteolytic, direct hemolytic and hemorrhagic effects. When injected i.m. into mice the toxin induces a rapid increase in plasma creatine kinase levels and a series of degenerative events in skeletal muscle which lead to myonecrosis. The toxin induces an increase in intracellular calcium levels and is able to hydrolyze muscle phospholipids in vivo. Pretreatment with the calcium antagonist verapamil failed to prevent the myotoxic activity. It is proposed that B. asper myotoxin causes cell injury by disrupting the integrity of skeletal muscle plasma membrane and that myotoxicity is at least partially due to the phospholipase A activity of the toxin ...
Introdução: Neste estudo foi avaliada a eficácia do soro antibotrópico (SAB) em camundongos prenhes submetidos ao veneno bruto da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Bj). Para tanto, o veneno foi administrado em camundongos no 7,5º dia de prenhez (dp), data importante, onde, de acordo com a literatura, alterações teratogênicas podem ocorrer. Métodos: Na manhã do 7,5ºdp, um grupo de animais (VBj+SAB) recebeu, por via intramuscular, 0,24mg de veneno de Bj/kg de peso de animal e, após 3h foi tratado, por via endovenosa, com o SAB. Foram utilizados dois grupos controles onde os animais receberam salina estéril e foram submetidos ao soro, após 3h (Sal+SAB) e outro grupo onde os animais receberam o veneno de Bj e não foram tratados com soro (VBj). Após 24h dos tratamentos, foi avaliada a morfologia do útero (mais especificamente a interface materno-fetal, na região antimesometrial) e foi feita a avaliação hemostática (dosagem de fibrinogênio - Fg), em todos os animais pertencentes ao ...
Common names: fer-de-lance, terciopelo, Bothrops asper is a highly venomous pit viper species ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. Sometimes referred to as the "ultimate pit viper", these snakes are found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. Its proximity to human habitations and temperament are likely the reasons why it is considered more dangerous to humans than others. This species is the main cause of snakebite incidents within its range. No subspecies are currently recognized. The generic name, Bothrops, comes from the Greek words bothros and ops, which mean "pit" and "face" (or "eye"), respectively. This is a reference to these snakes highly sensitive heat-detecting pit organs. The specific epithet, asper, which is a Latin word meaning "rough" or "harsh", may allude to the species keeled dorsal scales. Some of the common names applied to this snake are terciopelo, fer-de-lance, Mapepire balsain (Trinidad), barba amarilla (Guatemala, ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Isabel C O Morais, Gustavo J S Pereira, M Orzáez, Roberta J B Jorge, Claudia Bincoletto, Marcos H Toyama, Helena S A Monteiro, Soraya S Smaili, Enrique Pérez-Payá, Alice M C Martins].
Bothrops jararacussu snake venom produces myonecrosis and nerve degeneration. In this work, we investigated whether nerve lesions or impaired muscle regeneration contributed to the permanent loss of muscle mass, a long-term sequela of envenoming. The right soleus muscle of adult male mice was injected with B. jararacussu venom (80 mug) while the left muscle received only saline (control). The mice were killed after 2 and 3 months and the muscles were removed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The nerve fibers, Schwann cells and neuromuscular junctions had regenerated in venom-treated muscle. The total number of muscle fibers was significantly lower (p , 0.05) than in the control (617 +/- 48 versus 1235 +/- 97, respectively; mean +/- SEM, n = 10). These results show that the loss of muscle mass was most likely related to a decrease in the ability of the muscle to regenerate rather than to nerve lesions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
An enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for the quantitation of antibodies against myotoxins present in the venoms of Bothrops asper (Costa Rica), B. atrox (Colombia) and B. moojeni (Brazil), was developed. This EIA was utilized for the evaluation of four antivenoms produced in Mexico (Laboratorios Myn; MYN), Costa Rica (Instituto Clodomiro Picado; ICP), Colombia (Instituto Nacional de Salud; INS) and Brazil (Instituto Butantan; IB). Antivenoms ICP, IB and INS showed a higher titer of antibodies against the three myotoxins tested, with only slight differences between them, depending on the antigen utilized. In contrast, MYN antivenom had very low levels of antibodies to the three myotoxins. Seventeen batches of ICP antivenom were analyzed by EIA, using B. asper myotoxin II as antigen. Although all batches had high anti-myotoxin titers, these varied significantly. Batches produced after 1988 had, in general, higher titers than older (1986-1987) ones. Antivenom stored for one year at 37 degrees C had a ...
J. C. Cogo, J. Prado-Franceschi, M. A. Cruz-Hofling, A. P. Corrado and L. Rodrigues-Simioni. Effect of Bothrops insularis venom on the mouse and chick nerve-muscle preparation. Toxicon 31, 1237-1247, 1993.-The effects of Bothrops insularis venom were examined in vivo in mice and chicks and in vitro using the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm and chick biventer cervicis muscle preparations. Incubation of the indirectly or directly stimulated mouse preparation with B. insularis venom (20-80 μg/ml) produced an initial increase in twitch tension followed by irreversible blockade. With direct stimulation in the presence of d-tubocurarine, no increase in twitch tension was observed prior to the onset of blockade. A venom-induced effect on presynaptic activity was suggested by the marked increase in the frequency of the mepps recorded in vitro 5-15 min after venom addition. A direct muscular effect was shown by the dose- and time-dependent reduction in the resting membrane potential of the diaphragm. ...
Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. A new myotoxic acidic Asp49 PLA2 (BaCol PLA2) was isolated from Colombian Bothrops asper venom using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). BaCol PLA2 had a molecular mass of 14,180.69 Da (by mass spectrometry) and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained by cDNA cloning (GenBank accession No. MF319968) and revealed a mature product of 124 amino acids with Asp at position 49. BaCol PLA2 showed structural homology with other acidic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops venoms, including a non-myotoxic PLA2 from Costa Rican B. asper. In vitro studies showed cell membrane damage without exposure of phosphatidylserine, an early apoptosis hallmark. BaCol PLA2 had high indirect hemolytic activity and moderate anticoagulant action. In mice, BaCol PLA2 caused marked edema and myotoxicity, the latter seen as an increase in plasma creatine kinase
Thrombin-like enzyme that shows clotting activity upon human plasma. Shows specific fibrinogenolytic activity for Aalpha chain (FGA). Hydrolyzes fibrin, BAPNA and TAME, as well as chromogenic artificial substrates of the blood coagulation cascasde: S-27654 for factor X (F10), S-2302 for kallikrein (KLK), factor XIa (F11), and XIIa (F12), and S-2266 for kallikrein and factor XIa (F11). Subcutaneous injection into mice induces a mild edema. Intravenous and intramuscular injection reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration and increase the levels of fibrin(ogen) degradation products. Intramuscular injection also promotes an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but is unable to activate it.
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Two myotoxins isolated from B. asper (myotoxin II) and B. nummifer (myotoxin I) snake venoms have been crystallized and their diffraction properties are described. These myotoxins are phospholipase A2 variants which lack enzymatic activity; B. asper myotoxin II is a lysine-49 phospholipase. Crystals were obtained at room temperature by standard hanging-drop vapour diffusion methods. Crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 and 2.3 A, respectively ...
Loss of venom from the venom gland after biting or manual extraction leads to morphological changes in venom secreting cells and the start of a cycle of production of new venom. We have previously shown that stimulation of both (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the secretory cells of the venom gland is essential for the onset of the venom production cycle in Bothrops jararaca. We investigated the signaling pathway by which the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor initiates the venom production cycle. Our results show that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype is present in venom gland of the snake. in quiescent cells, stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor with phenylephrine increased the total inositol phosphate concentration, and this effect was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Phenylephrine mobilized Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive stores and increased protein kinase C activity. in addition, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation increased the activity of ERK 1/2, partially via protein kinase C. ...
We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were
Bothrops marajoensis is found in the savannah of Marajo Island in the State of Par S and regions of Amapa State, Brazil. The aim of the work was to study the renal and cardiovascular effects of the B. marajoensis venom and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). The venom was fractionated by Protein Pack 5PW. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of sPLA(2) showed amino acid identity with other lysine K49sPLA(2)s of snake venom. B. marajoensis venom (30 mu g/mL) decreased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate and sodium tubular transport. PLA(2) did not change the renal parameters. The perfusion pressure of the mesenteric bed did not change after infusion of venom. In isolated heart, the venom decreased the force of contraction and increased PP but did not change coronary flow. In the arterial pressure, the venom and PLA(2) decreased mean arterial pressure and cardiac frequency. The presence of atrial flutter and late hyperpolarisation reversed, indicating ...
The genus Bothrops is distributed over all Latin America, From Mexico to Argentina, and comprises nearly 31 species of snake. In most of these countries, Bothrops spp. cause the majority of snake bit envenomations, which ...
Together with several colleagues from Argentina and Peru (main investigator is Paola Carrasco (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba), but also Gustavo Scrocchi (CONICET and Instituto de Herpetología, San Miguel de Tucuman), Pablo Venegas (Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI), Lima), Juan Chaparro (Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco)), we started a collaboration on the phylogeny of bothropoid pitvipers (Bothrops, Bothrocophias), with the aim to solve systematic conflicts within the Bothrops-complex (~50 species) using a phylogenetic analysis combining a large number of morphological and molecular data. Until recently, most phylogenetic analyses of the South American pitviper genus Bothrops used exclusively mitochondrial DNA sequences, whereas few of them have included morphological traits. Moreover, the systematic affinities of some species remain unclear. As part of this project we are currently working on a systematic revision of the Bothrops-complex in Peru (11 + ...
A bradykinin-potentiating factor (bpf) present in the venom of bothrops jararaca". Continuous prepositively buy viraday online india visual snow started in these patients 2 weeks to 15 years after the first episode? You should see improvement within 2 to 3 weeks, but it may take more than 6 weeks before you see definite beneficial effects. I have suffered so much memory loss, even simple things and alot of memories. He suggested the boys be buried in one coffin, nizoral shampoo reviews uk ironically according to multiple witnesses! Strains that were tet(B)- or tet(A)-positive carried the genes for P fimbriae and aerobactin, respectively, more often than susceptible strains? The products are sourced from various countries as well as those listed above! Increased risk of death in elderly people with dementia-related psychosis. Not only does the report cover a holistic view of the industry from a global standpoint, kamagra oral jelly kaufen per paypal but it also covers individual regions and their ...
The story of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors started approximately 50 years ago, when it was discovered that human plasma incubated with the venom of the Brazilian viper,Bothrops Jararaca, generated a hypotensive compound. This discovery quickly led to the characterisation of the active principle of the venom by Fereira and Greene as a family of peptides, which were named bradykinin potentiating factors as they selectively improved the biological effects of bradykinin. The observation was then made by Vane that these peptides could also block the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II via the angiotensin converting enzyme. The active peptides were isolated and teprotide became the first ACE inhibitor to be evaluated clinically. The search for an orally active compound that was sufficiently potent to be developed as an antihypertensive drug resulted in the design and development of captopril, which entered first phase clinical studies in 1977.. ACE has a key role in two ...
This drug is slightly more popular than comparable drugs? If it will help reduce wrinkles and brown spots it will make getting older easier? Present in the venom of Bothrops jararaca, list of usa online casinos a South American pit viper, in 1965? Astonishingly, Asprey says even if it were to turn out that Provigil could shorten his life he wouldnt give it up and neither would the lobbyist or brain researcher who take it? Asbestos: cialis uk over the counter meltingly Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, and Health Effects? Consistent with Title VII, list of usa online casinos Indian tribes and tribally-owned businesses may prefer indigenous people in hiring. An independent judiciary and an independent and active bar are dedicated to the ideal and reality of fair trials and appellate procedures. Climestra libido pills enhance sexual vitality, list of usa online casinos intensity, interest and excitement! Viagra® demonstrou melhora estatisticamente significativa comparada com placebo em todos os 21 ...
Sérgio Henrique Ferreira (October 4, 1934 - July 17, 2016) was a Brazilian physician and pharmacologist noted for the discovery of the bradykinin potentiating factor, which led to new and widely used anti-hypertension drugs - the ACE inhibitors. Ferreira received his M.D. from the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo (USP) and soon became staff member of the same school, where he is a member of the Department of Pharmacology. His research training in pharmacology initiated in this Department with Prof. Maurício Rocha e Silva, the discoverer of bradykinin. While working on this subject, he discovered a family of peptides present in the venom of a Brazilian snake, Bothrops jararaca, which inhibited kininase activity and strongly potentiated the effects of bradykinin in vivo and in vitro. This factor was named bradykinin potentiating factor, BPF. In 1968, with the collaboration of Dr. Lewis Joel Greene, from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S., he isolated ...
A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of snake envenomations, has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. Among …
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The great legendary Bill Haast, pioneer of venom production for venom research since 1946, was founder and director of the world renowned Miami Serpentarium Laboratories
L-amino acid oxidases isolated from snake venoms (SV-LAAOs) are enzymes that have great therapeutic potential and are currently being investigated as tools for developing new strategies to treat various diseases, including cancer and bacterial infections. The main objective of this study was to make a brief evaluation of the enzymatic stability of two Bothrops LAAOs, one isolated from Bothrops jararacussu (BjussuLAAO-II) and the other from Bothrops moojeni (BmooLAAO-I) venoms. The enzymatic activity and stability of both LAAOs were evaluated by microplate colorimetric assays, for which BjussuLAAO-II and BmooLAAO-I were incubated with different L-amino acid substrates, in the presence of different ions, and at different pH ranges and temperatures. BjussuLAAO-II and BmooLAAO-I demonstrated higher affinity for hydrophobic amino acids, such as Phe and Leu. The two enzymes showed high enzymatic activity in a wide temperature range, from 25 to 75 °C, and presented optimum pH around 7.0. Additionally, Zn2+,
Introduction. Bothrops pirajai snake is an endemic species from the South region of Bahia state, Brazil, and it belongs nowadays to a national list of Brazilian fauna species threatened of extinction (Martins & Molina, 2008). Its venom is rich in proteins such as phospholipases A2, desintegrins, metalloproteases, serinoproteases, L-amino acid oxidases and others (Rodrigues et al., 2009). L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO, EC 1.4.3.2) are enantioselective flavoenzymes catalyzing the oxidative deamination of a wide range of L-amino acids (Stábeli et al., 2007). During the reductive half-reaction, the amino acid substrate is oxidized to the imino acid with concomitant reduction of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. The imino acid product of oxidation undergoes a non-enzymatic hydrolysis to give the respective α-keto acid and ammonia. An oxidative half-reaction completes the catalytic cycle re-oxidizing the FAD with molecular oxygen and producing hydrogen peroxide (Moustafa et al., ...
Nine of the 17 venoms here tested were found capable of coagulating citrated blood or plasma. As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus). The optimum pH for this coagulation was determined for 3 of these, and was found in each case to be approximately pH 6.5, the same as that for the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Unlike thrombin, however, the fibrinogen-coagulating activity of the venoms was unaffected by the antithrombin elaborated in the course of anaphylactic shock.. In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or ...
Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A2 from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu which demonstrates both myotoxic and Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activities. The structural determinants of these activities are poorly defined, therefore site-directed mutagenesis has been used to substitute all cationic and aromatic residues between positions 115 and 129 in the C-terminal loop region of the protein. Substitution of lysine and arginine residues with alanine in the region 117-122 resulted in a significant reduction of myotoxic activity of the recombinant BthTx-I. With the exception of Lys122, these same substitutions did not significantly alter the Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity. In contrast, substitution of the positively-charged residues at positions 115, 116 and 122 resulted in reduced Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity but, with the exception of Lys122, had no effect on myotoxicity. These results indicate that the two activities are independent and are ...
Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the snake venomics analytical strategy. Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. Metalloproteinases are predominant in this secretion (41.5% of the total proteins), followed by C-type lectin/lectin-like proteins (16.7%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (10.7%), phospholipases A2 (93%), serine proteinases (5.4%), disintegrins (38%), L-amino acid oxidases (3.1%), vascular endothelial growth factors (17%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (1.2%). Altogether, 6.6% of the proteins were not identified. In vitro, the venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, and L-amino acid oxidase activities, as well as angiotensin
Fer-de-lance Bothrops atrox or Bothrops lanceolatus The Fer-de-lance (also known as Lancehead) are several closely related species in this group. All are very considered to be very aggressive and dangerous to man and one of the most feared snakes on the planet. Description: Lancehead or Fer-de-lance snakes have highly variable ...
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Hebleen Brenes, Gilbert D. Loría, Bruno LomonteAbstractSecreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules are small, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many biological processes. Viperid venoms possess gIIA sPLA2s and sPLA2-like proteins, both having homology to human gIIA sPLA2, an innate immunity enzyme. We evalu...
Atlantic Forest Virginia Morrell Mark Moffett biology conservation Rain Forest in Rio s Backyard Adriano Chiarello snakes sloths muriquis tamarins porcupine plants green amphibian species environmentalists destruction habitat rare unique animals human sprawl HotSpot Catholic University of Minas Gerais S o Louren o Municipal Park Mata Atl ntica Bothrops jararaca Ann Williams
[Purification and isolation of isoenzymes of L-amino acid oxidase from the venom of Bothrops asper].: L-amino acid oxidase (E.C. 1.4.3.2) was purified from the
Garden Buddies Ok….not quite buddies, but we could call them co-workers. The Fer-de-Lance or "Terciopelo", is one of the most dangerous snakes south of Texas. The name means "velvet" in Spanish and is the common name used in Costa Rica. Its scientific name is the "Bothrops asper". This snake is…. Continue reading. ...
Garden Buddies Ok….not quite buddies, but we could call them co-workers. The Fer-de-Lance or "Terciopelo", is one of the most dangerous snakes south of Texas. The name means "velvet" in Spanish and is the common name used in Costa Rica. Its scientific name is the "Bothrops asper". This snake is…. Continue reading. ...
My laboratory, in collaboration with my colleague Dr. Jon Bjarnason, was one of the first to identify and characterize the metalloproteinases present in numerous snake venoms. These Snake Venom Metalloproteinases; SVMPs are responsible for many of the pathologies associated with snake envenoming. Our research has elucidated the structures of these toxins and identified the biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which the toxins function to give rise to their noted pathologies. Specifically my research interests have been centered on metalloproteinases and extracellular matrix and the processes they regulate in normal and pathological circumstances. Our recent focus has expanded to include the interaction of host and tumor in carcinogenesis and metastasis and the role of stromal microenvironment, inflammation in cancer metastasis and invasion. We are also carrying out research on the discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with normal and chronic wound healing. Our longstanding interest ...
Stock Photo of Queensland Groper Epinephelus lanceolatus. High Quality Queensland Groper Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Stock Photo of Queensland Groper Epinephelus lanceolatus. High Quality Queensland Groper Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
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additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details] ...
A 50 kDa protein that inhibits platelet adhesion to collagen has been isolated from snake venom of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) and has been named catrocollastatin. The cDNA cloning of catrocollastatin has been accomplished. A full-length cDNA of 2310 bp with an open reading frame between nucleotides 51 and 1880 was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 609 amino acids. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of haemorrhagic metalloproteinase jararhagin from Bothrops jararaca venom, HR1B from Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Ht-e from C. atrox and trigramin from T. gramineus. Like jararhagin and HR1B, catrocollastatin is a multidomain molecule composed of an N-terminal domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. In the disintegrin-like domain, the frequently seen RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence is replaced by SECD (Ser-Glu-Cys-Asp). This cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (fall ...
Abstract A study of the prothrombin time of patients bitten by Bothrops snakes, principally Bothrops atrox, the fer-de-lance, was undertaken for possible use as a guide to the severity of envenomation and the effectiveness of antivenin medication. Twenty-six cases of snake-bite poisoning, in which prothrombin-time determinations (Quick) were made every 8 hours, were studied. The patients represented two groups: 1) 20 who had been bitten by a snake 8 to 10 hours before admission, some of whom had already received one or two ampules of antivenin, and 2) six patients seen within 3 hours of the bite. The patients received antivenin every 6 to 8 hours. In the first group, the prothrombin time was 5% of normal on admission and reached a peak of 80% at about 40 hours. In the second group, the prothrombin time was 20% of normal on admission, dropped within 8 hours to less than 5% despite intensive antivenin therapy, and then followed the pattern of the larger group. Clinical improvement paralleled the return of