A newly described illness of the southern United States, closely related to Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia lonestari. It is associated with the bite of the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum.
Although the Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum) has been shown to transmit Lyme borreliosis (Borrelia americana and Borrelia andersonii), it can transmit other infections such as Ehrlichia and Tularemia.. In addition, victims bitten by the Lone Star Tick will occasionally develop a circular rash, similar to the rash of early Lyme disease. The rash may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms, and this condition has been named "Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness" (STARI). STARI is treated with oral antibiotics. Newer research is now associating a Lone Star Tick bite to a mammalian meat allergy.. ...
Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains ...
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Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and
Author Summary Lyme borreliosis displays multifaceted clinical manifestations caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. If insufficiently treated, infection may proceed to inflammatory complications of chronic infection. Th17-like cytokines, foremost IL-17 and IL-22, are crucial for host defense against extracellular bacteria. IL-17/IL-22 secretion by human leukocytes exposed to live Borreliae has not been analyzed. Here we report that B. burgdorferi-activated PBMC lack immediate IL-17 expression despite being highly activated and robust T cell-dependent production of IL-22 that to a large part is mediated by monocyte-derived IL-1. Early innate immunity may shape dermal infection, thus likely affecting bacterial dissemination. Specifically, insufficient neutrophil recruitment/function, supposedly due to insufficient early IL-17 production along with a lack of opsonizing antibodies, may favor the spread of B. burgdorferi. Indeed, neutrophilic inflammation, indicative of IL-17 bioactivity, is
Malaria is a common disease in tropical Africa, causing between 1.5 and 2.7 million deaths each year. As a rule, only the clinical symptoms are used for quick diagnosis in order to prescribe the proper treatment. However, this type of presumptive diagnosis is problematic, as there are other diseases that have the same symptoms, such as relapsing fever (an infection caused by bacteria of the Borrelia genus).. How the patient is affect by this was previously unknown, and, to study the phenomenon, an animal model was created for this type of double infection. It turned out that when both diseases occur at the same time the malaria is much milder whereas the Borrelia infection in turn is more serious, indeed, fatal. This is because the immune defense focuses on the malaria infection, which means that the relapsing fever can grow unhampered. Mice with double infection develop severe anemia and serious internal damage, above all in the spleen, which is important for the immune defense. Malaria can ...
Borrelia bacteria (Borrelia sp.), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). These bacteria are pathogenic, causing diseases in humans and in animals. They are transmitted by arthropods such as ticks. Lyme disease and relapsing fever are two diseases that are caused by Borrelia bacteria. The bacteria are long, coiling rope-like structures. Magnification: x3550 when printed 10cm high. - Stock Image B220/1528
The aim was to find if there is variability in the production of specific antibodies by BALB/c mice to certain antigens of three individual Borrelia afzelii (dead cell suspension) strains originally isolated from different sources. Analysis of the borrelian proteins immunogenicity was performed...
Enzyme immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in human serum, plasma, synovial or cerebrospinal fluid and for the detection of intrathecal production of specific antibodies to Borrelia sp.
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AIM: To study the ability of OspC recombinant proteins from Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii isolated in West Siberia to interact with serum antibodies from patients with tick-borne borreliosis (TBB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recombinant antigens OspC B. garinii and OspC B. afrelii, serum samples from patients with TBB were used as well as solid-phase enzyme immunoassay and parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. RESULTS: Higher antigenic activity of B. garinii OspC compared with OspC from B. afzelii was observed when these recombinant proteins were compared in enzyme immunoassay. Detection rate of class M and G immunoglobulins to B. garinii OspC in sera of patients with TBB was 60.5% and 70% respectively. CONCLUSION: Obtained results indicate high immunoreactivity of OspC recombinant proteins from B. garinii and B. afzelii and point to perspective of their combined use for serological diagnostics of TBB.
BACKGROUND: Morphea is an inflammatory autoimmune skin sclerosis of unknownetiology. A causative role of Borrelia burgdorferi infection has beencontroversially discussed, but no conclusive solution has yet been achieved. OBJECTIVE: Intrigued by 3 young patients with severe Borrelia-associated morpheaand high-titer antinuclear antibodies, we retrospectively examined therelationship between Borrelia exposure, serologic autoimmune phenomena and ageat disease onset in morphea patients. METHODS: In 90 morphea patients thepresence of Borrelia-specific serum antibodies was correlated to the age atdisease onset and the presence and titers of antinuclear antibodies. Patientswith active Borrelia infection or high-titer antinuclear antibodies due tosystemic sclerosis or lupus erythematosus served as controls. RESULTS: We observed a statistically highly significant association between morphea, serologic evidence of Borrelia infection, and high-titer antinuclear antibodies when disease onset was in childhood ...
Gelderblom H, Londoño D, Bai Y, Cabral ES, Quandt J, Hornung R, Martin R, Marques A, Cadavid D. High production of CXCL13 in blood and brain during persistent infection with the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007 Mar; 66(3):208-17 ...
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Borrelia afzelii NlpH protein: isolated from Borrelia afzelii; amino acid sequence in first source; NlpH protein also found in B. burgdorferi and B. garinii.; GenBank Y08413
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In 2001, Dr. Raphael Stricker, a San Francisco Hematologist, was largely responsible for identifying abnormal CD 57 cell number in chronic Lyme Disease patients. He and his associates documented that those patients exhibiting significant neurological symptoms had lower CD57 cell counts than those with musculoskeletal symptoms. Additionally, it was found that once the underlying Borrelia infection began to be treated, CD57 cell number increased. Dr. Strickers work suggests that decreased CD57 cells may reflect an immune defect induced by the Borrelia spirochete that allows infection to persist, or that a pre-existing immunodeficiency of natural killer cells predisposes patients to be more prone to contracting Lyme Disease ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
We recently compared diagnostic parameters of different commercial serological kits based on three different antigen types and correlated test results with the status of the patients Borrelia infection (1). We thank Lacout et al. for comments on our article expressed in their comment letter (2).. Their objections mostly concern controversial issues, such as persistent polymorphic symptomatology after tick-bite (PPSTB), posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), persistent or chronic Borrelia disease, etc., discussed in laboratory and clinical diagnostics of Lyme borreliosis for more than 30 years. These are extensive issues, which, in our opinion, are outside the scope of the original communication, so in a brief comment, there is no space for a qualified discussion on this controversial topic.. The selection of patients and their inclusion in clinical groups were performed in accordance with the national (3) and European (4, 5) standards and case definitions. Only patients with a typical, ...
bacterial Vsp protein: from Borrelia turicatae expressed in blood & tissues of mice; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF048952
Lyme disease is a bacterial (Borrelia) infection passed on through the bite of an infected tick. It has become the most common tick-borne infection in many parts of Europe and the USA.. Early signs may include a rash around the area of the bite (erythema migrans), with flu-like and/or neurological symptoms,* but symptoms can vary or not be apparent. Without prompt antibiotic treatment, however, permanent joint and/or nerve damage is a risk.. Higher incidence rates of Lyme disease in neighbouring countries have prompted fears that current estimates of the annual number of new cases in the UK (2000 to 3000), which are based on laboratory data for England and Wales, might be too low.. To explore this further, a team of researchers drew on anonymised medical information submitted by family doctors to the nationally representative Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) between 2001 and 2012.. This database covers around 8.4 million people from 658 general practices, equivalent to around 8% of the ...
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies to B. garinii in human serum, plasma, synovial or cerebrospinal fluid and for the detection of intrathecal production of specific antibodies to Borrelia sp. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
Most medical professionals, when speaking of Lyme disease, are typically referring to an outdated and over-simplified version of the disease that was once taught and believed that the main causative agent being dealt with was the borrelia spirochete. We now know there are many agents involved. Borreliosis Complex for Lyme disease is a better term than just Lyme disease. We now know there are many agents involved and much neuroendocrine involvement due to not only Borrelia, but viral activity and damage to the Methylation cycle (KREBS CYCLE). It is so good to see the two groups learning from one another. Initially the group of Lyme researchers was looking at only Borrelia the causative agent for Lyme disease but as time went on they discovered many other agents. The CFIDS doctors were looking at damage to the Methylation cycle, Diastolic Heart Dysfunction and so much more in their research endeavors. It appears one group was looking for the AGENTS and the other was looking for the DAMAGE. It is ...
Two horses at Lone Star Park have tested positive for Equine Piroplasmosis. In addition, a third horse that left Lone Star and had been shipped to New Mexico also tested positive.
Carman, R J. and Wright, D J., "Agglutinating antibody in murine borrelia duttoni infection. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1265 ...
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Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus. Crossref DOI link: https://doi.org/10.1186/S13071-016-1629-8 Published: 2016-12. Update policy: https://doi.org/10.1007/SPRINGER_CROSSMARK_POLICY. ...
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To estimate the basic reproduction number (R(0)) of Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii, we formulated a mathematical model considering the interactions among the tick vector, vertebrate hosts, and pathogens in a 500-ha enclosed natural reserve on Le Cerbaie hills, Tuscany, central Italy. In the study area, Ixodes ricinus were abundant and were found infected by B. lusitaniae and B. afzelii. Lizards (Podarcis spp.) and mice (Apodemus spp.), respectively, are the reservoir hosts of these two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies and compete for immature ticks. B. lusitaniae R(0) estimation is in agreement with field observations, indicating the maintenance and diffusion of this genospecies in the study area, where lizards are abundant and highly infested by I. ricinus immature stages. In fact, B. lusitaniae shows a focal distribution in areas where the tick vector and the vertebrate reservoir coexist. Mouse population dynamics and their relatively low suitability as hosts for nymphs
Borrelia hermsii is the most common cause of tickborne relapsing fever in North America. DNA sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA noncoding intergenic spacer (IGS) region were determined for 37 isolates of this spirochete. These sequences distinguished the 2 genomic groups of B. hermsii identified previously with other loci. Multiple IGS genotypes were identified among isolates from an island, which suggested that birds might play a role in dispersing these spirochetes in nature. In support of this theory, all stages of the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi fed successfully on birds in the laboratory and advanced in their life cycle. B. hermsii produced a detectable spirochetemia in 1 chicken inoculated subcutaneously. Additional work is warranted to explore the role of birds as enzootic hosts for this relapsing fever spirochete ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
I read Branda and Rosenbergs (1) editorial with great interest. Readers may be interested to know that my colleagues and I discovered Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes scapularis ticks more than 10 years ago and were able to show transmission by infected ticks to mice with subsequent antibody response and persistent infection (2). We also showed that this organism was widespread in I. scapularis, with a mean prevalence of about 2%. We then applied 5 unsuccessful times to the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for funding to determine whether this organism infects humans and causes disease. The agencies cited lack of evidence for human infection as their reasoning for not funding our study, which was the objective of the proposal ...
Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree (bootstrap value 250) showingclustering of the rrs gene between Borrelia duttonii/B. recurrentis andB. crocidurae.
vlp1B. recurrentis A1 is plasmid encoded and duplicated in isolate A1. A: Plasmid (lane 1 to 4) and chromosome-rich (lane 5 to 8) DNA were digested with EcoRI (
And [we] cant even make a [blood] smear with Borrelia burgdorferi and see the organism. Its there. But you dont see it. You cannot find this spirochete. Why not? After all, I have a sick person here. He is trembling all over. His synovial fluid is full of spirochetes. But when it comes to blood, its not there. So there is something associated with this organism that makes it different. Andy Wilson: Why is Borrelia burgdorferi so hard to find in the body and culture outside the body? Dr. Burgdorfer: Borrelia burgdorferi in the tissues of a patient is extremely difficult to demonstrate, because, first of all, you dont like somebody to take samples out of your brain [to look] for spirochetes. The same with other tissues. Every system in your body can be infected with spirochete. But to prove that is extremely difficult. It demands surgical work, which is very expensive Andy Wilson: Are you a believer in the idea of persistent Lyme infections? Dr. Burgdorfer: I am a believer in persistent ...
And [we] cant even make a [blood] smear with Borrelia burgdorferi and see the organism. Its there. But you dont see it. You cannot find this spirochete. Why not? After all, I have a sick person here. He is trembling all over. His synovial fluid is full of spirochetes. But when it comes to blood, its not there. So there is something associated with this organism that makes it different. Andy Wilson: Why is Borrelia burgdorferi so hard to find in the body and culture outside the body? Dr. Burgdorfer: Borrelia burgdorferi in the tissues of a patient is extremely difficult to demonstrate, because, first of all, you dont like somebody to take samples out of your brain [to look] for spirochetes. The same with other tissues. Every system in your body can be infected with spirochete. But to prove that is extremely difficult. It demands surgical work, which is very expensive Andy Wilson: Are you a believer in the idea of persistent Lyme infections? Dr. Burgdorfer: I am a believer in persistent ...