Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. burgdorferi. In situ surface proteolysis combined with fluorescence ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, exists in a complex enzootic cycle, transiting between its vector, Ixodes ticks, and a diverse range of vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi linear plasmid 38 (lp38) contains several genes that are differentially regulated in response to conditions mimicking the tick or mouse environments, suggesting that these plasmid-borne genes may encode proteins important for the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle. Some of these genes encode potential virulence factors, including hypothetical lipoproteins as well as a putative membrane transport system. To characterize the role of lp38 in the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle, we constructed a shuttle vector to selectively displace lp38 from the B. burgdorferi genome and analyzed the resulting clones to confirm the loss of lp38. We found that, in vitro, clones lacking lp38 were similar to isogenic wild-type bacteria, both in growth rate and in antigenic protein production. We analyzed these strains in an
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions.
Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human Lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. The number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. Genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. For this reason, it is essential to explore methods for rapid and reliable characterisation of molecular level changes on plasmids. In this study we used three strains: a low passage isolate of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31(−NRZ) and two closely related strains (PAli and PAbe) that were isolated from human patients. Sequences of these strains were compared to the previously sequenced reference strain B31 (available in GenBank) to obtain proof-of-principle information on the suitability of next generation sequencing (NGS) library
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
It is suggested that Borrelia burgdorferi infection could be associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Stanek et al. were able to cultivate Borrelia burgdorferi from myocardial biopsy tissue of a patient with longstanding dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we present a study in which we examined the effect of standard antibiotic treatment on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. In this study we assessed the serum (IgG, IgM Elisa) and history of 46 IDC patients with specific regard to Borrelia burgdorferi infection (mean LVEF 30.4 +/- 1.3%, measured by cardiac catheterization and echocardiography with the length-area-volume method). All 46 patients received standard treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy: ACE inhibitors, digitalis, and diuretics. Eleven (24%) patients showed positive serology and a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection; nine of these also had a typical history of tick bite and ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody titers to B. burgdorferi in serum. Antibiotic therapy may abrogate the antibody response to the infection as shown in our patients. B. burgdorferi may persist as shown by positive culture in MKP-medium; patients may have subclinical or clinical disease without diagnostic antibody titers to B. burgdorferi. We conclude that early stage of the disease as well as chronic Lyme disease with persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic therapy cannot be excluded when the serum is negative for antibodies against B. burgdorferi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial-endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico.
Variable Lipoprotein Surface-Exposed protein, or VlsE, is a lipoprotein on the surface of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, detectable during all its life stages. It can exist as many different isoforms. VlsE has variable regions (VRs) and invariable regions (IRs). Some IRs are anchored in the outer membrane of the bacteria and some are antigens exposed on the membrane surface. Replacement of the VR by Borrelia within days of being transferred to a mammalian host presents new surface antigens to the host immune system, and helps Borrelia avoid a strong reaction by host immune systems. The VlsE is apparently not modified as much in the tick or in the rodent vector, when compared to in the mammal host. Several putative envelope proteins of B. burgdorferi appear to be expressed only in the infected mammalian host. The VRs are antigenic, irregularly shaped loops on the bacterial surface which may help to hide both membrane-incorporated and surface portions of adjacent proteins from
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B. burgdorferi. It modulates the expression of identified and unidentified open reading frames needed to deal with and overcome the many nutritional stresses and other challenges faced by the spirochete in ticks and animal reservoirs. The metabolic and morphologic changes resulting from activation of the stringent response in B. burgdorferi may also be involved in the recently described non-genetic phenotypic phenomenon of tolerance to otherwise lethal doses of antimicrobials and ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to analyze
In this study, more than 3400 short-term B. burgdorferi T cell lines generated from subjects with chronic B. burgdorferi infection were compared with naive B. burgdorferi-reactive T cell lines from normal individuals. Chronic B. burgdorferi infection was associated with high frequencies of B. burgdorferi-reactive T cells secreting high amounts of IFN-γ and IL-10, which was induced by IL-12 secreted by PBMC. T cell secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was suppressed in the presence of neutralizing Abs to IL-12. The presence of IFN-γ/IL-10 secretion was observed only in B. burgdorferi- and not in TT-specific T cell lines. These data demonstrate that chronic B. burgdorferi infection causes IL-12 secretion that induces a population of T cells characterized by secretion of both IFN-γ and IL-10.. The significance of the cellular immune response to B. burgdorferi in Lyme disease has been investigated earlier. A strong T cell response to B. burgdorferi was detected early in the course of illness, often ...
Abstract. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-system disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by hard ticks Ixodes spp. The most common clinical manifestation is the skin lesion (erythema migrans), however there is a tendency of the pathogen to spread and cause damages to the joints, nervous and cardiovascular system. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based primarily on clinical findings, epidemiological and anamnestic data and laboratory test results. The application of the modern real-time PCR method allows us to test the skin in tick bite area for a presence of B. burgdorferi. In the diagnosis of Lyme disease, we often use indirect methods (TIIF, ELISA, Western blot) for detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum, liquor and synovial fluid. To confirm the diagnosis, the presence of IgG antibodies should be demonstrated, since the presence of IgM is not a relible indicator of a recent infection. When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to ...
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
A simple procedure for extraction of plasmid-enriched DNA from borreliae was used in a plasmid analysis of 13 strains of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. The extracted DNA was subjected to low-percentage agarose gel electrophoresis and examined either directly by ethidium bromide staining or after hybridization of the plasmids in situ with a DNA probe for the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein OspA. Each isolate had four to seven discernible plasmids of various sizes. Only 2 of the 13 strains had the same plasmid profile. The ospA gene probe hybridized to large plasmids to strains from both North America and Europe. A strain which had been passaged many times was found to have lost two of the six plasmids originally present. These findings indicate the potential usefulness of plasmid analysis as a strain-typing procedure and for identifying possible plasmid-conferred virulence factors.
B. burgdorferi cells were grown in SF-E medium or SF-E medium that contained 100 μM Dp or Ds. Reduced extracellular Fe concentrations in SF-E medium with chelators had no effect on the growth rate of B. burgdorferi (Fig. 1B), unlikeEscherichia coli, which ceases to grow when extracellular Fe concentrations drop below 0.4 μM (16). This result is similar to the observation that the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum, a free-living soil bacterium that does not use Fe (16), is the same in Fe-chelated (10 μM ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid) and Fe-containing (0.6 μM) medium. B. burgdorferi cells cultured in SF-E medium treated with the metal-chelating resin Chelex (SF-E-Clx) were nonmotile and failed to grow (Fig. 1C). ICP-MS analysis of this medium indicated that Fe, Mn, and Zn were not detectable, and Mg concentrations had been reduced 100-fold (∼60 μM). Various metals were added to the medium in order to restore growth. Mn (1 μM), Zn (1 μM), and Mg (600 μM) were all required to ...
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and
Recent advances in the development of animal models for Lyme borreliosis have provided means of identifying potential targets for the design of a subunit vaccine to prevent this disease. The C3H/HeN mouse model was used to study several Borrelia burgdorferi antigens from a single isolate for their ability to elicit borreliacidal and protective antibodies. The ospA, ospB, ospC, ospD, and 83-kDa genes from a California isolate, SON 188, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins fused to the C-terminal end of maltose-binding protein. Active immunization of mice with these fusion proteins elicited high titers of antibodies that recognized the homologous SON 188 antigens upon immunoblotting. Antibodies generated to the OspA and OspB fusion proteins, but not to the OspC, OspD, and the 83-kDa fusion proteins, demonstrated in vitro borreliacidal activity. Challenge of all actively immunized mice with 10(7) SON 188 spirochetes resulted in infection in all mice receiving the OspD or 83-kDa ...
Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
Erythema migrans (EM), persistent skin infection, and visceral dissemination can be induced reproducibly in the adult male New Zealand White rabbit by intradermal injection of as few as 10(3) Borrelia burgdorferi. EM was found to persist for 7 +/- 3 d. Skin culture positivity (infection) cleared wit …
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody t
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A quantitative, indirect, fluorescence immunoassay (FIAX; Whittaker Bioproducts, Inc.) was compared with the conventional indirect fluorescent-antibody test for detection of serum antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. FIAX correlated well with the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (r = 0.72). FIAX is a convenient and dependable means of measuring serum antibody to B. burgdorferi. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. It is a highly invasive spirochete...
Antigens, Bacterial, CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, Borrelia burgdorferi, CHEMISTRY, IMMUNOLOGY, Carbon Isotopes, Escherichia coli, GENETICS, Nitrogen Isotopes, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Protons, Recombinant Proteins, CHEMISTRY, Solutions, Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S ...
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A Novel Laboratory Assessment for the Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi by Chenggang Jin, MD, PhD, Pharmasan Labs, and Deanna J. Fall, BA, NeuroScience Inc. ** Townsend Letter, the Examiner of Alternative Medicine alternative medicine magazine articles are written by researchers, health practitioners and patients.
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210™ Designation: B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector borne research
Lymphocytic meningoradiculitis and encephalomyelitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi: a clinical and serological study of 18 cases. ...
My laboratory investigates vector-borne diseases. Studies are directed toward understanding Lyme disease, Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and West Nile virus. Efforts on Lyme disease include exploring immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi, selective B. burgdorferi gene expression in vivo, and the immunobiology of Lyme arthritis. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by a newly described pathogen, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks, that persists within neutrophils. We are investigating the molecular strategies that this pathogen uses to survive in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. West Nile virus can cause fatal encephalitis, and we seek to understand the pathogenesis of this emerging disease. Finally, we are also developing molecular approaches to prevent ticks from feeding on a mammalian host, thereby interfering with pathogen transmission.. ...
My laboratory investigates vector-borne diseases. Studies are directed toward understanding Lyme disease, Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and West Nile virus. Efforts on Lyme disease include exploring immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi, selective B. burgdorferi gene expression in vivo, and the immunobiology of Lyme arthritis. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by a newly described pathogen, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks, that persists within neutrophils. We are investigating the molecular strategies that this pathogen uses to survive in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. West Nile virus can cause fatal encephalitis, and we seek to understand the pathogenesis of this emerging disease. Finally, we are also developing molecular approaches to prevent ticks from feeding on a mammalian host, thereby interfering with pathogen transmission.. ...
When the pH of BSK-H was adjusted to 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0, we observed at least 37 alterations in the membrane protein profile, suggesting that pH may play a regulatory role in the expression of many of these membrane proteins. Initially, six of these changes were seen by immunoblotting with hyperimmune serum or serum derived from a tick-acquired infection, suggesting that the immunogens observed at pHs 6.0 and 7.0 (Fig. 1) are expressed during infection. The hyperimmune serum also reacted with a 42-kDa membrane protein that increased in amount as the pH of the medium was increased from 6.0 to 8.0 (Fig. 1). In addition, the tick bite immune serum recognized a 48- and a 46-kDa protein that went undetected when probed with hyperimmune serum. This also suggests that there may be numerous membrane proteins expressed at pHs 6.0 and 7.0 which may be differentially expressed during the infectious cycle and not recognized by the hyperimmune serum. These alterations in membrane proteins as the pH of the ...
During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several tissues throughout the body. The specific mechanism of spirochete emigration is presently unknown. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to the subendothelial matrix. Low passage isolates adhered 22-30-fold greater than a strain maintained in culture continuously. Spirochete binding to subendothelial matrix was inhibited 48-63% by pretreatment of the matrix with anti-fibronectin antiserum. Spirochete migration across endothelial monolayers cultured on amniotic membrane was increased when the monolayers were damaged by chemical or physical means. Electron microscopic examination of spirochete-endothelial interactions demonstrated the presence of spirochetes in the intercellular junctions between endothelial cells as well as beneath the monolayers. Scanning electron microscopy identified a ...
ebook maternal 1993; landmark Weber K, Wilske B, extensive therapy, Thurmayr R. Azithromycin versus website co-exist for the el of cyberspace Lyme tolerance. ebook maternal 1993; off Schmidli J, Hunziker insurance, Moesli history, Schaad UB. ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding and human of Borrelia artists from remote Disease three levels after physician of minimal body antibiotic to Lyme Persistence. J Infect Dis 1988; civic south ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding, Pfister HW, Spiegel H, et al. small-engined Cash of Borrelia burgdorferi from an world payment. 162 brief ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding, Weber K, Pfister HW, et al. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in down valued groups with Lyme diarrhea. ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding and human lactation a guide for 1989; 17(6):355-9 Nocton therapy, Dressler F, Rutledge BJ, et al. story of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by disease advice cost in Spare brain from ...
Metabolism:. This organism is an extracellular organism. It adapts to the host organism accordingly. The nutrient requirement of borrelia is very specific hence it makes the survival of this organism in vitro very difficult. It acts mainly by the regulation of the various lipoproteins present in the body.. The Lyme disease or the recurring fever that is caused due to borrelia mainly occur due to a tick or a flee bite. The life span of a tick is about 2 years. In order to survive it requires a blood meal. The blood meal helps the tick to mature. Spirochetes are acquired by the tick mostly in the larva stage. The blood meal in order to survive is acquired from mice and other types of rodents such as the white footed mice. The spirochetes then survive on the expense of the tick. The tick acts as the host. The spirochetes generally survive in the digestive track of the host through which it passes the disease to other animals and human beings.. Human beings are generally affected when they get ...