Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation therapy technique which is based on the principle of irradiating boron atoms with neut
Accurate dosimetry and determination of the biological effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is challenging because of the mix of different types and energies of radiation at the cellular and subcellular levels. In this paper, we present a computational, multiscale system of models to better assess the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and compound biological effectiveness (CBE) of several neutron sources as applied to BNCT using boronophenylalanine (BPA) and a potential monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets HER-2-positive cells with Trastuzumab. The multiscale model is tested against published in vitro and in vivo measurements of cell survival with and without boron. The combined dosimetric and radiobiological model includes an analytical formulation that accounts for the type of neutron source, the tissue- or cancer-specific dose–response characteristics, and the microdistribution of boron. Tests of the model against results from published experiments with and without
20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) - a unique type of radiation therapy that targets cancer at the cellular level. The agreement extends the existing cooperation between Sumitomo and RaySearch on proton therapy. Sumitomo has developed the worlds first accelerator-based clinical BNCT system and is conducting clinical trials regarding recurrent head-and-neck and brain cancers in Japan. Treatment planning is an essential aspect of BNCT, and Sumitomo selected RayStation because of its advanced capabilities and usability. Under the agreement, RayStations functionality will be extended to support BNCT planning requirements*. BNCT will be an additional treatment modality in RayStation, alongside the existing options for photon, electron, proton, and carbon ion therapy. Users of BNCT will have access to the full range of advanced ...
A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.
RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effe
The present invention relates to immunoconjugates for use in neutron capture therapy, in particular Boron neutron capture therapy, for killing target cells such as tumours. The immunoconjugate of the
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 936 887.9 (publication No. WO 00/76557) was refused by a decision of the examining division of 29 August 2005 on the basis of Article 97 EPC on the grounds of lack of inventive step under Article 56 EPC.. II. The following documents were inter alia cited during the proceedings before the examining division and the board of appeal:. (1) J.-L.A. Shih and R.M. Brugger: Neutron induced brachytherapy: A combination of neutron capture therapy and brachytherapy Medical Physics, vol. 19, no. 2, March/April 1992, pages 369-375. (2) EP-A-0 857 470. (3) US-A-5 840 009. (4) US-A-5 947 889. (4a) DE-A-196 00 669. III. The decision was based on claims 1-19 of the main request filed with letter dated 15 January 2002 (entry into the European phase).. Independent claims 1 of the main request before the examining division read as follows:. 1. A stent for neutron capture therapy, the stent comprising a body portion fabricated from a material ...
0030] When the FDA-approved 10B-BPA is used as a boron drug in the BNCT for treating tumors, the ratio of boron concentrations accumulated in the tumor and the adjacent to normal organs must be evaluated by using 18F-BPA Positron Emission Tomography (PET) first. In other words, if a boron drug that is similar to 10B-BPA (high T/N ratio) is developed for use in the BNCT for treating liver cancer, this step of labeling the boron drug with radioisotope (such as 18F) and evaluating the boron drug T/N ratio by PET cannot be avoided. But in the present invention, boric acid is used as a boron drug in the BNCT for treating liver cancer, which does not require the step of labeling the boron drug with radioisotope or evaluating the boron drug T/N ratio by PET. This is due to the fact that boric acid does not result in specific accumulation in the soft tissues of a living creature, so the boron concentrations in a patients blood and in the liver tumor are approximately equal. Consequently, it is not ...
Arylboronate esters bearing methyl groups in both of their ortho positions were stably incorporated into lipid membranes at high concentrations without undergoing hydrolysis to the corresponding boronic acids. This method could be used in combination with previous methods to increase the maximum ratio of boron atoms in liposomal boron carriers ...
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the MITR. The fission converter-based epithermal neutron irradiation (FCB) facility is housed in the experimental hall of the MITR and operates in parallel with other user applications. The fission converter contains an array of 10 spent MITR-II fuel elements cooled by forced convection of heavy water coolant. A shielded horizontal beam line contains an aluminum and Teflon filter moderator to tailor the neutron energy spectrum into the desired epithermal energy range. A patient collimator defines the beam aperture and extends into the shielded medical room to provide circular apertures ranging from 16 to 8 cm in diameter. The in-air epithermal flux for the available field sizes ranges from 3.2 to 4.6 × 109 n/cm2 s at the patient position. The measured specific absorbed doses are constant for all field sizes and are well below the inherent background of 2.8 × 10−12 C+y(w) m2/n produced by epithermal neutrons in tissue. The dose distributions achieved with the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Peng Wang, Haining Zhen, Xinbiao Jiang, Wei Zhang, Xin Cheng, Geng Guo, Xinggang Mao, Xiang Zhang].
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Specialized treatment planning software systems are generally required for neutron capture therapy (NCT) research and clinical applications. The standard simplifying approximations that work well for
Developing radiation delivery systems for optimisation of absorbed dose to the target without normal tissue toxicity requires advanced calculations for transport of radiation. In this thesis absorbed dose and fluence in different radiotherapy applications were calculated by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations.. In paper I-III external neutron activation of gadolinium (Gd) for intravascular brachytherapy (GdNCB) and tumour therapy (GdNCT) was investigated. MC codes MCNP and GEANT4 were compared. MCNP was chosen for neutron capture reaction calculations. Gd neutron capture reaction includes both very short range (Auger electrons) and long range (IC electrons and gamma) products. In GdNCB the high-energetic gamma gives an almost flat absorbed dose delivery pattern, up to 4 mm around the stent. Dose distribution at the edges and inside the stent may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. For GdNCT the absorbed dose from prompt gamma will dominate over the dose from IC and Auger electrons in an ...
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy.. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects of giving BPA-F and/or BSH before surgery to detect boron uptake in tissues of patients with primary, metastatic, or recurrent thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. ...
A computer model is described that performs microdosimetric calculations of the radiation dose delivered to tumour and normal tissue in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by simulating capture reactions in a predefined three-dimensional space. The role of intracellular boron distributions and cellular dimensions on the radiation dose in clinical and experimental BNCT has been studied using a PC-based computer model. In order to calculate the radiation dose to low boron uptake cells, the extent of irradiation by boron containing adjacent cells (cross fire) is also dealt with. Radiation doses from boron and nitrogen neutron capture are converted to a biological effect by means of relative individual ion track segment efficacies, based on linear energy transfer along the particle track. A good correlation was found after comparing predicted values with previously published experimental data. A number of examples is given to illustrate the programs features.
The melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been used to deliver 10B to melanoma tissue for boron neutron capture therapy. Uptake studies in tumor models other than melanoma now indicate that BPA is capable of delivering therapeutic amounts of boron to tumors other than melanoma. The KHJJ murine mammary tumor carried s.c. in BALB/c mice, the GS-9L rat glioma carried both s.c. and intracranially in F-344 rats, and the human U-87 MG glioma xenograft carried s.c. in nude mice have all shown significant accumulation of boron in tumor tissue following single p.o. (intragastric) doses of BPA. In the KHJJ mammary tumor, the l isomer of BPA was preferentially accumulated compared to the d isomer, indicative of a carrier-mediated transport process. Double-label, whole-body autoradiographic studies in a pigmented murine melanoma have shown that the boron distribution (from BPA) differs from the distribution of a tritiated melanin precursor (tyrosine). Boron accumulated only in the ...
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head, neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
Boron compounds now have many applications in a number of fields, including Medicinal Chemistry. Although the uses of boron compounds in pharmacological science have been recognized several decades ago, surprisingly few are found in pharmaceutical drugs. The boron-containing compounds epitomize a new class for medicinal chemists to use in their drug designs. Carboranes are a class of organometallic compounds containing carbon (C), boron (B), and hydrogen (H) and are the most widely studied boron compounds in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, other boron-based compounds are of great interest, such as dodecaborate anions, metallacarboranes and metallaboranes. The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. However, the improvement in the already existing (BPA and/or BSH) localized delivery agents or new tumor-targeted compounds are required before realizing the full clinical potential of BNCT.
Boron neutron capture therapy, or BNCT, is a two-part therapy that enhances the effect of radiation on cancer cells while minimizing the effect on nearby healthy cells.. Inadvertant damage to non-cancerous tissue is a major side effect of conventional radiation therapies, especially in the treatment of brain tumors. Conventional radiation therapy also requires several bouts of treatment, an inconvenience for many patients.. BNCT avoids these pitfalls by using radiation from BNLs medical reactor and a drug containing the element boron. Called BPA for boronophenylalanine, the drug is injected into the patient and travels through the bloodstream, concentrating preferentially in tumor tissue.. By itself BPA is harmless, but when exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor, the boron atoms capture neutrons, creating secondary effects that kill cells in the immediate vicinity.. Clinical trials of BNCT have been under way at BNL since 1994. Other locations in the U.S. are conducting related ...
Psimei, a recently launched biotechnology company in Middlesex, England, has acquired the license to commercialize the new boron compounds from Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), the organization that manages Brookhaven for the U.S. Department of Energy. BSA holds U.S. patents and U.S. patent applications covering these compounds and has filed international patent applications, which are pending.. Brookhaven researchers recently performed clinical trials to determine the safety and toxicity limits of an experimental therapy known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) when used with a boronated amino acid called BPA in patients with an incurable brain cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme. In these trials, BNCT was no more effective than conventional therapies in slowing the recurrence of brain tumors.. Compared to BPA, the new boron compounds are expected to deliver higher concentrations of boron to certain tumors than to normal surrounding tissues within the neutron-irradiated regions, ...
Department of Life Science and Technology home page - Research video: Fighting cancer with slime chemistry and BNCT - Department of Life Science and Technology, School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology.Expectations are growing for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a new cancer treatment, with few ...
For years, radiotherapy has been an essential mode of noninvasive cancer therapy and advancements have led to life saving treatments for patients. In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction of cancerous cells. BNCT is based on nuclear capture and fission reactions when nonradioactive 10B is irradiated with neutrons to yield excited 11B* which decays into high energy alpha particles and 7Li nuclei. Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron beams (5-9 µm) destroys nearby cells leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact.. The development of carrier systems that deliver sufficient amounts of boron to carry out effective destruction of all vicinal tumour cells has been a significant area of BNCT research for many years. A recent breakthrough made by Professors Atsushi Ikeda of Hiroshima University, Takeshi Nagasaki of Osaka City ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a technique in which p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is transferred to cancer cells, and the boron in it undergoes nuclear fission reaction upon irradiation of ther
Combined Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Egg Phosphatidylchloline Liposomes Loaded with a Carboranyl Compound Intended for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ...
Boron neutron capture therapy, a local radiation therapy, may give cancer patients tumour-free time and relief from symptoms when other known and effective treatment methods have been exhausted.
International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy. ISNCT promotes widespread interest on neutron capture therapy and related forms of cancer management.. ...
International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy. ISNCT promotes widespread interest on neutron capture therapy and related forms of cancer management.. ...
The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center (MURR) is home to a tank-type nuclear research reactor that serves the University of Missouris Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute (NSEI) in Columbia. As of March 2012[update], the MURR is the highest power university research reactor in the U.S. at 10 megawatt thermal output. The fuel is highly enriched uranium. In 1959, University President Elmer Ellis proposed a research reactor, understanding that the many fields of research to benefit from nuclear science are a part of the University of Missouris educational responsibilities to our youth and to all our citizens. The MURR began operation October 13, 1966 about one mile (1.6 km) southwest of the universitys main campus and the citys main business district. The reactor building was designed by Cornelius L.T. Gabler and Associates of Detroit, Michigan.The architectural style is mid-century modern. The supplier of construction services was General Electric. In 1970, MURR scientist ...
Maleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapyMaleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapy ...
This Safety Guide provides practical guidance and recommendations on ageing management for the safety related systems, structures and components of research reactors on the basis of current international good practices. It is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors, and by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. The Safety Guide focuses on managing the physical ageing of systems, structures and components important to safety, and also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence.. ...
We have measured the -ray energy spectrum from the thermal neutron capture, Gd, on an enriched Gd target (GdO) in the energy range from 0.11 MeV up to about 8 MeV. The target was placed inside the germanium spectrometer of the ANNRI detector at J-PARC and exposed to a neutron beam from the Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS). Radioactive sources (Co, Cs, and Eu) and the Cl(,) reaction were used to determine the spectrometers detection efficiency for rays at energies from 0.3 to 8.5 MeV. Using a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector and based on our data, we have developed a model to describe the -ray spectrum from the thermal Gd(,) reaction. While we include the strength information of 15 prominent peaks above 5 MeV and associated peaks below 1.6 MeV from our data directly into the model, we rely on the theoretical inputs of nuclear level density and the photon strength function of Gd to describe the continuum -ray spectrum from the Gd(,) reaction. Our model combines these two ...
Sjuvarsson E, Damaraju VL, Mowles D, Sawyer MB, Tiwari R, Agarwal HK, Khalil A, Hasabelnaby S, Goudah A, Nakkula RJ, Barth RF, Cass CE, Eriksson S, Tjarks W. Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Nov;347(2):388-97 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymyxin B agonist capture therapy for intrauterine inflammation. T2 - proof-of-principle in a fetal ovine model. AU - Saito, Masatoshi. AU - Payne, Matthew S. AU - Miura, Yuichiro. AU - Ireland, Demelza J. AU - Stock, Sarah. AU - Kallapur, Suhas G. AU - Kannan, Paranthaman S. AU - Newnham, John P. AU - Kramer, Boris W. AU - Jobe, Alan H. AU - Keelan, Jeffrey A. AU - Kemp, Matthew W. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - Intrauterine infection is a leading cause of preterm birth (PTB), most notably in deliveries occurring before 32 weeks gestation. Preterm infants exposed to intrauterine inflammation are more likely to have a host of neurological, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and visual pathologies. Preventing preterm delivery and protecting the fetus from injury is thus likely to require treatment of both intrauterine infection and inflammation. Polymyxin B (PMXB) is a cationic peptide antibiotic that binds Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and prevents inflammatory ...
With the removal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel from Nigerias research reactor earlier this month, all 11 operational research reactors in Africa are now running on low enriched uranium (LEU).
The exact role of boron in humans is not known although its supplementation causes several important metabolic and inflammatory changes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an association between blood boron level and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects. A total number of 80 subjects, categorized into four groups based on their body mass index as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese, were enrolled in this study. Age, sex, body mass index, and blood boron levels were recorded for each subject. Although the distribution of female and male subjects and blood boron levels were similar between groups, the mean age of normal subjects was significantly lower than the others (p = 0.002). There was a significant relationship between age and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject (beta = 0.24; p = 0.003). In addition, between blood boron levels and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, a significant ...
|p|Boronic acids and their esters are highly considered compounds for the design of new drugs and drug delivery devices, particularly as boron-carriers suitable for neutron capture therapy. However, these compounds are only marginally stable in water. Hydrolysis of some phenylboronic pinacol esters is described here. The kinetics is dependent on the substituents in the aromatic ring. Also the pH strongly influences the rate of the reaction, which is considerably accelerated at physiological pH. Therefore, care must be taken when considering these boronic pinacol esters for pharmacological purposes. |inline-formula||alternatives| [...] |/alternatives||/inline-formula||/p|
Building new research reactors takes years and is costly.. The refurbishment and restart of the Mark-II TRIGA research reactor that is currently lying dormant in Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is an opportunity that could be leveraged in the near future to begin to remedy this situation, where there are no operating research reactors in central and east Africa, nor in any French speaking Sub-Saharan African country.. The first nuclear research reactor in Africa was built in the Belgian Congo in 1958. It was a 50kW TRIGA reactor supplied by General Atomic (USA), named TRICO-I.. In the 1960s, in the independent Republic of the Congo, TRICO-I was safely operated to provide research and training in the nuclear sciences, as well as radioisotope applications in agriculture, biology and medicine.. TRICO-I was permanently shut down in 1970, and was replaced in 1972 by TRICO-II, another TRIGA research reactor, with a higher power capacity of 1000kW and located at the Centre for Nuclear ...
Jülich, 17 December 2019 - Three neutron science research reactors in Europe have ceased operations in 2019. The League of advanced European Neutron Sources, LENS, and the European Neutron Scattering Association, ENSA, warn of a
EXCURS-3-RR is a kinetic computer code for simulating reactivity and loss of flow accidents in MTR research reactors and in sodium cooled fast reactors. EXCURS-3-RR is a new version of the EXCURS-3 code. It is based on a coupling of neutron point kinetics and thermal hydraulics equations, with adjusted reactivity feedbacks. The thermohydraulics reactor behavior is determined by solving the one-dimensional heat conduction equation, with forced heat convection boundary condition. The calculations are restricted to a single equivalent unit cell which consists of fuel, clad and coolant ...
Nowadays, JSC SSC RIAR operates the majority of Russias high-flux research reactors: MIR, SM, BOR-60, VK-50, RBT-6 and RBT-10/2. RIARs reactors provide a full range of capabilities to test fuel and materials of all types of existing power reactors as well as advanced and innovative ones: water-cooled thermal reactors, including those with boiling and pressurized water, gas-cooled, fast and other types of reactors.. All the above reactors have the state, characteristics and operating parameters comparable with the best worlds ones. Nowadays, they are operated at the design parameters and with a capacity factor achieving 0.7. ...
The Jules Horowitz research Reactor (JHR), a project conducted by the CEA Nuclear Energy Division, is an answer to a key technological and scientific challenge: testing fuel and material behaviour under irradiation in support of current and future nuclear reactors.
This report describes technical modifications implemented by INVAP to improve the safety of the Research Reactors the company designs and builds.
Two sources contribute essentially to the presence of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment: (i) release from nuclear materials with a major fraction derived from the nuclear bomb testing period during the period 1950-1963 and (ii) emissions from the nuclear industry, such as waste waters from U-mine tailing or nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This chapter focuses mainly on the major source responsible for global surface contamination, that is, radioisotope aerosol deposition after release into the atmosphere. The atmospheric emissions were caused mainly via surface atomic bomb tests and reactor accidents, with the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe as the most important contribution. In contrast with most fission products, almost all actinides (which are produced via neutron capture reactions) are rather long lived and can be measured in environmental samples with high precision. Some of the actinides (i.e., U, Pu, Cm) consist of various isotopes (e.g.,238,239,240,241Pu) and hence can be ...
The energy deposition in the nucleus of cells exposed to the 10B(n, alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction has been calculated and compared to the measured biological effect of this reaction. It was found that a considerable distribution of hit sizes to the nucleus occurs. The comparison of hit size fre …
A neutron-capture experiment on {sup nat}Cd has been carried out at DANCE. Multiple-fold coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra have been collected from J=0, 1 resonances in {sup 111}Cd and {sup 113}Cd. The cascades ending at the ground state can be described by the SLO model while the cascades ending at the 2+ states are better reproduced by the mixed SLO+KMF model. ...
Foreword This Operational Research Reactor Data Base is a specific output of the computerised IAEA Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB), jointly managed by the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences (NAPC) and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology (NEFW). The complete IAEA RRDB contains the information on both operational, shutdown and decommissioned research reactors. It is prepared from the data provided by research reactor administrators of the IAEA Member States through annual questionnaires. While every attempt is made to keep the RRDB current, the IAEA makes no warranties, either express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability of the information. Please inform the Project Officer of any updates or corrections needed. This database contains only the information related to the operational, temporary shutdown or under construction/planned research reactor facilities and classifies them into three categories according to. ...
The 10th International Symposium on Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics covers several broad areas of theoretical and experimental nuclear science. This is the 10th in a series of conferences that alternates between the US and Europe and takes place every three years. Although originally focused on low-energy neutron capture reactions, the conference has expanded to include many more areas of current interest to the nuclear science community. The conference addresses the major areas of nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear data, fundamental physics, capture reactions and applications of nuclear science.Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics: 10th International Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 30 August - 3 September 1999 (AIP Conference Proceedings), 2000 was published 2000 under ISBN 9781563969522 and ISBN 1563969521. [read more] ...
Tajikistans Academy of Sciences has started to implement the governmental programme to refurbish and restart the Argus-FTI research reactor, Academy President Farkhod Rahimi said on 14 January.Argus is a 20MW homogeneous molten salt reactor...
This interregional training course on the Technical and Administrative Preparations Required for Shipment of Research Reactor Spent Fuel to its Country of Origin was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with the Government of the United States through Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the course was to provide participants with the technical, organizational and administrative information needed to prepare irradiated research reactor fuel for shipment to its country of origin.. The course was open to 40 participants from IAEA member States in all geographical regions. Priority was given to candidates from developing countries which possess spent research reactor fuel and which may be interested in its potential return to the country origin.. The course was held in January 1997, shortly after the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Policy was initiated by the United States on May 13, 1997. Under this Policy, the U.S. will accept ...
Traditional proppant placement evaluation in hydraulically induced fractures utilizes detection of radioactive tracers pumped downhole with the frac?? slurry. Although this technique has proven useful, it involves environmental, safety, and regulatory concerns/issues. The fracture height determination method described in this paper eliminates downhole placement of radioactive materials. A high thermal neutron capture compound (HTNCC) is inseparably incorporated into each ceramic proppant (CEP) grain during manufacturing in sufficiently low concentration that it does not affect mechanical strength, conductivity, durability, or density of the particles. The proppant is detected using standard compensated neutron logging tools (CNT) and/or pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logging tools, with detection based on the high thermal neutron absorptive properties of the compound relative to downhole constituents. Since the HTNCC is placed permanently in the proppant, logging for proppant detection can occur ...
must be determined from other dating methods. Even then, the scatter of the data points for the isochron is usually significant, perhaps hinting that the linear plot more closely models a mixing line than an isochron.. Rare-earth dating is plagued by the same questionable four assumptions as the K-Ar, Ar-Ar, and Rb-Sr dating methods,3 and the rocks they supposedly date continue to exhibit behavior that is just as consistent with a mixing line as an isochron line. Half-lives, which figure prominently in date calculations for the REEs, have a high degree of uncertainty, and the methods for measuring the primordial concentration ratios exhibit circular reasoning.. Another assumption that is seldom mentioned is the issue of continuing cosmogenic production of both parent and daughter isotopes in all these aforementioned dating methods. For example, 142Nd is continually produced via the alpha decay of 150Gd, and it in turn continually produces 143Nd via neutron capture reactions from solar radiation. ...
The s-process or slow-neutron-capture-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs at relatively low neutron density and intermediate temperature conditions in stars. Under these conditions heavier nuclei are created by neutron capture, increasing the atomic weight of the nucleus by one. A neutron in the new nucleus decays by beta-minus decay to a proton, creating a nucleus of higher atomic number. The rate of neutron capture by atomic nuclei is slow relative to the rate of radioactive beta-minus decay, hence the name. This process produces stable isotopes by moving along the valley of beta-decay stable isobars in the chart of isotopes. The S-process produces approximately half of the isotopes of the elements heavier than iron, and therefore plays an important role in the galactic chemical evolution. The elements heavier than iron with origins in large stars are typically those produced by the s-process, which is characterized by slow neutron diffusion and capture over long periods in such ...
Masahiko Utsuro is professor emeritus at Kyoto University and currently continues his research activities at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Japan. He spent most of his career working in the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University, and gave lectures and graduate courses in neutron science for more than 20 years both at Kyoto and Osaka University. He devoted most of his professional life to neutron optics research as the head professor for neutron science at the Research Reactor Institute. Professor Utsuro has authored over 200 scientific publications and has also contributed to book publications. He is a member of the Physical Society of Japan and of the Japanese Society for Neutron Science ...
In this paper, we investigate the effect of heterogeneous boron concentration and coolant density distribution on nodal macroscopic cross sections, which could potentially arise in an Anticipated Transient Without Control rods of a boiling water reactor. All calculations are made with the 2-D transport code PHOENIX4. Full core simulators, such as POLCA7, often have simple models for handling such heterogeneities with the basic requirement that conservative results are obtained simulating such core conditions. We have found that this is not always the case and that the errors can potentially be quite high.
Due to the beta (β−) decay of mononeutron and extreme instability of aforementioned heavier isotopes, neutron matter is not expected to be stable under ordinary pressures. Free neutrons decay with a half-life of 10 minutes and 11 seconds. While this lifetime is long enough to permit the study of neutroniums chemical properties, there are serious practical problems. Having no charge or electrons, neutronium would not interact with ordinary low-energy photons (light) and would feel no electrostatic forces, so it would diffuse into the walls of most containers made of ordinary matter. Certain materials are able to resist diffusion or absorption of ultracold neutrons due to nuclear-quantum effects, specifically reflection caused by the strong interaction. In the presence of other elements, low energy (thermal) neutrons readily undergo neutron capture to form heavier (and often radioactive) isotope of the element. Neutronium is left off most periodic tables. Neutron matter at standard pressure ...
Experimental fuel rods were tested in the PV-2 loop facility of the MIR reactor under conditions close to operation of full-size fuel rods in a PWR core. In the tests, the external condition of the...
Proposed Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, Sydney, Australia. MAPW policy statement adopted February 2002. The Medical Association for Prevention of War (MAPW) opposes the construction of a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. MAPW supports the Recommendations of the Senate Inquiry (Chapter 11 - May 2001) for an independent public inquiry into the risks, benefits and desirability of a new reactor, and into alternative scientific projects that represent better value for money (over $300 million) and are less hazardous.. MAPW acknowledges the importance of satisfactory isotope supply for medical and industrial purposes, and recommends that if an independent public assessment were to favour a replacement reactor, the proponents be directed to site it well away from substantial populations centres, to obviate the need for large-scale emergency evacuation and potassium iodide distribution contingencies in the event of significant radionuclide ... Proposed Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, Sydney, Australia. MAPW policy statement adopted February 2002. The Medical Association for Prevention of War (MAPW) opposes the construction of a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. MAPW supports the Recommendations of the Senate Inquiry (Chapter 11 - May 2001) for an independent public inquiry into the risks, benefits and desirability of a new reactor, and into alternative scientific projects that represent better value for money (over$300 million) and are less hazardous.. MAPW acknowledges the importance of satisfactory isotope supply for medical and industrial purposes, and recommends that if an independent public assessment were to favour a replacement reactor, the proponents be directed to site it well away from substantial populations centres, to obviate the need for large-scale emergency evacuation and potassium iodide distribution contingencies in the event of significant radionuclide ...
An informative technical tour of the RPI research reactor, located at Instituto Tecnol gico e Nuclear (ITN), is planned for Friday, October 15, 2010. ITN is a state-sponsored laboratory dedicated to development of nuclear science and technology and provides radioisotopes for use in Portugal. The Laboratory is located at Sacavem just outside of Lisbon less than thirty minutes from the SANA Lisboa Hotel. The RPI is a US-supplied research reactor that was converted from HEU to LEU fuel in 2007. The technical tour will also include two accelerator facilities located in the Physics Department at ITN. Bus transportation has been arranged to take tour participants from the SANA Lisboa Hotel at 9:00 a.m. to ITN. Following the tour, participants will be returned to the hotel by around 12 noon. The planned return route passes the Lisbon airport, and participants can request to be let out at the terminal just before noon. Please sign-up for the tour during on-line registration or at the RERTR-2010 ...
Two small neutron sources of /sup 252/Cf and /sup 241/Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low-intensity neutron and gam
The β-delayed neutron emission probability, Pn, of very neutron-rich nuclei allows us to achieve a better understanding of the nuclear structure above the neutron separation energy, Sn. The emission of neutrons can become the dominant decay process in neutron-rich astrophysical phenomena such as the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). There are around 600 accessible isotopes for which β-delayed one-neutron emission (β1n) is energetically allowed, but the branching ratio has only been determined for about one third of them. β1n decays have been experimentally measured up to the mass A ∼ 150, plus a single measurement of 210Tl. Concerning two-neutron emitters (β2n), ∼ 300 isotopes are accessible and only 24 have been measured so far up to the mass A = 100. In this contribution, we report recent experiments which allowed the measurement of β1n emitters for masses beyond A , 200 and N , 126 and identified the heaviest β2n emitter measured so far, 136Sb ...
Diabetes is an epidemic in developed nations. Glucokinase (GK) is vital for glocose sensing, and is directly implicated in particular forms of diabetes. Studying pancreatic cells with altered GK activity would facilitate studies, but current methods for altering proteomes are lacking. Porous phospholipid nanoshells (PPNs) have traditionally been used as platforms for biologically derived nanosensors, though their biocompatibility and protease resistance well suits them as enzyme delivery agents. GK kinetics were investigated with an enzyme coupled reaction to determine the effect of encapsulation. It was determined that encapsulation increased the Hill coefficient by 5.8% and the S(0.5) by 1.8%. This small deviation may not be significant in physiological conditions. To observe a recovered function in cell lines upon reintroducing GK, constitutively expressed GK must first be knocked down with siRNA. As initial work toward an siRNA knockdown, immunoblotting conditions were optimized resulting in ...
Neutron capture cross sections of the 90,91,92,94,96Zr have been measured over the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV at the spallation neutron facility n TOF at CERN in 2003. The innovative features of the neutron beam, in particular the high instantaneous flux, the high energy resolution and low background, together with improvements of the neutron sensitivity of the capture detectors make this facility unique for neutron-induced reaction cross section measurements with much improved accuracy. The preliminary results of the Zr measurements show capture resonance strengths generally smaller than in previous measurements ...
To exploit the potential applications of thermal neutron detection, yttrium aluminum garnet co-doped with 1 mol% Ce3+ and 5 mol% Li+ was vacuum sintered into a transparent ceramic through solid-state reaction. The transmittance of a 2 mm thick sample was measured to be as high as 80.3% in the visible range and the microstructural characterization indicated that Li ions could also act as a sintering aid. Excitation and emission spectra data further supported the assumption that the Li ions have substituted into the garnet lattice. Excitation and emission spectra data of the prepared ceramic were also obtained for use in the characterization of optical properties. ...
The heavy isotope 15 N was first discovered by S. M. Naudé in 1929, soon after heavy isotopes of the neighbouring elements oxygen and carbon were discovered. [26] It presents one of the lowest thermal neutron capture cross-sections of all
As was previously emphasized, our general strategy in shielding -- for both neutrons and gamma rays -- is to slow down high energy particles and then capture them when they are slow. For gamma rays, this strategy results in shields consisting of the heavy nuclides, which provide higher interaction coefficients for both Compton scattering (which is dependent on electron density) and photoelectric absorption interaction coefficients. For neutrons, we generally combine low-mass isotopes (for efficient elastic scattering energy loss) with one of the high absorption isotopes.. Since many shielding designs have to stop BOTH gamma rays and neutrons, our shields tend to have a mixture of extremely high-Z materials (e.g., lead to stop gamma rays) and doped low-Z materials (e.g., borated water or polyethylene) to stop neutrons. One important consideration in the placement of these materials is the fact that neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture generally is accompanied by the production of ...
I am interested in studying and understanding the structure of heavy atomic nuclei (mass 80), and in particular, nuclei with many more neutrons than stable isotopes. Theoretical models predict that the shell structure that characterizes stable nuclei may be quenched in very neutron-rich nuclei. Some of these neutron-rich nuclei also lie along the path that limits the rapid neutron capture process of nucleosynthesis. The studies of the properties of unstable nuclei are performed at radioactive and stable beam accelerator facilities in North America. The current focus is on determining the single-neutron excitations of neutron-rich N=50 and N=82 nuclei, and probing the shell structure far from stability. Earlier work involved studying highly elongated, superdeformed, excitations in heavy nuclei, the properties of nuclei near the proton drip line, and the role of dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries in understanding collective excitations in nuclei. ...
Yet another reason why the above claims are taken with a huge grain of salt is that the so-called Oklo bounds imply a slower variation of $\alpha$. 2 billion years ago, when the Earth was young and beautiful, the uranium-235 isotope was five times more abundant than today. Thanks to that fact and some other lucky coincidences, near the river Oklo in todays Gabon nature could create a fully organic nuclear reactor which operated for 100 million years. The uranium fission produced many rare isotopes, and the particular ratio of Samarium-149 to Samarium-147 can be used to constrain variation of the fundamental constants. The point is that the cross-section for the neutron capture on Samarium 149 is accidentally enhanced by a presence of resonance just 0.1 eV above the threshold. From the fact that the position of this resonance could not migrate by more than 0.1 eV one can set the bound $\Delta \alpha/\alpha \sim 10^{-7}$ (assuming that only the electromagnetic constant is varied) corresponding to ...
For almost three decades, the origin of [sup 180m]Ta, the rarest stable isotope in nature and the only one which is stable in the isomeric state, remained an intriguing astrophysical puzzle. This case is particularly appealing since it may be used to test several proposed production mechanisms. So far, the [sup 180m]Ta abundances claimed by the various models are limited by uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics data. This contribution reports on first attempts to determine the stellar (n,Î³)-rates of [sup 179]Ta and [sup 180m]Ta experimentally. These results represent a significant improvement with respect to a possible production of [sup 180m]Ta via neutron capture nucleosynthesis during He-burning in Red Giant stars. In both experiments, present techniques had to be pushed to their limits, be it for the short half-life of [sup 179]Ta or for the very low enrichment of the available [sup 180m]Ta sample. Â© 2000 American Institute of Physics ...
The Nuclear Chemistry Team engages in advanced studies of nuclear fission, neutron capture, and nuclear isomers, along with the development of radiochemical diagnostics for inertial confined fusion.
The efficacy of a liposomal formulation for intracerebral delivery of borocaptate (BSH) to brain tumor cells has been investigated using cell culture to study BSH uptake and persistence and using tumor-bearing rats to determine BSH distribution in the brain. During a 16-hr incubation, cellular uptake of BSH solution or BSH liposomal formulation was similar. However, the cellular persistence of BSH greatly increased when BSH was present in liposome. The differences in cellular persistence for BSH solution and BSH-loaded liposomes were significant both in 12-hr and 24-hr incubation experiments (p | 0.05 and p | 0.01, respectively). For the studies involving tumor-bearing rats, BSH level in tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissue at 2 hr and 6 hr after intracerebral injection of BSH-loaded liposomes (p | 0.01). Our study indicated that the liposomal formulation enhanced cellular persistence of BSH in tumor cells and therefore favored the boron accumulation in the cells. With
Research reactor BR2 is to undergo a thorough maintenance and modernisation operation until mid-2016. To guarantee a safe and efficient operation, various systems and components will be replaced as a precaution. Like any other major nuclear infrastructure in Belgium, reactor BR2 is subject to decennial safety assessments. In preparation for the upcoming assessment, we started a systematic screening of the installation three years ago. During this screening, a risk analysis of all structures, systems and components of the BR2 was carried out, with particular attention to the impact of ageing on safety. In addition, the impact of ageing on the availability and efficiency of BR2 was also screened. In order to be able to use the reactor safely and efficiently in the coming period of 10 years, a preventive replacement of the beryllium matrix was required (see illustration). This matrix forms the heart of the reactor, and is composed of 79 channels, in which nuclear fuel elements, control rods and ...
Global PET Imaging LLC would utilize the expertise of the MU Research Reactor (MURR®) and nuclear medicine scientists to produce active ingredient for diagnostic drug. Following a heart attack, many patients consult with their doctors about the necessity of heart bypass surgery. However, the active ingredient for a test that helps determine the need for surgery could be in short supply in the near future. Now, an agreement signed by officials from the University of Missouri and Global PET Imaging LLC (GPI) could lead to a solution to that shortage.. In order to determine the condition of the heart and blood flow after a heart attack, doctors usually prescribe two tests or scans of the heart and surrounding area. One of those scans uses a radioisotope known as Rubidium-82, but the supply of the isotope is limited because few facilities have the ability to make it. Today, officials from MU and GPI announced the signing of a Letter of Intent to create a processing facility for this isotope near ...
Moly-99, as its called, is created in just six government-owned nuclear research reactors - none in North America - raising concerns about the reliability of the supply.
Rough surfaces have been used as a tool to enhance heat transfer by increasing the level of turbulence mixing in the flow. In numerically simulating such flows. The main ..
Emisphere Technologies developed a more efficient delivery agent for heparin using its proprietary EMISPHERE® drug delivery system. The delivery agent is known
G Praveen et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 095102 doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/9/095102 Blood protein ferries drug -http://www.nature.com/nindia/2012/120309/full/nindi…