In forensic investigations, human biological traces have great potential to serve as strong evidence in placing a suspect at the scene of a crime. In cases where activities leading to the deposition of an individuals biological materials are disputed, the identification of body fluids and tissues may be crucial. Current catalytic, enzymatic and immunological techniques used to identify body fluids present numerous limitations such as lack of sensitivity and specificity. Hence, forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting, novel methods to identify and analyse body fluids and aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes. Recently, DNA methylation-based markers have emerged as a reliable tool for identification of body fluids. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) that differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. tDMRs may be unmethylated in particular body fluids/tissues ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Method for the determination of small amounts of bilirubin in liquor amnii and other body fluids. by Gary Wayne Pennington et al.
These data demonstrate the potential utility of PCR in confirming the clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease as well as providing insight into the pathogenesis of various stages of this disorder.
Exosomes are 40-100 nm sized vesicles released from cells when multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. These vesicles take part in cell-to-cell communication by binding and signalling through membrane receptors on cells or by transferring proteins, RNA, and lipids into the cells. Exosomal RNA in body
Clinical Chemistry is a subdivision of Biochemistry, which addresses the analytical testing of human body fluids in health and disease. The results of clinical chemistry tests can be used to assist the physician in making a diagnosis, monitoring a therapeutic regimen, determining a prognosis, and even (in some cases) as evidence in forensic cases. In this issue, Adam Shirley and co-authors report on the making of a fluorescent assay to measure the concentration of Immunoglobulin E in human body fluids. They offer their insights on how this assay might be incorporated into a working hospital clinical lab. In another article, Tammy Shaw and co-authors review the hormones that regulate glucose metabolism and a variety of pathologies, which affect the blood glucose levels. An algorithm for diagnosing these pathologies is given. In still another article, Erika Harmon Pratte and her co-authors describe the biochemistry and mechanisms of toxicity for four poisons that were popularly used to assassinate ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
The present study investigated the effect of ingested fluid composition on the experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Forty subjects, susceptible to ETAP, completed 4 treadmill exercise trials: a no-fluid trial and flavored water (FW, no carbohydrate, osmolality = 48 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), sports drink (SD, freshly mixed Gatorade®, 6% total carbohydrate, 295 mosmol/L, pH = 3.3), and reconstituted fruit juice (FJ, BERRI® orange, 10.4% total carbohydrate, 489 mosmol/L, pH = 3.2) trials. Measures of the experience of ETAP and gastrointestinal disturbances, particularly bloating, were quantified. The FJ was significantly (p , .01) more provocative of both ETAP and bloating than all other trials. There was no difference among the no-fluid, FW, and SD in the severity of ETAP experienced, although the difference between the no-fluid and SD approached significance at the .05 level (p = .056). There was a significant relationship between both the mean (r = 0.40, p , .01) and peak ...
Diagnosis of tuberculosis from different body fluids remains challenging due to various limitations of the conventional and molecular methods. We studied the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) assay to diagnose tubercular infection in cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid and pleural fluid. Fifty three patients with tubercular meningitis, peritonitis and pleuritis were enrolled in this study on the basis of clinical, radiological, cytological, biochemical and somewhere bacteriological evidences. Cases positive by AFB smear, culture or PCR were considered as confirmed TB and other as probable TB cases. Another 28 non-TB cases were included as control. In 53 suspected TB cases ADA was found positive in highest 42 (79.2%) cases, whereas smear and/ culture in 10 (18.7%) and PCR in 18 (33.9%) cases. ADA assay revealed 100% positivity in confirmed TB cases and 14.3% in non TB cases. The sensitivity and specificity of ADA was found 79% and 86% respectively when the cut off value was used ≥ 10 IU/L for CSF and
SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING AND DECONTAMINATION AGAINST HIV-1 AND HEPATITIS B VIRUS ON SURFACE/OBJECTS SOILED WITH BLOOD/BODY FLUIDS: * PERSONAL PROTECTION: When handling items soiled with blood or body fluids, use disposable latex gloves, gowns, masks or eye coverings. * CLEANING PROCEDURES: Blood and other body fluids must be thoroughly cleaned from surfaces and objects before application of this product. * CONTACT TIME: Allow surface/object to remain wet for 30 seconds for HIV and Hepatitis B. Far al other organisms, surfaces must remain wet for 10 minutes. * DISPOSAL OF INFECTIOUS MATERIALS: Blood and other body fluids should be autoclaved and disposed of according to local regulations for infectious waste disposal. For use on hard non-porous surfaces located in: * Ambulances * Blood Banks * Cafeterias * Clinics * Colleges * Day Care Centers * Dental Offices * Health Clubs * Hospitals * Hotel/Motel * Laboratories * Millitary Installations * Nurseries * Nursing Homes * Pharmacies * ...
Sepsis diagnostic test - The invention relates to a method for the extracorporeal qualitative or semi-quantitative determination of the amount of indicators for the systemic inflammatory response system (SIRS) or sepsis in the blood, blood serum, blood plasma, other body fluids or lavages or their constituents of human or animal subjects. In order to provide a test which is better than that of the prior art, with which the presence and/or the severity of SIRS or sepsis can be rapidly, economically, reliably and reproducibly determined in a sample, such as blood serum of a patient. To this end, the inventive method has the following steps in which: a cell line is prepared in a culture; in at least one first preparation, cells of the cell line are brought into contact with blood, blood serum or blood plasma, other body fluids or lavages or their constituents of a human or animal subject to be examined, and into contact with a reagent that reacts to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and enters ...
Exposures to blood and other body fluids occur across a wide variety of occupations. Health care workers, emergency response and public safety personnel, and other workers can be exposed to blood through needlestick and other sharps injuries, mucous membrane, and skin exposures. The pathogens of primary concern are the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Workers and employers should take advantage of available engineering controls and work practices to prevent exposure to blood and other body fluids.. ...
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A type 2 excludes note represents not included here. A type 2 excludes note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition it is excluded from but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When a type 2 excludes note appears under a code it is acceptable to use both the code (R83-R89) and the excluded code together ...
Supplier: USBiological • Format: Supplied as a lyophilized powder. No preservative added. Reconstitute with 500ul sterile ddH2O, mix gently. Allow to ...
Special Instructions for Cleaning and Decontamination Against HIV on Surfaces/ Objects Soiled with Blood/Body Fluids on precleaned environmental surfaces/objects previously soiled with blood/body fluids in health care settings (or other settings in which there is an expected likelihood of soiling of inanimate surfaces/objects with blood or body fluids, and in which the surfaces/objects likely to be soiled with blood or body fluids can be associated with the potential for transmission of HIV): Personal Protection: When handling items soiled with blood or body fluids, use appropriate barrier protection such as disposable latex gloves, gowns, masks or eye coverings. Cleaning Procedure: Blood and other body fluids must be thoroughly cleaned from surfaces and objects before application of this disinfectant. Contact Time: Spray surface to be treated 3-4 seconds, from a distance of 6-8 inches, until surface is wet. Allow spray to dry without wiping or allow spray to contact treated surface for a ...
The focus of this article is to review the recent advances in proteome analysis of human body fluids, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, and amniotic fluid, as well as its applications to human …
Universal Precautions are a set of guidelines which have been developed to protect workers who are exposed to blood and other body fluids. Healthcare workers work on the presumption that all blood and body fluids are in fact infectious, and follow the rules whenever in contact with them.. The precautions involve hand washing immediately there is contact, the routine wearing of protective clothing and gloves, following such infection control measures that are designed to place a barrier between potentially infectious blood or body fluids and employees, adherence to work practices, and procedures for the transport and handling of infectious materials.. Whether or not a patient/client is known to be infectious, anyone coming into contact with blood and bodily fluids should cover exposed cuts and abrasions, particularly on the hands and fingers, with waterproof dressings, and take care to prevent puncture wounds, cuts and abrasions from sharps. Such accidents should be treated immediately by ...
The following human body fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids ...
Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges. The core principle of fluid balance is that the amount of water lost from the body must equal the amount of water taken in; for example, in humans, the output (via respiration, perspiration, urination, defecation, and expectoration) must equal the input (via eating and drinking, or by parenteral intake). Euvolemia is the state of normal body fluid volume, including blood volume, interstitial fluid volume, and intracellular fluid volume; hypovolemia and hypervolemia are imbalances. Water is necessary for all life on Earth. Humans can survive for 4 to 6 weeks without food but only for a few days without water. Profuse sweating can increase the need for electrolyte replacement. Water-electrolyte imbalance produces ...
About AIDS. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) caused by the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) which attack the immune system of the human body. The disease was first recognized in the year 1981. It was first identified by the name of AIDS on 27th of July in the year 1982.. HIV infection can be easily transmitted from one person to the other if they have contacted ever directly through the mucous membrane, bodily fluid or blood. In the earlier period, there was a lot of social stigma for the people with HIV/AIDS. According to the estimate, it has been noted that around 33 million people have been infected with the HIV and 2 million people died because of it each year.. HIV is a virus which attacks the T-cells of the immune system and causes the disease known as AIDS. It is found in the human body fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk of the infected person which can be passed to others by a direct contact like blood transfusion, oral ...
3β,7α-Dihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one (1) (7α-OH-DHEA) and its 7β-hydroxy epimer 2 (7β-OH-DHEA) - 7α- and 7β-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone - were detected and quantified in three human body fluids: in blood serum, saliva and ejaculate. Specific radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been used. For the first time the data on changes of these dehydroepiandrosterone metabolites are reported for a representative group of healthy subjects of both sexes (172 females and 217 males) during the life span. The serum levels of both 7-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone epimers in serum and also in semen were in the low nanomolar range, while concentrations by one order of magnitude lower were found in saliva, but still within the detection limit. The results will serve as a basis for comparative studies of 7-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone levels under various pathophysiological conditions, with a particular respect to autoimmune disorders. Keywords: Steroids; Hormones; Metabolites; ...
This thesis provides results from affinity based studies where human body fluids were profiled to find markers for neurological diseases. Both proteins and autoantibodies were analysed using microarray technologies that can profile hundreds of analytes and hundreds of samples in parallel using small sample volumes. A central element in this work was to develop and apply new methods to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the fluid in direct contact with the brain. CSF contains proteins reflecting the physiological state of the central nervous system and therefore offers a unique insight into proteins associated to neurological disorders. As a complement to CSF, bloodderived samples such as serum and plasma, were also investigated as these represent potential sources of disease related proteins. The work presented here summarises the development of assay protocols to study protein and autoantibodies in CSF and blood using planar and bead-based microarrays.. In Paper I, an antibody-based ...
These secrete perspiration, the evaporation of which assists control human body temperature. Perspiration also incorporates little amounts of sodium chloride, cholesterol, aluminum, and urea; it Hence plays a task in regulating the composition of human body fluids. The dermis also is made up of most of the skins blood vessels and nerves, which includes sensory nerve endings that respond to contact, stress, heat, chilly, and soreness. The pores and skin hence also serves as a way organ that permits somebody to adjust to switching environmental ailments. Just one closing function from the skin may be article source the synthesis of vitamin D, a compound essential to development and servicing, specially of bone. Vitamin D is shaped from the action of sunlight on certain cholesterol compounds inside the dermis. Destruction on the pores and skin by deep or considerable burns can disrupt all of these capabilities, subjecting the victim to significant complications ...
The following information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 - April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.. Biomonitoring is the measurement of chemicals in human body fluids and tissues, such as blood, urine, breast milk, saliva, and hair. By obtaining measurements of pollutants in children, biomonitoring can be used to evaluate childrens exposure to environmental contaminants. Determining the levels of pollutants in women who may become pregnant, currently are pregnant, or currently are breastfeeding can be used to evaluate exposure to developing fetuses and infants.. The draft indicators for Americas Children and the Environment, Third Edition (ACE3) include biomonitoring indicators that were developed using data collected as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The ACE3 ...
In vitro diagnostics (IVD) are medical devices and accessories used to perform tests to detect diseases and infections by examining specimens of human body fluids such as urine, blood, tissues, stool, etc. It helps diagnose, and determine health condition in order to cure, treat or prevent from diseases or sequelae,...
a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and urine). Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol intoxication and poisoning. (b) Classification. Class II. ...
specificalBackground/Introduction: This Quantitative Sandwich ELISA kit is only for in vitro research use only, not for drug, household, therapeutic or diagnostic applications! This kit is intended to be used for determination the level of CDHE (hereafter termed this analyte) in undiluted original Human body fluids, tissue homogenates or feces samples. ...
Three indole alkaloids that possess differing degrees of psychotropic/psychedelic activity have been reported as endogenous substances in humans; N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-hydroxy-DMT (bufotenine, HDMT), and 5-methoxy-DMT (MDMT). We have undertaken a critical review of 69 published studies reporting the detection or detection and quantitation of these compounds in human body fluids ...
Description: Results of laboratory tests conducted to determine the presence or absence of a variety of abuse drugs such as opiates, alkaloids, barbiturates, amphetamines, and hypnotics in human body fluids of patients who voluntary participate in programs intended to terminate the use of abusive drugs.. Retention: 3 years. ...
Programmable DNA nanoswitches that bind to viral RNA in human body fluids may provide an inexpensive platform to rapidly detect a wide variety of emerging viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, according to a new study.
Urinalysis and Body Fluids CRg Unit 4 Synovial Fluid Synovial Fluid Composition and formation Secreted by cells of synovial membrane Very viscous, clear ultrafiltrate of plasma Contains Hyaluronic acid
Human blood, body fluids, and other body tissues are widely recognised as vehicles for the transmission of human disease. Most of the auricular blood passes into the ventricles during diastole and the process is known as diastasis. Pulmonary artery and pulmonary veins are an exception. Share Your PPT File. ACCUMULATION OF EXCESS BODY FLUIDS The amount of serous fluids found in the space between an organ and the membrane sac that encompasses the organ varies according to body site. All the information, content and live chat provided on the site is intended to be for informational purposes only, and not a substitute for professional or medical advice. This is called auricular circulation. They can grow almost everywhere in the body or under the skin. The intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment is the system that includes all fluid enclosed in cells by their plasma membranes. Lymph transports nutrients hormones and gases. Synovial Fluid Testing Extracellular fluid includes the following: It is ...
This chapter reviews the evidence on virus load in various body fluids and the findings are considered in relation to virus transmission. The value of anti-HIV antibodies in assessing HIV infection is discussed in this chapter. The transmission of HIV by genital fluids is more likely through virus-infected cells than free virus since cells can be present in higher numbers than free infectious virus in these body fluids. The risk of HIV transmission is increased with high levels of virus in the body fluids and the number of contacts an individual has with a body fluid. The receptive partner in sexual transmission is most at risk. In women, cells in the cervix or within the endometrium can be infected. In men and women, the infection site can involve bowel mucosal cells or lymphocytes and macrophages present in the rectum. The insertive partner may be infected by cells along the urethral canal or associated with the prepuce. Risk of HIV infection by blood depends on the level of infectious virus in this
Provided are electrokinetically-altered fluids (e.g., gas-enriched (e.g., oxygen-enriched) electrokinetic fluids) comprising an ionic aqueous solution of charge-stabilized oxygen-containing nanostructures in an amount sufficient to provide, upon contact with a cell, modulation of at least one of cellular membrane potential and cellular membrane conductivity. Further provided are the methods of making the electrokinetically-altered ionic aqueous fluid compositions. Particular aspects provide for regulating or modulating intracellular signal transduction associated by modulation of at least one of cellular membranes, membrane potential, membrane proteins such as membrane receptors, including but not limited to G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), and intercellular junctions (e.g., tight junctions, gap junctions, zona adherins and desmasomes). Other embodiments include particular methods of producing the electrokinetically-altered fluids. The electrokinetically-altered fluid compositions and methods
The inflammation, as the general reaction, of gastric mucosa seems to be the same. The role of inflammation in the development of different diseases was suggested by Hyppocrates (B.C. 460-377), who stated that the changes in the blood flow and other body fluids are caused by local irritations of organs („ubi stimulus, idi fluxus). The appearence of classical inflammation were given by Aulus Cornelius Celsus ( B.C. 25- A.C. 50 ) as „tumor,calor, dolor, rubor and Claudius Galenos (A.C. 129-200/201) gave the last basic parameter of the inflammation as „functio laesa to the previously mentinoned characteristic medical phenomena.These terminological questions were accepted by Wirchow in the 19th centrury, and many other famous researchers in our days ...
The Vis-NIR spectrum measured by the two InSitu Composition spectrometers is used for the analysis of fluid hydrocarbon composition, GOR, CO2, water content, and mud filtrate contamination.
It is believed that between people, Ebola disease spreads only by direct contact with the blood or other body fluids of a person who has developed symptoms of the disease. Body fluids that may contain Ebola viruses include saliva, mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine and semen. The WHO states that only people who are very sick are able to spread Ebola disease in saliva, and whole virus has not been reported to be transmitted through sweat. Most people spread the virus through blood, feces and vomit. Entry points for the virus include the nose, mouth, eyes, open wounds, cuts and abrasions. Ebola may be spread through large droplets; however, this is believed to occur only when a person is very sick. This contamination can happen if a person is splashed with droplets. Contact with surfaces or objects contaminated by the virus, particularly needles and syringes, may also transmit the infection. The virus is able to survive on objects for a few hours in a dried state, and can ...
NCERT Solutions for Class 11-science Biology CBSE, 18 Body Fluids And Circulation. All the solutions of Body Fluids And Circulation - Biology explained in detail by experts to help students prepare for their CBSE exams.
The organic chemicals that help cell membranes to conserve internal fluids are _____. hormones phospholipids amino acids proteins
To the Editors: Why students have misconceptions about the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health care settings is easy to understand (1). The short, tragic history of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is replete with underappreciation by the experts of the potential risks of transmission associated with various body fluids. The number of persons who developed AIDS after receiving a blood transfusion at the start of the epidemic is a case in point.. Granich and Mermin (1) criticize the misconception among medical students that HIV could be transmitted through aerosolization of body fluids. Just this past week ...
Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes affect how your body functions in many ways, including:The amount of water in your bodyThe acidity of your blood (pH)Your muscle functionOther important processes You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids...
DEAR DR. ROACH: My husband was hospitalized with congestive heart failure. He returned home, grew weaker, and after three days was diagnosed with severe dehydration and passed away the following day. How can that happen so quickly? Can medication be a factor? Please explain how the body organs are affected by severe dehydration.
The human body includes both organic minerals, e.g., hemoglobin (red blood cells) contain iron, many amino acids and proteins contain sulfur, as well as inorganic minerals, e.g., salt-sodium chloride-in the blood, lymphatic fluids, and many other body fluids, which includes metallic and non-metallic minerals.. Obviously, you would die without hemoglobin (organic iron) and salt (inorganic sodium, a metal/mineral). Additionally, the body can certainly use inorganic iron; see Fomon et al. [1995], Abrams et al. [1996], and Cook and Reddy [1995] for experimental verification.. However, table salt is 98% sodium chloride [an unnatural chemical form of salt that your body recognizes as something completely foreign] - no trace minerals, no natural balance. Ordinary table salt is a chemical as clean as Heroin or White Sugar. It almost always contain additives, like 0.01% of potassium-iodide, a chemical form of iodine (added to the salt to avoid iodine deficiency disease of the thyroid gland), sugar (added ...
Get accurate and quick report of Electrolytes Test in Thane.The blood and other body fluids have minerals that carry an electric charge. These are called as Electrolytes and perform many important functions in the body. The most common electrolytes that you may know already are: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Chloride. This test is primarily used to assess the acid-base balance.
Get accurate and quick report of Electrolytes Test in Panvel.The blood and other body fluids have minerals that carry an electric charge. These are called as Electrolytes and perform many important functions in the body. The most common electrolytes that you may know already are: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Chloride. This test is primarily used to assess the acid-base balance.
Press Release issued Mar 9, 2017: In-vitro diagnostics (IVD) are used to detect diseases, infections, and conditions and also monitor a persons state of health and therapeutic procedures by examining specimens derived from the human body such as tissue, blood, stools, urine and the other body fluids. The In-Vitro Diagnostics Market Global Briefing provides strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the global in-vitro diagnostics market.
DefinitionElectrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.Electrolytes affect how your body functions in many ways, including:
Electrolytes dont make your body run, but they do make it run smoothly. As our CEO Tim demonstrates, like a battery operating, these minerals in your blood and other body fluids stimulate voltages that carry electrical impulses - in the form of nerve impulses and muscle contractions - across your cells. This electric
You can get really complex tests here, but I would start simple and look for levels of SIgA and IgA first. These are really important antibodies, which the body produces to fight bacteria, viruses, allergens etc. You can do a GAM Test IgG, IgA, IgM (RG), which will show you the totals of the main antibodies.. Roughly:. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is found mainly in blood and lymph fluid. This is the first antibody the body makes when it fights a new infection so if this is high, you likely have an acute or developing issue.. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is found in the linings of the respiratory tract and digestive system as well as in saliva, tears and breast milk.. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most common antibody. Its in blood and other body fluids, and protects against bacterial and viral infections. This usually denotes a chronic issue or something thats been going on for a long time.. You can read much more about this here. Suffice to say, if the levels are low, your immunity could do with a ...
This study is designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of ROM PLUS- a rapid, point of care, qualitative immunochromatographic test for the detection (in vitro) of amniotic fluid in cervico-vaginal secretions of women with suspected rupture of membranes (ROM) during pregnancy. The ROM PLUS detects a specific Combo protein present in amniotic fluid of pregnant women in all trimesters of pregnancy. This specific protein combo is unique and found only in amniotic fluid, therefore can be used as a specific marker for the diagnosis of ROM. This biomarker is an isoform of a similar biomarkers called Amni-Sure and ActimProm and was recently approved by the FDA for clinical use. Like these protein markers ( AmniSure or ActimProm) which have been used to diagnose PROM, this particular protein isoform tested for ROM PLUS is in low concentration in other body fluids such as maternal blood, cord blood, urine and semen ...