Confidentiality about an athletes infection with a blood-borne pathogen is necessary to prevent exclusion of the athlete from sports because of inappropriate fear among others in the program. Except for the reporting required by law, the patient (and parent or guardian if the patient is a minor) must give informed consent for clinicians to share information about these medical conditions with a school or sports organization. Testing of athletes for these viral infections is not indicated. Infected athletes should be told that they have a very small risk of infecting other competitors. This risk, although unknown for any sport, is probably greatest in wrestling and boxing. Infected athletes can be encouraged not to participate in these activities or in others in which contamination of skin or mucous membranes with blood is relatively likely. This may also be protective for infected athletes themselves, reducing their possible exposure to blood-borne pathogens other than the one(s) with which ...
A hospitalized quiet with AIDS ended up noticeably upset and endeavored to expel the intravenous (IV) catheters in his arm. Amid the battle, an IV mixture line was pulled. An attendant at the scene recuperated the connector needle toward the finish of the IV line and was endeavoring to reinsert it when the patient kicked her arm, pushing the needle into her hand. The medical attendant who supported the needle stick damage tried negative for HIV that day, however she tried HIV positive a while later. This is by all account not the only case. Ordinary social insurance specialists are presented to unsafe and destructive blood-borne pathogens and are in danger of word related acquisitions of blood-borne ailments. Word related introduction to blood-borne pathogens among human services specialists incorporate percutaneous presentation i.e. presentation to needles and other sharp protests, and mucocutaneous introduction i.e. contact with in place or nonintact skin, the contact with mucous films. In the ...
Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel, Large, Front Zip, Storm Flap, Elastic Back, Wrists and Ankles, Denim Blue, 16 x 12 x 12.875 Three-layer fabric construction features a middle layer of microporus film that allows heat and sweat vapor to escape while protecting against dry particulates and liquid. Passes ASTM F1670/1671 testing for penetration of blood, body fluids and blood-borne pathogens. Denim Blue. |ul| |li| KLEENGUARD* A60 Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel |li| Large |li| Zipper Front; Storm Flap; Elastic Back, Wrists & Ankles |li| 24 Coveralls per Case |/ul|
Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel, Large, Front Zipper, Elastic Ankles and Wrists, Hood, Denim Blue, 16 x 12 x 17.125 Three-layer fabric construction features a middle layer of microporus film that allows heat and sweat vapor to escape while protecting against dry particulates and liquid. Passes ASTM F1670/1671 testing for penetration of blood, body fluids and blood-borne pathogens. Denim Blue. |ul| |li| KLEENGUARD* A60 Bloodborne Pathogen & Chemical Splash Protection Apparel |li| Large |li| Zipper Front; Storm Flap; Elastic Back, Wrists & Ankles; Hood |li| 24 Coveralls per Case |/ul|
Compare and contrast HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in terms of infectivity, risk to healthcare workers, and disease prevention ...
Scientific Reports, Oct 31, 2017 Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a blood-borne pathogen responsible for chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The mechanism of HBV entry ...
In their timely article, Mast and colleagues [1] stated that the only outbreak of hepatitis B in sports reported in the medical literature was that seen among sumo wrestlers in Japan in 1980. However, a much larger epidemic occurred among Swedish orienteers (track-finders) in the early 1960s [2]. In that epidemic, more than 600 infected competitors had clinical symptoms, and at least as many subclinical cases occurred. Some cases were also found among orienteers in Norway and Finland. Because no serologic test for hepatitis was available at that time, the orienteers hepatitis was initially considered a distinct entity and was even given a diagnosis number (070,01 hepatitis silvatica) in the official disease classification used in Scandinavia from 1969 to 1986. Serum samples were stored, and subsequent testing showed the pathogen to be the hepatitis B virus [3] ...
Objectives Not to bore you - avoid La-La Land Not to bore you - avoid La-La Land Fulfill OSHA requirements Fulfill OSHA requirements
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process ...
June McCreight began her career in the hospitality industry as a housekeeper in 1996. In the years since, she has risen through the ranks, learning maintenance, front office, sales and revenue management, property management and district management, bench management and opening team management. She has trained hundreds of hoteliers and won many awards for her management successes. In 2011, June wrote and published, The Strangers in My Beds, a fictional novel based strictly on the strange events of her career in hotels. In 2014, June partnered with her father, a very accomplished software architect, and opened the business, Coba Enterprise Management, LLC with a very unique and specialized CMMS (Computer Maintenance Management System) software for hotels. ...
Orthopaedic career planning articles - orthopaedic career planning articles on current trends, tips & tricks and best evidence from top orthopaedic specialists
Course For Bloodborne Pathogens provides access to the Bloodborne Pathogens Training Class, which may be recommended or required in the state of Pennsylvania for employees who are occupationally exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM). Many employers make certain that their workers receive regular training that covers all elements of the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. This training is generally made available on initial assignment, at least annually thereafter, and when new or modified tasks or procedures affect a workers occupational exposure. This online Bloodborne Pathogens Training Class provides meaningful content intended to educate students on bloodborne pathogens and diseases, methods used to control occupational exposure, hepatitis B vaccine, and medical evaluation and post-exposure follow-up procedures. This course has been designed to present topics relevant to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) training requirement as stated in OSHAs ...
The Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) Exposure Program Plan: Each department, program, and research facility must have an complete program plan in both electronic and hard copy available in their facility that includes a template of the Hepatitis B form, the Blood Contaminated Material Clean-up Standard Operating Procedure, and a current training record. This file is customizable for your facility.. UWM Bloodborne Pathogens Program. Blood Contaminated Material Clean-Up Standard Operating Procedure. Hepatitis B Vaccine Form and Guidance Document: This is to be maintained in the personnel file for the employee in their respective departmental HR office.. Supplements: Recombivax Vaccine Insert, Engerix B Vaccine Insert. UWM Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan: This must be completed and kept on file for each department with personnel that have reasonable risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bloodborne pathogen exposures. T2 - Difference in reporting rates and individual predictors among health care personnel. AU - Bush, Cynthia. AU - Schmid, Kendra K. AU - Rupp, Mark Edmund. AU - Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu. AU - Wolford, Barbara. AU - Sandkovsky, Uriel. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Background Employees in health care settings are at varying risk for bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures. We compared differences in reporting rates of BBP exposures among health care personnel during 2 different time periods, assessing job category, years of experience, and sex as potential predictors for exposure. Methods A retrospective review of the employee health department BBP database at 2 time periods (September 1, 2012-April 30, 2013, and September 1, 2013-April 30, 2014) in which 2 different reporting protocols (call center vs pager) was used. A survey was administered to assess reported and unreported exposures within a 12-month period. Results BBP exposures were highest ...
Concern about transmission of AIDS and other blood-borne diseases during medical and dental treatment was heightened recently when a study found that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can survive
Posted 17 March 2010 Ireland-Vietnam Blood-borne Virus Initiative The untiring efforts of Professor Bill Hall to extend medical research to countries outside the normal circle of science has brought considerable benefits to people and governments far from the Centre for Research of Infectious Diseases at UCD. This St Patricks Day, Minister of State with special responsibility for Science, Technology, Innovation and Natural Resources, Mr Conor Lenihan, TD formally opened a custom-built diagnostic facility developed by the Ireland-Vietnam Blood-borne Virus Initiative (IVVI) at he national Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE) in Hanoi. The facility is part of a wider initiative designed to diagnose viral infections in Vietnam and to conduct an epidemiological study of the prevalence and characteristics of blood-borne viruses circulating in that country.. The study, which received funding of €5 million from Irish Aid (a division of the Department of Foreign Affairs) and Atlantic ...
Bloodborne Pathogen Kit Carton Container Type Container Size 2-1/4 In. x 1-3/8 In. x 4 In Orange Includes (2) Benzalkonium Antiseptic Wipes (2) Bio-Hazard Bags (2) 3-Fold White Towels (2) 4 In. Red Twist Ties Features Color Orange Depth 2-1/4 Height 2-1/4 Item Bloodborne Pathogen Kit Length 1-3/8 Quantity of Bandages 0 Quantity of Eye Treatment 0 Quantity of Medicinal 0 Size Universal Type Bloodborne Pathogen Width 4 Color Code No Kit Description Disposable 1X use Kit Type Bulk People Served 1 Portable No Waterproof No Provides Personal Protection against Bloodborne Pathogens Case Material Carton Number of Components 4 Quantity of Burn Treatments 0 Read more ...
Exposure to blood-borne pathogens in the workplace is a serious threat to worker safety. To combat this threat, federal regulations require the preparation of an exposure control plan (ECP). This chapter constitutes the ECP for SLAC. It demonstrates our commitment to providing a safe and healthful work environment for our entire staff and is a key document for implementing and ensuring compliance with standards.. Full chapter [pdf]. ...
This safety poster is designed to offer a concise and easy-to-understand explanation of key safety topics related to blood-borne pathogens. It features laminate coating on both sides for durability in work environments. It can also be used with clear acrylic poster holder No. This listing is for each.. Read more ...
Infection Control, Bloodborne Pathogens and Hazardous Materials Self-study Slides for College of Nursing Majors Infection Control and Bloodborne Pathogens Bloodborne Pathogens are microorganisms in the
If several different hazardous substances of harmful physical agents are used in a similar fashion and have a similar content or hazard, it is acceptable to group these substances or agents together in the training. For instance several brands of motor oil and other lubricating oils can be grouped together for training purposes if the usage and hazard is essentially the same. However, each product should have its own SDS on file and be made available to the employees who use these products.. In some cases, products that are used for similar tasks may have different hazardous ingredients that present different levels and types of hazard to the employee. This is often true for cleaners, strippers, and other chemical products. In these instances each should be covered separately in the training session.. Infectious agents (where applicable) training requirements should follow those outlined in the St Cloud School Districts Blood-borne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan.. To provide a training ...
INSPECTION GUIDELINES. The Compliance Officer should determine through interviews or observation of work involving exposure to blood or OPIM whether sufficient engineering controls and work practices are used. While it is generally accepted that an exposure incident can occur at any time or place, a review of the facility records can better direct the Compliance Officer to areas that are more likely to be sites of exposure incidents. Data from The Uniform Needlestick and Sharp Object Injury Report, 77 Hospitals, 1993-1995 (Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) at http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/epinet/) show that injuries occurred, in order of frequency, in patient rooms, operating rooms, emergency departments, and intensive/critical care units. The report indicates that nurses (RNs and LPNs) were injured more often than any other type of healthcare worker. Furthermore, the report finds that an overwhelming majority (93%) of the injuries were caused by items that were ...
These pages give employees and employers guidance on how to manage incidences of blood-borne viruses at work. The site includes some basic guidelines and resources, as well as some more detailed information on the subject.
April 26, 2007 - Iapyx Medical introduced its Stable-Line family of catheter stabilization products designed to minimize the risk of catheter-related bloodstream and urinary tract infections, two of the three most common hospital-acquired infections. With the launch of Stable-Line Arterial and Stable-Line Foley catheter stabilization devices, Iapyx Medical aims to combat the epidemic of hospital-acquired infections and improve patient care and clinician safety.. The Stable-Line Arterial catheter stabilization device is designed to prevent inadvertent movement and dislodgment of arterial lines. Suture securement, the traditional means of arterial line securement, increases patients risks of developing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), which pose a significant mortality risk. Suture securement also puts healthcare workers at risk for needlestick injuries, which expose them to blood-borne pathogens including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. The Stable-Line Arterial device mitigates ...
Do not place dressing directly in contact with exposed blood vessels, anastomotic sites, organs, or nerves.. Precautions should be taken for patients who are or may be receiving anticoagulant therapy, suffering from difficult hemostasis, untreated for malnutrition and non-compliant or combative. To reduce the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens, apply standard precautions for infection control with all patients, per institutional protocol, regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status. In addition to gloves, use gown and goggles if exposure to body fluid is likely.. Continuous, rather than intermittent, Genadyne XLR8 Therapy is recommended over unstable structures, such as an unstable chest wall or non-intact fascia, in order to help minimize movement and stabilize the wound bed. Continuous therapy is also generally recommended for patients at increased risk of bleeding, highly exudating wounds, fresh flaps and grafts, and wounds with acute enteric fistulae. The size and ...
Originally published in September 2003). Question: What are the correct procedures following an exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials?. Answer: Answer: An exposure can be defined as a percutaneous injury (e.g., needlestick or cut with a sharp object) or contact of mucous membrane or non-intact skin (e.g., exposed skin that is chapped, abraded, or afflicted with dermatitis) with blood, saliva, tissue, or other body fluids that are potentially infectious. Exposure incidents might place dental health-care personnel at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and therefore should be evaluated immediately following treatment of the exposure site by a qualified health-care professional. The following steps are recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The CDC provides an HIV PEP treatment hot line if questions about treatment or advice are needed. Call ...
The Blood Donor Testing Laboratory section is made up of the Blood Group Serology Laboratory and Infectious Diseases Testing Laboratories.. The core function of this section is to screen every unit of blood collected from a donor for blood group type and infectious disease markers to ensure safety of our blood supply prior to transfusion. Using highly sensitive testing procedures and a sophisticated automated system, all blood donations are screened for the following blood-borne pathogens:. ...
A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids. Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria. The most common examples are HIV, hepatitis B and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Diseases that are not usually transmitted directly by blood contact, but rather by insect or other vector, are more usefully classified as vector-borne disease, even though the causative agent can be found in blood. Vector-borne diseases include West Nile virus and malaria. Many bloodborne diseases can also be contracted by other means, including high-risk sexual behavior or intravenous drug use. These diseases have also been identified in sports medicine. Since it is difficult to determine what pathogens any given sample of blood contains, and some bloodborne diseases are lethal, standard medical practice regards all blood (and any body fluid) as potentially infectious. Blood and Body Fluid precautions are a type of infection control practice that ...
Providing fast, large-scale inoculationswithout spreading blood-borne pathogens is alongstanding veterinary and human healthcarechallenge. Needle-free systems offer importantadvantages over traditional syringe and needlesystems-reduced pain, improved workersafety, safer disposal of potentially dangerousneedles and related waste, and lower costs.The Needle-Free High Speed Vaccine InjectorSystem, developed by a team at the NNSAKansas City Plant, solves this problem. Theinjector pushes into the patient a very smallstream of vaccine under high pressure througha nozzle covered with a disposable protectivecap and. Up to 600 injections per hour arepossible with this technology.The technology was developed through apartnership between the operator of the KansasCity Plant, Honeywell Federal Manufacturingand Technologies; Felton International; andthree Russian companies. Plans for 34different injectors are in the process ofcompletion, at which time the Russiancompanies will manufacture the parts, ...
The risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens is directly related to the prevalence of the infectious disease in the physician s patient population, the infectivity after a single exposure, and the frequency and nature of exposure. After reading this material the reader should understand the guidelines for risk prevention of human...
OSH Act, Safety, Health, Workplace, Hazards, OSHA standards, Responsibilities, Training, Medical examinations, Recordkeeping, Personal protective equipment, Influenza, Pandemic, Health risks, Deaths, H1N1, Vaccine, Respirators, Airborne-disease, Infection, Contagion, Symptoms, Risk assessment, Hospitalizations, CDC, Immunization, Risk of exposure, Virus, Laboratory procedures, Emergency services, Critical infrastructure, Emergency response, Key resources, Hygiene, Engineering controls, Blood-borne pathogens, Aerosol Transmission Disease Standard, ATD ...
S. aureus and group A strep infections also can be associated with severe invasive diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia and myositis. Contaminated food and water also pose a risk for spread of certain pathogens (e.g., shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, Shigella species, Giardia species, Cryptosporium species and norovirus). Other means of transmission include respiratory droplet (influenza, pertussis, Neisseria meningitides, group A streptococcal pharyngitis, mumps), airborne particles (varicella, measles) and vectors (ticks, mosquitoes). Transmission of blood-borne pathogens, while feasible, has not been validated as resulting from sports-related contact. However, decontamination is recommended for management of environmental contamination when there is a spill of blood or body fluids. Guidance on when to return to play. Management of sports-related infections depends on the suspected etiology, which is primarily based on clinical appearance, with laboratory testing primarily used for ...
Patients and visitors deserve a clean, comfortable and safe healthcare environment. Vonachen Group understands the challenges of cleaning healthcare facilities and we are dedicated to ensuring a clean and disinfected environment. Our approach is designed to: protect patients, caregivers, visitors and improve outcomes by reducing the number of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI). Our employees are trained on the proper use and handling of cleaning chemicals, safe usage of equipment, SDS, blood-borne pathogens and Red Bag Waste (RBW). Specific services include but are not limited to:. ...
OSHA/MOSHA training will be conducted on Thur., Oct. 14 and Fri., Oct. 15 from 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. in the auditorium of Heritage High School and the REACH Middle School/High School (2801 St. Lo Drive, Baltimore, MD 21213). Topics covered will include: slips, trips and falls; fire safety and utility-related emergencies; blood-borne pathogens; hazard communication; asbestos awareness (cafeteria managers need not attend); and indoor air quality, including the identification of conditions that can promote mold growth (cafeteria managers need not attend). Training is mandatory for custodial staff, repair and maintenance staff, grounds staff and cafeteria managers. Each training day will cover all of the material, and staff should attend either the Thursday or Friday session (not both sessions). Principals and administrators are asked to assist in ensuring the presence of effected staff. It is also recommended that any employee who may have suffered a work-related injury (related to the course content ...
It has been a practice of this office to Autoclave (steam sterilize) all Instruments and Dental Hand pieces as well as disinfect every treatment room between each patient. If you have any questions or would like to see our sterilization area, just ask. We will be happy to show you and will not be offended in any way. You are entitled to know that you are safe. The safety of our patients, employees and staff is very important to us. We take our responsibility to protect everyone very seriously. All instruments, rotary instruments (dental handpieces, drills and burrs) and equipment used in your care are sterilized between patients with heat, steam and pressure to ensure all possible microbes are not viable. Every treatment room is disinfected between patients and wrapped in plastic so that your care is rendered in a safe environment. Uniforms worn by staff involved with direct patient care are laundered on site to ensure they are free from blood-borne pathogens. If you have any questions about our office
How do we proceed in the face of daily news briefs intended to improve the safety of opioid-based pain care, when we see a patient today who has been taking over 300 oral morphine equivalents daily for the past three years?. From 2000-2014, the number of deaths related to opioids in the United States consistently increased, and its toll now exceeds that of deaths from automobile accidents. These numbers dont reflect additional opioid-induced side effects and morbidity - increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia), depression, anxiety, hormone imbalance, and the acquisition of blood-borne pathogens from intravenous use. We suspect that millions are struggling with these issues. Where do patients obtain the majority of opioid analgesics that are thought to drive these catastrophic figures? They are overwhelmingly prescription pain-killers, often shared by a friend or relative for free, and often prescribed originally for postoperative pain. Of the opioid-related deaths in 2014, 63 percent were ...
Meningitis occurs when blood-borne pathogens cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a complex interplay between endothelial cells and microbial gene products. We sought to understand the initial response of the BBB to the human meningeal pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the organisms major virulence factors, the exopolysaccharide capsule and the β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin (β-h/c). Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we found that GBS infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) induced a highly specific and coordinate set of genes including IL-8, Groα, Groβ, IL-6, GM-CSF, myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (Mcl-1), and ICAM-1, which act to orchestrate neutrophil recruitment, activation, and enhanced survival. Most strikingly, infection with a GBS strain lacking β-h/c resulted in a marked reduction in expression of genes involved in the immune response, while the unencapsulated strain generally induced similar or greater expression levels for the same subset of ...
Halyards AERO CHROME Surgical Gown is FDA approved for AAMI Level 4, the highest level of fluid and microbial protection in the critical zones as defined by the AAMI PB70:2012 standard for liquid barrier performance of protective apparel, Hodges added. This protection level provides additional protection from blood-borne pathogens in the critical zones,5 which are defined as those areas where direct contact with fluid is most likely to occur during surgical procedures.. The gowns are a smart investment as well, according to Hodges, who says an analysis of internal sales data shows facilities that stock the gowns can achieve up to a 40 percent SKU reduction.. Halyard arrived at 40 percent by calculating how many different but overlapping types of surgical gowns most facilities stock, which could be replaced with Halyards two-gown system of AERO BLUE and AERO CHROME gowns, he said. In most accounts this would reduce the number of SKUs in inventory by 40 percent or more while providing ...
DAYTONA BEACH SHORES - The topic - exposure to blood-borne pathogens - was like something out a first-year medical school lecture. These students, however, didnt look the role with their tattoos,
Robyn has been in the beauty industry for 14+ years. She studied at South Hills Beauty Academy, The Graham Webb Academy, Pittsburgh Permanent Makeup and The Collette Academy of Permanent Makeup. Robyn has also participated in numerous educational classes and has years of experience in all areas of the beauty field. She is certified/licensed in Permanent Makeup, Microblading, and Blood-Borne Pathogens. She is trained with Digital machine work for brows, eyeliner, lip procedures, Manual Method for brows (microblading) and eyeliner, Color Theory & Skin Analysis, and Sterilization & Sanitation. She is fully insured as well. Robyn has worked with some of the top Permanent Makeup Artists in Pittsburgh and Arizona and has established life long friends with them. She is very compassionate and caring and truly enjoys helping people of all ages and ethnicities to feel and look their best through her talent and artistic abilities! Please dont hesitate to contact her directly for any questions or to ...
TENDERSORB Waterproof ABD Pad. TENDERSORB Waterproof ABD Pad consists of three key layers: soft outer nonwoven layer, fluff filler to absorb and disperse fluid and wet-proof moisture barrier to retard fluid strikethrough. Unique wet-proof moisture barrier helps minimize exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Absorbs more fluid than ordinary ABD pads for fewer dressing changes.
Hepatitis is a virus that infects the liver and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. There are multiple types of hepatitis. The most common types are hepatitis A, B and C.. Hepatitis A - not caused by bloodborne pathogens. Hepatitis A is usually transmitted due to lack of hand washing which results in the contamination of food. There is a vaccine to prevent the disease.. Hepatitis B - caused by contact with contaminated blood or sexual contact. Most adults who get Hepatitis B are ill for a short time and then get better, however some become chronically infected. Hepatitis B can live in dried blood on surfaces for up to one week. All children in Texas schools are required to receive the Hepatitis B vaccine series. It is recommended by the CDC that you get vaccinated if your job puts you at risk of coming into contact with blood or bodily fluids. Staff that should get vaccinated include: coaches, persons working with severe/profound and/or medically fragile students, custodians, ...
OSHAs bloodborne pathogens standard has provisions for the protection of employees during the containment, storage and transport of contaminated sharps and other regulated waste [29 CFR 1910.1030(d)(4)(iii)(A)-1910.1030(d)(4)(iii)(B)]. In general, sharps containers used for discarding disposable razors used for shaving in nursing homes, healthcare or correctional facilities must be: (i) Closable; (ii) Puncture resistant; (iii) Leakproof on sides and bottom; and, (iv) Labeled or color-coded in accordance with paragraph (g)(1)(i). It is also required that designated sharps containers be: Replaced routinely and not be allowed to overfill [1910.1030(d)(4)(iii)(A)(2)(iii)]. OSHAs bloodborne pathogens standard states: Disposal of all regulated waste shall be in accordance with applicable regulations of the United States, States and Territories, and political subdivisions of States and Territories [CFR 29 1910.1030(d)(4)(iii)(C)]. Thus, healthcare settings, nursing care, and correctional facilities ...
According to the OSHA, bloodborne pathogens are considered to be microorganisms present in infected parties blood. Certain viruses and diseases, not limited to Hepatitis and HIV, can cause complicated and lifelong illness. As a result, all possible measures should be taken to keep workers safe. We recommend putting together a bloodborne pathogen action plan each year, which includes getting untrained workers and new hires up to speed with the latest guidelines. This goal can be easily checked off by subscribing to our group plans with the added bonus of discounted rates. Admin managers get access to an easy-to-use dashboard to manage the logistics of training multiple workers with the click of a mouse. ...
We are the leader in providing comprehensive and user friendly OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen training, certification, and compliance solutions for over 8+ years.
Handling bloodborne pathogens requires proper training. During bloodborne pathogens training, discover examples of BBP & learn how to safely handle them.
Salons are known for making customers look beautiful, but they can also transmit diseases to their customers, including bloodborne pathogens.
If you believe you have been exposed to potentially infectious blood or bodily fluids, contact campus EHOS at 415.339.1449 or COSE Health and Safety Office at 415.338.6892 to report the incident. You have the right to be medically evaluated by the University physician and to be offered the Hepatitis B vaccine series (HBV shot). The HBV vaccine can still be effective in preventing infection up to 24 hours following the exposure incident.. Although your employer must offer the vaccine to you, you do not have to accept that offer. You may opt to decline the vaccination series, in which case you will be asked to sign a declination form. This does not impact any future decisions following another exposure incident. For more details about the vaccine, please contact Campus EHOS at x8-1449. ...
Food Not Bombs (FNB) is a grassroots movement that believes we could end hunger throughout the world by putting all the resources spent on the war machine into the mouths of the hungry instead. If we spent the same amount of money our government spends on war, on food instead, we could feed every person in the world three meals a day. In addition to opposing war, we are also against the enormous amount of waste Americans create. To fight the vast waste of perfectly good food, we salvage food that would otherwise be tossed. If you are interested in preparing food with us, please give us a holler! We encourage anyone to be our friend on here who supports the FNB movement and is interested in cooking and serving with us ...
A needlestick injury, percutaneous injury, or percutaneous exposure incident is the penetration of skin by a needle or other sharp object, which was in contact with blood, tissue, or other body fluid before the exposure. Occupational needlestick injuries primarily affect healthcare workers, who make up 80% of needlestick injuries in the United States. Various other occupations are also at increased risk of needlestick injury, including law enforcement, laborers, tattoo artists, food preparers, and agricultural workers. Though the acute physiological effects of a needlestick injury are generally negligible, these devices can transmit blood-borne diseases, placing those exposed at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among healthcare workers and laboratory personnel worldwide, more than 25 blood-borne viruses have been reported to be caused by needlestick injuries. It is estimated that half of ...
|p|​Data show that 45% of blood and body fluid exposures among healthcare workers made contact with unprotected skin, and although 67% of exposures involved the eyes, fewer than one-third of healthcare workers were wearing facial protective equipment, according to the International Safety Centers (ISC) 2015 Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) report for blood and body fluid exposures. |/p|
College of Charleston Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan June 13, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. POLICY 1 II. SCOPE AND APPLICATION... 1 III. RESPONSIBILITIES... 2 IV. DEFINITIONS 4 V. METHODS OF COMPLIANCE...
How do you think you did? Lets find out!. 1. Bloodborne pathogens may enter your system through:. d) All of the above -- skin abrasions, open cuts, mucous membranes. 2. If you are exposed to potentially infectious materials (PIM) while working, you may request a vaccine for which bloodborne disease?. b) Hepatitis B. 3. When discussing the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, what are the main diseases of concern?. a) HIV, HBV, HCV. 4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is:. d) both A and C -- a virus that does not currently have a cure, but can be controlled with medication, and the virus that causes AIDS. 5. The term universal precautions refers to…. c) Treating all body fluids as if they are infectious. 6. If you wear gloves while handling PIM, it is not necessary to wash your hands afterwards.. b) False. 7. Which of the following may contain bloodborne pathogens?. d) All of the above -- vaginal secretions, semen, saliva with traces of blood.. ...
We advocate the use of broad universal precautions for all patients: hand washing before and after all patient contact; use of gloves for all contact with body fluids and secretions, mucous membranes, and nonintact skin; use of gowns if soiling is likely to occur; and use of masks and protective eye wear if splashing of body fluids is likely [2]. Use of broad universal precautions has many advantages, including 1) ease of implementation, 2) application of a single standard of care, 3) no reliance on identification of colonized or infected patients, 4) no reliance on routine culturing, 5) no need to flag charts for readmission, and 6) no need to isolate patients or staff. The use of broad universal precautions also protects workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens ...
In early 2001 Australia experienced a sudden and unexpected disruption to heroin availability, know as the heroin shortage. This shortage has been linked to a decrease in needle and syringe output and therefore possibly a reduction in injecting drug use. We aimed to examine changes, if any, in blood-borne viral infections and presentations for injecting related problems related to injecting drug use following the reduction heroin availability in Australia, in the context of widespread harm reduction measures. Time series analysis of State level databases on HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C notifications and hospital and emergency department data. Examination of changes in HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C notifications and hospital and emergency department admissions for injection-related problems following the onset of the heroin shortage; non-parametric curve-fitting of number of hepatitis C notifications among those aged 15-19 years. There were no changes observed in hospital visits for injection-related
Abstract:. OBJECTIVES: The prevention of needlestick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) among registered nurses (RNs) employed in hospital wards represents an important issue. Accidental contact with blood, consequent to NSSIs, is the most frequent form of exposure to blood-borne pathogens that can be transmitted by accidental exposure.. ReTweet if useful… Shift patterns and needle stick injury risk https://ctt.ec/f47TU+ @ivteam #ivteam. AIMS: This study investigates the relationship occurring between consecutive workdays, night-shifts, cumulative hours, forward-rotating shift schedules (morning-afternoon-night), and occupational NSSIs frequency.. METHODS: The author conducted a cross-sectional nested case-control analysis from staffing data concerning 765 RNs and NSSIs occurred during a period of 48 months.. RESULTS: NSSIs were more frequent among RNs working 3 or more night-shifts compared to RNs working less than 3 night-shift in the 7 days prior occurrence of NSSI; moreover, NSSIs were more ...
The high prevalence of infection with HIV and other blood-borne pathogens in injection drug users (IDUs) is directly related to the lack of syringe access.
The CDC may be a legitimate site, but know this: long, and I mean looonnnggg, before the general public ever heard the terms aids/HIV, the CDC and (underline and) the Red Cross knew this killer virus was a blood-borne pathogen (infectious microorganisms present in blood and body fluids that can cause disease), yet made the decision to delay testing donor blood due to concerns of limiting blood supply and, what else?, oh, yeah, money $$!! (Related to the expense of the test). This is not BS, hype, or something I read somewhere. I know this because I was there, I witnessed numerous patients with hemophilia and/or other conditions requiring transfusion of blood/blood products die of aids, contracted from said transfusion. We peon healthcare givers didnt know this until it was too late. I also know 3 lovely young (not really so young anymore) ladies (whose father died from aids when they were so young they remember little or nothing about him) who were able to afford to go to college because ...
The CDC may be a legitimate site, but know this: long, and I mean looonnnggg, before the general public ever heard the terms aids/HIV, the CDC and (underline and) the Red Cross knew this killer virus was a blood-borne pathogen (infectious microorganisms present in blood and body fluids that can cause disease), yet made the decision to delay testing donor blood due to concerns of limiting blood supply and, what else?, oh, yeah, money $$!! (Related to the expense of the test). This is not BS, hype, or something I read somewhere. I know this because I was there, I witnessed numerous patients with hemophilia and/or other conditions requiring transfusion of blood/blood products die of aids, contracted from said transfusion. We peon healthcare givers didnt know this until it was too late. I also know 3 lovely young (not really so young anymore) ladies (whose father died from aids when they were so young they remember little or nothing about him) who were able to afford to go to college because ...
Vinyl Gloves, Lightly Powdered (50 pairs)-These vinyl gloves minimize contact between the caregiver and patient, including blood and other bodily fluids. Superior-strength glove provides an effective barrier against blood-borne pathogens. Ideal for l
SAFETY/TRAINING: Consistently demonstrates and promotes safe patient care practices: (i.e., hand-washing, positive patient identification, communication, reduction of infection risks and inclusion of patients/families concerns and access to health care team.) Provides safe quality care in an efficient, cost effective manner. Follows proper procedures and utilizes safety equipment appropriate for job. Follows all policies and regulations related to employee and patient safety. Remains current with Annual Safety Update and Blood-Borne Pathogens annual training. Reports any unsafe condition or accident/injury immediately to the Charge Therapist, Supervisor or Manager and if on unit to the charge nurse ...
New York State Senator James SewardThe following excerpts are from New York State Senator James Sewards Press Release:. ALBANY, 03/29/18 - State Senator James L. Seward (R/C/I/Ref-Oneonta) joined this week with his senate colleagues to call on the state to investigate the impact Lyme and tick-borne diseases (TBD) may have on mental health. The senate unanimously passed legislation (S.7171) co-sponsored by Senator Seward that would require the state to study the link between infectious diseases, blood-borne pathogens and mental illnesses. The bill is the first step in a process that could lead to a better understanding of the incredible impact these diseases can have on the overall health of New Yorkers.. In August of 2017, Senator Sue Serino, chairman of the Senates Task Force on Lyme and TBDs (of which Senator Seward is a member) and Senator Kemp Hannon, chairman of the Senate Health Committee, held a comprehensive public hearing to look critically at the states response to the Lyme and TBD ...
Impotence (rare cases). Finally, some Oxycontin users will crush their pills, dilute them in water, and inject them. The undissolved particles can become stuck in veins and arteries, causing blockages and long-term damage. Sharing needles also leads to the transmission of AIDS and other blood-borne pathogens.. Signs You Need Help. Although Oxycontin is a legal drug, it causes people to form addictions in exactly the same way as they would become hooked on heroin and other opiates. Frequent users develop tolerances, and continued use causes the formation of chemical dependencies. If you cant make it through a day without taking Oxycontin, you have an addiction. Additional signs of addiction include denial, purposeful social isolation, and obsessions over getting high.. Beginning with Detox. For many drugs, detox is a painful but simple process of deprivation which weans users of their physical dependencies. However, most opiate addictions cause dangerous withdrawal symptoms which should be ...
Because the procedure involves a device that punctures the skin (microneedling), the procedure can spread disease if done improperly. Some of the cheaper devices used to do the microneedling will suck blood up into the handle; therefore the next patient could potentially be inoculated with the blood-borne pathogens from all of the people previously treated with that same device-medically similar to having sex with everyone previously treated.. Also, the device used to prepare the patients own blood for topical treatment after the microneedling component of the Vampire Facial® is done, should be approved by the FDA for preparation of blood to go back into the body. Kits made to analyze blood for testing should not be used.. The FDA does not approve a persons own blood, nor does the FDA approve procedures. But, the FDA does and should approve both the device used to create the microneedling-puncture wounds as well as the device used to prepare the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used drip onto the ...
An ever-increasing number of people are infected with Bloodborne pathogens like hepatitis each year. Individuals who have been incarcerated are at greater risk for infection, and this is a population that law enforcement officers frequently come into contact with. Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers also may encounter hypodermic needles, drug paraphernalia, and combative subjects, bringing them within close proximity to blood and bodily fluids. This course teaches officers in methods and practices to keep themselves and their coworkers from becoming infected with a Bloodborne pathogen such as hepatitis or HIV.. ...
Each year around 200 blood donors in the UK are found to be infected with blood-borne diseases (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HTLV), while several others have been identified as having an increased risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). Although the notification procedures for these infections vary, their effectiveness and appropriateness have never been evaluated in a systematic study.. The proposed research has been designed to assess the responses of blood donors to notification and their satisfaction with how they were informed about the infection. The study will be implemented using standard questionnaire-based measures (French et al, 2004; Marteau & Bekker, 1992).. The study will involve approximately 600 blood donors who were informed of an infection or possible infection with blood-borne diseases in 2008 and 2009, and approximately 100 donors notified of possible risk of vCJD infection in 2005. A comparable group of 2005 donors will be included to control for the effects ...
Each year around 200 blood donors in the UK are found to be infected with blood-borne diseases (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HTLV), while several others have been identified as having an increased risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). Although the notification procedures for these infections vary, their effectiveness and appropriateness have never been evaluated in a systematic study.. The proposed research has been designed to assess the responses of blood donors to notification and their satisfaction with how they were informed about the infection. The study will be implemented using standard questionnaire-based measures (French et al, 2004; Marteau & Bekker, 1992).. The study will involve approximately 600 blood donors who were informed of an infection or possible infection with blood-borne diseases in 2008 and 2009, and approximately 100 donors notified of possible risk of vCJD infection in 2005. A comparable group of 2005 donors will be included to control for the effects ...
An exposure is any contact between one persons blood or body fluids with the broken skin or mucous membranes of another person through a needle stick, puncture wound, bite, or prolonged exposure to a large volume of blood.. ...
The details of bibliography - Blood-borne viruses in the haemodialysis dependent population attending Top End Northern Territory facilities 2000-2009
Q: I did not have any symptoms at all, but my doctor tested me and told me I had hepatitis C. How can this be?A: Hepatitis C (Hep C) is a blood-borne viral infection (there are several different subtypes) acquired by exposure to shared needles (for example in some IV drug abusers), contaminated medical equipment (rare in the U.S.), unscreened blood transfusions (the U.S. now screens blood products, but not all countries are able to), unprotected sex with an infected person or from an infected
Q: I did not have any symptoms at all, but my doctor tested me and told me I had hepatitis C. How can this be?A: Hepatitis C (Hep C) is a blood-borne viral infection (there are several different subtypes) acquired by exposure to shared needles (for example in some IV drug abusers), contaminated medical equipment (rare in the U.S.), unscreened blood transfusions (the U.S. now screens blood products, but not all countries are able to), unprotected sex with an infected person or from an infected
Q: I did not have any symptoms at all, but my doctor tested me and told me I had hepatitis C. How can this be?A: Hepatitis C (Hep C) is a blood-borne viral infection (there are several different subtypes) acquired by exposure to shared needles (for example in some IV drug abusers), contaminated medical equipment (rare in the U.S.), unscreened blood transfusions (the U.S. now screens blood products, but not all countries are able to), unprotected sex with an infected person or from an infected
Today is World Hepatitis Day, and physicians are applauding two new drugs they hope will make great strides in the treatment and eradication of hepatitis C, Bon Secours Hampton Roads said in a news release. Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne viral infection in the U.S. Adding...
President and Executive Director of the International Safety Center. The International Safety Center administers the Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet) which is the widest used sharps injury surveillance tool used in US hospitals and around the World. Dr. Mitchells career has been focused on public health and occupational safety and health related to infectious disease. She has worked in the public, private, and academic sectors. Dr. Mitchell began her career as the very first OSHA National Bloodborne Pathogens Coordinator and has received several Secretary of Labor Excellence awards for her work on healthcare worker safety. Dr. Mitchell is the 2019 Chair of the Occupational Health and Safety Section for the American Public Health Association. ...
ISSUE: FDA and CDC have noted a progressive increase in the reports of bloodborne infection transmission over the past 10 to 15 years (primarily hepatitis B virus), resulting from the shared use of fingerstick and point-of-care [POC] blood testing devices.. Fingerstick and POC blood testing devices used on more than one patient may not be safe for several reasons. Improper use or device malfunction can lead to the use of the contaminated lancet blade on more than one patient. It is difficult for healthcare staff to ensure that all blood has been removed from POC blood testing devices and the reusable portions of the fingerstick device. If POC blood testing devices are used on multiple patients and are not cleaned and disinfected correctly and thoroughly between each patient, contaminated blood left on them could result in bloodborne pathogen transmission among patients.. BACKGROUND: Fingerstick devices are instruments equipped with a lancet. These devices are used for making skin punctures to ...
The ABC Syringe turns dark red after use, warning doctors and patients that it may be contaminated. Editors note: Every two years, the prestigious INDEX: Awards seek out designers working on innovative solutions to global challenges. In this special CNN series, we profile a selection of the nominees. (CNN) -- Of the four to five billion injections given each year in India, at least 2.5 billion are unsafe, according to one study. In some cases, that means they are administered using unsterilized second-hand syringes that could be contaminated with a blood-borne disease such as hepatitis or HIV.. A simple change to the way syringes are made could dramatically reduce those figures and save thousand of lives each year, according to David Swann of Huddersfield University, in England. His design for a new kind of syringe that changes color after it has been used was nominated for an INDEX: Award.. 1.3 million people (globally) a year die from unsafe injection practices, Swann says, quoting WHO ...
Blood cleaning in Orlando is a serious matter. Watch this video for a look at one type of bloodborne pathogen i.e hepatitis B. Visit Biohazard Response today!
Trainers can easily access purchased training title(s) anywhere with the Lynx Player app (available on any device) Train as many employees as you need, as often as you need Flexible Rental Options: 7-day, 30-day, or 1-year Good for new employees or as a refresher 18 Minute Bloodborne Pathogens Safety Training Video for Healthcare (Healthcare version for Hospitals, Clinics, Physician Offices, Home Health and other related workplaces) PowerPoint Presentation OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030* Documents Include: Compliance Manual*, Completion Certificate* & Wallet Cards*, Training and Attendance Forms*, Employee Quiz* & Trainer Answer Key*, and BBP Supplemental Documents* (*Note: All printable documents may be printed or reproduced as many times as needed for use by purchasing employer.) Digital Access not for you? Purchase DVD, USB or online training here. For more details visit our How it works!
A Guide to Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace N. C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Division 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699- 1101 Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor 7 N. C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor OSHA State Plan Designee Allen McNeely Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Kevin Beauregard Assistant Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Ed Geddie, Ph. D. Reviewer Acknowledgments This guide was originally prepared by Carol R. Namkoong, formerly of the N. C. Department of Labor. The informa-tion in this guide was reviewed in 2010. _____ This guide is intended to be consistent with all existing OSHA standards; therefore, if an area is considered by the reader to be inconsistent with a standard, then the OSHA standard should be followed. To obtain additional copies of this guide, or if you have questions about North Carolina occupational safety and health stan-dards or rules, please ...
A Guide to Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace N. C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Division 1101 Mail Service Center Raleigh, NC 27699- 1101 Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor 7 N. C. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program Cherie Berry Commissioner of Labor OSHA State Plan Designee Allen McNeely Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Kevin Beauregard Assistant Deputy Commissioner for Safety and Health Ed Geddie, Ph. D. Reviewer Acknowledgments This guide was originally prepared by Carol R. Namkoong, formerly of the N. C. Department of Labor. The informa-tion in this guide was reviewed in 2010. _____ This guide is intended to be consistent with all existing OSHA standards; therefore, if an area is considered by the reader to be inconsistent with a standard, then the OSHA standard should be followed. To obtain additional copies of this guide, or if you have questions about North Carolina occupational safety and health stan-dards or rules, please ...
Congratulations! You can now take the Bloodborne Pathogens Test / Quiz / Exam. Just a reminder, if you happen to fail dont worry theres unlimited Quiz takes.
The Pan-Canadian STBBI Framework for Action provides a roadmap for collaborative and complementary actions to reduce the impact of STBBI in Canada and to contribute to the global efforts to end AIDS, viral hepatitis, and sexually transmitted infections as major health concerns.
New Language Learning and Teaching Environments is an exciting new book series edited by Hayo Reinders, dedicated to recent developments in learner-centred approaches and the impact of technology on learning and teaching inside and ...
ALBANY, N.Y. (AP) - Gov. Andrew Cuomo has signed a bill into law that requires hospitals and other health care providers in New York to offer hepatitis C tests to baby boomers. Between 3 million and 4 million people in the United States have hepatitis C, a blood-borne disease that causes liver damage and is
An innovative drug treatment for the blood-borne disease hepatitis C has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.
The problem is failed sticks dont only result in a little discomfort and a second attempt. Sometimes practitioners miss the vein and hit a nerve instead causing temporary to permanent damage depending on the depth of the miss.. Worse, needle-related injuries arent limited to patients. Fact is, most injuries occur on the other side of the operating table. Healthcare practitioners are exposed to needles from start to finish, resulting in unintentional needle stick injuries and exposure to blood-borne disease.. Beyond injuries, human error results in potentially disasterous mislabeling of patient samples. Mislabeling is responsible for 170,000 adverse events and $200 to $400 million in costs a year, according to Veebot.. Veebots system will secure the patients arm in place underneath imaging equipment and robot needle. The healthcare provider views images of the patients arm-infrared for general vein location, ultrasound to zero in on the vein of interest-and hits go. The machine takes ...
A twelve-year-old student in Bowmanville Ontario did not want to be vaccinated against hepatitis B. It is a blood-borne disease transmitted by sharing hypodermic needles or promiscuous male homosexuality.
Publication of your online response is subject to the Medical Journal of Australias editorial discretion. You will be notified by email within five working days should your response be accepted.. ...
Dear Editor,. Infectious diseases including HIV and viral hepatitis constitute a major health concern with high prevalences among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Iran (1, 2). IDUs that share needles and syringes and practice sexual behaviors are at risk groups for being infected with blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV (3). The recent increasing use of opioids in Iran has been strongly associated with health-related harms (4) including transmitting HIV, HCV, and HBV infections (5-9). In 2005, a new illicit opioid, named as Norjizak, was introduced in Irans illicit drug market and it gained popularity in a short period of time and contributed to transmitting blood-borne infectious diseases. Norjizak which is also written as Norjizac, Norgesic, and Norchizack in Iran is a narcotic drug which is a combination of several opioids with Dexamethason or Benzodiazepines (10). Its main route of administration is injection. Norjizak is also used intramuscularly and/or subcutaneously. Its injection ...
Bloodborne Pathogens - Annual Update for Healthcare Produced in the U.S., this award winning and engaging 13 minute DVD uses humor to educate healthcare workers on the basic elements required by OSHAs Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. You can augment the DVD with the comprehensive written material and pre and post tests (included as PDF files on the disk) OR if time is a factor, use the interactive Q&A provided at the end of the DVD. Available at Amazon; $125USF. American content ...
Three-layer fabric construction features a middle layer of microporous film that allows heat and sweat vapor to escape while protecting against dry particulates and liquid. Passes ASTM F1670/1671 testing for penetration of blood, body fluids and blood-bo
In 1994, OSHA issued an interpretation clarifying the applicability of the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard to human cell lines. According to the interpretation, human cell lines are considered to be potentially infectious and within the scope of the BBP Standard unless the specific cell line has been characterized to be free of hepatitis viruses, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, papilloma viruses and other recognized bloodborne pathogens ...