TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury. T2 - Insights from shock-wave research. AU - Nakagawa, Atsuhiro. AU - Manley, Geoffrey T.. AU - Gean, Alisa D.. AU - Ohtani, Kiyonobu. AU - Armonda, Rocco. AU - Tsukamoto, Akira. AU - Yamamoto, Hiroaki. AU - Takayama, Kazuyoshi. AU - Tominaga, Teiji. PY - 2011/6/1. Y1 - 2011/6/1. N2 - Traumatic brain injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four phases: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. These phases of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury phase represents the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four phases of bTBI, there is a remarkable paucity of information about the cause of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shockwaves (SW) has given us insight into the mechanisms of ...
Air blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a significant percentage of military personnel injuries observed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Prevalence of blast-induced TBIs is attributed to several factors, including improved body armor, improved diagnostic techniques, greater awareness, and the increased threat of attack by improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Though the mechanisms of blast-induced TBIs are not fully understood, this is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. The overall goal of the work presented in this report is to explore a possible improvement to the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) liner increasing the protection against blast-induced TBIs. The essential new element is the inclusion of moveable or deformable materials sandwiched within foam to dissipate the blast energy, reduce the peak transmitted pressure, and stretch the blast waveform before it reaches the brain. Filler materials explored in this work include ...
A mouse model of repeated blast exposure was developed using a compressed air-driven shock tube, to study the increase in severity of traumatic brain injury (bTBI) after multiple blast exposures. Isoflurane anesthetized C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 13.9, 20.6, and 25 psi single blast overpressure ( …
Fireworks are devices designed for the purpose of producing a visible or audible effect by combustion, deflagration, or detonation.1 Every year, US residents celebrate the Fourth of July and other festive occasions with fireworks. As a result, in 1999, an estimated 8500 individuals, approximately 45% of them children younger than 15 years, sustained fireworks-related injuries requiring emergency medical treatment.2,,3 Since 1994, the annual number of people receiving emergency medical treatment for fireworks-related injuries has decreased by about one third.3,,4 The hands (40%), eyes (20%), and head and face (20%) are the body areas most often involved.2 About one third of eye injuries from fireworks result in permanent blindness.5 Burns account for more than half of fireworks-related injuries,2 and lacerations, contusions, and abrasions are also common.1,,26-8 During 1999, 16 people died as a result of injuries associated with fireworks.2. Under regulations promulgated by the US Consumer ...
Commonest organ injured primary blast injuries is a Lung Liverc Spleend Ski Lung is the most common organ damaged in an air blast injury.Reference:1. Disasters and Public Health By Clements, 2009, Pages 66-672. The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology By Dr K S Nara
Blast injury: Blast injury,, any injury caused by a pressure wave such as that following an explosion. Blast injuries may be inflicted by such waves traveling in gases, liquids, or solids.
Among the U.S. military personnel, blast injury is among the leading causes of brain injury. During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms and long-term cognitive disability. Blast injury is characterized by blast overpressure (BOP), blast duration, and blast impulse. While the blast injuries of a victim close to the explosion will be severe, majority of victims are usually at a distance leading to milder form described as mild blast TBI (mbTBI). A major feature of mbTBI is its complex manifestation occurring in concert at different organ levels involving systemic, cerebral, neuronal and neuropsychiatric responses; some of which are shared with other forms of brain trauma such as acute brain injury and other neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. The pathophysiology of blast injury exposure involves complex cascades of chronic psychological stress,
Auf der Heide E. Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination.. Quenemoen LE, Davis, YM, Malilay J, Sinks T, Noji EK, and Klitzman S. The World Trade Center bombing: injury prevention strategies for high-rise building fires. Disasters 1996;20:125-32.. Wightman JM and Gladish SL. Explosions and blast injuries. Annals of Emergency Medicine; June 2001; 37(6): 664-p678.. Stein M and Hirshberg A. Trauma Care in the New Millinium: Medical Consequences of Terrorism, the Conventional Weapon Threat. Surgical Clinics of North America. Dec 1999; Vol 79 (6).. Phillips YY. Primary Blast Injuries. Annals of Emergency Medicine; 1986, Dec; 106 (15); 1446-50.. Hogan D, et al. Emergency Department Impact of the Oklahoma City Terrorist Bombing. Annals of Emergency Medicine; August 1999; 34 (2), pp. Mallonee S, et al. Physical Injuries and Fatalities Resulting From the Oklahoma City Bombing. Journal of the American Medical Association; ...
ABSTRACT BLAST-INDUCED TINNITUS: A COMBINED BEHAVIORAL, MEMRE, AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY STUDY by JESSICA OUYANG May 2014 Advisor: Drs. Steve Cala & Jinsheng Zhang Major: Physiology Degree: Doctor of Philosophy Tinnitus and hearing loss are the frequent auditory-related co-morbidities of blast trauma. The etiology of blast-induced tinnitus is also muddled by brain mechanisms associated with emotional and cognitive problems such as anxiety, memory loss, and depression. We set out to develop a realistic and ecologically valid model to address changes of cognitive status and psychological state that are associated with blast- induced tinnitus. In this study, 19 adult rats were randomly divided into the sham group (n=6) and the blast group (n=13). Blast exposure (14 psi) was conducted via a shock wave tube to expose the left ears of the rats in the blast group, and a sham exposure was conducted to the rats in the sham group. Blast-induced tinnitus was evaluated with gap detection and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI)
In an instant, an explosion or blast can wreck havoc; producing numerous casualties with complex, technically challenging injuries not commonly seen after natural disasters such as floods or hurricanes.. To address this issue, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with partners from the Terrorism Injuries Information, Dissemination and Exchange (TIIDE) Project, as well as other experts in the field, have developed fact sheets for health care providers that provide detailed information on the treatment of blast injuries.. The fact sheet addresses background, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management and disposition of blast injury topics.. ...
Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake.
Because blast waves and direct impact affect the head in fundamentally different ways, armor systems that are designed to protect soldiers from impacts and projectiles may not be optimal for blast wave protection. The team studied how helmets and their suspension systems influence the blast-induced mechanical loads in the brain. They looked at two common systems: a nylon web system formerly used in the Personnel Armor Systems Ground Troops infantry helmet and viscoelastic foam pads like those in advanced combat helmets. Both helmets were modeled as hemi-ellipsoidal Kevlar shells ...
Neurotrauma can occur due to the mechanisms of one or more blast injury categories. Bleeding from injured organs such as lungs or bowel causes a lack of oxygen in all vital organs, including the brain. Damage of the lungs reduces the surface for oxygen uptake from the air, reducing the amount of the oxygen delivered to the brain. Tissue destruction initiates the synthesis and release of hormones or mediators into the blood which, when delivered to the brain, change its function. Irritation of the nerve endings in injured peripheral tissue and/or organs also significantly contributes to blast-induced neurotrauma. Individuals exposed to blasts frequently have loss of memory for events before and after explosion, confusion, headache, impaired sense of reality, and reduced decision-making ability. Patients with brain injuries acquired in explosions often develop sudden, unexpected brain swelling and cerebral vasospasm despite continuous monitoring. However, the first symptoms of blast-induced ...
Twelve patients who were treated for ear injuries at Guys Hospital following the London Bridge bomb blast in February 1992 were reviewed. Among three there were four perforated eardrums, two of which closed spontaneously (50%). All three patients had a persistent mixed hearing loss. The remaining nine patients had acute sensorineural hearing loss and/or tinnitus only. Four of these had resolved completely by 4h, another one by 48h, and two by 4 weeks. Two patients had a residual high frequency hearing loss. In total, five patients (42%) have a persistent hearing loss. None of the patients suffered from balance problems. In summary, the ear is very susceptible to bomb blast injury, but there is a high rate of spontaneous closure of perforations and improvement of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus.. ...
Blast-induced tinnitus, along with associated auditory impairment and traumatic brain injury, is a primary concern facing military service members. To search for treatment, we investigated the therapeutic effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, given its vasodilatory effects and evidence suggesting its beneficial effects on noise-induced hearing loss. Rats were subjected to three consecutive blast exposures at 22 psi and were monitored for tinnitus using a gap-detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm. Hearing thresholds and detection were tested using auditory brainstem responses and prepulse inhibition, respectively. Blasted rats were either treated with sildenafil or tap water following blast exposure, while age-matched sham control rats were treated with sildenafil and no blast exposure. Our results showed that sildenafil did not effectively prevent acute tinnitus onset and hearing impairment. Instead, sildenafil significantly suppressed high-frequency tinnitus from 3 to 6 weeks
This scientific visualization shows the development of Supernova 1987A, from the initial blast observed three decades ago to the luminous ring of material we see today.. The sequence, using data from a computer simulation, begins with the star before it exploded. A ring of material around the star was expelled about 20,000 years before the supernova outburst. A flash of light signals the stellar explosion. The supernova sends a blast wave outward from the dying star. As the blast wave slams into the ring, high-density knots of material become intensely heated and glow brightly, while lower-density gas is blown outward. The computer simulation provides one data set per year, and thus the visualization steps between them at four years per second. Upon reaching the present day, the time development is halted, and the camera circles around the ring to showcase its structure.. ...
This scientific visualization shows the development of Supernova 1987A, from the initial blast observed three decades ago to the luminous ring of material we see today.. The sequence, using data from a computer simulation, begins with the star before it exploded. A ring of material around the star was expelled about 20,000 years before the supernova outburst. A flash of light signals the stellar explosion. The supernova sends a blast wave outward from the dying star. As the blast wave slams into the ring, high-density knots of material become intensely heated and glow brightly, while lower-density gas is blown outward. The computer simulation provides one data set per year, and thus the visualization steps between them at four years per second. Upon reaching the present day, the time development is halted, and the camera circles around the ring to showcase its structure.. ...
Our research should stimulate renewed clinical interest in developing glucocorticoid therapies to treat blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and other disorders of the central nervous system, Morrison says. His findings also hold important implications for military personnel exposed to blast injury. We may be able to improve outcomes in brain-injured soldiers and civilians, he continues, and reduce the length of their mandatory rest periods before returning to duty, making the difference between requiring only days rather than weeks or longer to recover.. This improvement could be a significant result, as there are currently no approved pharmaceutical therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and recently completed clinical trials have not demonstrated any benefit of other tested neuro-protective interventions. For patients with head injuries (non-blast related) and brain edema, doctors have been prescribing glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones, as standard treatment for ...
Explosion is responsible for almost 80% of Coalition injuries in todays conflicts. Haemorrhage is the leading cause of death and blast lung injury is evident in 11% of Coalition casualties surviving to reach the (UK) Field Hospital. Military prehospital evacuation times can be prolonged and the combined insults of haemorrhage and blast injury present a double hit to oxygen delivery. Resuscitation strategies must be capable of preserving life from such trauma for several hours. Alongside fluid therapy, adjuncts to resuscitation might improve battlefield survival. This randomized controlled animal trial assessed two adjuncts: supplemental inspired oxygen and recombinant activated Factor VII (rFVIIa). Neither adjunct is currently available in the far-forward military echelon, but with modern technology, both are potentially deployable. 18 terminally anaesthetized swine were exposed to blast, controlled haemorrhage and grade IV liver laceration (uncontrolled haemorrhage). Animals were allocated ...
Thesis, English, Evaluation of the outcome of blast injuries presented to emergency department in suez canal university hospitals for El Sayed Emad Eldin Abd Elgawad
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the signature wound of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conservative estimates put the number of U.S. warfighters who have experienced TBI at more than 200,000. Battlefield medical personnel today rely on visual signs and the personal accounts of patients to alert them to the possibility of TBI. The DARPA Blast Gauge provides a quantitative means for measuring blast related exposure, thus providing a mechanism for medical personnel to better identify those at risk for TBI. The gauge collects quantitative data to provide medics with a screening tool and data for uncovering the mechanisms of TBI.. During a recent engagement, a Soldier suffered a shrapnel injury and did not report a blast exposure to the medic treating his visible wounds. The medic opted to check the Blast Gauges on the Soldier; which told the real story. The Soldiers gauges displayed yellow lights, indicating a moderate exposure occurred during the engagement. In response, the medics downloaded ...
Dr Cullen presented his research on blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and the development of a nanomaterial containing photonic crystals that change color upon exposure to blast pressure.. In the same way that a radiation dosimeter badge records exposure to cumulative radiation for a hospital worker, so a helmet-mounted color badge would change color based on a soldiers exposure to blast pressure; a common occurrence with improvised explosive devices (IED).. In a paper published in NeuroImage, Cullen and colleagues describe in detail a blast-injury dosimeter (BID) made from photosensitive polymers that is like a colored sticker. This nanomaterial contains microscopic, diamond-like photonic crystals, whose ability to refract light is damaged in a precise way by the pressure from explosive blasts.. The result is a change in color that is related to the degree of pressure and blast intensity. Whats more because the photonic crystals are structurally damaged by the blast, further ...
The most frequent injury sustained by U.S. service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. We measured circulating hormone levels and accessed demographic and testing data from two groups of male veterans with hazardous duty experience in Iraq or Afghanistan. Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussions. Members of the deployment control (DC) group encountered similar deployment conditions but had no history of blast-related mTBI. Twelve of 39 (31%) of the mTBI participants and three of 20 (15%) veterans in the DC group screened positive for one or
Purpose: To determine if treatment with non-medicated eye drops immediately after blast exposure reduces both corneal and retinal pathology.. Methods: We exposed the left eyes of 3 month-old DBA/2J mice to a single, 26psi blast of compressed air and provided a subset of mice with non-medicated eye drops (treated). Mice were collected at 3 and 28 days post-injury. All eyes were cryo-embedded, sectioned and labeled with antibodies against GFAP, Iba1, nitrotyrosine and TUNEL. Additional sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to examine structure. Optic nerves were embedded in resin, sectioned and stained with p-phenylenediamine.. Results: The majority (90%) of untreated (blast exposed, no eye drops) corneas contained numerous pathologies (edema, hyphema, neovascularization), while only about 10% of corneas from treated eyes were edematous. Immune infiltrate were present in both the anterior and posterior chamber of untreated eyes but was limited to the subretinal space in treated eyes. ...
In blast-induced traumatic brain injury, shock waves (SW) play an important role along with cavitation phenomena. Due to the lack of reliable and reproducible experimental investigations, we have a limited understanding of the role of cavitation in brain damage. The present study aims to develop an atomistic simulation model to determine the role of shock-induced impulse and different constituents of the brains extra-cellular matrix (ECM) on the formation mechanism, stability and collapsing mechanism of nanobubbles in the ECM. The ECM in the brain can be divided into three major types depending on their location behind the blood-brain barrier, namely (a) the basement membrane (basal lamina), (b) the perineuronal nets and (3) the neural interstitial matrix. In this paper, we have studied the interaction of nanobubbles with bio-molecules of the perineuronal nets. We have chosen this zone of the ECM because we are interested to obtain the role of cavitation bubble collapse in neuron damage. Most ...
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM S09.31 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Diagnosis Code S27.312 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Diagnosis Code S27.312A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Jonathan Eisenberg, MD. As a child, my father told me a story about his neighbor who had a mishap with a firecracker and blew off the second through fourth digits. He would then hold out his thumb and pinky and wave to me. This scared me to such an extent that I still have never lit a firecracker, even during my less frontal lobe-oriented teen years. I now think that this story was a fabrication-but it is not that far off from its realistic basis.. Fireworks are most popular during the month surrounding July 4thin the US. These colorful combustibles have been around in the US since July 4th, 1777, and we spend more than $700 million dollars per year on them. There are many varieties and categories from novelty and daytime fireworks (both generally have smaller explosions) to the larger aerial fireworks and a host of nuanced state laws which allow for an all, some, or none approach to sales.. Although young adults 20-24 have the highest rate of injury, children younger than 15 accounted for 31% ...
1 June 1980 Explosive device ,Kuwait Oil Co., New Bond Street, London ,- 12 October 1980 Explosive device ,Turkish Tourist Office, London ,- 12 October 1980 Explosive device ,Swissair Office, Leicester Square, London ,- 15 December 1980 Explosive device ,French Tourist Board, Piccadilly, London ,- 15 December 1980 Explosive device ,French Railways Office, Piccadilly, London ,- 28 December 1980 Explosive device ,Libyan Airline Office, Piccadilly, London ,- 23 June 1981 Kidnap ,Kidnap of daughter of Saudi General ,- 7 September 1981 ,Attack on Iranian Consulate ,- 13 December 1981 Car bomb ,Connaught Square, London ,Two dead, one injured 26 February 1982 Hijack ,Stansted, Essex ,- 14 March 1982 Explosive device ,London ,- 3 June 1982 Shooting ,Israeli Ambassador Argov shot Park Lane, London W1, ,plus find of bombs and weapons (N) ,Two injured (includes ,one terrorist) 31 July 1982 Explosive device ,Middle East newspaper office, Cough Street, London ,- 9 September 1982 Explosive device ,Lancaster ...
Ten years. Ten years since I have started meeting with victims of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions in Laos, Cambodia, Lebanon, and Colombia.Ten years I have witnessed the ravaged bodies and...
Mild traumatic brain injury after blast exposure produces inflammation, oxidative stress and gene activation patterns that are similar to disorders of memory processing.
Fireworks-related eye injuries occur all over the world whenever fireworks are available for the public. The two prospective registers from Finland over 20 years and from the Netherlands over 10 years have tracked the effect of regulations, awareness, and safety campaigns. The incidence of fireworks-related injuries in these two countries has been reduced to about one half during the last 10 years through addressing the number of hours allowed for private fireworks, the use of safety glasses, awareness campaigns, and stricter regulations on fireworks available for purchase. Although the total number of injuries has decreased, the average severity of eye injuries in the Netherlands seems to have increased due to higher content of gunpowder in fireworks. Boys and young men are mainly affected as well as bystanders who account for more than half of fireworks-related eye injuries. More work on safety of fireworks is still needed through regulating private consumer use of fireworks, a challenge that ...
Figure 17: Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Blast-Induced Vibration for Short-Delay Cut Blasting in Underground Mining
Fortunately, there are solutions. UNICEF works to teach children and their families how to live safely in contaminated areas until the lethal threat can be cleared permanently. Partnership is key to long-term solutions, and so UNICEF works with states, non-state actors, other UN agencies, civil-society and other international organisations. Generally called Mine Risk Education, or MRE, UNICEF also supports the survivors of ERW incidents, and others who are injured and disabled. Most important to a long term solution, many of these weapons now are banned. UNICEF has been, and remains, a strong advocate of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention and the Convention on Cluster Munitions - the two most successful examples of humanitarian disarmament in recent times. We advocate for the Optional Protocol to the CRC on Children and Armed Conflict, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. These are critical tools for protecting children ...
This security poster illustrates the M18A1 United States Anti-Personnel Mine. This directional mine is also known as the Claymore and is extensively copied. The mine features scissor legs for deployment and a convex body with the lettering, Front Towards Enemy. While this anti-personnel mine is generally command wire activated, it can also be used with a trip wire. This security poster features a sectioned M18A1 Claymore mine with firing device M57, test set M40 and blasting cap M4, the top view of an early M18A1 with a moulded in peephole sight, the back view of the M18A1, with the peep sight, and the mine packed into the M7 Bandoleer as well as the M7s other contents. The security poster also contains the technical specifications of the M18A1 anti-personnel Mine, a diagram of the effects of an M18A1, and the markings on a South Korean M18A1.. ...
The mean age of the 25 children admitted was 9.4 years (SD 2.9 years, range 3 - 12 years). Reasons for admission were injuries to the hands, face and eye. Placement included admission to the trauma ward, burns unit and ophthalmology ward, and one child was admitted to the ICU. Surgical intervention for the injuries was required in 21 cases. Information about duration of hospital stay was available in 80% of cases. The mean length of hospitalisation was 3.5±3.2 days. None of the patients seen died from their injuries. Discussion. Despite the annual outcry over the indiscriminate use of fireworks during festive periods and the concomitant cruelty to animals, very little is known or has been published about injuries sustained by humans in South Africa.5,6 Children, because of their inquisitive nature and the excitement surrounding fireworks, are particularly vulnerable. They also cannot readily appreciate the dangers involved or act decisively in an emergency, hence their susceptibility to ...
As Halloween approaches and the tradition of setting off fireworks is inevitable the chance of serious injury to revelers is always a concern. A revealing article in the American Academy of Ophthalmology gives a clear picture of the perils of using fireworks especially if the participants do not take appropriate precautions. Serious injury to the limbs and the eyes (including corneal abrasions, the development of traumatic cataracts and retinal detachments) can occur and are unfortunately all to commonplace. There are however safety precautions, which can be followed to greatly reduce the risk of injury. For some great advice on making Halloween pop and keeping it safe click on the following link http://www.aao.org/newsroom/release/20130619.cfm. Sign up for the Anderson Eye Surgery RSS Feed to be notified when new content is available. ...
Blast lung injuries (BLI) caused by blast waves are extremely critical in the prehospital setting, and hypotension is thought to be the main cause of death in such cases. The present study aimed to elucidate the pathophysiology of severe BLI using laser-induced shock wave (LISW) and identify the initial treatment. The current investigation comprised two parts. For the validation study, mice were randomly allocated to groups that received a single shot of 1.2, 1.3, or 1.4 J/cm2 LISW to both lungs. The survival rates, systolic blood pressure (sBP), heart rate (HR), peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and shock index were monitored for 60 min, and lung tissues were analyzed histopathologically. The study evaluated the effects of catecholamines as follows. Randomly assigned mice received 1.4 J/cm2 LISW followed by the immediate intraperitoneal administration of dobutamine, noradrenalin, or normal saline. The primary outcome was the survival rate. Additionally, sBP, HR, SpO2, and the shock index were
Fireworks are fun but dangerous. Although New Jersey passed new legislation in 2017 regarding the purchase, sale or use of sparklers and ground based novelty items, keep in mind these items may reach temperatures of 1500 degrees, easily igniting clothing or burning fingers.
The amazing HeroRATs, a corps of specially trained mine- and TB-sniffing rats, were created by a Dutch NGO called the Anti-Personnel Landmines Removal Product, or APOPO. It was founded in 1997 by Bart Weetjens, a Belgian product designer, who was searching for a more affordable way to help Africans clear landmines. He knew that rats-specifically, African giant pouched rats-are intelligent, social creatures with a keen sense of smell, and reasoned that they could be trained to detect buried landmines, small arms, and leftover unexploded ordnance.. The first HeroRats went to work in Mozambique in 2003 as trials, and passed testing in 2005. By 2006 APOPO had a brigade of HeroRATs. Today, there are 111 HeroRATs deployed in Tanzania, with a further 23 in Angola and 16 in Mozambique.. Common in sub-Saharan Africa, African giant pouched rats are one of the worlds largest rodents: they measure almost three feet in length and weigh about four pounds. They live up to eight years and are resistant to ...
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A dead Briton found near his burning yacht had injuries consistent with an explosion, authorities on the eastern Caribbean island of St Vincent say.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cognitive and neurophysiological effects of chronic exposure to repeated low-level blast overpressure. Previous studies show converging evidence for a neurophysiological effect from cumulative exposure to blast, which is consistent with subjective reports of cognitive impairment by individuals trained to use explosives to gain entry to structures (breachers). This study will expand on these findings by examining a larger cohort of experienced breachers who may be incurring a cumulative effect of low-level blast exposure over the course of several years. We will evaluate up to 20 participants from each of three groups: breachers, artillery control personnel, and unexposed individuals. Additionally, we will ask each of the above to bring a close companion for a set of questionnaires and an interview to capture changes in functioning that participants may not be able to self-assess. Participants will travel to the NIH for evaluation of cognitive and ...
Biomedical engineers at Johns Hopkins have developed a new liquid material that in early experiments in rats and humans shows promise in restoring damaged
The goal of this project is to determine the effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and blast exposure on the vestibular system and CNS. Dizziness and balance disorders are common symptoms associated with mTBI or head injury. Numerous studies have provided significant evidence that mTBI or head injury can cause damage to the vestibular system; however, most have limited the vestibular evaluation to assessment of horizontal semicircular canal function. Recently, methods have been developed to assess otolith function, and there is some evidence that head injury may affect the otolith organs to a greater degree than the semicircular canals.. mTBI has been called the signature condition of Veterans returning from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), and the cause is often related to blast exposure from improvised explosive devices, mortars or rocket-propelled grenades. Some investigators have presumed that dizziness and balance disorders following blast exposure are ...
Visual prognosis after an open globe injury is typically worse than after a closed globe injury due, in part, to the immune response that ensues following open globe trauma. There is a need for an animal model of open globe injury in order to investigate mechanisms of vision loss and test potential therapeutics. The left eyes of DBA/2 J mice were exposed to an overpressure airwave blast. This strain lacks a fully functional ocular immune privilege, so even though the blast wave does not rupture the globe, immune infiltrate and neuroinflammation occurs as it would in an open globe injury. For the first month after blast wave exposure, the gross pathology, intraocular pressure, visual function, and retinal integrity of the blast-exposed eyes were monitored. Eyes were collected at three, seven, and 28 days to study the histology of the cornea, retina, and optic nerve, and perform immunohistochemical labeling with markers of cell death, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The overpressure airwave caused
Military servicemen and women who are exposed to blast shockwaves may end up with hidden scars on their brains that cant be picked up by most brain imaging techniques, according to a new study in the journal Lancet. As a result, their injuries are likely to go undiagnosed, and quite possibly untreated as well.. In a statement, lead researcher Daniel Perl explained that blast-related brain injuries are the signature injury of modern military conflicts. Paradoxically, however, despite the high prevalence of cognitive impairment experienced by military personnel who are exposed to these shockwaves, routine imaging for blast-related traumatic brain injury often shows no brain abnormalities.. Previous research has led to several theories regarding how shockwaves cause the types of symptoms that soldiers tend to suffer after being caught up in bomb blasts. For example, one study earlier this year provided evidence that these shockwaves cause tiny bubbles to form and then burst in the ...
Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and ...
A formal training program with theoretical and practical components is essential for all emergency medical personnel involved in providing care for critically injured patients. Communication, effective first aid, and on time transportation to a health center play a major role in improving quality of care for critically injured patients. Using life experience examples, participants in the study emphasized the importance of each factor on the delivery of quality care for critically injured patients. Recommendations based on the study findings included two main categories. The first category illustrated recommendations to stakeholders, and the second category reflected recommendations for further study. Stakeholders in this study included healthcare leaders in Afghanistan, healthcare professionals involved in providing health care in Afghanistan, and local people in Afghanistan. The modified van Kaam method in the qualitative phenomenological study involved conducting semistructured interviews, which
SUNDAY, June 30, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- As communities across America enjoy fireworks this July Fourth, folks should keep eye safety in mind.. The number of eye injuries caused by fireworks nearly doubled from 2016 to 2017, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) is urging Americans to take proper safety precautions this holiday.. Fireworks-related eye injuries rose from 700 in 2016 to 1,200 in 2017, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Those injuries included ruptured eyeballs and damaged corneas and retinas.. An average of 280 people a day will go to the emergency room with fireworks-related injuries during the two weeks before and after July Fourth, said Dr. Dianna Seldomridge, clinical spokesperson for the AAO.. Dont be a part of these alarming statistics. Learn how to protect yourself and your children, she urged in an AAO news release.. Most injuries are caused by legal fireworks that parents buy for their children, including sparklers, firecrackers, ...
In this thesis, Palaeogene pressure data collected from over 300 offshore wells in the UK, Norwegian and Danish sectors of the North Sea are analysed. Regional overpressure distributions within individual Palaeocene and Eocene sandstone members are mapped across the Central North Sea, and lateral fluid flow pathways are interpreted within each individual sandstone member. Drainage within the older Maureen, Mey and Forties sandstone members is found to be predominantly south-east to north-west, with additional westwards drainage observed within the Mey and Forties sands, where smaller lateral fans fed into the basin from the Western Platform. Overpressure distributions within the Cromarty and Tay sandstone members indicate drainage westwards, where fluids probably escape through shelfal sandstones of the Mousa and Dornoch formations ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuroimaging in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. AU - Mu, Weiya. AU - Catenaccio, Eva. AU - Lipton, Michael L.. PY - 2016/3/28. Y1 - 2016/3/28. N2 - OBJECTIVE:: To summarize imaging findings in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. DESIGN:: Our structured review of the literature yielded 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), 18 diffusion tensor imaging, 9 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 3 positron emission tomography, 4 magnetoencephalography, 2 electroencephalography, and 1 single-positron emission computerized tomography studies. RESULTS:: Four of the 5 sMRI studies reported decreased cortical thickness and decreased thalamus and amygdala volume. Diffusion tensor imaging studies showed abnormal diffusion within white matter tracts commonly associated with traumatic brain injury, including the corpus callosum (8 of the 18) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (8 of the 18). Resting-state fMRI studies reported a variety of functional network ...
NUCLEAR SURVIVAL MANUAL BOSDEC The Concrete Curtain JAMES R. FAIRLAMB From the collection of the z n z m o PreTinger I a v AJibrary San Francisco, California 2006 NUCLEAR SURVIVAL MANUAL BOSDEC - The Concrete Curtain NUCLEAR SURVIVAL MANUAL BOSDEC - THE CONCRETE CURTAIN BY JAMES R. FAIRLAMB FIRST EDITION PUBLISHERS DREXEL WINSLOW & FARRINGTON P. O. BOX 55 BUTLER, N. J. COPYRIGHT, JAMES R. FAIRLAMB 1963 All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or parts thereof in any form in any language. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 63-21932 Printed in the United States of America TKe Colonial Press Inc. Clinton, Mass. CONTENTS INDEX GUIDE PAGE Dedication 19 Foreword 21 CHAPTER 1 Surviving Immediate Effects of a Nuclear Explosion 27 SURVIVAL FOR ONE MINUTE THERMAL RADIATION Flash Fireball heat Afterwinds Firestorms Vaporization INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION BLAST Overpressure Air blast Mach front Blast wave Overpressure and wind velocity decay Blast winds Ground shock and Shockwaves ...
Scientists are engineering a real-life Mighty Mouse that will scurry through fields sniffing out hidden landmines thanks to olfactory superpowers.. The researchers, at Hunter College of the City University of New York, have genetically engineered the animals to be 500 times better equipped than their normal counterparts to sniff out landmine explosives. They hope that these hero mice could warn of buried bombs.. Hidden landmines are a deadly reality in nearly 70 countries globally, and detection and removal are expensive and dangerous. Currently, metal detectors, radar, magnetometers, and sniffer dogs are used to search for them.. A Belgian organization called APOPO already uses giant African pouched rats as a cheaper way to sniff out landmines. The rats are not genetically modified, but their sense of smell is sharp enough to detect TNT. The bomb-sniffing rats are taught to scratch the ground when they detect a hidden mine (fortunately, they are small enough not to set off the explosives). ...
The U.S. Department of Defense recently announced the development of databases that will be used to track brain injury cases. The databases will allow doctors and military officials to diagnose and treat injured soldiers from the battlefield to the hospital and back home. Adam Robinson, a Vice Admiral and the Navys surgeon general, announced the creation of a spreadsheet for the Marine Corps to report blast injuries. The announcement took place before the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Military Personnel on April 13, 2010, according to a Next Gov article.. After any head or blast injury takes place in combat zones, data on the soldier and the injury in question is entered into a permanent spreadsheet stored in the database to assist caregivers and military officials in better evaluating, treating, and following up with every soldier who has endured a potential brain injury, including those soldiers who may not have reported their own injuries to authorities.. The Marine Corps also ...
Thursday, August 2, 2012 A chemical sensing system developed by engineers at the University of Connecticut is believed to be the first of its kind capable of detecting vapors from buried landmines and other explosive devices with the naked eye rather than advanced scientific instrumentation.. The research was first reported in the May 11, 2012 online edition of Advanced Functional Materials.. The key to the system is a fluorescent nanofiberous film that can detect ultra-trace levels of explosive vapors and buried explosives when applied to an area where explosives are suspected. A chemical reaction marking the location of the explosive device occurs when the film is exposed to handheld ultraviolet light.. The system can detect nitroaromatics such as those found in TNT and 2,4-DNT (the militarys primary explosive and the principle components in landmines) as well as the elements used in harder to detect plastic explosives such as HMX, RDX, Tetryl, and PETN. The ultra-sensitive system can detect ...
Fireworks-related eye injuries occur all over the world whenever fireworks are available for the public. The two prospective registers from Finland
Eye injuries affect approximately two million people annually. Various experimental studies have been performed to evaluate potentially injurious conditions from blunt objects using animal and human cadaver eyes. Experimental data from these studies have been used to develop injury risk curves to predict eye injuries based on projectile parameters such as kinetic energy and normalized energy. Recently, intraocular pressure (IOP) has been correlated to injury risk, which allows eye injuries to be predicted if projectile characteristics are unknown. Additionally, the measurement of IOP and the association of IOP to injury risk in experimental tests has opened up the field to studying eye injury mechanisms from overpressure. The current manuscript presents recent experimental tests that evaluated the response of human cadaver eyes exposed to firework overpressure. Consumer fireworks serve as a model of low level blast, and provides a foundation to studying higher blast overpressures (i.e., that ...
4 April 2010 - Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today called for continued efforts to rid the world of landmines and explosive remnants of war, and lauded mine action workers for their dedication despite the dangers posed by the indiscriminate weapons. Let us rededicate ourselves to this life-saving cause so that our children can live on a planet free from the threats caused by landmines and explosive remnants of war, Mr. Ban said in a message on the International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action. The Secretary-General said mines and unexploded ordnance clog roads in Afghanistan, Sudan, Cambodia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). They block access to schools and hospitals in Laos, Gaza and Nepal. The weapons continue to cause grievous injuries and death, hamper reconstruction in post-conflict zones, damage the environment and prevent economic development long after conflicts have ended, Mr. Ban said, noting, however, that the campaign against them was bearing ...
Even a single mild explosion can cause changes in the brain that have similarities to those found in diseases like Alzheimers disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy reveals a new study.
Current understanding of porosity preservation in deeply buried sandstone reservoirs tends to be focused on how diagenetic grain coatings of clay minerals and microquartz can inhibit macroquartz cementation. However, the importance of overpressure developed during initial (shallow) burial in maintaining high primary porosity during subsequent burial has generally not been appreciated. Where pore fluid pressures are high, and the vertical effective stress is low, the shallow arrest of compaction can allow preservation of high porosity and permeability at depths normally considered uneconomic. The deeply buried fluvial sandstone reservoirs of the Triassic Skagerrak Formation in the Central Graben, North Sea, show anomalously high porosities at depths greater than 3500 metres below sea floor (mbsf). Pore pressures can exceed 80 MPa in the upper part of the Skagerrak Formation at depths of 4000-5000 mbsf, where temperatures are above 140°C. The Skagerrak reservoirs commonly have high primary ...
Read chapter Front Matter: Since the United States began combat operations in Afghanistan in October 2001 and then in Iraq in March 2003, the numbers of U...
Permanent scarring, loss of vision, dismemberment - these are too often the harsh realities of amateur fireworks use. To keep the public safe from fireworks-related injuries and deaths, NFPA urges everyone to treat fireworks, whether legal or illegal for consumers, as suitable only for use by trained professionals.
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. - More than half of all combat-related injuries sustained by U.S. troops are the result of explosions, and many of those involve injuries to the head. According to the U.S. Department of Defense, about 130,000 U.S. service members deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained traumatic brain injuries - ranging from concussion to long-term brain damage and death - as a result of an explosion. Raul Radovitzky, an associate professor in MITs Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, is among the researchers looking at ways to prevent these injuries. In a paper published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, he and his colleagues report that adding a face shield to the standard-issue helmet worn by the vast majority of U.S. ground troops could significantly reduce traumatic brain injury, or TBI. The extra protection offered by such a shield is critical, the researchers say, because the face is the main pathway through which pressure waves from an ...
The views, opinions, conclusions and other information expressed in this document are not given nor necessarily endorsed by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) unless the OSCE is explicitly defined as the Author of this document.. ...
The brains of some Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans who survived blasts from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and died later of other causes show a distinctive honeycomb pattern of broken and swollen nerve fibers throughout critical brain regions, including those that control executive function. The pattern is different from brain damage caused by car crashes, drug overdoses or collision sports, and may be the never-before-reported signature of blast injuries suffered by soldiers as far back as World War I
Blast-related ocular trauma comprises a specialized group of penetrating and blunt force injuries to the eye and its structure caused by the detonation of explosive materials. The incidence of ocular trauma due to blast forces has increased dramatically with the introduction of new explosives technology into modern warfare. The availability of these volatile materials, coupled with the tactics of contemporary terrorism, has caused a rise in the number of homemade bombs capable of extreme physical harm. The United States Department of Defense classifies IEDs as explosive machines that are constructed exclusively (i.e., without mass production) and result in the direct physical harm of surrounding individuals. The use of these bombs by insurgents has been the number one cause of death and injury among Coalition soldiers since the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom in April 2003. Detonation of the IED occurs remotely or as victim-induced mechanical disturbance. Further classification of IEDs falls ...
This report presents cases which involve training in-service and future teachers in either occupational safety and health (OSH) or in delivering risk education . Ideally, all teachers should receive training about OSH in their working lives and how to incorporate risk education into their daily work. If getting risk education properly embedded in the school curriculum is challenging, then it is even more difficult to get it into training programmes for future teachers. However, the cases present various approaches and methods that could be considered or elaborated upon.
Using Bees for Landmine Detection: How It Works. Bees have an acute sense of smell, which enables them to find food. Taking advantage of this trait, a group of scientists, led by Jerry Bromenshenk and Joseph Shaw, have conditioned bees to interpret the scent of chemicals used in explosives as food. The association is established by adding traces of explosive by-products to bee feed.. Once the bees have been conditioned, the hungry swarm is let loose and tracked using lidar, a type of remote sensing that uses laser light. This technique is similar to sonar, which uses sound, and radar, which uses radio waves for tracking purposes.. Conditioned bees have shown a 97% or greater accuracy in finding landmines. Using similar conditioning methods, bees can also be used to detect bombs, drugs, and decomposing bodies. Although promising, the honey bee technique is subject to a couple of limitations:. ...
Dynasafe carry out unexploded ordnance surveys (UXO survey). They use a number of techniques to include, technical/non-technical & intrusive/non-intrusive.
Background: Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (VBIEDs) pose complex security challenges for all sectors. To reduce vulnerabilities from an attack using VBIEDs, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office for Bombing Prevention (OBP) recommends the protective measures listed below.. Scope: The principle objectives for implementing protective measures are to complicate attack planning and surveillance, protect potential targets, and mitigate the risk of attack. An effective approach should consider these phases:. a) Prevention. b) Assessment and Detection. c) Response. Prevention Phase. Security procedures that complicate attack planning and execution, increase public and responder safety in threat situations and promote consistent reporting of suspicious activities and vehicles.. • Establish a public awareness and vigilance campaign that re-enforces public awareness of a looming threat ...
A Trail man was arrested on numerous charges Thursday night after plowing into a bank of mailboxes north of Shady Cove while fleeing from police with an improvised explosive device in his car, authorities allege.Robert Phillip Tallman, 30, was driving a blue 1995 Pontiac Firebird with no license plate on Meadow Lane near Highway 62 when a Jackson County sheriffs deputy tried to pull him over at about 10:20 p.m., according to a sheriffs office release.Tallman fled for a short distance before
Approximately 35 percent of the energy from a nuclear explosion is an intense burst of thermal radiation, i.e., heat. The effects are similar to the effect of a two-second flash from an enormous sunlamp. Since the thermal radiation travels at roughly the speed of light, the flash of light and heat precedes the blast wave by several seconds, just as lightning is seen before thunder is heard.. The visible light will produce flashblindness in people who are looking in the direction of the explosion. Flashblindness can last for several minutes, after which recovery is total. If the flash is focused through the lens of the eye, a permanent retinal burn will result. At Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were many cases of flashblindness, but only one case of retinal burn, among the survivors. On the other hand, anyone flashblinded while driving a car could easiIy cause permanent injury to himself and to others.. Skin burns result from higher intensities of light, and therefore take place closer to the ...
Bottle rockets can cause significant eye injuries in children, often leading to permanent loss of vision, according to a report posted online today that will appear in the May print issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.. Of the estimated 9,200 emergency department admissions resulting from fireworks-related injuries each year, about 1,400 cases involve the eyes, according to background information in the article. A disproportionate number of these injuries are caused by bottle rockets. Bottle rockets are about half the size of a normal firework and consist of three main parts: an explosive-filled core, a nose cone that guides the fireworks flight and a guide stick, which stabilizes the rocket. Injuries may result from direct high-velocity contact with the intact rocket, from parts of the rocket that may break off during flight or from neighboring debris propelled by the force of the rockets combustion, the authors write.. Mehnaz Kahn, M.S., and colleagues at ...
The armed conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have brought new realities to military medicine in the types of battlefield injuries experienced by our soldiers, transitioning from the traditional predominance of penetrating wounds to a high proportion of blast injuries leading to multisystem trauma. Another change was a clear victory-startling success to unprecedented heights in the survival of battlefield casualties resulting from a highly coordinated and rapid escalation of care from the conflict theater to definitive life-saving interventions. As these conflicts now wind down, a reasonable question turns to the long-term medical impact to the fighting force to whom we, as a nation, pledge our support in sustaining their care in gratitude for their personal sacrifices. Among injuries exacting a long-term toll, traumatic brain injury has received considerable attention, as it should. However, the impacts of traumatic brain injury tend to be identifiable and relatively immediately apparent. In ...
Living With Landmines By Peter Dudley Published in The Pioneer, Oct. 29, 2005 Twenty kilometres outside the city of Pursat, Cambodia and off the two-lane highway is a place that does not show up on Fodors list of must-sees. A three-hour drive northwest of the capital of Phnom Penh, the small farming community of Svay Chhrum is much like other small villages in Cambodia. The dirt road into the village is rust red and full of potholes. It has not rained in months and in the 39c heat, the earth is cracked and split open. Cattle cross the road at will, oblivious to oncoming traffic.. There was a time when neither human nor beast could walk freely here. Landmines dictated movement. Finally, in 2002, the Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) came and demined the village. The mines may be gone but the consequences remain.. Under the thatched roof of a large open-air hut, a group of villagers converses with each other and the owner of the property, Seng Sopheap. The 37-year-old divorced mother of one sits ...
Research interests and projects in the Neurotrauma labs include:. The neurotrauma has a wide-range of research interests. Some of the projects are translational with the goal of implementing our findings in the lab to patients in the ICU. Two current studies are investigating therapies to reduce neuronal toxicity following traumatic brain injury, especially in the cases where patients have a secondary insult such as ischemia, hypoxia or seizures. Additionally the lab is developing a model of neuromodulation (deep brain stimulation) to see if driving specific areas of the injured brain can restore function. The lab is also collaborating with members of the Lawrence Livermore National Lab to develop a sensor which could be used to better assess the forces involved in mechanical and blast injuries that are prevelant in sports and battle-field related injuries respectively.. The neurotrauma labs along with CBST also have an ongoing collaboration with Banyan Biomarkers Inc. in Gainesville Florida. ...
Fireworks are a July 4th tradition. They can be beautiful, but they can also be dangerous if not handled properly. So instructors at University Hospital are teaching members of the community how to stop the bleed.. Around 280 people visit emergency rooms every day with fireworks-related injuries in the month around the July 4th holiday. Thats according to the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. Burns usually show up on hands, fingers, and legs.. If youre shooting fireworks at your home, its a good idea to know how to apply a tourniquet ...
Due to the increasing interest in the use of biofuels for energy production, it is of great importance to better understand the combustion and thermal decomposition characteristics of species such as aldehydes. These are known to be key intermediate products of transport fossil and bio-fuels combustion and are also dangerous pollutants emitted from combustion in internal combustion engines and from gasification of biomasses. In this study, an experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of propanal, n-butanal and n-pentanal pyrolysis and oxidation in two shock tube facilities was carried out. Experiments were performed in a single pulse shock tube to determine the speciation profiles of the fuels and intermediate species under pyrolysis conditions for mixture of pure propanal/n-butanal/n-pentanal (3%)-Ar (97%), at averaged reflected pressure of 1.9 atm and at reflected shock temperatures of 972-1372 K. Additionally, ignition delay times for mixtures of pure propanal/n-butanal/n-pentanal ...
We are approaching our nations birthday, July 4th, and we hope everyone has a great day of celebration with friends and family. In 2020 over 5,800 people went to the emergency room as a result of fireworks-related injuries. There were an estimated 13,750 reported fires started by fireworks. These fires resulted in an estimated eight reported deaths, and $40 million in direct property damage. This is why it is a good idea to have a free home insurance review and quote, call us today ...
Traumatic Injury is a chapter in the book, Emergency Medicine, containing the following 10 pages: Penetrating Trauma, Motor Vehicle Accident, Trauma Transfer, Near-Hanging, Mass Casualty Incident, Blast Injury, Trauma Evaluation, Trauma History, Secondary Trauma Evaluation, Diagnostic Testing in Trauma.
Traumatic Injury is a chapter in the book, Emergency Medicine, containing the following 9 pages: Trauma Evaluation, Trauma History, Secondary Trauma Evaluation, Diagnostic Testing in Trauma, Penetrating Trauma, Mass Casualty Incident, Blast Injury, Trauma Transfer, Near-Hanging.
On the 4th of July, Marissa Keane, a former Project Manager in the Marketing Department at Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH), was looking forward to relaxing with friends and family at a celebration in a nearby state. Instead, her evening ended with second-degree burns and a visit to an urgent care center.. During the festivities, someone standing near Marissa began waving a sparkler. The motion cast off a spark onto Marissas clothing, which were made of flammable material. Fortunately, Marissa noticed what happened before her blouse completely ignited. Still, she suffered a serious burn on her chest that required medical treatment.. Marissas experience is an important reminder about the dangers of sparklers, an iconic symbol of July 4th celebrations. According to the Consumer Product Safety Commission, fireworks-related injuries result in an average of 240 daily visits to the emergency room in the thirty days surrounding the July 4th holiday. Nearly one-third of these injuries are due to ...
After the Vietnam War, military planners developed a concept of Casualty Reduction.[31] The large body of casualty data made clear that in a combat situation, fragments, not bullets, were the greatest threat to soldiers. After WWII vests were being developed and fragment testing was in its early stages.[32] Artillery shells, mortar shells, aerial bombs, grenades, and antipersonnel mines are all fragmentation devices. They all contain a steel casing that is designed to burst into small steel fragments or shrapnel, when their explosive core detonates. After considerable effort measuring fragment size distribution from various NATO and Soviet Bloc munitions, a fragment test was developed. Fragment simulators were designed and the most common shape is a Right Circular Cylinder or RCC simulator. This shape has a length equal to its diameter. These RCC Fragment Simulation Projectiles (FSPs) are tested as a group. The test series most often includes 2 grain (0.13 g), 4 grain (0.263 g), 16 grain (1.0 ...
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that in the year 2000 about 11,000 people were treated in hospital emergency rooms for fireworks-related injuries. Half of those reported injured were children 14 years and younger. The most common injuries were to the hands, face and eyes. Ten people were reported to have died from their injuries ...
Kano, Nigeria , AFP , Two people were killed when a convoy of civilian vehicles hit landmines in northeast Nigeria, a driver and a local militia member said on Wednesday.. Babakura Kolo, from the Civilian Joint Task Force helping the military with security, said the blasts happened at Koibe village on the Mafa to Dikwa road in Borno state.. In the first incident which occurred around 12:00 pm (1100 GMT) a car carrying five people hit a mine. Two people died and three others sustained injuries, he told AFP.. Three minutes later a truck carrying passengers hit another explosive, resulting in the several injuries among the passengers. It is not clear how many people were wounded.. A driver who gave his name only as Umar corroborated the account.. The vehicles were under military escort and heading from the Borno state capital to Dikwa 90 kilometres (50 miles) away at the time.. Nigerias military has said roads are reopened to traffic in and out of Maiduguri but many routes still require ...
When a casualty steps on a blast mine or is very close to an explosive charge, the explosive force travels up the leg/limb of the casualty stripping skin, fascia, and muscle off the bone. This is similar to blunt dissecting in medicine, where we use fingers or a hand to separate tissue along fascial plains. How is this important to casualty management? The partially detached skin, muscle, and fascia expand up and out from the foot/leg like opening an umbrella, hence the term landmine umbrella. The resulting injury extends much more proximally (up the limb) than initially clinically apparent.. Once the pressure wave dissipates, the partially detached and expanded tissue flops back down around the remaining leg, like closing an umbrella. Sometimes, this tissue can appear viable and leads rescuers to place a tourniquet for the amputation, but improperly just a few inches proximal to the apparent amputation, without realizing the actual tissue destruction goes much higher, generally to the ...
New research has revealed that veterans exposed explosive bomb blasts are still at risk of damage in their brains white matter - even when brain injury symptoms do not present.
1. Blast waves and Explosions - Published research studies in gas dynamics ¨ Shock Physics: Development and implementation of experimental programs for generating cylindrical explosions by strong electrical discharge into stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. High speed rotating drum and multi-spark Schlieren photography. Analysis of results within a framework of wave propagation theory.. ¨ Nuclear Explosions at the Ocean Surface: Theoretical analysis of shock wave propagation with special attention to the air-water interface.. ¨ Shock Wave Propagation of arbitrary strength into regions of non-uniform density separated by a free surface - Analytical and numerical techniques based on the method of characteristics.. ¨ Breakup of liquid droplets released into high-speed gas flows (2 to 5 km/sec) - analysis subsequently corroborated by. experiments.. ¨ Fluid-Shell Interactions: Theoretical analysis of the dynamic response of a submerged structure to underwater explosions - numerical ...
At least 4 people were killed when a minibus tried to skip a line of vehicles at a checkpoint in eastern Ukraine and hit a landmine, local authorities reported.
At the First Review Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, Yemen was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors and the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[123] As part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Yemen prepared its 2005-2009 objectives for the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Zagreb. The objectives included: developing a nationwide landmine surveillance system (2006); providing and financing emergency and ongoing medical care, as well as physical rehabilitation, for 2,000 survivors by 2009; evaluating and finding ways to improve health infrastructure, rehabilitation services and coordination, starting in 2006; determining what counseling services are needed and can be established; establishing six new vocational training centers and economically reintegrate 500 survivors by 2009; and implementing ...