A study published in the Journal of Pediatrics suggests that children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These children also were at higher risk for more severe disease but in different ways. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight. The study is the first to characterize the relationship between high birth weight and NAFLD.. "With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before," said co-author Mark Fishbein, MD, from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago. "Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers.". NAFLD affects up to 25 percent of the U.S. population, according to the American Liver Foundation. It is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in ...
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has during the last decades received interest as an explanation of chronic, e.g. cardiovascular, disease in adulthood stemming from fetal environmental conditions. Early programming and enduring dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), with cortisol as its end product, has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which birth weight influence later health status. However, the fetal origin of the adult cortisol regulation has been insufficiently studied. The present study aims to examine if body size at birth is related to circadian cortisol levels at 43 years. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study (n = 752, 74.5%). Salivary cortisol samples were collected at four times during one day at 43 years, and information on birth size was collected retrospectively from delivery records. Information on body mass during adolescence and adulthood and on health behavior, medication and medical ...
The negative effect of smoking during a pregnancy on a childs birth weight outcome has been a consistent finding in the economics literature on estimating birth weight production functions. An important result in the literature is that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is generally robust to the introduction of unobserved heterogeneity in family-specific health endowments. All of the studies have assumed, however, that fertility itself is unrelated to either anticipated or realized birth weight outcomes that depend on such endowments. One purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of relaxing that assumption on the estimates of the smoking effect on birth weight. To that end, a dynamic model of fertility choice that explicitly incorporates the smoking decision, allowing for its addictive nature, and the birth weight technology, is constructed and empirically implemented using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys 1979 youth cohort. In addition to obtaining estimates
TY - THES. T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the fetal origins hypothesis : a study on cardiovascular risk indicators in children. AU - Rump, P.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. SN - 90 9016164 3. PB - Universiteit Maastricht. CY - [Maastricht. ER - ...
Objective To investigate the obesogenic influence of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on infant weight at birth and 12 months postpartum in an Australian general population sample. Methods Data on 1,305 pregnant women were collected on prepregnancy BMI and GWG through maternal interview, on infant weight at birth through hospital records, and on infant weight 12 months postbirth through direct measurement. Relationships between prepregnancy, gestational weight exposures, and infant weight outcomes were assessed with and without adjustment for potential confounding. Results We observed a 14 to 24 g increase in infant birth weight for every 1 kg increase in maternal weight (infant birth weight: β(BMI) = 0.014, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.012, p , 0.000; and 12 months: β(BMI) = 0.018, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.024, p , 0.000). Effects remained after adjustment for potential confounders (infant birth weight: β(BMI) = 0.014, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.012, p , ...
The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthweight categories from less than 2000 g to 4500 g. The odds ratios were adjusted for the confounding effects of ethnic origin, social class (determined by area of residence), paternal education, maternal age, and birth order. The group with low birth weights (less than 2500 g, n = 1004) had a significantly increased risk of developing asthma by 17 years of age, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 2.66) for birthweight group less than 2000 g and 1.49 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.12) ...
In this study we examined the relationship between gestational exposure to 53 different EDCs and birth weight in a prospective birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. We found that exposure to phthalates and BPA, PFAS, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs had null or small associations with birth weight. Other investigators have reported similar small or statistically non-significant associations between birth weight and phthalates [37], PCBs [15], PBDEs [13], and OCPs [25]. Several other studies, however, have found associations between increased exposure to phthalates, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs whereas we did not. A case-control study by Zhang et al. [24] revealed that low birth weight infants in China tended to have much higher meconium phthalate levels than infants who were normal weight. Additionally, a meta-analysis by Govarts et al. [21] reported that increased exposure to PCBs was associated with decreased birth weight. Lignell et al. [27] found a statistically significant inverse association between PBDE ...
Downloadable! In this paper we explore the impact of birth weight on childrens cognitive and behavioural outcomes using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. In order to deal with the endogeneity of birth weight we use an estimator based on the eliminant method. When coupled with ordinary least squares, this estimator allows us to bound the effects of birth weight. The results show that birth weight has significant but very small effects on male cognitive development at age 3 and on female cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 3. We also find that birth weight affects age 5 outcomes only through previous achievements, and that the overall impact fades out over time. These findings call into question the effectiveness of birth weight as a policy target.
Our study adds to the growing literature showing an association between birth weight and cognition across the normal range of birth weight,1-3 but only one such study has shown that the association persists with age beyond childhood.2 Few studies compare the association for birth weight and social background. The stronger influence of social background shown here is consistent with findings from two Scottish studies and with a Swedish study of intrauterine growth retardation in term infants followed to age 5. 1 9 21. Our study extends two strands of work from the late 1970s on developmental trajectories in the 1958 birth cohort. 20 22 23 A previous report estimated that a 1 kg increase in birth weight was associated with a 4 month increase in reading scores at 7 years; this estimate was little changed by adjustment for possible confounding factors.22 Those weighing less than 2 kg at birth had a 1.2 year lower reading age (0.4 SD) than those over 4 kg.22 The difference in maths z scores across ...
EDITOR-Williams and Poulton report that their 22 adolescent twins had lower blood pressure than singletons.1 They interpret their data as being contrary to the fetal origins hypothesis because they presume that twins, being small at birth, would tend to have higher rather than lower blood pressure in later life. As twins have different patterns of fetal growth from singletons, however, they were specifically excluded from the fetal origins hypothesis.2. There are several reasons why the low birth weight of twins may not have the same significance as intrauterine growth retardation in singleton births. Ultrasound evidence suggests that twins down regulate their growth rate early in gestation, possibly during the first trimester.3 Studies in fetal lambs suggest that early down regulation of fetal growth protects against growth retardation induced by undernutrition in later gestation.4 Finally, the metabolic and endocrine changes associated with growth retardation in singleton infants, including ...
Risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) have been indicated in many studies, but in Ja pan few studies have examined the amount of reduction in birth weight (BW). The goal of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking among pregnant women and subsequent reduction in BW, corrected by the effect of potential confounders. To assess the effect of background factors other than maternal smoking, we established a model to estimate the contribution of each explanatory variable using logarithmic multiple regression. We then used the adjusted BW model to evaluate the direct effect of maternal smoking. To obtain information on maternal characteristics, including smoking status and characteristics of their infants, including BW, we conducted a questionnaire survey. After statistical adjustment for background factors, the mean of BW among infants of participants who smoked during pregnancy was roundtable significantly lower than that of non-smoking participants, but there was no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
There is an exponential rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Singapore coincident with rapid nutritional and socioeconomic transition. Differing birth weights, even in the normal ranges, predisposes individuals to the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aim to examine the causal pathways, developmental contribution and effects of a weight loss intervention to this differential by evaluating the hypothesis that genomic, birth weight, developmental, lifestyle and environmental factors contribute to the variation in phenotype observed in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome.. Although there are many large studies that examined the effect of birth weight on the expression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome phenotype, most of these studies usually lack in-depth physiological and epigenetic/genomic studies due to their large sample sizes. We therefore aim to explore such detailed aspects of physiological and epigenetic/genomic profiles on smaller but statistically ...
Abstract The impact of malaria on low birthweight was investigated in Bougoula village (Sikasso region, Mali). In two successive years, pregnant women were followed until delivery. Phase I (1992) was observational, with 135 complete observations. Phase II (1993) included 126 participants, who were offered malaria prophylaxis with proguanil (200 mg/day) and chloroquine (300 mg/week). The results show that 1) infants of first and second pregnancies had lower birth weights (-382.7 ± 62.6 g; P < 0.0001) compared with higher rank pregnancies; 2) strong seasonal variation in birthweight was observed in Phase I, with an annual cycle, a nadir in January, and an amplitude of 372.4 g (P = 0.0002); 3) parasitemia measured during pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight in infants from first and second pregnancies, but not from higher parity mothers; and 4) malaria prophylaxis taken for 20 weeks or more in Phase II suppressed the seasonal variation of birthweight and the effect of low parity (+423.4 ±
Previous research regarding the effects of exercise on pregnancy outcomes has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to adopt an objective research technique, meta-analysis, to summarize and analyze different studies with controversial results. Three coding variables (i.e., exercise duration, pre-pregnancy weight, and age) were selected in this study for comparisons. Though the effect size (ES) of the pregnant mothers who exercised under 30 minutes was greater than that of those who exercised between 30 and 60 minutes, the overall ES (-107.838, 95% CI = -482.93 to 267.26) indicated no significant birth weight differences between the two groups. On the whole, the results of this study support the notion that a significant positive relationship exists between birth weight and the prepregnancy weight. However, regression analysis indicated that a significant (p < .05) positive relationship existed between birth weight and the pre-pregnancy weight of the pregnant mothers (R =.75, p=.04). ...
Yang TO, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ; Million Women Study Collaborators.. Ann Oncol 2014;25:1836-43. BACKGROUND:. Most evidence about associations between birth weight and adult cancer risk comes from studies linking birth records to cancer registration data, where information on known risk factors for cancer is generally lacking. Here, we report on associations between birth weight and cause-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of UK women, and investigate how observed associations are affected by other factors.. METHODS:. A total of 453 023 women, born in the 1930s and 1940s, reported their birth weight, maternal smoking, parental heights, age at menarche, adult height, adult smoking, and many other personal characteristics. They were followed for incident cancer. Using Cox regression, relative risks by birth weight were estimated for cancers with more than 1500 incident cases, adjusting for 17 potential confounding factors, individually and simultaneously.. RESULTS:. Birth weight ...
Maternal inhibitory KIR2DL1 associates with pregnancy disorders linked to inadequate placentation, whereas maternal-activating KIR2DS1 associates with increased birth weight. These results suggest that variations in immune system genes, KIR and HLA-C, are under selection as a result of the necessity to keep human birth weight within the limits defined by the harmful consequences of low and high birth weight. A territorial demarcation between the mother and her fetus resulting from the interaction of maternal KIR on uNK and fetal HLA-C expressed by invading trophoblast could be the basis for achieving such a compromise. Both the KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1 associations, at opposite ends of the birth weight spectrum, occur particularly in pregnancies where the fetus carries an additional HLA-C group 2 allele compared with the mother or the fetus has a single C2 allele that is of paternal but not maternal origin. Because C2 is the ligand for KIR2DL1/S1, this argues strongly for a role of the maternal KIR. ...
Definition of birth weight in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is birth weight? Meaning of birth weight as a legal term. What does birth weight mean in law?
Q. Please help. I am trying to find information on the causes of my grandchilds low birth weight. She was full term and weighed 4 pounds 7 ounces. I am concerned about the consequences for her growth and development.. Should my daughter be concerned about the outcome of future pregnancies?. A. There are many causes for low birth weight. Some may predict future pregnancies resulting in low birth weight babies, or at least suggest some increased risk for more small babies, while others may be more likely to be once-only occurrences.. Among the possible causes: cigarette smoking during pregnancy, elevated blood pressure, problems with the placenta (which brings nutrition to the fetus blood stream from the mothers), and inadequate maternal weight gain during pregnancy.. The impact of a mothers health on her pregnancy and her babys future is one reason why prenatal care is so important. High blood pressure can develop for the first time during pregnancy in women with no prior history of it, and ...
This paper tests whether parents reinforce or compensate for child endowments. We employ birth weight as a proxy for endowments and estimate how the difference in birth weight across siblings impacts specific parental investments, including breastfeeding initiation and duration, well-baby visits, immunizations, preschool attendance, and kindergarten entry age. We also examine whether parental investment in a child is impacted by her siblings endowments. Our results indicate that heavier birth weight children receive higher levels of most parental investment than their lower birth weight siblings suggesting that parental investments in infancy and early childhood reinforce differences in endowments. In one exception, we find weak evidence that lower birth weight children enter kindergarten slightly later than their normal birth weight siblings, which could be interpreted as a compensating parental investment. Presence of a low birth weight sibling in the household increases the likelihood of ...
Environmental derived abnormalities relate to maternal lifestyle, environment and nutrition and while some of these directly effect embryonic development, there is also growing evidence that some effects are more subtle and relate to later life health events. This theory, now called "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHAD or DOHaD) and also previously Fetal Origins Hypothesis, is based on the early statistical analysis carried out by David Barker (1938 - 2013) of low birth weight data collected in the early 1900s in the south east of England which he then compared with these same babies later health outcomes. The theory was therefore originally called the "Barker Hypothesis" and has recently been renamed as "fetal origins" or "programming". Several origins have been suggested including: fetal undernutrition, endocrine (increased cortisol exposure), genetic susceptibility and accelerated postnatal growth. ...
It has been reported that reduced birth weight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes later in life (1-3). The largest such study was a meta-analysis of 14 studies involving a total of 132,180 individuals that demonstrated an association between lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes risk with an odds ratio of 1.32 (2). On a global level, reduced birth weight has been shown to be correlated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in 28 of 31 populations studied (3). Furthermore, low birth weight has been associated with both type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008) and impaired insulin secretion (P = 0.04) in 2,003 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) (4).. It has been proposed that the relationship between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is genetically mediated, namely, the fetal insulin hypothesis (5,6). Because insulin is a key fetal growth factor, the genetic variants that reduce insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity might also reduce birth weight as well as ...
Caffeine intake during pregnancy has shown to impact on infant birth weight. However factors that influence birth weight are complex, as this research finds
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight for gestational age may predispose one to development of cardiovascular disease later in life. Abnormal fetal blood flow in the presence of fetal growth restriction helps to distinguish infants with true fetal growth impairment from small but normal infants. Our goal was to investigate associations between IUGR with abnormal fetal blood flow and abnormal retinal vascular morphology at 18 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 21 subjects with IUGR (abnormal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; birth weight small for gestational age; median birth weight deviation from the population mean of -31% [range: -22% to -42%] and in 23 subjects with birth weight appropriate for gestational age [normal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; median birth weight deviation of -2% (range: -10% to 22%)]). The retinal vessel morphology was evaluated by digital image analysis. RESULT: Subjects with IUGR (n = 21) had ...
Presents results of a study carried out in The Gambia on birth-weight data recorded between 1986 and 1991 on 3453 NDama calves from the village production systems to identify major factors influencing this trait and to quantify the relationship between birth weight and early calf mortality. Least-squares analysis of the fixed effects of site, year and season of birth, parity of dam, sex, age in days at which birth weight was recorded and random effects of herd and cow nested within site showed that all these factors significantly influenced this trait ...
Birth weights are normally distributed with a mean of 3419 g and a standard deviation of 494 g. If a hospital plans to set up special attention to th...
We have used a large routinely available data set of all births in England and Wales to produce new up-to-date birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts. These updated centiles from births occurring in 2013 and 2014 provide a more valid tool with which to assess fetal growth. In particular, they provide a contemporary and nationally representative tool with which to more appropriately identify the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by IUGR for the analysis of the national perinatal mortality surveillance data. There are also potential implications for use in clinical practice, as the implementation of these new charts offers more accurate identification of the cohort of babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth for conditions such as hypoglycaemia. This is especially the case in those born at the earliest gestational ages and those born at the lower end of the birth weight distribution, where notable differences were observed ...
We present the results of a prospective longitudinal study of MiP in Latin America to assess the impact of SMIs in pregnancy on delivery outcomes. We observed a high frequency of submicroscopic MiP (25%, 45/180). We did not detect a statistically significant difference in birth weights between infants born of pregnancies complicated by submicroscopic MiP. Of note, our study had adequate statistical power (80%) to detect a clinically meaningful difference in birth weights (250 g), and the mean difference observed in our cohort was 38 g, based on the 95% CI. We can therefore exclude an effect of SMI on infant birth weight in this Colombian cohort. However, in a secondary analysis looking at other delivery outcomes, women with mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax SMIs were at increased risk of PTB. According to the WHO Global Survey on maternal and perinatal health (32), patent malaria infection in pregnancy is not a risk factor for PTB in Latin America. However, the number of malaria cases in Latin ...
In Europe there are more than 20 large longitudinal studies in which the main focus has been or is to study prenatal or early life factors in relation to adult disease risk. Many of them are historical cohort studies, or data collection has started after birth retrospectively at various points of life. The most important historical cohort studies, from the point of view of the fetal origin hypothesis, are the Hertfordshire,4 14Preston,12 21 and Sheffield8 studies, as well as the Helsinki27 and Uppsala28 cohort studies.. The studies to date have had a number of important limitations that complicate interpretation. They have not been able to address the complexities of interactions between environmental and genetic factors in explaining the associations between maternal, fetal, and later life factors in the evolution of adult CVD risk. This is because they have been variously too small; retrospective and therefore subject to survival and selection biases; or prospective, but in children and ...
Definition of ponderal index in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ponderal index? Meaning of ponderal index as a legal term. What does ponderal index mean in law?
There are few reports of long term follow up of neonatal survivors of corticosteroid treatment. The study by Doyle et al adds to our understanding of the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on key outcomes of growth and intellectual function that are of concern to parents and care providers. Additionally, Doyle et al examine these outcomes in infants who were less mature and had lower birth weights than those in previous studies.. The study sample was from Australia. The decision to provide antenatal steroids to the mothers was based on a clinicians decision and was not random. Thus, initial differences might have existed between the 2 groups of infants. The authors attempted to account for potential differences by adjusting for such confounding variables as birth weight, maternal education, and parental height. The potential confounding variables did not affect any of the statistically significant differences between the groups. The authors further reduced bias by ensuring that the outcome ...
Discussion. In the sample stratified by birth weight, it was observed that the death percentage was inversely proportional to gestational age (GA). The group with birth weight ≤ 1000g had a higher incidence of death, 11 (30.5%), compared to the other groups. The Apgar score less than 7 at 1 and 5 minutes is considered a risk factor for mortality 10. The study by Piccoli et al. 11 also showed a high incidence of prematurity and low birth weight with consequent morbidity and mortality.. Silva et al. 12 found that variables associated with death until the 27th day of life were type of delivery, notusing antenatal corticosteroids, preeclampsia, birth weight , 2500g, Apgar score , 7 at 5 minutes, endotracheal intubation, and notusing exogenous surfactant. For these authors, death was determined by the conditions of the pregnancy, delivery and the newborn.. The group considered extremely low birth weight, or birth weight ≤ 1000g presented a mean gestational age of 26.9 weeks and the group with ...
The Lifeways study is novel in having information on three generations of the same families. It is well established that infant birth weight (IBW) predicts individuals risk of adult chronic disease and more recently studies report cross-generation transmission of risk patterns. The aims of this analysis were to examine whether adults birth weights were associated with measures of own health status or social position and to relate adults birth weights to that of the index childs IBW. Finally, we assessed whether birth weight of either adults or children was associated with adult body mass index (BMI) of parents and grandparents. We included 1075 children whose IBW was recorded at recruitment from hospital records and 2546 adult cohort members followed from 2001 until 2014. At baseline, a sub-group of 920 adults had reported own birth weight (RBW). Results showed male adults RBW were significantly higher than females (P=0.001). Mothers RBW was significantly correlated with IBW (r=0.178, ...
There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients ...
To examine the phenotypic response to a high-fat diet (hfd), mice were fed a normal diet (C) or a diet rich in lipids from weeks 6 to 24 of age (C + hfd). At the end of this period, significant weight and size differences were observed between the M and the control normal birth weight animals, regardless of sex and diet (p , 0.05) (Figure 2). However, these differences were significantly more pronounced throughout the entire life span of the mice in animals receiving the high-fat diet (p , 0.01). In order to assess anatomical variations derived from both diet and corporal condition (M or C), weight of 90 weeks old mice as well as their organs were recorded (Additional file 1: Table S1). Interestingly, liver, which plays an important role in metabolism and thus in the potential hfd outcome, didnt show any significant variation between M and C mice for both diets, regardless of sex. Several differences were found in other organs, however they lacked apparent correlation with the considered ...
Eighty-three percent of respondents eligible cows (2-1/2 years of age or older) produced calves in 1997, of which 54% were male and 46% were female. Seventeen percent of the reported cows lost calves or were open, this figure exhibiting a 3% decrease from the 20% noted in the 1995 survey. Mismarkings occurred in 9% of the reported purebred calves and 17% of calves produced by Appendix cows. Together this comprises 13% of the total reported calf crop, a significant decrease from the 22% and 17% noted in the 1995 and 1991 surveys. Spring is definitely the season of choice for calf production, with 57% of respondents calves born in this season. Eighteen percent opted for summer calves, 13% of the respondents calves arrived in the fall and 12% in winter. Birth weight extremes ranged from a low of 45 lbs. to highs of 101 and 102 lbs., but most calves were close to the overall average birth weights - 74 lbs. for males and 71 lbs. for females. Average reported birth weights for male and female ...
RESULTS Relative to women with NGT, women with predominant insulin sensitivity defects (51% of GDM) had higher BMI and fasting glucose, larger infants (birth weight z score 0.57 [−0.01 to 1.37] vs. 0.03 [−0.53 to 0.52], P = 0.001), and greater risk of GDM-associated adverse outcomes (57.6 vs. 28.2%, P = 0.003); differences were independent of BMI. Women with predominant insulin secretion defects (30% of GDM) had BMI, fasting glucose, infant birth weights, and risk of adverse outcomes similar to those in women with NGT. ...
Southampton researchers have found the first evidence that children who were smaller at birth already have specific alterations in heart and blood vessel function in early childhood, which may help to explain why they are more likely to develop heart disease in later life.
There is no effect on birth weight and feed intake before weaning on piglets with S. suis. This is one of the conclusions from a Dutch study.
Data from a rotational crossbreeding study was used to calculate among-breed heritabilities of birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), and mature cow weight at 5 years of age. The among-breed estimates were higher ...
Author Summary The control of birth timing in humans is the greatest unresolved question in reproductive biology, and preterm birth is the most important medical issue in maternal and child health. To begin to address this critical problem, we test the hypothesis that genes accelerated in their rate of evolution in humans, as compared with other primates and mammals, are involved in birth timing. We first show that human gestational length has been altered relative to other non-human primates and mammals. Using allometric scaling, we demonstrate that human gestation is shorter than predicted based upon gestational length in other mammalian species. Next, we show that genes with rate acceleration in humans-in coding or regulatory regions-are plausible candidates to be involved in birth timing. Finally, we find that polymorphisms in the human accelerated gene (FSHR), not before implicated in the timing for birth, may alter risk for human preterm birth. Our understanding of pathways for birth timing in
Citation: Cai, G., Cole, S.A., Haack, K., Butte, N.F., Comuzzie, A.G. 2007. Bivariate linkage confirms genetic contribution to fetal origins of childhood growth and cardiovascular disease risk in Hispanic children. Human Genetics. 121(6):737-744. Interpretive Summary: The relationship between birth weight and later risk for cardiovascular disease has been well documented in population-based studies and animal studies; however, the genetic contribution to this link has not been addressed. Recent studies have shown relationships between birth weight and later obesity and metabolic diseases; however, the genetic contribution is unknown. In this study, we explored these relationships in 1,030 Hispanic children enrolled in the Viva La Familia Study. Body weight and composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, and liver enzymes were measured. Birth weights were obtained from Texas birth certificates. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using a family-based genome scan. We ...
People who have a birth weight over ten pounds are twice as likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when they are adults compared to individuals born with an average birth weight, according to a study
Birth weight of a baby born via in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends up on the length embryos were cultured, before placing in the womb, a new study from Finland, says.
New research finds genetic differences that help to explain why some babies are born bigger or smaller than others. The research, led by the University of Oxford, also reveals how genetic differences provide an important link between an individuals early growth and their chances of developing conditions such as type 2 diabetes or heart disease in later life.. The large-scale study, published in Nature, could help to target new ways of preventing and treating these diseases.. The new study was jointly led by a team of researchers from six institutions including the universities of Oxford, Exeter, Bristol, Cambridge and Queensland, and the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam. The research involved more than 160 international researchers from 17 countries who are members of the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. The work was supported by more than 120 research funders: the major sources of funding for UK researchers were the Wellcome Trust, the Royal Society, the Medical Research Council, the ...
OBJECTIVE: During the past decade, several researchers have demonstrated a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to lower birth weight. This theory, referred to as the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, postulates that impaired fetal growth predisposes individuals to the development of diabetes and other metabolic abnormalities. This article examines the importance of fetal growth in the etiology of diabetes by estimating the proportion of diabetes cases associated with this exposure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The importance of an exposure or its correlate as a potential cause of a disease can be assessed by estimating the proportion of cases that could be prevented if the exposure was eliminated from a defined population. This proportion is referred to as the population-attributable fraction (PAF). Published studies of the association between diabetes and birth weight were reviewed and selected for further analysis if data were presented that enabled PAF calculation. In addition, PAFs were ...
In low- and middle-income countries, fast linear growth in the first two years of life is associated with increased adult height and completion of more schooling, while higher weight at birth and later in childhood is associated with increased risk of obesity.
1. The general course of prenatal growth in the mouse, the guinea pig, and the chick can be expressed by straight line relations between the logarithms of the weight and age only when age is counted from the beginning of the embryo proper.. 2. This is interpreted as showing that the manner of growth before the beginning of the embryo proper is essentially different from that after this time.. 3. The velocity constants for the animals mentioned are similar; the major differences in their curves depend on the amount of tissue involved in the first organization of the embryo proper and in the length of prenatal life.. 4. Growth of different animals may be compared more accurately if, instead of either birth age or conception age, embryo age is used.. ...
Eventbrite - Angela Horler RM presents Inspirational Birth: understanding, inspiring and supporting normal birth - Saturday, 17 March 2018 at Shepperton, Shepperton, England. Find event and ticket information.
In order for our associations (AAA & AMAA) to generate accurate and dependable EPDs (which can be a valuable tool when making mating and breeding decisions), accurate, dependable, and complete information must be submitted. If we want to have faith in our EPDs we must be faithful in what we report. Birth dates, birthweights, weaning weights, weaning dates, etc. "pulled out of a hat" so to speak if not changed or manipulated equally on the whole herd provide inaccurate progeny ratios which in the long run negatively impact individuals and the breed as a whole. On another note, as we all know, one of the major strengths of the Maine-Anjou breed is phenotypic excellence. Many are involved in this breed because of a desire to compete and excel in the show ring and thats a good thing. But I would like to encourage us especially to report accurate birth dates and birth weights out of respect for fellow breeders and a desire to exhibit personal integrity and character that others (especially family ...