In the present study, we analyzed the impact of birth weight on various metabolic phenotypes in a young cohort aged 6-18 years based on a nationwide screening program from 1992 to 1997. We first confirmed a U-shaped relation between birth weight and the risk of type 2 diabetes, which was originally demonstrated in children and young adults in a study of Pima Indians (28). In the type 2 diabetic subjects born with high birth weight, blood pressure was higher, BMI was greater, and the incidence of positive family history of diabetes was higher than in those born with low birth weight, indicating a possibility of a different pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in subjects with low and high birth weight. The constellation of diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure, collectively termed metabolic syndrome, was more frequently observed in the subjects born with high birth weight.. The discovery that childhood type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity in the present study was consistent with previous ...
A study published in the Journal of Pediatrics suggests that children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These children also were at higher risk for more severe disease but in different ways. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight. The study is the first to characterize the relationship between high birth weight and NAFLD.. With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before, said co-author Mark Fishbein, MD, from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago. Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers.. NAFLD affects up to 25 percent of the U.S. population, according to the American Liver Foundation. It is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in ...
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has during the last decades received interest as an explanation of chronic, e.g. cardiovascular, disease in adulthood stemming from fetal environmental conditions. Early programming and enduring dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), with cortisol as its end product, has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which birth weight influence later health status. However, the fetal origin of the adult cortisol regulation has been insufficiently studied. The present study aims to examine if body size at birth is related to circadian cortisol levels at 43 years. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study (n = 752, 74.5%). Salivary cortisol samples were collected at four times during one day at 43 years, and information on birth size was collected retrospectively from delivery records. Information on body mass during adolescence and adulthood and on health behavior, medication and medical ...
The negative effect of smoking during a pregnancy on a childs birth weight outcome has been a consistent finding in the economics literature on estimating birth weight production functions. An important result in the literature is that the negative effect of smoking on birth weight is generally robust to the introduction of unobserved heterogeneity in family-specific health endowments. All of the studies have assumed, however, that fertility itself is unrelated to either anticipated or realized birth weight outcomes that depend on such endowments. One purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of relaxing that assumption on the estimates of the smoking effect on birth weight. To that end, a dynamic model of fertility choice that explicitly incorporates the smoking decision, allowing for its addictive nature, and the birth weight technology, is constructed and empirically implemented using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys 1979 youth cohort. In addition to obtaining estimates
TY - THES. T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the fetal origins hypothesis : a study on cardiovascular risk indicators in children. AU - Rump, P.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. SN - 90 9016164 3. PB - Universiteit Maastricht. CY - [Maastricht. ER - ...
Objective To investigate the obesogenic influence of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on infant weight at birth and 12 months postpartum in an Australian general population sample. Methods Data on 1,305 pregnant women were collected on prepregnancy BMI and GWG through maternal interview, on infant weight at birth through hospital records, and on infant weight 12 months postbirth through direct measurement. Relationships between prepregnancy, gestational weight exposures, and infant weight outcomes were assessed with and without adjustment for potential confounding. Results We observed a 14 to 24 g increase in infant birth weight for every 1 kg increase in maternal weight (infant birth weight: β(BMI) = 0.014, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.012, p , 0.000; and 12 months: β(BMI) = 0.018, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.024, p , 0.000). Effects remained after adjustment for potential confounders (infant birth weight: β(BMI) = 0.014, p , 0.000; β(GWG) = 0.012, p , ...
Background: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives: We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS-birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods: We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results: The reduction in birth weight ...
We have shown that a lower birth weight and a higher BMI in adult life were associated with a higher prevalence of asthma and wheeze among individuals in a national birth cohort studied at 26 years of age. The association with BMI was stronger in women.. The association with lower birth weight, after controlling for gestational age, suggests that impaired fetal growth is a determinant of adult asthma. In older adults lower birth weight is associated with lower lung function, a relation which is likely to be explained by impaired fetal airway growth leading to suboptimal airway calibre in adult life.29 We believe that small airway size is also likely to explain the association between lower birth weight and asthma. It seems plausible that, for a given degree of atopy and bronchial hyperreactivity, a young adult with smaller airways would be more likely to experience asthma symptoms. It seems less likely that the association between lower birth weight and asthma is explained by a higher prevalence ...
The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthweight categories from less than 2000 g to 4500 g. The odds ratios were adjusted for the confounding effects of ethnic origin, social class (determined by area of residence), paternal education, maternal age, and birth order. The group with low birth weights (less than 2500 g, n = 1004) had a significantly increased risk of developing asthma by 17 years of age, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 2.66) for birthweight group less than 2000 g and 1.49 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.12) ...
This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above. Adjustment for childhood social circumstances and educational status at age 19 had minor influence on the ...
In this study we examined the relationship between gestational exposure to 53 different EDCs and birth weight in a prospective birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. We found that exposure to phthalates and BPA, PFAS, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs had null or small associations with birth weight. Other investigators have reported similar small or statistically non-significant associations between birth weight and phthalates [37], PCBs [15], PBDEs [13], and OCPs [25]. Several other studies, however, have found associations between increased exposure to phthalates, PCBs, PBDEs or OCPs whereas we did not. A case-control study by Zhang et al. [24] revealed that low birth weight infants in China tended to have much higher meconium phthalate levels than infants who were normal weight. Additionally, a meta-analysis by Govarts et al. [21] reported that increased exposure to PCBs was associated with decreased birth weight. Lignell et al. [27] found a statistically significant inverse association between PBDE ...
Downloadable! In this paper we explore the impact of birth weight on childrens cognitive and behavioural outcomes using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. In order to deal with the endogeneity of birth weight we use an estimator based on the eliminant method. When coupled with ordinary least squares, this estimator allows us to bound the effects of birth weight. The results show that birth weight has significant but very small effects on male cognitive development at age 3 and on female cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 3. We also find that birth weight affects age 5 outcomes only through previous achievements, and that the overall impact fades out over time. These findings call into question the effectiveness of birth weight as a policy target.
Maternal fatty acids (FAs) intake has an effect on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age, as fetal development is entirely dependent on the maternal essential FA supply. This study aimed to identify the association between the maternal intake of FAs and birth outcomes among pregnant women who participated in the Mothers and Childrens Environmental Health (MOCEH) prospective cohort study in South Korea. A total of 1407 pregnant women, aged 30.2 ± 3.7 years, at 12 to 28 weeks gestation were recruited between August 2006 and December 2010. Their dietary intake during pregnancy was investigated by the 1-day 24-h dietary recall method. The pregnancy outcome data-namely infants gestational age, birth weight, and birth length-were analyzed for their associations with their mothers intake of FAs. When adjusted for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis revealed adverse effects on birth weight (P = 0.031) and birth length (P = 0.025) with high maternal intake of omega-6 FAs. In the
Our study adds to the growing literature showing an association between birth weight and cognition across the normal range of birth weight,1-3 but only one such study has shown that the association persists with age beyond childhood.2 Few studies compare the association for birth weight and social background. The stronger influence of social background shown here is consistent with findings from two Scottish studies and with a Swedish study of intrauterine growth retardation in term infants followed to age 5. 1 9 21. Our study extends two strands of work from the late 1970s on developmental trajectories in the 1958 birth cohort. 20 22 23 A previous report estimated that a 1 kg increase in birth weight was associated with a 4 month increase in reading scores at 7 years; this estimate was little changed by adjustment for possible confounding factors.22 Those weighing less than 2 kg at birth had a 1.2 year lower reading age (0.4 SD) than those over 4 kg.22 The difference in maths z scores across ...
EDITOR-Williams and Poulton report that their 22 adolescent twins had lower blood pressure than singletons.1 They interpret their data as being contrary to the fetal origins hypothesis because they presume that twins, being small at birth, would tend to have higher rather than lower blood pressure in later life. As twins have different patterns of fetal growth from singletons, however, they were specifically excluded from the fetal origins hypothesis.2. There are several reasons why the low birth weight of twins may not have the same significance as intrauterine growth retardation in singleton births. Ultrasound evidence suggests that twins down regulate their growth rate early in gestation, possibly during the first trimester.3 Studies in fetal lambs suggest that early down regulation of fetal growth protects against growth retardation induced by undernutrition in later gestation.4 Finally, the metabolic and endocrine changes associated with growth retardation in singleton infants, including ...
Risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) have been indicated in many studies, but in Ja pan few studies have examined the amount of reduction in birth weight (BW). The goal of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking among pregnant women and subsequent reduction in BW, corrected by the effect of potential confounders. To assess the effect of background factors other than maternal smoking, we established a model to estimate the contribution of each explanatory variable using logarithmic multiple regression. We then used the adjusted BW model to evaluate the direct effect of maternal smoking. To obtain information on maternal characteristics, including smoking status and characteristics of their infants, including BW, we conducted a questionnaire survey. After statistical adjustment for background factors, the mean of BW among infants of participants who smoked during pregnancy was roundtable significantly lower than that of non-smoking participants, but there was no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
There is an exponential rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Singapore coincident with rapid nutritional and socioeconomic transition. Differing birth weights, even in the normal ranges, predisposes individuals to the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. We aim to examine the causal pathways, developmental contribution and effects of a weight loss intervention to this differential by evaluating the hypothesis that genomic, birth weight, developmental, lifestyle and environmental factors contribute to the variation in phenotype observed in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome.. Although there are many large studies that examined the effect of birth weight on the expression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome phenotype, most of these studies usually lack in-depth physiological and epigenetic/genomic studies due to their large sample sizes. We therefore aim to explore such detailed aspects of physiological and epigenetic/genomic profiles on smaller but statistically ...
Abstract The impact of malaria on low birthweight was investigated in Bougoula village (Sikasso region, Mali). In two successive years, pregnant women were followed until delivery. Phase I (1992) was observational, with 135 complete observations. Phase II (1993) included 126 participants, who were offered malaria prophylaxis with proguanil (200 mg/day) and chloroquine (300 mg/week). The results show that 1) infants of first and second pregnancies had lower birth weights (-382.7 ± 62.6 g; P < 0.0001) compared with higher rank pregnancies; 2) strong seasonal variation in birthweight was observed in Phase I, with an annual cycle, a nadir in January, and an amplitude of 372.4 g (P = 0.0002); 3) parasitemia measured during pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight in infants from first and second pregnancies, but not from higher parity mothers; and 4) malaria prophylaxis taken for 20 weeks or more in Phase II suppressed the seasonal variation of birthweight and the effect of low parity (+423.4 ±
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Previous research regarding the effects of exercise on pregnancy outcomes has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to adopt an objective research technique, meta-analysis, to summarize and analyze different studies with controversial results. Three coding variables (i.e., exercise duration, pre-pregnancy weight, and age) were selected in this study for comparisons. Though the effect size (ES) of the pregnant mothers who exercised under 30 minutes was greater than that of those who exercised between 30 and 60 minutes, the overall ES (-107.838, 95% CI = -482.93 to 267.26) indicated no significant birth weight differences between the two groups. On the whole, the results of this study support the notion that a significant positive relationship exists between birth weight and the prepregnancy weight. However, regression analysis indicated that a significant (p < .05) positive relationship existed between birth weight and the pre-pregnancy weight of the pregnant mothers (R =.75, p=.04). ...
Yang TO, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ; Million Women Study Collaborators.. Ann Oncol 2014;25:1836-43. BACKGROUND:. Most evidence about associations between birth weight and adult cancer risk comes from studies linking birth records to cancer registration data, where information on known risk factors for cancer is generally lacking. Here, we report on associations between birth weight and cause-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of UK women, and investigate how observed associations are affected by other factors.. METHODS:. A total of 453 023 women, born in the 1930s and 1940s, reported their birth weight, maternal smoking, parental heights, age at menarche, adult height, adult smoking, and many other personal characteristics. They were followed for incident cancer. Using Cox regression, relative risks by birth weight were estimated for cancers with more than 1500 incident cases, adjusting for 17 potential confounding factors, individually and simultaneously.. RESULTS:. Birth weight ...
Maternal inhibitory KIR2DL1 associates with pregnancy disorders linked to inadequate placentation, whereas maternal-activating KIR2DS1 associates with increased birth weight. These results suggest that variations in immune system genes, KIR and HLA-C, are under selection as a result of the necessity to keep human birth weight within the limits defined by the harmful consequences of low and high birth weight. A territorial demarcation between the mother and her fetus resulting from the interaction of maternal KIR on uNK and fetal HLA-C expressed by invading trophoblast could be the basis for achieving such a compromise. Both the KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1 associations, at opposite ends of the birth weight spectrum, occur particularly in pregnancies where the fetus carries an additional HLA-C group 2 allele compared with the mother or the fetus has a single C2 allele that is of paternal but not maternal origin. Because C2 is the ligand for KIR2DL1/S1, this argues strongly for a role of the maternal KIR. ...
Definition of birth weight in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is birth weight? Meaning of birth weight as a legal term. What does birth weight mean in law?
Limited research on cardiovascular disease in women has been done despite the fact that cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality for women in industrial nations. The study by Rich-Edwards et al gives attention to birth weight as a marker of non-fatal cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, and stroke.. In this substudy of the Nurses Health Study, the authors are thorough in their description of the purpose, design, data collection, data analysis, and limitations, which helps to establish credibility and context for the findings. They caution the reader in the interpretation of the data, noting that information was missing on several factors that affect birth weight; some misclassification of self reported birth weight existed; no data existed for 723 deaths caused by cardiovascular disease between 1976 and 1992; and several environmental and genetic factors that determine birth weight may have influenced cardiovascular risk. They noted ...
Q. Please help. I am trying to find information on the causes of my grandchilds low birth weight. She was full term and weighed 4 pounds 7 ounces. I am concerned about the consequences for her growth and development.. Should my daughter be concerned about the outcome of future pregnancies?. A. There are many causes for low birth weight. Some may predict future pregnancies resulting in low birth weight babies, or at least suggest some increased risk for more small babies, while others may be more likely to be once-only occurrences.. Among the possible causes: cigarette smoking during pregnancy, elevated blood pressure, problems with the placenta (which brings nutrition to the fetus blood stream from the mothers), and inadequate maternal weight gain during pregnancy.. The impact of a mothers health on her pregnancy and her babys future is one reason why prenatal care is so important. High blood pressure can develop for the first time during pregnancy in women with no prior history of it, and ...
This paper tests whether parents reinforce or compensate for child endowments. We employ birth weight as a proxy for endowments and estimate how the difference in birth weight across siblings impacts specific parental investments, including breastfeeding initiation and duration, well-baby visits, immunizations, preschool attendance, and kindergarten entry age. We also examine whether parental investment in a child is impacted by her siblings endowments. Our results indicate that heavier birth weight children receive higher levels of most parental investment than their lower birth weight siblings suggesting that parental investments in infancy and early childhood reinforce differences in endowments. In one exception, we find weak evidence that lower birth weight children enter kindergarten slightly later than their normal birth weight siblings, which could be interpreted as a compensating parental investment. Presence of a low birth weight sibling in the household increases the likelihood of ...
Environmental derived abnormalities relate to maternal lifestyle, environment and nutrition and while some of these directly effect embryonic development, there is also growing evidence that some effects are more subtle and relate to later life health events. This theory, now called developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD or DOHaD) and also previously Fetal Origins Hypothesis, is based on the early statistical analysis carried out by David Barker (1938 - 2013) of low birth weight data collected in the early 1900s in the south east of England which he then compared with these same babies later health outcomes. The theory was therefore originally called the Barker Hypothesis and has recently been renamed as fetal origins or programming. Several origins have been suggested including: fetal undernutrition, endocrine (increased cortisol exposure), genetic susceptibility and accelerated postnatal growth. ...
It has been reported that reduced birth weight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes later in life (1-3). The largest such study was a meta-analysis of 14 studies involving a total of 132,180 individuals that demonstrated an association between lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes risk with an odds ratio of 1.32 (2). On a global level, reduced birth weight has been shown to be correlated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in 28 of 31 populations studied (3). Furthermore, low birth weight has been associated with both type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008) and impaired insulin secretion (P = 0.04) in 2,003 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) (4).. It has been proposed that the relationship between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is genetically mediated, namely, the fetal insulin hypothesis (5,6). Because insulin is a key fetal growth factor, the genetic variants that reduce insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity might also reduce birth weight as well as ...
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OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight for gestational age may predispose one to development of cardiovascular disease later in life. Abnormal fetal blood flow in the presence of fetal growth restriction helps to distinguish infants with true fetal growth impairment from small but normal infants. Our goal was to investigate associations between IUGR with abnormal fetal blood flow and abnormal retinal vascular morphology at 18 years of age. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 21 subjects with IUGR (abnormal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; birth weight small for gestational age; median birth weight deviation from the population mean of -31% [range: -22% to -42%] and in 23 subjects with birth weight appropriate for gestational age [normal fetal aortic blood flow velocity; median birth weight deviation of -2% (range: -10% to 22%)]). The retinal vessel morphology was evaluated by digital image analysis. RESULT: Subjects with IUGR (n = 21) had ...
Presents results of a study carried out in The Gambia on birth-weight data recorded between 1986 and 1991 on 3453 NDama calves from the village production systems to identify major factors influencing this trait and to quantify the relationship between birth weight and early calf mortality. Least-squares analysis of the fixed effects of site, year and season of birth, parity of dam, sex, age in days at which birth weight was recorded and random effects of herd and cow nested within site showed that all these factors significantly influenced this trait ...
Birth weights are normally distributed with a mean of 3419 g and a standard deviation of 494 g. If a hospital plans to set up special attention to th...
We have used a large routinely available data set of all births in England and Wales to produce new up-to-date birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts. These updated centiles from births occurring in 2013 and 2014 provide a more valid tool with which to assess fetal growth. In particular, they provide a contemporary and nationally representative tool with which to more appropriately identify the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by IUGR for the analysis of the national perinatal mortality surveillance data. There are also potential implications for use in clinical practice, as the implementation of these new charts offers more accurate identification of the cohort of babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth for conditions such as hypoglycaemia. This is especially the case in those born at the earliest gestational ages and those born at the lower end of the birth weight distribution, where notable differences were observed ...
Everything you need to know about baby birth weight, average baby birth weight, and low baby birth weight, plus why it matters and when it doesnt.
We present the results of a prospective longitudinal study of MiP in Latin America to assess the impact of SMIs in pregnancy on delivery outcomes. We observed a high frequency of submicroscopic MiP (25%, 45/180). We did not detect a statistically significant difference in birth weights between infants born of pregnancies complicated by submicroscopic MiP. Of note, our study had adequate statistical power (80%) to detect a clinically meaningful difference in birth weights (250 g), and the mean difference observed in our cohort was 38 g, based on the 95% CI. We can therefore exclude an effect of SMI on infant birth weight in this Colombian cohort. However, in a secondary analysis looking at other delivery outcomes, women with mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax SMIs were at increased risk of PTB. According to the WHO Global Survey on maternal and perinatal health (32), patent malaria infection in pregnancy is not a risk factor for PTB in Latin America. However, the number of malaria cases in Latin ...
In Europe there are more than 20 large longitudinal studies in which the main focus has been or is to study prenatal or early life factors in relation to adult disease risk. Many of them are historical cohort studies, or data collection has started after birth retrospectively at various points of life. The most important historical cohort studies, from the point of view of the fetal origin hypothesis, are the Hertfordshire,4 14Preston,12 21 and Sheffield8 studies, as well as the Helsinki27 and Uppsala28 cohort studies.. The studies to date have had a number of important limitations that complicate interpretation. They have not been able to address the complexities of interactions between environmental and genetic factors in explaining the associations between maternal, fetal, and later life factors in the evolution of adult CVD risk. This is because they have been variously too small; retrospective and therefore subject to survival and selection biases; or prospective, but in children and ...
Definition of ponderal index in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ponderal index? Meaning of ponderal index as a legal term. What does ponderal index mean in law?
There are few reports of long term follow up of neonatal survivors of corticosteroid treatment. The study by Doyle et al adds to our understanding of the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on key outcomes of growth and intellectual function that are of concern to parents and care providers. Additionally, Doyle et al examine these outcomes in infants who were less mature and had lower birth weights than those in previous studies.. The study sample was from Australia. The decision to provide antenatal steroids to the mothers was based on a clinicians decision and was not random. Thus, initial differences might have existed between the 2 groups of infants. The authors attempted to account for potential differences by adjusting for such confounding variables as birth weight, maternal education, and parental height. The potential confounding variables did not affect any of the statistically significant differences between the groups. The authors further reduced bias by ensuring that the outcome ...
Discussion. In the sample stratified by birth weight, it was observed that the death percentage was inversely proportional to gestational age (GA). The group with birth weight ≤ 1000g had a higher incidence of death, 11 (30.5%), compared to the other groups. The Apgar score less than 7 at 1 and 5 minutes is considered a risk factor for mortality 10. The study by Piccoli et al. 11 also showed a high incidence of prematurity and low birth weight with consequent morbidity and mortality.. Silva et al. 12 found that variables associated with death until the 27th day of life were type of delivery, notusing antenatal corticosteroids, preeclampsia, birth weight , 2500g, Apgar score , 7 at 5 minutes, endotracheal intubation, and notusing exogenous surfactant. For these authors, death was determined by the conditions of the pregnancy, delivery and the newborn.. The group considered extremely low birth weight, or birth weight ≤ 1000g presented a mean gestational age of 26.9 weeks and the group with ...
The Lifeways study is novel in having information on three generations of the same families. It is well established that infant birth weight (IBW) predicts individuals risk of adult chronic disease and more recently studies report cross-generation transmission of risk patterns. The aims of this analysis were to examine whether adults birth weights were associated with measures of own health status or social position and to relate adults birth weights to that of the index childs IBW. Finally, we assessed whether birth weight of either adults or children was associated with adult body mass index (BMI) of parents and grandparents. We included 1075 children whose IBW was recorded at recruitment from hospital records and 2546 adult cohort members followed from 2001 until 2014. At baseline, a sub-group of 920 adults had reported own birth weight (RBW). Results showed male adults RBW were significantly higher than females (P=0.001). Mothers RBW was significantly correlated with IBW (r=0.178, ...
Proportion of Indigenous babies born within the previous 12 months whose birth weight has been recorded at the primary health care service.. Birth weight is defined as the first weight of a baby obtained after birth.. Only live births are included.. Results arising from measurements conducted outside of the service, that are known by the service, are included in the calculation of this indicator.. Presented as a percentage.. Previous 12 months refers to the previous financial year or previous calendar year. ...
The possibility that our findings were chance, bias, or residual confounding cannot be discounted. The effect sizes we found were small and the confidence intervals were large. Residual confounding by gestational age, social position, mid-parental height, birth order, or current weight and other factors could partly explain results. Adjustment for these factors greatly attenuated effect sizes, and despite the fact that attention was paid to the quality of measurement, these may have been made with error. The number of children with complete data to age 7 years was modest in comparison with the total number of children in our study, and our analysis restricted to these children assumed their data to be missing completely at random, which we know not to be the case. Hence bias attributable to selective loss to follow up could have weakened our results. However, the measurement of diet carries with it a degree of imprecision, and the true effect size of birth weight on macronutrient intakes could ...
Records of 606 animals from a crossbreeding experiment between Charlolais (Ch) and Caracu (Ca), carried out at Estacao Experimental Fazenda Modelo, in ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil, from 1981 to 1992, were analyzed to estimate additive and heterozygotic effects on birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), daily gain from birtht to weaning (DBGW), yearling weight (YW) and daily gain from weaning to yearling (DGWY).. ...
There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients ...
To examine the phenotypic response to a high-fat diet (hfd), mice were fed a normal diet (C) or a diet rich in lipids from weeks 6 to 24 of age (C + hfd). At the end of this period, significant weight and size differences were observed between the M and the control normal birth weight animals, regardless of sex and diet (p , 0.05) (Figure 2). However, these differences were significantly more pronounced throughout the entire life span of the mice in animals receiving the high-fat diet (p , 0.01). In order to assess anatomical variations derived from both diet and corporal condition (M or C), weight of 90 weeks old mice as well as their organs were recorded (Additional file 1: Table S1). Interestingly, liver, which plays an important role in metabolism and thus in the potential hfd outcome, didnt show any significant variation between M and C mice for both diets, regardless of sex. Several differences were found in other organs, however they lacked apparent correlation with the considered ...
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This study is the first to analyze a comprehensive range of maternal, birth, and childhood measures in relation to adult BP from a large well-characterized general population-based cohort studied since early pregnancy. Our main findings were that (1) the association between birth weight and SBP was inverse-linear, particularly for males, with or without adjustment for current BMI; (2) the association for DBP was inverse but weaker than for SBP; (3) other birth variables (gestational age, birth length, ponderal index, BW-GA) showed a similar pattern with BP, although less consistent than birth weight; (4) among females, the inverse association between gestational age and BP was stronger than that for birth weight; (5) infant change-up growth associated positively with BP; and (6) association of some early life factors (gestational age, ponderal index) with BP seems to be stronger in leaner adults.. A meta-analysis by Huxley et al22 of 82 studies with data on birth weight and BP concluded that ...
Because maternal GDM is associated with birth weight and birth weight is directly associated with later BMI, it makes sense to investigate the role of maternal GDM in the genesis of obesity. In this study, we documented a robust direct relationship between birth weight and BMI measured 9 to 14 years later. Each 1-kg increment of birth weight was associated with approximately a 30% increase in the prevalence of overweight, even after adjusting for maternal BMI and other relevant covariates.. In addition, we found that maternal GDM was associated with an OR of 1.4 for adolescent overweight, before controlling for birth weight and maternal BMI. This estimate was slightly attenuated by addition of birth weight to the model, suggesting that the association of GDM with later obesity could partially be explained by its influence on birth weight.. Maternal BMI played a confounding role in these analyses; adding it to the multivariate models resulted in a blunted association of maternal GDM with ...
The estimated increase in birth weight caused by the offer of incentives in the CPIT trial was 21 g overall, but for the subgroup of women who quit as a result of the offer of incentives, and would not have been able to do so without the offer, it was 145 g. Throughout, we have viewed this as the causal effect of the intervention, within the subgroup who are susceptible to (comply with) it, but the value of 145 g can equally be seen as the causal effect of stopping smoking on birth weight, within this subgroup of women for whom the offer of incentives is sufficient to help them to quit. This is in line with birth weight differences associated with smoking cessation recorded by other researchers - 160 grams for light smoking (1-9 cigarettes per day) and 230 grams for heavy smoking (,9 cigarettes per day) [8].. To try to understand this analysis, Fig. 1 gives the raw data. Comparison of those who continued to smoke shows that those in the incentives group had babies with a slightly lower birth ...
Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare the accuracy of 11 formulas in predicting fetal weight. Material and methods: The study includes 1072 pregnant women of gestational age from 28 to 42 weeks, who gave birth between January and June 2017. Pregnant women were divided into five groups; group 1, where actual birth weight (ABW) was less than 2500 g, group 2, where ABW was between 2500-4000 g, group 3, where ABW was above 4000 g. Group 4 - newborns with birth weight under 10 percentile and group 5 - newborns with birth weight above 90 percentile. The accuracy of the estimated fetal weight (EFW) was assessed by calculating absolute percentage error (APE) and limits-of-agreement. R Spearman correlation was utilized between EFW and ABW. Results: The most accurate formula for group 1 is Hadlock3 (MAPE = 7.04%), the narrowest limits of agreement has Combs - [mean (SD): 99.41 g (269.57 g)]. For group 2, the lowest MAPE (5.43%) has Ott, the narrowest limits of agreement belongs to Combs - [mean ...
As multiple pregnancies show a higher incidence of complications than singletons and carry a higher perinatal risk, the calculation of birth weight - and gestational age (GA)-specific perinatal mortality rates (PMR) for multiple births is necessary in order to estimate the lowest PMR for these groups. Details of all reported twins (192,987 live births, 5,539 stillbirths and 1,830 early neonatal deaths) in Japan between 1990 and 1999 were analyzed and compared with singletons (10,021,275 live births, 63,972 fetal deaths and 16,862 early neonatal deaths) in the annual report of vital statistics of Japan. The fetal death rate (FDR) and PMR were calculated for each category of birth weight at 500-gram intervals and GA at four-week intervals. The FDR according to birth weight and GA category was calculated as fetal deaths/(fetal deaths + live births) × 1000. The perinatal mortality rate (PMR) according to birth weight and GA category, was calculated as (fetal deaths + early neonatal deaths)/(fetal deaths +
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
Reichman NE, et al. Effects of psychosocial risk factors and prenatal interventions on birthweight: evidence from New Jerseys HealthStart Program. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. May/Jun 2003;35(3):130-137.. This research was done to verify the linkages between the Medicaid prenatal care programs, in response to expansions of the Medicaid eligibility criteria. According to the fully adjusted model, the interventions designed to reduce behaviors like smoking, drinking, and using hard drugs (but not marijuana) during pregnancy had no favorable effects on birthweight. In contrast, participation in the WIC Program was associated with an increase in mean birthweight of 22 grams. The increase was 48 grams among inadequately nourished women only.. ...
Researchers conducted a population-based study and a systematic review to see whether folic acid affects a babys size compared to others of the same gestational age. A small size at birth is associated with health issues later in life. The present study included data from 108,525 pregnancies; 84.9% of the mothers had taken folic acid during pregnancy. About 26% of these cases began supplementation before pregnancy. The highest rate of small size for gestational age was associated with mothers that didnt take folate, with 16.3% having newborns under the 10th percentile for birth weight and 8.9% having newborns under the fifth percentile for birth weight. Women taking folic acid before conception were less like to have a baby with a low birth weight for its gestational size.. Published in WholeFoods Magazine, January 2015 (online 12/11/14). ...
Children born with lower or higher weight than normal may be at increased risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by the time they become teenagers, says a study.. Advanced scarring of the liver was associated with low birth weight, while more inflammation was linked to high birth weight, according to the study published in the Journal of Pediatrics.. With the obesity epidemic, we are seeing more babies with high birth weight than ever before, said study co-author Mark Fishbein from Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago in the US. Our study shows that these kids are more likely to have serious liver damage by the time they are teenagers, Fishbein said.. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and typically is diagnosed in early adolescence. In its most severe form it can lead to liver failure and the need for liver transplantation.. Being able to ...
Background and aims:The most common reason in neonatal mortality rate in the world is low birth weight (LBW). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence and related factors associated in birth weight in Garmsar, Iran in 2013. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 683 live births which delivered in Garmsar in 2013. The required information was collected by examining the health records of pregnant women and completion of the data registration forms. Data collection was controlled by using SPSSand analyzed by using an Independent T-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: According to the results, 32 infants out of 683 infants born in 2013 had low birth weight, i.e. the weight less than 2500g. LBW prevalence estimated in this study was 4.7%. There were significant statistical relations between low birth weight and the variables including number of births, mothers occupation and interval of less than 3 years between pregnancies and systolic and diastolic
Methods Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were linked with data from RevNatus, a nationwide observational register recruiting women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Singleton births in women with SLE included in RevNatus 2006-2015 were cases (n=180). All other singleton births registered in MBRN during this time (n=498 849) served as population controls. Z-score for birth weight adjusted for gestational age and gender was calculated. Disease activity was assessed using Lupus Activity Index in Pregnancy. We compared z-scores for birth weight, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in cases with inactive disease, cases with active disease and population controls. ...
Objective. In recent years, gains in neonatal survival have been most evident among very low birth weight, preterm, and low birth weight (LBW) infants. Most of the improvement in neonatal survival since the early 1980s seems to be the consequence of decreasing birth weight-specific mortality rates, which occurred during a period of increasing preterm and LBW rates. Although the decline in neonatal mortality has been widely publicized in the United States, research suggests that clinicians may still underestimate the chances of survival of an infant who is born too early or too small and may overestimate the eventuality of serious disability. So that clinicians may have current and needed ethnic- and race-specific estimates of the chances of early survival for newborn infants, we examined birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rates for the 3 largest ethnic/racial groups in the United States: non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic blacks. Marked racial variation in ...
A systematic review published in 2000 studied the association between maternal anemia and birth weight; however, some results were inconclusive. A review of randomized control trials and cohort studies published in 2013 concluded that daily prenatal iron use substantially improves birth weight in a linear dose response manner. Thus, a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies was conducted to contemporarily estimate the relationship between prenatal maternal hemoglobin and birth weight. We searched four electronic databases for observational epidemiological studies, which reported birth weight as an outcome measure and ascertained prenatal maternal anemia by hemoglobin measurement. Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of five studies showed that neonates born to women with anemia were, on average, 303 g lighter in birth weight than those born to women without anemia (95% CI: 19.20 588.26; I = 91%; five studies; p = 0.04). On the basis of ...
16,000 participants showed early weight gain had the largest effect on infants birth weight FOR RELEASE:. August 28, 2017. CONTACT:. Robyn Gordon, The Obesity Society: [email protected] SILVER SPRING, MD: Weight gain in early pregnancy has the greatest impact on infant size at birth, according to a new study published today in Obesity. The study is the largest ever analysis of the effect that weight gain in early pregnancy has on infant size.. The study examined 16,218 pregnant mothers throughout the first, second and third trimesters in Tianjin, China to determine the risk of infants size at birth. Results found weight gain early in pregnancy, before 24 weeks-regardless of the weight gain later-had the greatest impact on infant size. Infants born to women with weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy, prior to 24 weeks, were 2.5 times more likely to be born large.. Maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy have been ...
BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing , or = 1500 g or of less than 32 weeks gestational age. METHODS: From 1991 ROP screening was performed in 452 premature infants with either a birth weight , or = 1500 g (n = 303) or a birth weight , 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia before estimated term. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, three infants with birth weights between 2080 and 2325 g and a gestational age of 32 or 33 weeks developed stage 2 or 3 ROP. One of these underwent cryocoagulation. In three infants, preterm birth was induced by sudden placental abruption with severe prenatal blood loss followed by haemorrhagic shock. The umbilical cord packed cell volume was reduced to 0.14-0.19 (normal 0.43-0.63). All three infants underwent surgery with general anaesthesia within the first ...
Responsibility of the Obstetrician to the Fetus: II. Influence of Prepregnancy Weight and Pregnancy Weight Gain on Birthweight Obstet. Gynecol., May 1975; 45: 481 - 487.
birth weight[tw] OR birth weight[mh] OR low birth weight infant[mh] OR fetal growth retardation[mh] OR ((growth restriction[tw] OR fetal growth[tw]) AND (infant[tw] OR infants[tw] OR fetal[tw] OR fetus[tw]))) AND (caffeine[ti] OR caffeinated[ti] OR caffeine[majr]) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant) AND (Cohort Studies[mh] OR cohort*[tw] OR compar*[tw] OR cross-sectional[tw] OR cross-sectional studies[mh] OR follow-up[tw] OR followup[tw] OR follow up[tw] OR longitudinal*[tw] OR multivariate[tw] OR population surveillance/methods[mh] OR population-based study[tw] OR prospective*[tw] OR random* OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR reproducib*[tw] OR Reproducibility of Results[mh]) NOT (Meta Analysis[pt] OR meta analy*[tw] OR metaanaly*[tw] OR systematic review*[tw] OR data synthesis[tw] OR data extraction[tw] OR Cochrane Database Syst Rev[ta]) AND english[la] AND humans[mh ...
Caffeine intake from different sources was linked to lower birth weight and a higher number of babies who were small for gestational age. For a child with an expected average birth weight (3.6kg) this is equivalent to 21-28 g lost per 100 mg caffeine per day. An intake of 200-300 mg caffeine per day is associated with an increase in the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age baby by almost a third. Babies who are small for gestational age are at higher risk of both short-term and lifelong health problems. Caffeine consumption is strongly correlated with smoking which is known to increase the risk for both preterm delivery and the baby being small for gestational age. In this study we found no association between caffeine intake and preterm delivery but we did find an association between caffeine and babies who were small for gestational age. This association remained even when we corrected for maternal smoking habits and when we only looked at non-smoking mothers, which implies ...
Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced
Lawlor, DA; Davey Smith, G; Whincup, P; Wannamethee, G; Papacosta, O; Dhanjil, S; Griffin, M; Nicolaides, AN; Ebrahim, S; (2003) Association between offspring birth weight and atherosclerosis in middle aged men and women: British Regional Heart Study. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 57 (6). pp. 462-3. ISSN 0143-005X DOI: 10.1136/jech.57.6.462 ...
Learn the risks and issues associated with low birth weight babies, and how you and your baby may be affected by having a low birth weight.
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is related to increased risk of coronary heart disease in adults and recently has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in children. We investigated whether the relation between birth weight and endothelial function was still present in early adult life and whether there was an interaction with emerging risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 315 adults (165 women, 150 men, aged 20 to 28 years), high-resolution ultrasound was used to determine endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular responses of the brachial artery. Vascular measures were related to classic risk factors (smoking history, lipid profile, blood pressure, fasting insulin, exercise capacity, body mass index, and combined risk score) and birth weight. Low birth weight was associated with reduced flow-mediated dilation (coefficient=0.18 kg(-1), 95% CI 0.004 to 0.35, P:=0.04) but not with endothelium-independent dilation. The difference in flow-mediated dilation between the top and bottom
LBW means one whose birth weight is less than 2500 gm irrespective of the gestational age. DOWNLOAD LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES ppt. ...
An innovative feature of the current study is the use of twins to test the prenatal programming hypothesis. Twins share the same maternal environment, and monozygotic twins are genetically identical. Nevertheless, each fetus has its own fetoplacental environment, as reflected by its birth weight, that may differ substantially between twin members. By comparing the BP of the heaviest twin at birth with that of the lighter sibling, potential confounding maternal and genetic characteristics can be controlled. So far, only 4 studies have applied this twin approach for BP,4-7 but their results have not been consistent. Dwyer et al4 and Poulter et al5 found a tendency for the monozygotic twin who was lightest at birth to have the highest BP later in life, suggesting that the association between birth weight and adult BP is at least partly independent from maternal and genetic influences. Ijzerman et al6 observed an inverse relationship between intrapair birth weight difference and intrapair difference ...
High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) ...
Ranchers have asked that question during many springs and veterinarians have speculated for years. The debate rages on. This is obviously a difficult subject to research because you cannot have a control group of cows to compare to a treatment group that is exposed to a cold winter while still running on the same pasture. Therefore research data on this subject is limited.. University of Nebraska researchers (Colburn and co-workers) have done the next best thing. They have monitored the birth weights of genetically similar calves across three different winters and have related average winter temperatures to birth weights. A 3-year study was conducted to evaluate effects of high and low air temperatures and wind chills during winter months on subsequent calf birth weights and calving difficulty of spring-born calves. Records on approximately 400 2-year-old heifers and their calves were used. Heifer and calf genetics were the same each year. Heifers were fed similar quality hay free-choice ...
Low birth weight is known to increase the risk for major disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation, but researchers now suspect that low birth weight may also
Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and programs hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. At age 3 years,
Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and programs hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. At age 3 years,
Background: Fetal and early life growth is associated with adult risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. However, little is known about the relative importance of birth weight and successive periods of weight gain on markers of cardiometabolic risk in childhood in low-income populations. Objectives: The objective was to study associations of birth weight and weight gain velocities in selected age intervals from birth to 60 mo with height, fat-free mass (FFM), and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk at 60 mo. Methods: In a prospective cohort study of 375 Ethiopian children aged 60 mo, we estimated individual weight gain velocities in the periods between birth and 3, 6, 24, 48, and 60 mo using linear-spline mixed-effects modeling. Subsequently, we analyzed associations of birth weight, weight gain velocities, and current weight with height, FFM, and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk. Results: Weight gain from 48 to 60 mo and weight at 60 mo rather than birth weight were ...
According to researchers from Johns Hopkins Childrens Center, an infant with low birth weight carries particles in the blood that can lower the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol that it produces. These particles in the blood contain apolipoprotein C-1, known for lowering HDL, or good cholesterol. Blood from the umbilical cords of 163 infants born at 28 or more gestational weeks and at approximately 1.3 lb less than normal weight were analyzed. Researchers found higher levels of apolipoprotein C-1 in 19% of these infants. Low birth weight and higher-than-normal levels of this substance have been associated with the death of the hearts smooth-muscle cells. These cells are important to protecting the circulatory system from artery-clogging plaque, which can lead to a heart attack. Researchers concluded that it is important to check C-1 levels in low-birth-weight infants, and that these children should eat low-fat diets to reduce their risk of heart disease. ...
Although neurodevelopmental outcome of very preterm neonates has also significantly improved over this period, the pace of improvement in central nervous system morbidity appears to have lagged behind that of survival. In addition, neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born extremely immature persists into school age, and the level of impairment is often underestimated when standardized tests are being used for the assessment of these patients cognitive and neurological status. Among extremely preterm children, cognitive and neurologic impairment is common at school age. A comparison with their classroom peers indicates a level of impairment that is greater than is recognized with the use of standardized norms. The extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors in school at age 8 years who were born in the 1990s have considerable long-term health and educational needs. A meta-analysis of case-control studies reported from 1980 to November 2001 that examined cognitive and behavioral outcomes ...
Authors: Adrianne R. Bischoff, André K. Portella, Catherine Paquet, Roberta Dalle Molle, Aida Faber, Narendra Arora, Robert D. Levitan, Patrícia P. Silveira and Laurette Dubé Publication: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 119, No. 11, June 2018 Abstract: Evidence suggests that both high and low birth weight children have increased the risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Previously we have found altered feeding behaviour and food preferences in pre-school children and adults born with low birth weight. In this study, we investigated if birth weight was associated with different intake of fat, carbohydrate and/or protein at 6-12 years of age. This is a cross-sectional study where 255 guardians answered online and telephone questions including anthropometrics and demographic data, parental family food rules (food control, encouragement and restriction) and a complete web-based FFQ for their children (130 boys and 125 girls). Baseline demographic and parental food rules
Posted By BestCellulite on Sep 12, 2016 , Women who undergo gastric bypass surgery for weight loss risk giving birth to babies that are small or have lower average birth weights.. Cellulite Solution. Free Yourself from the unsightly appearance of cellulite dimples with an all-natural formula that effectively reduces the appearance of cellulite while eliminating inches from problem areas.. In addition to the latest in obesity news, discover all our best cellulite treatment cream recommendations.. ...
Psychosocial predictors of labor/ delivery complications and infant birth weight: a prospective multivariate study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;21(3).
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight has been associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in adult life, but the precise mechanism is debated. The endothelium is thought to play a pivotal role in each of the above conditions with abnormalities being detectable before the development of overt disease. To investigate the possibility that endothelium has a role in mediating the excessive risk of adult vascular disease associated with low birth weight, endothelial function was assessed in young healthy adults who were either of low or normal birth weight at term. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve low birth weight (2.2 +/- 0.05 kg, mean +/- SEM) subjects (six men/six women; age 28 +/- 0.2 years) and twelve age- and sex-matched normal birth weight (3.3 +/- 0.07 kg) control subjects were studied. The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway was assessed in the forearm vascular bed by using venous occlusion plethysmography during intra-arterial brachial infusion of acetylcholine, ...
What is Low Birth Weight Baby? Babies with birth weight of , 2.5 kg irrespective of gestational age is called Low Birth Weight Baby. Most normal babies weigh 5.5 pounds by 37 weeks of gestation. At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. There are really nothing special to do for preventing Low Birth Weight Baby. But the following …. Read More » ...
Modern sow lines have been genetically selected for increased litter size. This increase in litter size, however, is also associated with higher piglet mortality. This piglet mortality can be partly explained by lower piglet birth weights and higher within-litter variation in birth weight. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that these factors, the lower piglet birth weights and the higher within-litter variation, are (at least partly) explained by impaired follicular development of sows during and after lactation, as this is the period in which antral follicles develop that contain the oocytes that will give rise to the next litter. Increased litter size also results in increased metabolic demands of modern sows during lactation, due to the necessary higher milk production. As the metabolic state highly influences follicular development, the increased metabolic demands may therefore impair follicular development and contribute to lower piglet birth weights and higher within-litter variation ...
A baby is considered as having a low birth weight if he or she weighs less than 2,500g (2.5kg) when born. Learn about the causes and risk factors for having a low birth weight baby.
In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimator to identify the impact of smoking on babies of teen and non-teen mothers. We find that both OLS and matching estimator results yield large impacts of smoking on birth weight for teens and adults. However, when we control for unobservables through a fixed effects model, the impact of smoking on birth ...
Determine if the clinical risk factors for low birth weight are independent of socioeconomic risk factors in a sample from a developing country.
Health, ...TUESDAY Jan. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Low birth weight does not increas...Researchers looked at data on nearly 4000 children (193 low birth wei...Of the children with a low birth weight nearly 7 percent developed as...The study was published Jan. 15 in the journal Annals of Allergy A...,No,Link,Between,Low,Birth,Weight,,Asthma:,Study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Objectives We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design. Methods We used data from ,200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered to be present. The comparison group comprised all other employed women not included in the occupational sector being assessed. We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates and explored heterogeneity. Results Employees had a lower risk of preterm delivery than non-employees [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied ...
Babies with low birth weights face increased risks of infection, impaired development, developmental delays, and higher rates of infant death.[i] They are more likely to suffer from long-term disabilities, including cerebral palsy and blindness. Low birth weight can be influenced by a number of factors, including maternal and fetal health. For example, women who use tobacco, have poor nutrition, consume alcohol, or use illegal or some prescription drugs while pregnant are at increased risk of giving birth to low-weight babies.[ii] Chronic conditions including diabetes, heart defects, and kidney disease can also increase a womans risk of giving birth to a low-weight baby.. Metadata. ...
Sow Nutrition. What are the piglet birth weights?. Birth weights are a direct reflection of how the sow is fed during the last 15 to 20 days of gestation. What are the days return to first estrus?. Long days to estrus is a result of expended energy during lactation. Generally as a function of low energy intake to meet these needs.. What are the weaning weights?. Weaning weights are a reflection of sow milk production and piglet health. Generally the sow should be able to milk 11 to 12 liters of milk per day.. Lactation feed intake and proper lactation feed density (nutrients) is needed to get the required milk production.. What is the milk production of your sow during lactation?. To determine what your sows are milking take the 21 day liter weight subtract the litter birth weight, divide by 21 days and multiply by 4. (It takes 4 grams of milk to make one gram of gain). 82 Kgs (wean weight) - 21.5 Kgs birth weight is 60.5 Kgs of growth, divide by 21 days is 2.87 grams per day times 4 is 11.5 ...
We have studied 477 8-year-old Indian children to define the relationship between birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) variables and plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. All risk factors were strongly related to current weight. After adjustment for current weight, age, and sex, lower birth weight was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), fasting plasma insulin and 32-33 split proinsulin concentrations (P = 0.08 and 0.02), glucose and insulin concentrations 30 min postglucose (P = 0.06 and 0.04), subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio (P = 0.003), and plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.002 and 0.001). Lower birth weight was associated with increased calculated insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA], P = 0.03), but was not related to the HOMA index of beta-cell function. The highest levels of IRS variables and total and LDL cholesterol were in children of low birth weight but ...