Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially-mediated carbon and nutrient cycling processes. This study is the first comprehensive study of the resistance and resilience of microbial C, N, and P cycling processes in decomposing plant litter to severe temperature disturbances. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses and illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate ...
Introduction to disturbance: lecture topics. What is stability, how is it defined, and what kinds of stability are there in biological communities? How is stability related to diversity of ecological communities? Slideshow 1284312 by gaurav
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Drifting fronds and drifting alleles: range dynamics, local dispersal and habitat isolation shape the population structure of the estuarine seaweed Fucus ...
Low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) presents a sustainable, cost-efficient technology for the treatment of a vast array of wastewater streams. However, this microbially-mediated process requires further understanding and experimental characterisation if large-scale application of LTAD is to be realised. The objective of this thesis was to employ a functional-based approach to characterise the microbial communities underpinning low-temperature anaerobic digestion. Firstly, the key microbial functional groups present in end-point samples taken from three, laboratory-scale, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) bioreactors; R1 (37°C), R2 (15°C) and R3 (7°C) were characterised. Metaproteomics, in conjunction with 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic approaches (clone libraries, qPCR), was applied to record microbial community composition and metaproteomic profiles as a function of bioreactor operating temperature. Clone libraries indicated a predominance of the Chloroflexi (21%) and ¿-Proteobacteria ...
Leibold and Chase have written an authoritative and accessible account of recent research on how spatially organized processes shape patterns of biological diversity over the ecological landscape. This book will be the springboard for future work in this area."-Robert E. Ricklefs, University of Missouri, St. Louis. "Current thinking in ecology is a disorganized soup of ideas, from dispersal and spatial heterogeneity to temporal change, species sorting, and evolution. This book impressively pulls these disparate threads into a powerful and coherent framework based on metacommunities. Its next-generation metacommunity framework could well serve as a launching pad for the next decade of ecology."-Brian McGill, University of Maine. "In this magisterial book, Leibold and Chase provide a conceptually coherent synthesis of the burgeoning field of metacommunity ecology. In addition to deftly synthesizing a sprawling literature on the role of dispersal limitation, drift, and interactions in ...
Most studies of microbial communities in which 16S rRNA sequences are used rely on standard estimates of diversity (i.e., the Shannon-Weiner index). This approach is informative, but it ignores important information about the disparity among the sampled sequences. In this study I used standard quantitative methods of analysis borrowed from population genetics and systematics for describing and comparing microbial communities. Information gained from analysis of DNA sequences provided the basis for statistical analysis of communities in ways that advance inferences about the processes that may govern the compositions and functions of microbial communities. Furthermore, the analytical approaches advocated here make it possible to accomplish broad comparisons of ecological communities. For instance, a comparison of lineage-per-time plots across a diverse set of ecosystems might reveal differences in the phylogenetic compositions of ecological communities that would be invisible with standard ...
Most studies of microbial communities in which 16S rRNA sequences are used rely on standard estimates of diversity (i.e., the Shannon-Weiner index). This approach is informative, but it ignores important information about the disparity among the sampled sequences. In this study I used standard quantitative methods of analysis borrowed from population genetics and systematics for describing and comparing microbial communities. Information gained from analysis of DNA sequences provided the basis for statistical analysis of communities in ways that advance inferences about the processes that may govern the compositions and functions of microbial communities. Furthermore, the analytical approaches advocated here make it possible to accomplish broad comparisons of ecological communities. For instance, a comparison of lineage-per-time plots across a diverse set of ecosystems might reveal differences in the phylogenetic compositions of ecological communities that would be invisible with standard ...
Liang Y, Van Nostrand JD, Nguessan LA, Peacock AD, Deng Y, Long PE, Resch TC, Wu L, He Z, Li G et al.. 2012. Microbial functional gene diversity with a shift of subsurface redox conditions during In Situ uranium reduction.. Appl Environ Microbiol. 78(8):2966-72. ...
Liang Y, Van Nostrand JD, Nguessan LA, Peacock AD, Deng Y, Long PE, Resch TC, Wu L, He Z, Li G et al.. 2012. Microbial functional gene diversity with a shift of subsurface redox conditions during In Situ uranium reduction.. Appl Environ Microbiol. 78(8):2966-72. ...
ABSTRACT: The literature on the ecology of marine assemblages includes frequent examples of data analysis with no well-defined alternative hypotheses for the definition of environmental variables (independent matrix for multivariate methods). Alternative models, whereby spatial or temporal patterns are investigated, should be explicitly assumed. We present a parsimonious procedure for model selection in multivariate data combined with canonical correspondence analysis to determine the measure of explained variance for each tested model, using Akaike¹s information criterion (AIC) for model selection. The AIC procedure is an effective tool for model selection and, in contrast to other conventional procedures that use only 1 implicit model and ignore other community patterns, it provides a framework for ranking hierarchical patterns that adds an alternative non-disjunctive perspective to assemblage analysis. Hierarchical patterns are revealed as layers in a scale-dependent framework. ...
Miller, K. M. and Kneitel, J. M. 2005. Inquiline communities in pitcher plants as a prototypical metacommunity. - In: Holyoak, M., Leibold, M. A. and Holt, R. D. (eds.), Metacommunities: Spatial Dynamics and Ecological Communities. University of Chicago Press, pp. 122-145 ...
Early Methanogenic Colonisation in the Faeces of Meishan and Yorkshire Piglets as Determined by Pyrosequencing Analysis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The team found that their samples from both Maine and the Namib contained a diverse microbial community, featuring a mix of both soil-based and ocean-based microbes. As one might expect, the proportion of marine to terrestrial microbes shifts depending on how close to the ocean the fog is - more marine microbes directly on the coast in Maine, fewer 30 miles inland in the Namib desert.. "On the journey from the ocean to the land, microbes not only survive, but change during transport," said Dueker. "Fog itself is a novel, living ecosystem.". Microbes that ride fog droplets tend to live longer than those that live in ordinary air, and are more readily safely deposited on land. The presence of fog changes the lands existing microbial community, shifting the fogs benefits and detriments for plants and animals.. Most of the microbes that the researchers found in the fog are totally harmless to humans, but knowing that fog is a conduit for microbes does present possibilities for research on ...
The oldest convincing evidence of life is in 3.5 Ga rocks in the Pilbara region of WA and the Barberton Mountainland of South Africa. Diverse microbial communities lived in environments ranging from volcanic calderas to open marine settings. There is tenuous evidence for life in 3.8-3.9 Ga rocks of Greenland, but the record is obscured by the pervasive alteration of all known rock successions of this age and older. Thus there are no known well preserved rocks older than 3.5 Ga - so, no convincing fossil record. The best we can do at present is to infer the earliest stages of life from studies of extant organisms and from theoretical and experimental approaches to the origin of life.. The oldest known macroscopic organisms preserved in the rock record are dated at 2.1 Ga. Their affinities are obscure, but they may have been algae. There is chemical evidence for eukaryotes (nucleated sexually reproducing organisms) back to 2.7-2.8 Ga, and tentative morphological evidence at 3.0 Ga or even ...
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ATLANTA, Sept. 18, 2013-- Biota Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced financial results for its fourth quarter and fiscal year ended June 30, 2013, and provided an update on recent corporate developments and its financial guidance.
The Marine Biological Association conducts, promotes and supports scientific research into all aspects of life in the sea. Were working with our ever-growing membership to provide a clear and independent voice on behalf of the marine biological community. ...
The Marine Biological Association conducts, promotes and supports scientific research into all aspects of life in the sea. Were working with our ever-growing membership to provide a clear and independent voice on behalf of the marine biological community. ...
What are fairy rings? Fairy rings are circular areas of abnormal turf growth that are most commonly found on lawns and golf courses where soils have high levels of organic matter, and in areas where trees have recently been removed. Due to their mysterious, circular appearance, fairy rings have been of interest since ancient times. According to medieval lore, they were thought to appear after a band of fairies had danced in an area.. What do fairy rings look like? Fairy rings are rings of grass up to 15 feet in diameter that have a distinctly different color or texture than the grass inside or outside of the ring. Half- or other partial ring patterns occur as well. Depending on conditions, grass within fairy rings can be denser, greener, and faster growing, or alternatively browner and drier than surrounding grass. During wet weather, rings of mushrooms may form at the edge of the discolored grass.. Where do fairy rings come from? Fairy rings are caused by certain fungi that feed on decaying ...
Community Response Ltd, established in 1990, based in the Liberties in the South Inner City of Dublin, provides a comprehensive programme for primary alcohol and Hepatitis C services.. Not only do we provide alcohol services to clients, but we also provide information and support to those affected by Hepatitis C, or alcohol related hepatitis. We also provide a safe and supportive space for family members with one to one and peer support groups.. Community Response has an open door policy for anyone who feels they are in need of support around their alcohol addiction, or concerns over their Liver Health.. We provide structured programmes for those affected by alcohol misuse , individuals with - or at risk of contracting- Hepatitis C, and family support for who people living with addiction in the home. We facilitate groups, meet people one to one and offer a holistic treatment package. ...
A central challenge in microbial community ecology is the delineation SGX-145 of appropriate models of biodiversity which can be taxonomic phylogenetic or functional in nature. is often not obvious. An analysis that considers taxon task and characteristics in concert may be ideal with the strengths of each approach offsetting the SGX-145 weaknesses of the other. Individual genes also merit concern as entities in an ecological analysis PB1 with characteristics such as diversity turnover and interactions modeled using genes rather SGX-145 than organisms as entities. We identify some promising avenues of research that are likely SGX-145 to yield a deeper understanding of microbial communities that shift from observation-based questions of Who is there? and What are they doing? to the mechanistically driven question of How will they respond? is seen as a leading indicator of a general decline in biodiversity in part due to their sensitivity to disturbances in both terrestrial and aquatic ...
This is an advanced course, focused on the theoretical background of population and community ecology. Various topics such as competition, predation, community ecology and trophic interactions are treated in lectures, article seminars and a literature project. The course aims to give a deeper understanding of how to formulate hypotheses, design studies and analyse the data that result from these studies. This is done in exercises, in a regional excursion and a research project carried out during the final part of the course.. ...
Chapter 55: Community Ecology contains external links to:|p/| |ul class=star| |li|The Worlds Major Ecological Communities/ Biomes|/li| |li|Plant Adaptation Game|/li| |li|Animal Adaptation Game|/li| |/ul| |p|This resource is part of the |b||a href=http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Coll_ALoom/BiologyLinksforOLPC| Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child|/a||/b| course which contains units on Exploring Life; The Cell; Genetics; Mechanisms of Evolution; The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity; Plant Form and Function; Animal Form and Function; Ecology; and Astrobiology. |/p|
Recently, the use of SADs to test biodiversity theory has been criticized because different species abundance models often generate very similar predictions, which can be difficult to distinguish when fitted to species abundance data (9). Consequently, some researchers have focused on other properties of assemblages, such as community similarity (12), species-area and species-time relationships (23, 24), and relationships between species traits or phylogeny and species abundance (25, 26). Such approaches are powerful when evaluating the performance of particular species abundance models. However, because models combine multiple assumptions, attributing a models failure to one assumption in particular, such as species equivalence, is problematic. Indeed, in the debate over neutral theory of biodiversity, studies that show failure of a neutral model (12, 25, 27) are almost invariably followed by responses showing that packaging neutrality with a different set of alternative assumptions can ...
Ribbon bar. Select the Statistics tab. In the Advanced/Multivariate group, click Mult/Exploratory and on the menu, select Correspondence to display the Correspondence Analysis (CA): Table Specifications Startup Panel.. Classic menus. On the Statistics - Multivariate Exploratory Techniques submenu, select Correspondence Analysis to display the Correspondence Analysis (CA): Table Specifications Startup Panel.. Correspondence analysis provides a descriptive/exploratory technique designed to analyze simple two-way and multi-way tables containing some measure of correspondence between the rows and columns. The results provide information that is similar in nature to those produced by factor analysis techniques, and they allow you to explore the structure of categorical variables included in the table.. The Correspondence Analysis module features a full implementation of simple and multiple correspondence analysis techniques. STATISTICA accepts input data files with grouping (coding) variables that ...
Many of us all been caught out by the rain in the past Im sure, whether it be running to and from work or having a lovely weekend of walking and hiking in the
According to recent studies, drying clothes inside your house can affect your health. The increment in humidity stimulates the formation of mold and fungal spores, which can cause allergic reactions in some people.
Biology Assignment Help, Slow moving waters - biota of rivers, Slow Moving Waters - Biota of Rivers The habitat of a slowly moving part of the river is very different from the one just described. Here the water flow is comparatively slow and so current is less. Figure: Slow Moving Waters Organisms
A device for interacting with biota either on a pre-specified schedule or via actuation by remote signal. Preferably, the biota are fauna and more particularly fish. In selected embodiments, it compri
Downloadable! How resources are being used to fund the community response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is of considerable interest to the donor community and governments. In the past decade, international funding for the HIV and AIDS response provided by governments rose from about US$1 billion to US$8.7 billion; donors increasingly shifted their financial support toward funding community responses to this epidemic. Yet little is known about the global magnitude of these resource flows and how funding is allocated among HIV and AIDS activities and services. Although some studies have been carried out to gather information on the community response by civil society organizations (CSOs), most of them provide only partial information limited to a specific intervention (for example, orphan support) or specific local communities. To address this knowledge gap, the report attempts to answer the following questions: How large is donor funding for
Community structure is one of the most relevant features encountered in numerous real-world applications of networked systems. Despite the tremendous effort of a large interdisciplinary community of scientists working on this subject over the past few years to characterize, model, and analyze communities, more investigations are needed in order to better understand the impact of their structure and dynamics on networked systems. The primary goal of this collection is to showcase the cutting edge research advances on community structures in networks, in order to provide a landscape of research progresses and application potentials in related areas ...
In the Ecosystem Modeling research group, we pursue the understanding of the processes underlying the origin, maintenance and spatiotemporal dynamics of biodiversity across scales, from local to global, and across levels of ecological organization, from individuals, over populations, species, communities, and metacommunities up to biomes. The working group applies a range of methods, including field work, data analyses and macroecology, but focuses on mechanistic simulation modeling. The developed mechanistic models for virtual life can be used for theory testing, improving empirical sampling designs, understanding complex process interactions, and predicting biodiversity response to drivers and environmental change scenarios. ...
Introduction You cannot see them, feel them or taste them, but your mouth is home to entire colonies of microorganisms. The mouth houses the second most diverse microbial community in the body, harboring over 700 species of bacteria that colonize the hard surfaces of teeth and the soft tissues of the oral mucosa1. Most
We assume that plants use only the solar short-wave radiation, absorbed by the Earths surface, 160 Wm-2. Since plants absorb only 53.5% of this energy (photosynthetically active radiation), 85.6 Wm- , and vegetation covers 72.5% of land area, Aveg « 1.1 x 1014m2, the biota gets annually. Was this article helpful?. ...
JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com - Siklon tropis Cempaka yang telah luluh pada Rabu (29/11/2017) berpotensi memberikan dampak pada biota goa Siklon memicu curah hujan tinggi dan mengakibatkan banjir di wilayahkarst Gunung Kidul sejak Selasa (28/11/2017). Air hujan tak sepenuhnya bisa dialirkan lewat sungai-sungai bawah tanah sehingga akhirnya meluap. Peneliti arachnida dari Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia…
I cut 2 sizes from the Spellbinders 2010 Heirloom Ornament die set. I dusted the smaller one with my anti-static bag and then stamped the bauble from the Creative Expressions Christmas Baubles Stamp Set using Perfect Medium. I dusted it with the copper mica powder from the metallics set. I removed the excess powder with a dry wet wipe (yes I know it sounds strange!). I then spritzed it with some water and dried it with my heat tool to fix the powder ...
S. Storey, M.M. Ashaari, G. McCabe, M. Harty, R. Dempsey, O. Doyle, N. Clipson and E.M. Doyle Microbial community structure during fluoranthene degradation in the presence of plants Journal of Applied Microbiology 117. Version of Record online: 28 APR 2014 , DOI: 10.1111/jam.12518. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Compare cheapest textbook prices for Multivariate Descriptive Statistical Analysis: Correspondence Analysis and Related Techniques for Large Matrices (Probab, Ludovic Lebart - 9780471867432. Find the lowest prices on SlugBooks
Jennings, W.B.; Pianka, E.R.; Donnellan, S. 2003: Systematics of the lizard family Pygopodidae with implications for the diversification of Australian temperate biotas. Systematic biology, 52 (6): 757-780. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/52.6.757 JSTOR PDF ...
Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables can harbor large and diverse populations of bacteria. However, most of the work on produce-associated bacteria has focused on a relatively small number of pathogenic bacteria and, as a result, we know far less about the overall diversity and composition of those bacterial communities found on produce and how the structure of these communities varies across produce types. Moreover, we lack a comprehensive view of the potential effects of differing farming practices on the bacterial communities to which consumers are exposed. We addressed these knowledge gaps by assessing bacterial community structure on conventional and organic analogs of eleven store-bought produce types using a culture-independent approach, 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Our results demonstrated that the fruits and vegetables harbored diverse bacterial communities, and the communities on each produce type were significantly distinct from one another. However, certain produce types (i.e., ...
Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual ...
ABSTRACT: Epilithic bacterial communities play a major role in biogeochemical cycles of rivers; however, distributional patterns and controls of epilithic communities remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to examine possible environmental factors that affect longitudinal distributional patterns of epilithic bacterial communities in 2 rivers (Yasu and Ado Rivers) draining the Lake Biwa basin, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with oligonucleotide probes targeted to small subunit rRNA. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and canonical correspondence analysis of the DGGE profile indicated that a clear shift in community composition occurred at the middle reach of the Yasu River. This shift was most closely related to variation in the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) of epilithic materials (BIOENV analysis, ρw = 0.512), which is an indicator of the ...
Auffret , M D , Karhu , K , Khachane , A , Dungait , J A J , Fraser , F , Hopkins , D W , Wookey , P A , Singh , B K , Freitag , T , Hartley , I P & Prosser , J I 2016 , The Role of Microbial Community Composition in Controlling Soil Respiration Responses to Temperature PLoS ONE , vol 11 , no. 10 , e0165448 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone. ...
The University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) is well known for its unique history as a site of human decomposition research in a natural environment. It has been integral to our understanding of the processes of human decomposition. Over the last 30 years 1,089 bodies have decomposed at this 1.28 acre facility, producing a density of 850 corpses per acre of land. This project evaluated the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the soil exposed to various levels of human decomposition in order to determine the effect on the physicochemical properties and the indigenous bacterial communities. Specifically, 75 soil samples were taken to determine abiotic properties. A biological matrix was generated for the 40 samples inside the facility based on sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The identified taxonomy was evaluated for differences among decomposition bins and taxa. Results of the abiotic soil properties demonstrated few differences among the predefined bins of decomposition density.
The representation of ecological communities as networks of interacting species is currently a particularly widespread approach in community ecology. The prevalence of networks has led to a broad literature that sheds light on the links between ecological network structure and stability, the explanatory role of traits and evolutionary history with regard to interaction patterns, and the persistence and dynamics of networks across time and space. In addition to the long-established study of trophic and competitive interactions, the importance of networks of positive interactions to ecological communities is also becoming increasing apparent. Despite these many advances, it is often sidestepped that each interaction network---be it a food-web, pollination network, or host-parasite network---is but one component in a greater, connected whole. That is, each and every ecological community is actually composed of multiple interaction networks that do not operate independent from one another. Indeed, ...
Read "A novel method to determine the minimum number of sequences required for reliable microbial community analysis, Journal Of Microbiological Methods" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The topology of ecological communities is structured through the many and varied interactions active in food webs [1]. Direct trophic interactions, mutualism, competition, commensalism and parasitism are all modes that interconnect various elements of a community and to a certain extent, govern overall ecosystem dynamics [2]. There is also a growing realization that there are subtler, indirect effects in play [3,4] where third-party actors can be subsumed to play the role of a bait or a protector. The interaction of direct and indirect effects is most evident in so-called intra-guild predation, a tri-trophic arrangement where a consumer and its predator share a common resource [5]. While ecological communities are often described by the topology of the connections among species, their dynamics are controlled by the strength of the interactions these connections represent [6]. Further, the strength of these interactions is not static. Whatever the architecture of ecological communities, the ...
Here is the best resource for homework help with AS 270.308 : Population/Community Ecology at Johns Hopkins. Find AS270.308 study guides, notes, and practice
Community structures are quite common in real networks. Social networks include community groups (the origin of the term, in fact) based on common location, interests, occupation, etc.[5][6] Finding an underlying community structure in a network, if it exists, is important for a number of reasons. Communities allow us to create a large scale map of a network since individual communities act like meta-nodes in the network which makes its study easier.[7] Individual communities also shed light on the function of the system represented by the network since communities often correspond to functional units of the system. In metabolic networks, such functional groups correspond to cycles or pathways whereas in the protein interaction network, communities correspond to proteins with similar functionality inside a biological cell. Similarly, citation networks form communities by research topic.[1] Being able to identify these sub-structures within a network can provide insight into how network function ...