Several investigators have suggested the presence of a link between Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) and lower limbs kinematics that can contribute to functional limitations and disability. Moreover, CLBP has been connected to postural and structural asymmetry. Understanding the movement pattern of lower extremities and its asymmetry during walking can provide a basis for examination and rehabilitation in people with CLBP. The present study focuses on lower limbs kinematics in individuals with CLBP during walking. Three-dimensional movements of the pelvic, hip, knee and ankle joints were tracked using a seven-camera Qualysis motion capture system. Functional dada analysis (FDA) was applied for the statistical analysis of pelvic and lower limbs motion patterns in 40 participants (20 CLBP and 20 controls). The CLBP group showed significantly different hip motion pattern in the transvers plane, altered knee and ankle motion pattern in the sagittal plane on the dominant side and different hip motion ...
We evaluated the corneal biomechanical properties in a population of healthy children in China. As far as we know, this is the first report of quantitative assessment of the corneal biomechanics in children population using CST. We used the newly updated CST software, which provided two more parameters (A1DA and A2DA) than previous versions. This helped to measure corneal deformation more comprehensively. We also assessed the symmetry of corneal biomechanics between the both eyes and found obviously interocular symmetry in SE, CCT, IOP, and corneal biomechanics in healthy children eyes. We also found that several CST biomechanical parameters in children are modified by CCT and IOP, while age, SE, and sex exert little influence on the CST measurements in this population.. Our observations of interocular symmetric biometry were consistent with previous studies [19-21]. Using ORA, Zheng et al. [22] demonstrated an obvious symmetry of CH and CRF in bilateral rabbit corneas. We also identified two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3D biomechanical analysis of foot in diabetes with and without peripheral neuropathy-a pilot study. AU - Hazari, Animesh. AU - Maiya, Arun G.. AU - Shivashankara, K. N.. AU - Ashma Monteiro, M. S.. AU - Shashi Kumar, C. G.. AU - Rao, Kartik. AU - Kumar, Sampath. AU - Maiya, Shreemathi S.. AU - Jadhav, Radhika. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - There has been a profound increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus especially among the Asian The biomechanical alteration in the foot structure and function are an important predictive risk factor for development of foot complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The routine biomechanical analysis using advanced motion analysis software in a clinical population like diabetes mellitus is still lacking in Indian settings. Therefore the aim of the study was to analyse and compare the biomechanical parameters of foot in diabetes mellitus with and without neuropathy and normal individuals of similar age group. The study was conducted in the ...
Context: The presence or absence of biomechanical differences between the sexes before puberty may provide clues about the onset of adult landing pattern differences, which may help to explain the greater number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females than in males and provide the basis for interventions to reduce those injuries. Objective: To identify developmental sex-related and biomechanical differences during vertical jump landings. Design: A 2 3 2 developmental stage (prepubescent or postpubescent) 3 sex (male or female) between-subjects design. Setting: Controlled laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty prepubescent subjects (15 boys, age 5 9.63 6 0.95 years; 15 girls, age 5 9.19 6 1.00 years) and 28 postpubescent subjects (14 men, age 5 23.57 6 3.23 years; 14 women, age 5 24.22 6 2.27 years). Intervention: Subjects performed a vertical jump to a target set at 50% of their maximum vertical jump height ability. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hip and knee kinematics of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. AU - Kobayashi, K.. AU - Tsuchie, H.. AU - Kanehisa, H.. AU - Yanai, Toshimasa. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. Methods: Nineteen collegiate sprinters were divided into FAST (N.=9) and SLOW (N.=10) groups, based on their best 100 m race times. A two-dimensional videographic technique was used to record the side views of 40 m sprint performances using four high-speed digital camcorders. Using the recorded images, kinematic variables such as contact time, flight time, horizontal velocity, and horizontal acceleration were determined from the 1st step to the 19th step. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA (two groups of 10 steps each) with a Tukey post-hoc test was used to analyze the obtained data. ...
Ground reaction forces (GRF), knee flexion angles, angular velocities and joint powers are unknown at large landing heights, which are infeasible for laboratory testing. However, this information is important for understanding lower extremity injury mechanisms. We sought to determine regression relationships of landing height with these parameters during landing so as to facilitate estimation of these parameters at large landing heights. Five healthy male subjects performed landing tasks from heights of 0.15-1.05 m onto a force-plate. Motion capture system was used to obtain knee flexion angles during landing via passive markers placed on the lower body. An iterative regression model, involving simple linear/exponential/natural logarithmic functions, was used to fit regression equations to experimental data. Peak GRF followed an exponential regression relationship (R2 = 0.90-0.99, p , 0.001; power = 0.987-0.998). Peak GRF slope and impulse also had an exponential relationship (R2 = 0.90-0.96, p ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An examination of kinematic variability of motion analysis in sprint hurdles. AU - Salo, Aki. AU - Grimshaw, Paul N.. PY - 1998/5. Y1 - 1998/5. N2 - Eight trials each of 7 athletes (4 women and 3 men) were videotaped and digitized in order to investigate the variation sources and kinematic variability of video motion analysis in sprint hurdles. Mean coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals ranged from 1.0 to 92.2% for women and from 1.2 to 209.7% for men. There were 15 and 14 variables, respectively, in which mean CVs revealed less than 5% variation. In redigitizing, CVs revealed ,1.0% for 12 variables for the womens trials and 10 variables for the mens trials. These results, together with variance components (between-subjects, within-subject, and redigitizing), showed that one operator and the analysis system together produced repeatable values for most of the variables. The most repeatable variables by this combination were displacement variables. However, further data ...
Linear, Cubic and Quintic Coordinate-Dependent Forces and Kinematic Characteristics of a Spring-Mass System. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The E-32 study was designed to capture the subjects physiological and biomechanical data such as ECG data and rate, respiratory data and rate, and body orientation, motion and movement (accelerometry) during typical events such as walking, sitting, running and sleeping in order to help build a database of stereotypical human activity ...
Introduction: Kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic activity of the lower limb have been shown to be influenced by various footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations (e.g. soles. Insoles, orthoses). A novel biomechanical device comprising four modular elements attached onto foot-worn platforms was recently developed. Each element can be individually calibrated (Position, convexity, height and resilience) to induce a specific biomechanical challenge.. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of specific biomechanical challenges on Kinetics, kinematics and electromyographic activity of the lower limb.. Design: Prospective, case control Setting: Motion analyses will be conducted during level walking with (1) a three-dimensional motion analysis system and (2) ground reaction force analysis using force platforms (3) Electro-Myography system. Each subject will be examined in 16 different settings of the biomechanical system ...
Despite the continuing research effort, data regarding the material properties and biomechanical parameters of spinal elements, particularly the ligaments, remains sparse.. The ligaments, discs, and vertebrae of the human spinal column were tested for their biomechanical strength. 65 samples of human vertebrae were tested in direct axial compression to failure in an M.T.S. testing machine. Average values of force at failure ranged from 2587N in the cervical spine to 4590N in the lumbar spine. Average values of stress at failure decreased from 7.9N/mm² in the cervical spine to 2.8N/mm² in the lumbar spine. Mean values of engineering strain at failure ranged from 24.4% to 33.9%.. Overall, 33 samples of the human intervertebral disc were tested in direct axial tension to failure. Average values of force at failure ranged from 592N in the cervical spine to 1254N in the lumbar spine. Deformations to failure ranged from 8.9mm to 11.1mm. Mean values of stiffness of the disc increased from 64.2N/mm in ...
Dec. 3l, 1968 D. c. RIDEOUT 3,418,896 REFLECTIVE MARKERS AND REFLECTIVE ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Feb. 3, 1967 INVENTOR Donald C. Rideau? ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,418,896 REFLECTIVE MARKERS AND REFLECTIVE ELEMENTS THEREFOR Donald C. Rideout, Huntingdon, Pa., assignor to Prismo Safety Corporation, Huntingdon, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Feb. 3, 1967, Ser. No. 613,878 10 Claims. (Cl. 94-1.5) ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE The invention relates to reflective elements which are flat on their upper and lower surfaces and which have vertical side walls covered by a plurality of Small glass spheres partially embedded in the vertical side walls, the width of the flat surfaces being at least twice the thickness of the elements and the thickness being in the order of ls-l/z and the width not exceeding 1". The reflective elements can be incorporated into reflective markers for improved night-time retroreflectivity especially in rainy weather. The elements can be incorporated into a hot ...
The main biomechanical function of the knee meniscus is to enlarge the contact area of the tibiofemoral joint leading to a reduction in articular cartilage contact stress. The meniscal attachments are essential for converting the axial load into circumferential tension in the meniscal periphery. Consequently, meniscal substitutes need sufficient anchorage to the tibial plateau to adequately restore the biomechanical function of a replaced meniscus. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the loads acting on the meniscotibial attachments under various joint loads ...
Leg stiffness is often computed from ground reaction force (GRF) registrations of vertical hops to estimate the force-resisting capacity of the lower-extremity during ground contact, with leg stiffness values incorporated in a spring-mass model to describe human motion. Individual biomechanical characteristics, including leg stiffness, were investigated in 40 healthy males. Our aim is to report and discuss the use of 13 different computational methods for evaluating leg stiffness from a double-legged repetitive hopping task, using only GRF registrations. Four approximations for the velocity integration constant were combined with three mathematical expressions, giving 12 methods for computing stiffness using double integrations. One frequency-based method that considered ground contact times was also trialled. The 13 methods thus defined were used to compute stiffness in four extreme cases, which were the stiffest, and most compliant, consistent and variable subjects. All methods provided ...
This module introduces vibrations using the simple model of a single degree of freedom system represented by a spring-mass. Equations of motion for a spring-mass system are developed and concepts such as natural frequency and phase differences are discussed. Examples of analogous systems that can be represented using a spring-mass model are also discussed. Numerical examples, interactive plots, and steps to create MapleSim simulations are included to enhance the learning experience.
The classic book on human movement in biomechanics, newly updated Widely used and referenced, David Winters Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement is a classic examination of techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking. It fills the gap in human movement science area where modern science and technology are integrated with anatomy, muscle physiology, and electromyography to assess and understand human movement. In light of the explosive growth of the field, this new edition updates and enhances the text with: Expanded coverage of 3D kinematics and kinetics New materials on biomechanical movement synergies and signal processing, including auto and cross correlation, frequency analysis, analog and digital filtering, and ensemble averaging techniques Presentation of a wide spectrum of measurement and analysis techniques Updates to all existing chapters Basic physical and physiological principles in capsule form for
A device for sensing a state change of a mechanical system, comprises at least one sound emitter (E), a receiver (R) as well as an electronic circuit (4) which allows to compare the received sound signal with reference values. The state of the mechanical system, such as the existence or the absence of contact among parts, is monitored by the processing of the signals corresponding to the emitted and received sound signals with the aim to allow to recognize the monitored state by the difference between the received signals and reference values. The sensing device may be used to monitor a number of variables such as contact, location, orientation, etc. of the mechanical parts by the same sensors there where traditionally different kinds of sensors were traditionally needed.
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TY - CONF. T1 - Mechanical control of stem cell differentiation using microengineered matrix. AU - Fu, Jianping. AU - Wang, Yang-Gao. AU - Yang, Michael T.. AU - Lee, Ted T.. AU - Chen, Christopher S.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - In this work, we explore the molecular mechanisms by which local mechanical properties (e.g., rigidity) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) cooperates with soluble cues to regulate lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We have established different micropost array substrates that can definitively decouple matrix rigidity from other properties including adhesiveness. We applied these substrates to investigate the influences of matrix rigidity on cell adhesion, cytoskeleton assembly/contractility, cell spreading, and proliferation. We further show that matrix rigidity regulates commitment of hMSCs to either adipogenic or osteogenic fate: soft matrix facilitates adipogenic differentiation while stiff matrix proves osteogenic.. AB - In this work, ...
The Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories at Michigan State University utilize research capacities and methods to foster student development.
The Vicon MX Motion Capture System provides the ability to track the movement of subjects in a variety of experiments. This system allows for a passive motion capture of reflective markers on the subject. The elimination of wires and battery packs from an individual leads to a more natural motion to be captured and analyzed.. The eight-camera array in an 8-ft x 12-ft space gives the ability for 3D video rendering and analysis; in addition the system has a real-time feedback option for the experimenter and subject.. The Vicon Motion Capture System is utilized in experiments ranging from balance studies to limb movement and gait studies. ...
Altered gait biomechanics associated with pediatric obesity may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury/pathology during physical activity and/or diminish a childs ability to engage in sufficient physical activity. The biomechanical mechanisms responsible for the altered gait in obese children are not well understood, particularly as they relate to increases in adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of adiposity (i.e. body fat percentage, BF%) on lower extremity kinematics, muscle force requirements and their individual contributions to the acceleration of the center of mass (COM) during walking. We scaled a musculoskeletal model to the anthropometrics of each participant (n=14, 8-12 years old, BF%: 16-41%) and generated dynamic simulations of walking to predict muscle forces and their contributions to the acceleration of the COM. Muscle force output was normalized to muscle mass. BF% was correlated with average knee flexion angle during stance (r=−0.54) and ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of disability, worldwide. OA leads to breakdown of the articular cartilage (AC), the highly structured tissue that lines the end of bones of the synovial joints. The cartilage cells synthesize and maintain the homeostasis of articular cartilage, a function that is largely influenced by mechanical forces. Mechanobiological studies of
Although Kendalls structural approach to postural assessment provides a biomechanical assessment of the musculoskeletal system, the late Vladimir Janda, MD, saw postural assessment as a functional impression of the status of the sensorimotor system. According to Janda, the sensorimotor system is 1 functional unit comprised of the afferent sensory system and the efferent motor system; 2 systems that cannot be considered to function independent of each other.34 He noted that changes in muscle tension are the first response of the system to nociception. By combining static biomechanical assessment popularized by Kendall with his observation of muscle function, Janda was able to form an early observational description of the possible cause of the patients musculoskeletal pain from a neurological perspective.34 ...
Ergonomic models of musculoskeletal strain in computer work have focused primarily on biomechanical indices (e.g. key force, keystroke repetition, work posture); relatively little attention has been given to psychophysiological indices (e.g. hyperventilatory responses to mood disturbances). This report explores the relationship between psychophysiological and biomechanical factors with right-hand
... - Involved-side cervical rotation range of motion less than 60 degrees,. 3. . Hearn , A., Rivett, DA. (). Cervical Snags: a biomechanical analysis. Manual.
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Blood vessels are exposed to multiple mechanical forces that are exerted on the vessel wall (radial, circumferential and longitudinal forces) or on the endothelial surface (shear stress). The stresses and strains experienced by arteries influence the initiation of atherosclerotic lesions, which develop at regions of arteries that are exposed to complex blood flow. In addition, plaque progression and eventually plaque rupture is influenced by a complex interaction between biological and mechanical factors-mechanical forces regulate the cellular and molecular composition of plaques and, conversely, the composition of plaques determines their ability to withstand mechanical load. A deeper understanding of these interactions is essential for designing new therapeutic strategies to prevent lesion development and promote plaque stabilization. Moreover, integrating clinical imaging techniques with finite element modelling techniques allows for detailed examination of local morphological and biomechanical
(2013) Niknafs et al. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the effects of cartilage thickness distribution and compressive properties in the context of optimal alignment planning for periacetabular osteotomy (PAO).\n\nBACKGROUND: The Biomechanical Guidanc...
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Biomechanical disability is often related to the inability to perform a specific task due to a restriction in joint ROM, strength or endurance interferes with biomechanical function. Common conditions include orthopedic injury, edema, pain, skin tightness (burns/scars), spasticity, or low muscle tone. Also, extended immobilization (disuse). OT goals are developed in regard to the task, situation, and context ...
Swinton, PA, Stewart, AD, Lloyd, R, Agouris, I, and Keogh, JWL. Effect of load positioning on the kinematics and kinetics of weighted vertical jumps. J Strength Cond Res 26(4): 906-913, 2012-One of the most popular exercises for developing lower-body muscular power is the weighted vertical jump. The present study sought to examine the effect of altering the position of the external load on the kinematics and kinetics of the movement. Twenty-nine resistance-trained rugby union athletes performed maximal effort jumps with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of their squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with the load positioned (a) on the posterior aspect of the shoulder using a straight barbell and (b) at arms length using a hexagonal barbell. Kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated through integration of the vertical ground reaction force data using a forward dynamics approach. Performance of the hexagonal barbell jump resulted in significantly (p | 0.05) greater values for jump height, peak force, peak power, and

The application of aquatic therapy for health and rehabilitation purposes has been promoted for centuries, below we show the biomechanical fundamentals.
A powered device augments a joint function of a human during a gait cycle using a powered actuator that supplies an augmentation torque, an impedance, or both to a joint. A controller estimates terrain slope and modulates the augmentation torque and the impedance according to a phase of the gait cycle and the estimated terrain slope to provide at least a biomimetic response. The controller may also modulate a joint equilibrium. Accordingly, the device is capable of normalizing or augmenting human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearers activity, regardless of speed and terrain, and can be used, for example, as a knee orthosis, prosthesis, or exoskeleton.
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Stepping activities when wearing a weighted vest may enhance physical function in older persons. Using 3 weighted-vest resistance dosages, this study characterized the lower-extremity joint biomechanics associated with stepping activities in elders. Twenty healthy community-dwelling older adults, ages 74.5 ± 4.5 yrs, performed 3 trials of forward step-up and lateral step-up exercises while wearing a weighted vest which added 0% body weight (BW), 5% BW, or 10% BW. They performed these activities on a force platform while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in ankle, knee, and hip maximum joint angles, peak net joint moments, joint powers, and impulses among both steping activities and the 3 loading conditions. Findings indicated that the 5% BW vest increased the kinetic output associated with the exercise activities at all three lower-extremity joints. These increases ranged from 5.9% for peak hip power to 12.5% for knee extensor ...
Preface to the Fourth Edition. 1 Biomechanics as an Interdiscipline.. 1.0 Introduction.. 1.1 Measurement, Description, Analysis, and Assessment.. 1.2 Biomechanics and its Relationship with Physiology and Anatomy.. 1.3 Scope of the Textbook.. 1.4 References.. 2 Signal Processing.. 2.0 Introduction.. 2.1 Auto- and Cross-Correlation Analyses.. 2.2 Frequency Analysis.. 2.3 Ensemble Averaging of Repetitive Waveforms.. 2.4 References.. 3 Kinematics.. 3.0 Historical Development and Complexity of Problem.. 3.1 Kinematic Conventions.. 3.2 Direct Measurement Techniques.. 3.3 Imaging Measurement Techniques.. 3.4 Processing of Raw Kinematic Data.. 3.5 Calculation of Other Kinematic Variables.. 3.6 Problems Based on Kinematic Data.. 3.7 References.. 4 Anthropometry.. 4.0 Scope of Anthropometry in Movement Biomechanics.. 4.1 Density, Mass, and Inertial Properties.. 4.2 Direct Experimental Measures.. 4.3 Muscle Anthropometry.. 4.4 Problems Based on Anthropometric Data.. 4.5 References.. 5 Kinetics: Forces and ...
The vision of the research group in COntinuum Biomechanics and Mechanobiology is on developing a systemic, comprehensive system models in health and disease. Our approach is to integrate experimental methods, mathematical modeling and numerical simulations. We utilize our expertise for various biomechanical applications and basic research projects.
The Biomechanical Environments Laboratory is the face of Texas A&M! Students from the lab are featured here in promotional materials for the University.. ...
Most biomechanical assessments of spinal loading during industrial work have focused on estimating peak spinal compressive forces under static and sagittally symmetric conditions. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of feasibly predicting three-dimensional (3D) spinal loading in industry from various combinations of trunk kinematics, kinetics, and subject-load characteris
Abstract Locomotion - moving the body from place to place - is one of infants greatest achievements. In addition to conquering gravity, infants must cope with variable and novel constraints on balance and propulsion. At the same time that they are learning to move, changes in infants bodies, skills, and environments change the biomechanical constraints on movement. Recent work highlights both flexibility and specificity in infants responses to novel and variable situations, demonstrating that infants are learning to learn as they master locomotion. Within sitting, crawling, crusing, and walking postures, experienced infants adapt their locomotor responses to the current biomechanical constraints on movement. However, what infants have learned about coping with variability and novelty in earlier-developing postures does not transfer to later-developing postures. Full Paper: Learning to Move ...
Activities that involve a change in direction apply a high rotational load to the knee joint. Biomechanical analysis of such activities may be useful for determining mechanisms that underlie knee injury and the success of ligament reconstruction surg
Researchers have developed new spring-like fibres that will enable engineered cardiac tissue in damaged hearts to help the organ function normally.
The Atlas of Science have recently contacted me to write up a laymans summary of my 2018 paper in JBMM. Together with Patrick Mahoney from the University of Kent, we explain in basic terms the relationships between bone microstructural adaptation and femur biomechanical function in humans. Give it a read here: ​https://atlasofscience.org/bone-microstructure-and-the-size-of-your-femur/ ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Berivan Cecen, Leyla Didem Kozaci, Mithat Yuksel, Ozcan Ustun, Bekir Ugur Ergur, Hasan Havitcioglu].
Several works have reported on the reconstruction of 2D/3D limb kinematics from low-frequency EEG signals using linear regression models based on positive correlation values between the recorded and the reconstructed trajectories. This paper describes the mathematical properties of the linear model and the correlation evaluation metric that may lead to a misinterpretation of the results of this type of decoders. Firstly, the use of a linear regression model to adjust the two temporal signals (EEG and velocity profiles) implies that the relevant component of the signal used for decoding (EEG) has to be in the same frequency range as the signal to be decoded (velocity profiles). Secondly, the use of a correlation to evaluate the fitting of two trajectories could lead to overly-optimistic results as this metric is invariant to scale. Also, the correlation has a non-linear nature that leads to higher values for sinus/cosinus-like signals at low frequencies. Analysis of these properties on the reconstruction
Article Effect of Backfill Thrust on Vertical Pressure Distribution in Reinforced Soil Model Walls. The magnitude and distribution of vertical stress are required for the design of reinforced soil wall. A laboratory investigation utilizing a physical...
Confocal - The microscope system has two colour confocal capabilities to image samples stained with Green or Red fluorescent markers allowing for higher resolution fluorescence imaging to be achieved. In confocal imaging, a laser is focused onto a diffraction limited volume at a specific focal plane on the sample of interest and scanned across the sample. The fluorescent emission from the sample is passed through a pinhole which blocks out of focus light which arises from emission outside of the focal plane of interest thus improving on resolution from other fluorescence imaging techniques. Confocal imaging can be used to construct a 3D image of the sample by altering the focal plane that is imaged at specific intervals throughout the sample and reconstructing this in the imaging software.. ...
To handle motion data by periodic sampling, the app calls a "start" method taking no arguments and periodically accesses the motion data held by a property for a given type of motion data. This approach is the recommended approach for apps such as games. Handling accelerometer data in a block introduces additional overhead, and most game apps are interested only the latest sample of motion data when they render a frame.. ...
In this paper, we introduce a novel approach based on higher order energy functions which have the ability to encode global structural dependencies to infer articulated 3D spine models to CT volume data. A personalized geometrical model is reconstructed from biplanar X-rays before spinal surgery in order to create a spinal column representation which is modeled by a series of intervertebral transformations based on rotation and translation parameters. The shape transformation between the standing and lying poses is then achieved through a Markov Random Field optimization graph, where the unknown variables are the deformations applied to the intervertebral transformations. Singleton and pairwise potentials measure the support from the data and geometrical dependencies between neighboring vertebrae respectively, while higher order cliques are introduced to integrate consistency in regional curves. Optimization of model parameters in a multi-modal context is achieved using efficient linear programming and
Sheaves and pulleys of various shapes and sizes are frequently employed in the mechanical transmission of power. The conventional design of sheaves is based on either empirical formulae or very elementary stress analysis. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element stress analysis of a sheave and describes a preprocessor developed here, capable of generating data for sheaves of various configurations. Due to pecularities of their geometry and loading, the models are built using eight-node and twelve-node isoparametric brick elements. The preprocessor requires as few as twenty cards for generating data for any of the seven sheave models incorporated in the model library. Excellent correlation of results is obtained, when strains thus generated are compared with those experimentally available for a specific sheave type under loading.. ...
No interaction between time and gender was evident for any variable; therefore, all results represent data collapsed across gender. Preactivation magnitude decreased across time periods for anterior tibialis (AT, P , .001), gastrocnemius (GAS, P , .001) and biceps femoris (BF, P = .03), but not for vastus lateralis (VL, P = .16). Muscle activation during ground contact did not change across time for BF; however, VL, G, and AT showed significant reductions (all P , .001). Peak force was reduced at 40 s compared with the initial jumps, and continued to be reduced at 50 and 60 s (all P , .05). The time from peak force to takeoff was greater at 50 and 60 s compared with the initial jumps (P , .05). Both knee fexion and ankle dorsifexion were reduced across time (both P , .001), whereas no change in relative hip angle was evident (P = .10). Absolute angle of the trunk increased with time (P , .001), whereas the absolute angle of the shank decreased (P , .001). ...
This work focuses on the multi-objective optimization of a compliant-mechanism accelerometer. The design objective is to maximize the sensitivity of the accelerometer in its sensing direction, while minimizing its sensitivity in all other directions. In addition, this work proposes a novel compliant hinge intended to reduce the stress concentration in compliant mechanisms. The paper starts with a brief description of the new compliant hinge, the Lamé-shaped hinge, followed by the formulation of the aposteriori multi-objective optimization of the compliant accelerometer. By using the normalized constrained method, an even distribution of the Pareto frontier is found. The paper also provides several optimum solutions on a Pareto plot, as well as the CAD model of the selected solution.. ...
Most people experiences the way objects plastically deform on a macroscopic scale. From a car crash to the bending of a paper clip plastic deformation occurs in the form of a smooth flow as a response of an applied stress. But due to the constant shrinking on the dimensions of mechanical devices -such as micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro electronic interconnects- the notion that plasticity is governed not by a steady flow but by the occurrence of intermittent avalanches of ...
The aim of this workshop is to train clinicians and engineers, who are especially interested in joint research. It will allow the participants to gain knowledge in planning and conducting biomechanical experiments by a balanced mixture of 6 lectures and 8 laboratories. The number of participants is limited to 20 in order to guarantee a maximum efficiency for the single attendee. ...
was converted into an equivalent kσ using (A 9) and (A 7).. Figure 2c shows results of finite-element simulations for an initially normotensive aorta subjected to an increase in blood pressure δp = 20 mm Hg over 1 year. An initially predominantly elastic distension resulted in a residual G&R-induced dilatation according to adaptivity. During the simulation, elastin mass was assumed constant to eliminate confounding factors and make the results comparable with the study of Matsumoto & Hayashi [22]. In addition, we compared the (modest) pressure jump over 1 year with one over 36 days and another one over 4 years and found a difference in residual dilatation (and wall thickening) of less than 1%, which suggests a negligible influence of the rate by which a certain level of hypertension is built up (provided the vessel is mechanobiologically stable). This result agrees well with previous numerical studies (cf. fig. 10 in [23]). Owing to the nonlinear response to the imposed (finite) change in ...
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Study Biomechanical Properties and Behaviors of Bone flashcards from Connor Davis's Regis University class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
where k stands for $\frac{1}{EI}$ or $\frac{1}{EA}$, and it is assumed that the module of elasticy E, the moment of inertia of the cross section I, and the area of the cross section A are all constant. Further on, since at least one of the functions f or g presents the internal force (bending moment or normal force) caused by a generalized unit force acting at a point where a support has been removed (see previous section), at least one of the functions shall be a linear function (i.e. the internal force diagram shall be linear). This is the fact from which Vereshchagin derived the method of integration of the expressions (3) - one merely has to find the area of the diagram (between 0 and Lj, of course) which is the diagram of the internal force caused by the original loads acting on the primary system (not the diagram of the generalized unit loads), and multiply it (that area) with the ordinate of the unit load diagram at the point of the centroid of area of the non unit ...
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As a Mechanical Design Draughtsperson at Huxley Bertram, you will support the multi-disciplinary engineering teams in assisting with the design, and providing detailed drawings, BOMs and other documentation. For an experienced role, you must have good knowledge of 3D CAD (preferably Solidworks), be accurate and have experience of mechanical design. Experience of electrical drawing is advantageous. This role requires a flexible hands-on approach.. For a junior role, we are seeking individuals with a good attitude, attention to detail and willingness to learn, who would like to learn the role of mechanical detail drafting in the manufacture of a special purpose machines. The Role. Key activities of the role are:. ...
Youll need to learn how to program, ideally at an assembler or near-assembler level though a lot can be done in higher-level languages. Youll need to know how to access I/O ports to send commands to the robots muscles and read back the results, and (if appropriate) to have it communicate with other machines. Youll need to learn enough simple electronics to build, debug, and alter (and eventually design) the robots brain and nervous system. Youll need to learn enough simple mechanical design to build, debug, and alter (and eventually design) the robots body ...
Carlos Castro, Ph.D., will discuss his labs fundamental work to design and characterize nanostructures with controllable dynamic behavior and two…
Current therapeutics such as bisphosphonates or anabolic agents do not always effectively prevent or treat osteoporosis and inflammatory bone loss in rheumatoid...
The Cornell biped is specifically designed for minimal energy use. The primary energy losses for humans and robots walking at a constant speed are due to dissipation when a foot hits the ground and to active braking by the actuators (negative work). The Cornell design demonstrates that it is possible to completely avoid this negative actuator work. The only work done by the actuators is positive: The left ankle actively extends when triggered by the right foot hitting the ground, and vice versa. The hip joint is not powered, and the knee joints only have latches. The average mechanical power (10) of the two ankle joints is about 3 W, almost identical to the scaled gravitational power consumed by the passive-dynamic machine on which it is based (8). Including electronics, microcontroller, and actuators, the Cornell biped consumes 11 W (11).. To compare efficiency between humans and robots of different sizes, it is convenient to use the dimensionless specific cost of transport, ct = (energy ...
A control system controls the motion of a physical subject such as a mechanical system to damp or enhance the motion via a single transducer which alternates in a time-discrete manner between the task of reading a signal indicative of the state of the subject and the task of influencing said state by the application of a force. Control of motion or vibration is achieved through a series of actuating pulses interleaved with sensing operations. The same single transducer alternately acts as input to the control system from the subject and output from the control system to the subject. The control system provides full and individual control of all important harmonic modes of vibration of a subject mechanical system.
Over 1,000 scientists from all parts of the country and abroad belong to the Indian Society of Biomechanics. The society will contribute in areas such as mass healthcare, rehabilitations, cardiovascular mechanics, ergonomics, modeling and simulation of biomechanics and also in games and sports including respiratory mechanics. Now nano-biomechanics, cell and tissue mechanics are also coming up rapidly and we will have to orient ourselves in this direction as well. We aspired to have linkages with other biomechanics societies in other parts of the world.. ...
Description. In this course the fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. The various topics covered are: Transport theorem and conservation principles, Navier-Stokes equation, dimensional analysis, ideal and potential flows, vorticity and Kelvins theorem, hydrodynamic forces in potential flow, DAlemberts paradox, added-mass, slender-body theory, viscous-fluid flow, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, model testing, scaling laws, application of potential theory to surface waves, energy transport, wave/body forces, linearized theory of lifting surfaces, and experimental project in the towing tank or propeller tunnel.This subject was originally offered in Course 13 (Department of Ocean Engineering) as 13.021. In 2005, In this course the fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. The various topics covered are: Transport theorem and ...
... and Simulation The technology for the simulation and prediction of corneal biomechanical response is based on the PhD thesis of Dr. Haral...
Ocular Biomechanics and Simulation The technology for the simulation and prediction of corneal biomechanical response is based on the PhD thesis of Dr. Haral...
Kinethmoid rotation during premaxillary protrusion in cypriniforms has been suggested by several studies (Alexander, 1966; Ballintijn et al., 1972; Motta, 1984; Hernandez et al., 2007; Danos and Staab, 2010), but never before observed directly in living fish. Here, we used XROMM to visualize and measure kinethmoid motion and to demonstrate the importance of specific maxillary movements in eliciting rotation of the kinethmoid. We have also shown how careful examination of specific types of kinematic variation during premaxillary protrusion offers insights into both the fundamental protrusion mechanism and the specific mechanisms of closed and open mouthed protrusion. These findings underscore the importance of posture (relative position, orientation and mechanical connections between bones) in functional studies.. Our results support the hypothesis that kinethmoid rotation directly causes premaxillary protrusion in common carp. Rotation of the kinethmoid moves its dorsal end rostrally, and it ...
The Clinical Orthopedic Rehabilitation and Research Laboratory is committed to providing an opportunity for faculty and students to study the biomechanical factors contributing to musculoskeletal injury, and to advance clinical research in orthopedic rehabilitation.
Net#work BBDO was tasked with creating a campaign for UDoTest, a revolutionary no-fuss, no-mess way of testing for colon cancer - essential, as it is one of the top five killers in South Africa...
This second part of the book about creep modelling guides the reader to practical computational simulation and analysis. Drawing on constitutive equations for creep in structural materials under multi-axial stress states, it applies these equation to a diverse range of examples.
The effect of deformation on microstructural changes in metals and alloys is the subject of considerable practical interest. The ultimate goal is to control, improve and optimize the microstructure and texture of the finished products produced by metal forming operations. The development in the subject field is remarkable but a more in-depth study could lead us to the better understanding of the phenomena.. In the present work microstructural evolution during the plastic deformation of as-cast pure metals and alloys is studied. An experimental method was developed to study the material behavior under the hot compression testing. This method was applied on the as-cast structure of copper, bearing steel, Incoloy 825 and β brass at different temperatures and strain rates. The temperature of the samples was measured during and after the deformation process. The microstructure of the samples was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructural evolution ...
Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) control and supervise mechanical systems in buildings. Mechanical systems may include heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, lighting, blinds & shutters, security, fire alarms, and more. The purpose is to provide a comfortable and safe indoor environment in an energy efficient way.
Some advocate for higher rates (e.g. 80-100 LPM) to allow more expiration time, however this will increase the peak pressures and has not shown to produce any clinically meaningful change in the expiration time[7][8] ...
Dr Konstantinos Papadopoulos is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Physiotherapy of the School of Science and Technology, London Sports Institute and is currently the programme leader of the MSc Sport Rehabilitation programme. His background is Physiotherapy whilst he holds an MSc degree in Exercise Rehabilitation and a PhD degree in Healthcare Sciences with expertise in Patellofermoal Pain and biomechanical factors. He recently obtained a PgCert in Higher Education and became a Higher Education Fellow.. ...
This is a specialized 3 hour multidisciplinary assessment that we have been providing for over 5 years involving a pain medicine specialist, psychologist and physiotherapist. Your client will be assessed by the Doctor for any serious medical condition/s (red flags) that have been missed, confirm that the appropriate medical investigations and interventions have been made and also review past and current drug treatments your client has had. He will also if necessary order further tests where relevant and change any drug treatments and set up a further appointment as needed.. The psychologist assess for those psychosocial issues that act as roadblocks to the client increasing their activity and engaging in the world around them. The physiotherapist will assess the clients current functional abilities, ability to work and any biomechanical factors that will make the client unable to achieve their necessary goals. After the assessment our team meets to set up your clients rehabilitation pathway ...