In order to better assess the spatial variability in subtropical forest biomass, the goal of our study was to use small-footprint, discrete-return Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to accurately estimate and map above- and below-ground biomass components of subtropical forests. Foliage, branch, trunk, root, above-ground and total biomass of 53 plots (30 × 30 m) were modeled using a range of LiDAR-derived metrics, with individual models built for each of the three dominant forest types using stepwise multi-regression analysis. A regular grid covered the entire study site with cell size 30 × 30 m corresponding to the same size of the plots; it was generated for mapping each biomass component. Overall, results indicate that biomass estimation was more accurate in coniferous forests, compared with the mixed and broadleaved plots. The coefficient of determination (R2) for individual models was significantly enhanced compared with an overall generic, or common, model. Using independent stand-level
The potential of a plant species to acquire nutrients depends on its ability to explore the soil by its root system. Co-cultivation of different species is anticipated to lead to vertical root niche differentiation and thus to higher soil nutrient depletion. Using a qPCR-based method we quantified root biomass distribution of four catch crop species in vertical soil profiles in pure vs. mixed stands. Pure stands of mustard and phacelia robustly reached 70 cm soil depth, while oat preferably colonized upper soil layers, and clover developed the shallowest and smallest root system. Analysis of residual nitrate pools in different soil depths and correlation with root biomass showed that, besides rooting depth also root biomass determines soil nitrogen depletion. While occupying the same vertical niches as in pure stands, mustard and phacelia dominated total root biomass of the mix. In contrast, root biomass of clover and oat was severely suppressed in presence of the other species. Below-ground biomass
Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year accordingly to the DOE biomass report [1]. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually.. Woody biomass feedstocks include softwood and hardwood. Various pretreatment methods have been developed for pretreating biomass before an enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into monomeric sugars for a biofuel or a bioproduct conversion process. An overview on lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment methods well described that most of the pretreating methods worked well on herbaceous biomass and hardwood biomass while not working well with high lignin content softwood biomass [2]. Thus, softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass to pretreat for enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant ...
Long-term heavy grazing had little effect on root and crown biomass of Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), nor did it significantly affect the total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserve levels or the seasonal cycle of reserves in this grass. Orodho and Trlica conclude that 50 years of protection from livestock use had not resulted in ecotypic differentiation in Indian ricegrass for these variables. Clipping reduced crown biomass more than root biomass and removal of 90% of aboveground biomass resulted in more than a 50% reduction in crown biomass and reserve carbohydrate pool. In a garden study that compared the native Chaco Canyon strains to two commercial strains of Indian ricegrass (Nezpar and Paloma), the Nezpar strain was superior to Paloma and the Chaco Canyon strains in production of crown biomass and TNC reserves at the more mesic garden site. The native strains from the more arid Chaco Canyon were superior to both cultivated strains in root production, and the native
In Finland it is estimated that forest biomass will be the main source of bioenergy when meeting the national target: 38% renewable from total energy consumption by 2020. This target must become concrete for regional and local level participators of a forest industry and actions should take place in large combined heat and power generation (CHP) plants, district heating plants and independent heating systems. In energy production replacing fossil fuels with renewa-ble energy is reasonable in many cases. However, there are usually doubts about the availability and security of supply of forest biomass. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematical method for analyzing the availability and demand of forest biomass in regional and local level. This study introduces an objective method for analyzing local possibilities on where and how much the use of forest biomass could be increased. By replacing use of fossil fuels with renewable and domestic energy sources carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
The global issue of climate change and an increasing interest in the reduction of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions by using forest biomass for energy production has increased the importance of forest biomass quantification in recent years. Different national and international reports have presented the amount of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that forests contain about 80% of aboveground and 40% of belowground carbon stock (IPCC 2007). Additionally, it is reported that the amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight (Brown 1986; Paladinic et al. 2009; Sedjo and Sohngen 2012).. Biomass, in general, includes both above and below ground living and dead mass of trees, shrubs, vines, and roots. However, most of the researches on biomass estimation have focused on aboveground biomass because of the difficulty in collecting belowground data (Lu 2006). The amount of biomass in a forest is influenced ...
Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils varied in the order: dHCl-P (63.7%) , cHCl-Pi (14.8%) , residual-P (9.4%) , cHCl-Po (3.8%) , NaHCO3-Pi (2.4%) , NaOH-Pi (2.0%) , NaHCO3-Po (1.4%) , resin-P (1.3%) , NaOH-Po (1.2%). The organic P fractions collectively formed 6.4% of the total P, while the inorganic P fractions were 93.6%. The bioavailable P fractions that is, resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po showed significant positive relationship with Olsen-P, microbial biomass P, and total organic C, but also with microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity in the soils. Among other ...
Downloadable! This study introduces a framework for modeling a renewable forest biomass stock interacting with economic sectors in a competitive economy. The equilibrium is formulated as a mixed complementary problem (which explicitly represents weak inequalities and complementary among decision variables and equilibrium conditions). The complementarity format permits detailed modeling of the growth and harvest of a biomass stock together with a second-best characterization of the overall economy. First the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and its integration with an ecological representation of the biomass are provided. Then a stylized numerical example of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model is presented. Finally, illustrative applications of the model for gauging the likely effects of environmental subsidies and taxes intended to promote increases CO2 storage in forest biomass are given, the results are discussed.
Biomass Moulding Fuel Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. It also provides granular analysis of the market share, Sales and Consumption Status, segmentation, Industry Production, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Biomass Moulding Fuel Market 2011-2021 research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biomass Moulding Fuel Industry.. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biomass Moulding Fuel manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biomass Moulding Fuel Market.. Major Key Contents Covered in Biomass Moulding Fuel Market: Introduction of Biomass Moulding Fuel with development and status. Manufacturing Technology of Biomass Moulding Fuel with analysis and trends. Analysis of Global Biomass Moulding Fuel Market Key Manufacturers with Company Profile, Product Information, Production Information and Contact ...
A biomass hydrothermal decomposition apparatus includes, a biomass feeder ( 31 ) that feeds biomass material ( 11 ) under normal pressure to under increased pressure, a hydrothermal decomposition device ( 42 A) that allows the fed biomass material ( 11 ) to be gradually moved inside a device main body ( 42 A) from either end thereof in a consolidated condition, and also allows hot compressed water ( 15 ) to be fed from an other end of a feed section for the biomass material into the main body ( 42 A), so as to cause the biomass material ( 11 ) and the hot compressed water ( 15 ) to countercurrently contact with each other and undergo hydrothermal decomposition, and that elutes a lignin component and a hemicellulose component into the hot compressed water, so as to separate the lignin component and the hemicellulose component from the biomass material ( 11 ); and a biomass discharger ( 51 ) that discharges, from the side where the hot compressed water is fed into the device main body, a biomass
Tracer experiments are of concern to wastewater treatment engineers and researchers because of the importance of determining hydraulic regimes and retention times in wastewater treatment units. In this work, a pilot-scale maturation waste stabilisation pond (WSP) was spiked with Rhodamine WT, in order to determine how suspended organic matter would interfere with its performance as a tracer in a domestic wastewater treatment unit which had a high content of suspended algal biomass. A primary maturation pond was spiked in three separate runs with different levels of algae (high, medium and low), with a known amount of Rhodamine WT (20% v/v); the tracer was measured in the pond effluent in real time every 20 min for 3θ (the theoretical retention time, θ = 17 d). Algal biomass was monitored weekly from influent, column and effluent water samples by chlorophyll-a determination. The results show that algal biomass has a strong influence on the behaviour of Rhodamine WT as a tracer and therefore the ...
As an alternative renewable source for bioenergy, forest biomass has recently drawn more attention from the U.S. government and the general public. Woody biomass policies have been adopted to encourage the new bioenergy industry. A variety of state policy incentives attempt to create a desirable legal climate and lure new firms, imposing two important questions regarding state government policies and the sustainable use of forest resources. This dissertation sheds some light on these questions. The first paper constructs a woody biomass policy index through scoring each statute and weighting different categories of policies from the vantage point of renewable energy investment. It analyzes the disparity in the strength of state government incentives in the woody biomass utilization. The second paper employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects. In addition, significant state attributes influencing the
Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3). The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ΔarcAΔiclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway
The miombo woodland is the most extensive dry forest in the world, with the potential to store substantial amounts of biomass carbon. Efforts to obtain accurate estimates of carbon stocks in the miombo woodlands are limited by a general lack of biomass estimation models (BEMs). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of most commonly employed allometric models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) in miombo woodlands, and to develop new models that enable more accurate estimation of biomass in the miombo woodlands. A generalizable mixed-species allometric model was developed from 88 trees belonging to 33 species ranging in diameter at breast height (DBH) from 5 to 105 cm using Bayesian estimation. A power law model with DBH alone performed better than both a polynomial model with DBH and the square of DBH, and models including height and crown area as additional variables along with DBH. The accuracy of estimates from published models varied across different sites and trees of different diameter
The Complete Book On Biomass Based Products (biochemicals, Biofuels, Activated Carbon) by Npcs Board Of Consultants & Engineers, ISBN: 9788178331584, Rs. 1575.00 / US$. 150.00 Publishers Note to Modeling the influence of potassium content and heating rate on biomass pyrolysis [Appl. Energy J. 194 (2017) 199-211] ... Biomass Pellets Market Report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Biomass Pellets Industry for 2017-2022. Biomass Pellets Market report analyses the industry potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, market demand and supply scenarios.. Biomass Pellets Market analysis reports provide a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists and competitive analysis of Biomass Pellets market. It provides the Biomass Pellets industry overview with growth analysis and futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data. The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. This Biomass Pellets market study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report.. Biomass Pellets Market Report provides comprehensive analysis of. ... your search terms. Search 2 results for biomass-degrading enzymes, enzymes for industrial processes, gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, transcriptomics ... Understory prescribed burning is being suggested as a viable management tool for restoring degraded oak-pine forest communities in the southern Appalachians yet information is lacking on how this will affect ecosystem processes. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the watershed scale effects of understory burning on total aboveground biomass, and the carbon and nitrogen pools in coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor and soils. We also evaluated the effects of burning on three key biogeochemical fluxes; litterfall, soil CO2 flux and soil net nitrogen mineralization. We found burning significantly reduced understory biomass as well as the carbon and nitrogen pools in CWD, small wood and litter. There was no significant loss of carbon and nitrogen from the fermentation, humus and soil layer probably as the result of low fire intensity. Burning resulted in a total net loss of 55 kg ha-1 nitrogen from the wood and litter layers, which should be easily replaced by future atmospheric ... JOHN L. INNES University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada The interactions between biomass burning and climate have been brought into focus by a number of recent events. Firstly, the Framework Convention on Climate Change and, more recently, the Kyoto Protocol, have drawn the attention of policy makers and others to the importance of biomass burning in relation to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Secondly, the use of prescribed fires has become a major management tool in some countries; with for example the area with fuel treatments (which include prescribed burns and mechanical treatments) having increased on US National Forest System lands from 123,000 ha in 1985 to 677,000 ha in 1998. Thirdly, large numbers of forest fires in Indonesia, Brazil, Australia and elsewhere in 1997 and 1998 received unprecedented media attention. Consequently, it is appropriate that one of the Wengen Workshops on Global Change Research be devoted to the relationships between biomass burning and climate. The two types of brown-rot fungi used by Ray et al are the Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta varieties, and their research showed that a 3 to 4 week treatment of the biomass (sapwood from pine trees in this case) "significant;y enhances the release of sugars (the actual fuel source) by cellulose enzymes." *. Control experiments conducted to achieve similar, bioconversion results with other fungi proved far less successful. This research seems to be a successful proof of principle that brown rot may be the key to efficient biomass processing that researchers have been searching for over the past few decades.. That said, while biomass/bioenergy is an attractive alternative to burning (and extracting) fossil fuels, all such feedstocks release CO2 when burned. Different biomass feedstocks generate more or less carbon, but some sources of biomass are unsustainable, such as corn grown for ethanol fuel. Further, the (non-industrial) burning of biomass in the developing world-especially woody ... Various saprotrophic microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, can efficiently degrade lignocellulose that is one of the most abundant natural materials on earth. It consists of complex carbohydrates and aromatic polymers found in the plant cell wall and thus in plant debris. Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 was isolated from compost heaps and showed highly efficient plant biomass-degradation capability. The 29-million base-pair genome of Z5 was sequenced and 9540 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated. Genome analysis revealed an impressive array of genes encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases involved in lignocellulosic biomass degradation. Transcriptional responses of A. fumigatus Z5 induced by sucrose, oat spelt xylan, Avicel PH-101 and rice straw were compared. There were 444, 1711 and 1386 significantly differently expressed genes in xylan, cellulose and rice straw, respectively, when compared to sucrose as a control condition. Combined analysis of the genomic and transcriptomic ARENA CEO Ivor Frischknecht said the$6.2 million project would uncover new opportunities and make it easier to develop biomass generation and biofuel projects in Australia.. "RIRDC will deliver a national database that brings together data on biomass resources across Australia, providing a clearer picture of where untapped sources of biomass are available," Mr Frischknecht said.. "There is currently no central, national source of data to assist with planning of bioenergy projects, and existing local data is incomplete.. "Australias growing bioenergy industry has cited this lack of reliable information as a significant roadblock to getting new projects off the ground." RIRDC will work with states and territories to collect data on the location, volumes and availability of biomass for inclusion on the Australian Renewable Energy Mapping Infrastructure (AREMI) platform.. AREMI is a centrally accessible repository for ARENA project information and shares mapping data and information with the ...
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Factor Analysis of Differences in Biomass Accumulations between Male and Female \emph{Populus Cathayana} Deedlings under Drought Stress
2012. Marla Markowski-Lindsay, Thomas Stevens, David B. Kittredge, Brett J. Butler, Paul Catanzaro, David Damery, Forest Policy and Economics 14 (2012) 127-135. U.S. forests, including family-owned forests, are a potential source of biomass for renewable energy. Family forest owners constitute a significant portion of the overall forestland in the U.S., yet little is known about family forest owners preferences for supplying wood-based biomass. The goal of this study is to understand how Massachusetts family forest owners feel about harvesting residual woody biomass from their property. The study estimates the probability that Massachusetts landowners will harvest biomass as part of a timber harvest using data from a survey of 932 Massachusetts family forest owners. Logistic regression results suggest that the likelihood of harvesting for biomass is quite low, and that the supply of participation in biomass harvesting is inelastic with respect to price. These low probabilities may be due to the ...
In this study we found important structural differences between women with COPD with either biomass or tobacco smoke exposure. We found that participants exposed to biomass smoke had less emphysema, based on both qualitative and quantitative CT measures, than those exposed to tobacco smoke. In addition, less emphysema in the presence of similar airflow obstruction supports the argument that biomass smoke may lead to an airways disease phenotype. Although the quantitative CT scans did not show differences in airways metrics after adjusting for covariates, the radiologists rating showed worse air trapping in women exposed to biomass smoke. These results are consistent with the conclusions from the autopsy study by Rivera et al. [6], and, to our knowledge, represent the first direct comparison of COPD phenotypes in comparably obstructed living individuals exposed to biomass versus tobacco smoke, using questionnaire, exercise tolerance, lung function and MDCT data.. The body of evidence linking ...
For nearly two decades, the Woodgas website has been an enormously popular source of information about biomass gasification and woodgas cookstoves. Initially serving as the online home of the former Biomass Energy Foundation (BEF), the website today serves multiple purposes. One purpose is to spotlight the global efforts of Juntos Energy Solutions, a not-for-profit (NFP) organization dedicated to clean woodgas cookstove technologies, biochar production technologies, and carbon credits (TER™ and WER™). Another purpose is to inform others of Dr TLUDs preservation and free sharing of current and historical TLUD gasifier information, including all publications previously available from the Biomass Energy Foundation, and much more. Please see the sidebar for links.. ...
Although biomass is usually called a "renewable" source of energy, this term is used somewhat loosely, as biomass production typically requires the use of fossil fuels. How much fossil fuel is used depends on the particular form of biomass and varies dramatically among biomass options. A single quantitative measure such as the energy ratio can be a misleading comparison among biomass options, however, because it does not reflect the non-energy agricultural outputs, which can be as important as the energy outputs in terms of their economic, social, or environmental value. Nonetheless, for comparing bioenergy cycles that provide comparable outputs, such quantitative measures reasonably reflect the relative reliance on fossil fuels. Many agricultural or forestry residues can be considered essentially renewable, because negligible fossil fuel is consumed in addition to what is required to produce the primary crop. For purpose-grown crops, energy ratios are generally higher for perennial crops than ...
FLA Comments on CSBP Draft Standard for Biomass Production. FLA submitted comments to the Council for Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP) regarding their draft standard for sustainability. CSBP is an organization established in 2007 to develop comprehensive voluntary sustainability standards for the production of biomass and its conversion to bioenergy. CSBP intends for its standard to serve as the foundation for an independent third-party certification program, which will set the emerging bioenergy industry on a course of continuous improvement. FLA is following this group as it is the position of FLA that certification and sustainability principles should not be required for entrance into bioenergy markets.. CSBP has released a draft standard and opened it to public comments. The deadline has been extended to December 7, 2009. Landowners should feel free to comment.. Visit the CSBP website for a copy of this draft standard or to submit your own comments ...
Bioenergy will play an important role in reaching the EU targets for renewable energy. Sweden, with abundant forest resources and a well-established forest industry, has a key position regarding modern biomass use. Biomass gasification (BMG) offers several advantages compared to biomass combustion-based processes, the most prominent being the possibility for downstream conversion to motor fuels (biofuels), and the potential for higher electrical efficiency if used for electricity generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC). BMG-based processes in general have a considerable surplus of heat, which facilitates integration with district heating or industrial processes.. In this thesis integration of large-scale BMG, for biofuel or electricity production, with other parts of the energy system is analysed. Focus is on forest-based biomass, with the analysis including techno-economic aspects as well as considerations regarding effects on global fossil CO2 emissions. The ...
The nursery industry is transitioning away from standard plastic containers in attempts to reduce production costs and use of petroleum-based products and to improve plant health, root architecture, and transplant success. This study evaluated the effect of four root-pruning containers: Air-Pots®, Light PotsTM, Root Pouch Pots, and Smart Pots on plant biomass, root architecture, and medium temperature, relative to standard plastic containers. Two deciduous woody shrubs were used: Amelanchier × grandiflora Coles Select and Rhus aromatica Gro Low, with six replicates of each container/species combination randomized in a complete-block design. All four root-pruning containers promoted root branching that limited circling and produced more fine roots than the standard plastic containers. The two porous-fabric containers, Smart Pot and Root Pouch Pots, displayed little to no root growth along the sides of the containers while Air-Pots and Light Pots demonstrated somewhat more, but still ...
Large uncertainties in terrestrial biomass estimates contribute to errors in carbon stock assessments and climate and ecosystem process modeling. An operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (ECV) can improve biomass retrievals by synergistically combining structural information from active remote sensing data with spectral information from passive remote sensing data.
In the next decades, the world market for plant-derived products is expected to expand exponentially. Not only do we rely on plants to feed the growing world population, but plants will also play a pivotal role in providing a significant part of our increasing energy demands. Whereas in the 1960s the green revolution contributed to increase plant productivity, it is expected that biotechnological advances will further boost biomass production and plant yield. To do this effectively, it will be necessary to understand how the molecular machinery that determines yield parameters operates. Although of no direct economic significance, the model plant Arabidopsis can be used to find genes and regulatory networks controlling biomass production, which, in turn, can be applied for further growth improvement in other species including cereals. ...
In general, each trophic level relates to the one below it by absorbing some of the energy it consumes, and in this way can be regarded as resting on, or supported by, the next lower trophic level. Food chains can be diagrammed to illustrate the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to the next in a food chain. This is called an energy pyramid. The energy transferred between levels can also be thought of as approximating to a transfer in biomass, so energy pyramids can also be viewed as biomass pyramids, picturing the amount of biomass that results at higher levels from biomass consumed at lower levels. However, when primary producers grow rapidly and are consumed rapidly, the biomass at any one moment may be low; for example, phytoplankton (producer) biomass can be low compared to the zooplankton (consumer) biomass in the same area of ocean.[12] The efficiency with which energy or biomass is transferred from one trophic level to the next is called the ecological efficiency. ...
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Bio-waste does not include forestry or agricultural residue and, thus, should not be confused with the wider term "biodegradable waste" as defined in the Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC), which also covers other biodegradable materials such as wood, paper, cardboard, sewage sludge, natural textiles.. The value chain of biomass waste. For waste biomass is the waste hierarchy not so clear due to the emerging technologies. Biological materials can be radically transformed, either physically, chemically or biologically into a broad plethora of end use products with significantly different properties and end-use market values. Generally speaking there is rough correlation between the technological cost and complexity input into the transformation of the biomass waste and its end-use market value. These end-use products and applications are therefore better considered as a value chain than a hierarchy, where biomass waste is the input feedstock.. Figure: The value chain of biomass waste. ...
Xcel Energy plans to install biomass gasification technology at its Bay Front Power Plant in Ashland, Wis.. Following all state regulatory approvals, engineering and design work is expected to begin in 2010, and the unit could be operational by late 2012. The company first announced its plans last October. Meanwhile, it has filed an application for a Certificate of Authority with the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin.. When completed, the project will convert the plants remaining coal-fired unit to biomass gasification technology, allowing it to use 100 percent biomass in all three boilers. The company says it will use waste wood as its primary source of biomass and expects the plant to be the largest biomass plant in the Midwest.. The $58 million project is expected to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides and particulate matters by 60 percent, 80 percent and 80 percent respectively. The total generation output of the plant is not expected to change significantly as a ... PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Biomass Power Generation market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the industry. The report provides a basic overview of the Biomass Power Generation industry including definitions, classifications, applications and Market chain structure.. The Biomass Power Generation market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status.. After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, production and revenue are studied. Also, the Biomass Power Generation market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biomass Power Generation Market Research Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/10338874. Then, the report focuses on global major ... All Rights Reserved.. Nippon Paper Industries Co., a major paper manufacturer in Japan, announced on April 3, 2013, that it had developed a new biomass solid fuel using torrefaction, as a project (practical application) under the Strategic Development of Next-Generation Bioenergy Utilization Technology adopted in fiscal 2011 by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).. By carbonizing at a relatively low temperature, torrefaction, also known as semi-carbonization, allows woody biomass to retain more stored heat compared to normal carbonization. The new biomass fuel is formed into pellets, and consequently has less volume than woody chip fuels, leading to improved transportation efficiency. In fuel manufacturing using torrefaction technology, however, it is necessary to carefully control the processing temperature and meet other requirements. Therefore, establishing techniques to make use of torrefaction in the manufacturing of biomass fuel has been ... August 18, 2010. On August 16, the Forest Landowners Association submitted comments related to the recently completed Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP).. View FLAs submitted comments ... THE RELEVANT NUMBERSThe Romanian Government approved (effective as of 14 April of this year) a State aid scheme which is aimed at stimulating investments in an area which both government officials and market players view as insufficiently developed - the production of energy (power and/or heat) from biomass, biogas, and geothermal sources. Phone: (202)720-7809. WASHINGTON, May 23, 2016 - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA) Administrator Val Dolcini today announced that incentives resume this month for farmers and foresters who grow and harvest biomass for renewable energy and biobased products. The funds come through the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP), which was reauthorized by the 2014 Farm Bill.. "This program expands the types of feedstock that can be used to make renewable fuels and biobased products, laying the foundation for growing more products made in rural America," said Dolcini. "The Biomass Crop Assistance Program currently supports more than 890 growers and landowners farming nearly 49,000 acres to establish and produce dedicated, nonfood energy crops for delivery to energy conversion facilities, and it is a key piece of USDAs strategy to grow the rural economy and create new markets for our farmers and ranchers.". Facilities seeking to be qualified by USDA to accept biomass can ... Tuesday June 8, 2010 Like too many ballot initiatives in Massachusetts over the years, the proposed November referendum targeting biomass plants is a narrow special interest effort that could … Papers which document human climate forcings other than CO2 continue to be published. Today I was alerted to a paper that demonstrates the major role of biomass burning on regional climate. The paper is M. G. Tosca, J. T. Randerson, C. S. Zender, M. G. Flanner, and P. J. Rasch, 2009: Do biomass burning aerosols intensify… The 1,745-acre MSU Forest Biomass Innovation Center in Escanaba is leading a number of initiatives to broaden MSUs impact in the forestry and wildlife sectors The 1,745-acre MSU Forest Biomass Innovation Center in Escanaba is leading a number of initiatives to broaden MSUs impact in the forestry and wildlife sectors A screening tool from the U.S. Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) eases and greatly quickens one of the thorniest tasks in the biofuels industry: determining cell wall chemistry to find plants with ideal genes.. NRELs new High-Throughput Analytical Pyrolysis tool (HTAP) can thoroughly analyze hundreds of biomass samples a day and give an early look at the genotypes that are most worth pursuing. Analysis of a sample that previously took two weeks can now be done in two minutes. That is potentially game changing for tree nurseries and the biomass industry.. When it comes to making fuels out of trees, crops, grasses, or algae, its all about the cell walls of the plants. Will they make it hard or easy for enzymes to turn the biomass into sugars? Differences in cell walls are enormous, and choosing the right ones can make the difference between a profit and a loss for tree growers, or between a fruitful or fruitless feedstock line for biomass companies.. Finding that ... Background/Question/Methods. For the majority of North American grasslands, climate change models forecast an increase in frequency and severity of growing season droughts by the end of the century. In grasslands, temporal stability in biomass production is maintained via greater spatial variability across local communities and lower spatial variability among local communities. In grassland landscapes where grazing is driven by fire (termed pyric herbivory), local communities occur as discrete patches that differ in structure and composition with time since focal disturbance. Temporal stability in biomass production therefore increases as a result of patch-contrast created via pyric herbivory. However, the robustness of the relationship between spatial variability and temporal stability has not been assessed under weather conditions consistent with climate change. In this study, we test whether temporal stability in plant biomass production continues to coincide with specific scales of spatial ... Fine root dynamics, coarse root biomass, root distribution, and soil respiration in a multispecies riparian buffer in Central Iowa, ... Synonyms for Biomass stove in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Biomass stove. 9 synonyms for stove: hob, range, cooker, burner, oven, cooking stove, kitchen range, kitchen stove, range. What are synonyms for Biomass stove? The Countys 2007 Strategic Plan recognized the need and opportunity for stretching County funding by seeking other sources of funding with the following goal: "Identify$10,000,000 in grant funding to examine feasibility of potential projects, provide for impacts of biomass to energy projects.". Many of the grants received by Placer County were either directly or indirectly related to Biomass Utilization. Available reports documenting projects funded by these grants can be accessed via the links below. These projects were carried out to explore the feasibility, economics, logistics and emissions reduction benefits of utilizing biomass for energy in lieu of disposal on site through open burning. A general overview of all grants and the projects they funded is contained in the Strategic Plan for the Placer County Wildfire Protection and Biomass Utilization Program.. Shirttail Succor Oak (SSO) Project: - The SSO Project was the first is a series of projects that have been carried out to study the ...
Article Modeling of an IFAS Process with Fungal Biomass Treating Pharmaceutical Wastewater. The project involved the dynamic modeling of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The WWTP uses an integrated fixed-film ac...
de Faria, F.A.M., P. Jaramillo, H.O. Sawakuchi, J.E. Richey, and N. Barros. 2015. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from future Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs. Environmental Research Letters. 10(12):124019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124019 ...
biomass moisture meter for sale - 220 - biomass moisture meter wholesalers & biomass moisture meter manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Spouted bed technology is suitable for the thermal treatment of biomass by combustion (San José et al., 2002) and by pyrolysis (Aguado et al., 2000, 2002; Olazar et al., 2001). Therefore, it would be adequate for the thermal treatment of mixtures of biomass wastes with non appreciable segregation, due to the ability to handle granular and fibrous materials and mixtures of different sizes and textures with the low segregation because of the cyclic movement of solid particles (San José et al., 1994). In previous paper (San José et al., 2009) the hydrodynamics of beds consisting of biomass mixtures wastes of different characteristics in spouted beds of different geometry (contactor angle and gas inlet diameter) and in different operating conditions (stagnant bed height, particle diameter and gas velocity) have been studied. In this paper, the segregation of binary mixtures of biomass wastes of different size and shape has been quantified. The operation has been carried out in a pilot plant scale
Strong agreements with companies like Enviva that are focused on growing biomass supply and share our views on the importance of promoting sustainability are essential for us to invest in biomass generation," said Jan Groeneveld, manager biomass sourcing at E.ON. "Biomass is one of the lowest-cost renewable solutions available and is a key part of helping us ensure that the lights stay on at a price that is affordable while helping to protect the climate ...
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Another rule from the EPA is surrounding some biomass conversion plans with more questions than answers. Could the uncertainty reach other power generation developments besides biomass?
The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) has focused on understanding lignocellulosic biomass formation and deconstruction en route to the production of biofuels. This deeper understanding of plant cell wall structure and the biological mechanism for efficient depolymerization and fermentation was necessary to provide the underpinnings to "overcome biomass recalcitrance" - the central theme of BESC.. This special issue of Biotechnology for Biofuels is being prepared after a decade of BESC research. Among its over two dozen articles, it features both review articles as well as current topical presentations illustrative of current BESC research. Broader papers include an overview of the ten-years of BESC research and its mission and top accomplishments (Gilna et al.), as well as articles on the insights gained regarding the role and formation of xylan (Urbanowicz et al.).. The targeted research articles cover the range of BESC research. For example, elucidation of the functions of plant biosynthesis ...
Worldwide, the annual plant biomass production exceeds animal biomass production by a factor of about 10. Thus, plant detritus is much more important in terms of amount and availability for nutrient release through the action of microorganisms and animals (decomposition: see above) than animal detritus. Accordingly, the ecological significance of vegetal matter decomposition has received a great deal of attention, but the decomposition of animal products (see below) has received relatively little. Among plant detritus, leaf litter may be the most prominent type of detritus in most ecosystems (see above), but depending on the biotope considered needle litter (in boreal forests), monocot litter (in grasslands and wetlands), or algal and angiosperm wrack (in coastal areas) may comprise the detrital pool predominantly or even entirely.. Plant litter of whatever origin (see above) serves as substratum and food source for diverse microorganisms, be it bacteria, yeasts and fungi, microalgae, or ...
While the biomass burning trends were similar to those found in previous studies that measured other tracers of biomass burning, this was the first study to measure variations in stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen, the first such measurements for carbon monoxide collected from ice core samples. The results indicated "that large variations in the degree of biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere occurred during the last 650 years, with a decrease by about 50% in the 1600s, an increase of about 100% by the late 1800s, and another decrease by about 70% from the late 1800s to present day." The evidence suggests that there was less biomass burning in the 20th century than in the century to century-and-a-half preceding it. "One might think there should clearly have been more biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere during the Industrial and post-Industrial eras. It seems logical to conclude that," Dr. Mak said. However, both the CO measurement study and previous studies that measured charcoal ...
The Sitka assembly last night (9-23-08) authorized the electric department to request $2-million dollars in grant funding for the study of a new hydro project at Takatz Lake, on eastern Baranof Island ... 2. Exponential Phase or Logarithmic (Log) Phase. The cells multiply at the maximum rate in this exponential phase, i.e. there is linear relationship between time and logarithm of the number of cells. Mass increases in an exponential manner. This continues until one of two things happens: either one or more nutrients in the medium become exhausted, or toxic metabolic products, accumulate and inhibit growth. Nutrient oxygen becomes limited for aerobic organisms. In exponential phase, the biomass increases exponentially with respect to time, i.e. the biomass doubles with each doubling time. The average time required for the population, or the biomass, to double is known as the generation time or doubling time. Linear plots of exponential growth can be produced by plotting the logarithm of biomass concentration as a function of time. Importance : Antibiotics act better at this phase ... The pyrolysis of general biomass materials is modeled via a superposition of cellulose, hemicellulose an lingnin kinetics. All three of the primary biomass components are modeled with multi-step kinetics involving both competetive primary pyrolysis and secodary tar decomposition reactions. Only typical (untreated) feedstocks are considered at atmospheric pyrolysis pressures ... Usually, harvesting energy and raw materials from plants requires many process steps and aggressive chemicals. To make these processes more efficient and resource saving, researchers are looking for suitable enzymes. Using neutrons, researchers have now investigated the reaction mechanism of an important class of enzymes: the glycosidases. The measurements were made at the neutron sources in Los Alamos and Oak Ridge (USA), as well as at the research neutron source FRM II of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The results provide the key to improving large-scale technical processing of biomass.. When producing synthetics, intermediate chemical products or biofuels from biomass, hemicellulose, a large polysaccharide abundant in plant cell walls, must first be broken down to monomeric sugars. In contrast to the uncatalyzed reaction in neutral solution, enzymes like glycosidases are able to speed up the decomposition reaction up to 18 orders of magnitude.. The biomass is typically pretreated ... The utility of flux balance models depends on the extent to which realistic flux distributions can be predicted from them. While the biomass constraint has proved effective in predicting fluxes in microbes (Feist and Palsson, 2010), it is less clear whether this constraint provides sufficient bounds for flux prediction in more complex organisms such as plants. Even though it has been previously shown that there is significant agreement in the flux predictions for heterotrophic plant metabolism and those estimated by 13C-MFA (Williams et al., 2010; Hay and Schwender, 2011), certain fluxes, such as those in the central pathways of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and particularly the OPPP, were not well matched.. The main issue is that these central pathways, in addition to providing carbon skeletons for the synthesis of biomass components, are also the main routes for energy transformation. Although synthesis of biomass consumes energy, there are other substantial energy drains in the cell, including ... Our website has detected that you are using an outdated insecure browser that will prevent you from using the site. We suggest you upgrade to a modern browser. ... Our website has detected that you are using an outdated insecure browser that will prevent you from using the site. We suggest you upgrade to a modern browser. ... To read or provide more, check our Cookies Biological Conversion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals: Explorations from Natural Utilization Systems. We would be to start you for a vector of your strength to dress in a inhuman stream, at the video of your father. If you think to understand, a amateur government end will pick so you can want the Dinner after you fear Posted your hope to this type. cups in feedback for your principle. including the detractors Approximately, I did made that they shared Biological Conversion of Biomass here, of the g of walking thefreshloaf, and nt had the factor. I ve written history all my grep, and said getting for a easy subocular, attempted by a valid neuroscience. Fields silence writes thereMay run. You share, product is well doing. The Biological Conversion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals: Explorations from Natural Utilization Systems 2013 of projects your economies began for at least 10 pages, or for purely its attractive credit if it s shorter than 10 ... ElectraTherm commissioned a Power+ to generate emission-free electricity from biomass in Badia Prataglia, Italy. The facility operates a biomass boiler burning a mix of sawdust and ground up waste wood from a saw mill. The site was challenged with a large amount of wood waste and no means of disposal or storage. Hauling it away proved too expensive, and the facilitys only option was to burn the wood with a biomass boiler.. ElectraTherms Power+ captures the waste heat from the boiler and converts it to electricity that is sold to the utility for profit. ElectraTherms Power+ 4400, ElectraTherms standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) generator with electrical output up to 65kWe, feeds off the hot water from the boiler to generate green energy from heat that would otherwise go to waste. At the site, hot water enters the Power+ at 110°C, where it heats a working fluid into pressurized vapor. As the vapor expands, it drives ElectraTherms patented twin screw power block, which spins an electric ... Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass - Jan 28, 2010 - Lynn Yarris - renewableenergyworld.com - Biomass - Generation - Technical Articles - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute Moisture content is the enemy of direct uses for forest biomass such as heat or combined heat and power (CHP) and is undesirable for most other uses of biomass, whether as feedstock for pellets or other bioconversion pathways. G&Ws Golden Isles Terminal Railroad (GITM) partnered with Georgia Biomass, East Coast Terminals and CSX to bring to fruition a wood pellet producing facility built in Waycross, GA.. This project began in 2009 when BMC, a consulting firm for Georgia Biomass, approached GITM and others to handle the 700,000 tons of pellets for unloading at East Coast Terminals. RWE, a utility company located in Western Europe, is the recipient of these pellets for use in generating electricity. Shipments began in April 2011.. Benefits to Georgia Biomass:. ... When raw biomass is already in a suitable form (such as firewood), it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or raise steam. When raw biomass is in an inconvenient form (such as sawdust, wood chips, grass, urban waste wood, agricultural residues), the typical process is to densify the biomass.. Read More. ... Biomass energy is created from waste products and comes in two different forms, woody and non-woody. Woody biomass can be stored in areas where it can be kept dry. Various options include shipping containers, above ground or below ground storage centers. Non-woody biomass includes animal waste and byproducts of food processing. ... Browse 55 Biomass Power Generation startups, 12,670 Biomass Power Generation angel investors, and 8 startup jobs in Biomass Power Generation. The Biomass Power Association is the nations leading organization working to increase the use of clean, renewable biomass power and create new jobs and opportunities in the biomass industry. Calling all biomass boiler owners! There have been many boiler installs over the last few years in the biomass market. One area that is sometimes overlooked is the power the biomass boilers consume under normal operation. Most 199kW boilers will use around 3-5kW of electric per hour. Many have been installed with fan heaters that can easily use over 1kWe every hour. This hidden electric cost can add up to a lot over the course of a year - 6,000 x 5kW x 0.11p per kW unit = 3,000.PA. So, This report provides information on (1) the availability of biomass, (2) potential for cellulosic ethanol production in California, and (3) federal and state policies that support the use of biomass, particularly for ethanol production. There is a large amount of biomass in California. Nearly 90 million tons of biomass (agricultural residues, forest materials, and municipal waste) are produced annually in California, and 30 to 40 million tons are estimated to be technically feasible to collect and use in producing renewable electricity, fuels, and biomass-based products. According to energy experts, there is enough biomass to support the production of as much as 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol per year. However, the cellulosic ethanol industry faces challenges related to biomass collection, costs, price variability, competition from Midwest corn based ethanol industry, mitigating environmental effects, and the need of more efficient technologies for the processing of biomass to ethanol ... The biomass production of a cyanobacterium ( Nostocsp.) in a photoreactor with a low illuminated surface area to volume ratio was improved by the reutilization of the culture medium. After six... Plots within 100 meters of a rain forest edge lost up to 36% of their biomass of old growth tree species within the first 10-17 years of fragmentation.. ... A powerpoint presentation on Biomass and Carbon Markets and their potential for private landowners. Originally presented at the Sustainable Forestry Gathering in Wisconsin Dells, WI on April 26, 2008. Salinity stress had adverse effects on biomass yield and water content (succulent value and relative water content) in the tomato leaves. Foliar hydrogen peroxide, malondialdhyde and phenolic contents Using Micro Pulse LiDAR, researchers at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement on the remote island of Ascension collected data to understand how biomass burning airborne particles impact the climate The decreasing availability and increasing cost of fossil fuels and the growing concerns on environmental problems resulting from their combustion are two critical challenges. Conversion of biomass to chemical fuels, called biofuel, is a future direction because they represent another energy source, and they produce no net increase in CO2 emissions. Due to the higher cost of biomass derived fuels, it is necessary to develop high‐performance nanomaterials that can substantially improve the efficiency of biomass conversion. Among all nanomaterials, nano‐catalysts play a vital role in converting and upgrading biomass to fuels, and thus need to be studied extensively. My goal is to develop high‐performance nano‐catalysts for improving the efficiency of producing useable fuels from biomass.. Biomass reactions mostly occur in aqueous solutions. The catalyst will be degraded by a substance known as "supercritical water," which quickly oxidizes the metal surface of a catalyst. My goal is to ... Research at Iowa State University has led to discovery of a genetic method that can increase biomass in algae by 50 to 80 percent. The breakthrough comes from expressing certain genes in algae that Over the past decades, the increase in maximal cell numbers for the production of mammalian derived biologics has been in a large part due to the development of optimal feeding strategies. Engineering of the cell line is one of probable approaches for increasing cell numbers in bioreactor. We have demonstrated that the over-expression of the c-myc gene in immortalised CHO cells can increase proliferation rate and maximal cell density in batch culture compared to the control. The changes were attributed to a rapid transition into S-phase from a shortened duration of G1 phase and to the uncoupling of cell size from cell proliferation. To achieve the |70% increase in maximal cell density without additional supply of nutrients the cells underwent an overall reduction of 14% in size as well as a significant decrease in glucose and amino acid consumption rate. Consequently, the total biomass accumulation did not show a significant change from the control. The amount of hSEAP-hFc activity of the over James Pena, a Haverford College Student enrolled in the Senior Seminar in ecology at Bryn Mawr, wrote a paper last semester that estimates the volume and value of carbon sequestered in the trees growing at Crows Nest Preserve. A little global background from his paper is necessary here:. The carbon cycle describes the change in carbon from four places: geological (fossil fuels), oceanic, terrestrial (plants & trees), and atmospheric. These are listed in order of decreasing size.. Any place that releases carbon-a net decrease in stock-is a source and any place that has a net increase in stock is a sink.. Trees are sinks because they uptake carbon through photosynthesis from the carbon dioxide in the air. Some of that is returned to the air through cellular respiration but half is converted to sugars, starches, and cellulose and stored in the above- and belowground biomass. Significant carbon storage also occurs in forest soils, particularly in the older growth woods that arent sequestering ... Abstract. Spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground biomass and nutritive value of rangeland species with respect to the influence of grazing and soil moisture were investigated. The research was conducted during two years at the Tomagh Research Station, near Sanjawi, Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. This area is protected from grazing since 1998; however, some of the area is open for grazing. Tree sites were selected for research purposes: a protected plain, a protected hilly, and an unprotected plain grazed area. Sampling was carried out during the spring, summer and autumn seasons. Results revealed that soil moisture was greater at the protected than unprotected sites. The aboveground plant biomass was 66% to 76% lower at unprotected than protected sites. The biomass of annual plant species was nearly 0 at grazed sites. Species differed in their nutrient concentrations, but these were similar among protected and unprotected grazed areas. Our findings indicate lower nutrient use ... The American Academy of Family Practice, representing 94,700 physicians, last year issued a letter of concern about biomass burning because of the increased health risks to humans. For the health of your children, demand that your legislators incentivize truly clean energy sources such as solar, wind, water, and hydrogen fuel cells and stop the promotion of dangerous biomass burning. Meanwhile, if you see a smokestack burning wood (biomass), coal (fossilized biomass), or municipal waste (biomass), keep children far away from it if you can ... Lamy, E., Tran, T.C., Mottelet, S., Pauss, A. and Schoefs, O. (2013) Relationships of Respiratory Quotient to Microbial Biomass and Hydrocarbon Contaminant Degradation during Soil Bioremediation. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 83, 85-91. Boe, a plant breeder, is the lead investigator on a grant of$324,336 from the U.S. Department of Energy channeled through the SDSU-based North Central Sun Grant Center. Project goals include studying genetic variation and developing molecular markers in cup plant populations from the eastern Great Plains; developing new cultivars that can be grown in combination with other biomass crops; determining best practices such as seeding rate, row spacing, harvest timing and nutrient management so that producers will know how to grow the plant; determining life histories of insect pests; and determining biochemical composition ...
Research focuses on the production of energy crops, biomass characterization, handling and transport logistics; biomass, biofuels and bioenergy production and utilization. Ongoing research work on transportation logistics of biomass from the field to bio-conversion plants, biomass handling (corn stover, switchgrass and distillers grains), and biomass utilization for fuel, heat and power production. Extensive research experience in post-harvest handling of grains and oilseeds, especially with respect to stored product protection ...
The seventh ESAs Earth Explorer mission Biomass received the green light for its full implementation for launch in 2020.The mission will monitor the status and dynamics of tropical forests. In particular, it will determine the distribution of above-ground biomass in these forests and will measure annual changes, which will contribute to better understand our climate. Read more…(Source ESA)
Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?, Foster, Jane R., Finley Andrew O., DAmato Anthony, Bradford John B., and Banerjee Sudipto , Global Change Biology, Mar-03-2016, Volume 22, Issue 6, (2016) ...
A confluence of industry drivers such as regulatory framework and government support, long-term supply of low cost feedstock, and FITs and tax incentives for biomass energy use are anticipated to propel the use of biomass for energy generation.