CONTENTSElementary Biology of Military SignificanceGeneral Properties of Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antipersonnel Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antianimal Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Anticrop Biological Warfare AgentsDisseminationU. S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents, published 2003 under ISBN 9781410206992 and ISBN 1410206998. [read more] ...
The relatively recent use of biological agents such as ricin and anthrax demonstrates how even small-scale biological warfare attacks will quickly become international news. Once a patient has been diagnosed with a disease caused by a biological warfare agent, healthcare providers will be responsible for communicating not only numerous colleagues and staff but also with public health officials, law enforcement agencies, members of the media, and elected officials. In attacks involving numerous numbers of casualties or high-profile targets such as elected officials, the marshaling of resources to respond will almost certainly reach the national level. (Level V). Important communication points early in the care of the patient among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists will include adequate decontamination of the patient and appropriate precautions for first responders and hospital staff to avoid the spread of contagious diseases or additional casualties. Training and education prior to such an ...
As reported by the Department of Defense in 1992,(6) by the time Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq had developed the most extensive biological warfare program in the Arab world (despite having been a signatory to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention outlawing such endeavors). After the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Iraqi authorities admitted the program included anthrax bacteria and botulinum toxin.(2) Then in August 1995, Iraq revealed to United Nations inspectors that it had had a far more extensive and aggressive biological warfare program prior to the Persian Gulf War than had previously been admitted. The Iraqi authorities claimed production of thousands of liters of botulinum toxin and of Bacillus anthracis. Additionally, they stated that unspecified amounts of both agents were loaded on Scud missile warheads and aerial bombs. In this same revelation to United Nations inspectors, the Iraqis claimed to have destroyed the agents during the January-February 1991 time frame, but they have yet to ...
Subsequent historians have offered other explanations to the disease outbreaks during the spring of 1952. For example, it has been noted that spring time is usually a period of epidemics within China and North Korea,[35] and years of warfare had also caused a breakdown in the Korean health care system. Historians have argued that under these circumstances, diseases could easily spread throughout the entire military and civilian populations within Korea.[38][39] Australian historian Gavan McCormack argued that the claim of US biological warfare use was far from inherently implausible, pointing out that one of the POWs who confessed, Walker Mahurin, was in fact associated with Fort Detrick.[40] He also pointed out that, as the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons was considered, there is no reason to believe that ethical principles would have overruled the resort to biological warfare.[41] He also suggested that the outbreak in 1951 of viral haemorrhagic fever, which had previously been ...
Read this full essay on Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s Throughout my re...
Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the deliberate use of disease-causing biological agents such as protozoa, fungi, bacteria, protists, or viruses, to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons) are living organisms or replicating entities (virus) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims.. Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over an adversary, either by threat or by actual deployment. Like some of the chemical weapons, biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons. These agents may be lethal or non-lethal, and may be targeted against a single individual, a group of people, or even an entire population. They may be developed, acquired, stockpiled or deployed by nation states or by non-national groups. In the latter case, or if a nation-state uses it clandestinely, it may also be considered bioterrorism.[1]. There is an overlap ...
The biological threat. It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in the US. In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the country. This was a case of bioterrorism that, according to officials like the US Department of Defence, today presents a significant threat to the military and civilians.. The Chemical and Biological Defence Programme (CBDP) 2009 annual report to US Congress stated that antagonist nations, terrorist organisations and other non-state actors continued to possess or seek weapons with the capacity to inflict catastrophic damage (physical, economic, or psychological).. The report said that some terrorists saw chemical, biological and radiological materials as low-cost, high-impact options for achieving their goals and that in September 2006 Abu Ayyub al Masri, al-Qaeda-in-Iraqs leader, publicly called upon scientists for help to develop such weapons. Biological warfare ...
Biological warfare (BW) - also known as bacteriological warfare, or germ warfare - has had a presence in popular culture for over 100 years. Public interest in it became intense during the Cold War, especially the 1960s and 70s, and continues unabated. This article comprises a list of popular culture works referencing BW or bio-terrorism, but not those pertaining to natural, or unintentional, epidemics. (Alphabetical by authors surname, and chronologically by author) In Suzanne Collinss book Gregor and the Curse of the Warmbloods (2005), there is a plague, which turns out to be a biological weapon which accidentally infected an innocent bystander prematurely. In Frank Herberts science fiction novel The White Plague (1982), a vengeful molecular biologist creates an artificial plague that kills only women, but for which men are the carriers. He releases it in Ireland (to support terrorists), in England (to oppress the Irish), and in Libya (to train said terrorists), and then holds the ...
The biological warfare page links to resources on the health effects from biological weapons, emergency response & treatment, counterterrorism, and emergency preparedness.
Six pathogens, throughout the history of biological warfare, have been considered the most deadly and therefore the most suitable as weapons: anthrax, botulinium, plague, smallpox, tularaemia and viral hemorrhagic fever(s), of these, only smallpox has no other known host, but humans.. ...
Much has been written on the Soviet Biopreparat program since its discovery in 1989, following the defection of several senior scientists who headed up the program, notably one of the largest clandestine BW programs ever run by a State. Expert analysis on all facets of Biopreparat are in the public domain and this is not intended as a review of those experts work only a glimpse into one aspect common to all military BW programs. Often overlooked, but of interest in understanding how biological warfare programs develop is the procurement and acquisition process undertaken in obtaining culture collections particularly after the ratification of the BTWC in 1976. While the fall of the Soviet Union ushered in an era of concern over scientific flight and while states such as Syria, Iran and the DPRK are suspected of having obtained highly pathogenic strains of Category A agents from the former Soviet stocks, it is the Soviet acquisition of India 1 a particularly virulent strain of smallpox, which is ...
Table of Contents:. Introduction............................................................................................. 1. Early Use (through 1900) ........................................................................ 2. Prehistoric Biological Warfare................................................................ 3. Ancient BW (500 BCE to 1000 AD) ......................................................... 4. Medieval and Early Modern BW (1000 AD to 1750 AD)....................... 5. Late Modern BW (1750 AD to 1900 AD)................................................ 7. Summation ............................................................................................ 11. The Origins of Modern BW (1900-1945) ............................................. 12. Summation ............................................................................................ 27. The Cold War and Beyond (1945-Present) .......................................... ...
TERRE HAUTE, Ind. -- In mid-1944, Terre Haute, which means ``high ground,`` found itself sandwiched between a nerve gas plant to the north and a biological warfare facility to the south.Residents
e) New mobile facilities. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.6: Iraq has [..] developed mobile laboratories for military use, corroborating earlier reports about the mobile production of biological warfare agents. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.18: There was intelligence that Iraq was starting to produce biological warfare agents in mobile production facilities. Planning for the project had begun in 1995 under Dr Rihab Taha, known to have been a central player in the pre-Gulf War programme.. CIA, October 2002, p.17: UNSCOM uncovered a document on Iraqi Military Industrial Commission letterhead indicating that Iraq was interested in developing mobile fermentation units, and an Iraqi scientist admitted to UN inspectors that Iraq was trying to move in the direction of mobile BW production.. CIA, October 2002, p.2: Baghdad has established a large-scale, redundant, and concealed BW agent production capability, which includes mobile facilities; these facilities can evade detection, are highly ...
View United States soldiers vintage historic HD stock video footage in United States USA, 1959. Buy HD video and archival still photo images of clip number 65675061083.
A multi-functional system for use on walls and ceilings is to be developed. The system employs shortened, end-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes as vesicles for potent fullerene-based biocides that incorporate a colored dye, pigment or fluorescent indicator function. The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. Monoclonal antibodies, quaternary amine groups or other moieties on the modified nanotube vesicles will under specific interactions with the BWA mimics, opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the threat. It is also planned that different colors will be generated in response to different classes of BWA. Incorporation of the system ...
Each of the panelists will speak for about 10 minutes, and the forum then will be open for questions and comments from the audience.. The main entrance to UTD is on University Boulevard on the north side of Campbell Road between Coit and Floyd Roads.. The group is gathering at UTD to work on a book funded by NATO that will address the history of biological weapons from World War II to the present.. About UTD. The University of Texas at Dallas, located at the convergence of Richardson, Plano and Dallas in the heart of the complex of major multinational technology corporations known as the Telecom Corridor, enrolls more than 7,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students. The schools freshman class traditionally stands at the forefront of Texas state universities in terms of average SAT scores. The university offers a broad assortment of bachelors, masters and doctoral degree programs. For additional information about UTD, please visit the universitys Web site at www.utdallas.edu. ...
While preventing proliferation of WMD is a noble cause, advancements, specifically in offensive biological weapon development and deployment platforms, which in some sectors of BW has resulted in de-skilling, make proliferation and acquisition more likely. We simply can not afford to continue countering the threat of BW to our forces with current drug development models, outdated non-proliferation treaties and highly limited methodologies. If we compare developments in the chemical weapon field Johnathan B. Tucker noted in his paper entitled, The Future of Chemical Weapons: At the same time that the process of economic globalization is undermining traditional nonproliferation measures such as export controls, a number of emerging chemical technologies have the potential to transform the nature of the CW threat as well. The pharmaceutical industry, for example, uses a technique called combinatorial chemistry to discover promising drug candidates. This method involves the automated mixing ...
However, reports on recent cases of tularemia caused concerns in the U.S. where some media outlets surmised the outbreak may have resulted from a leak of deadly substances from biological warfare facilities present in the affected provinces. What makes it notable is that tularemia is a fairly rare disease. Thus, the Ryazan area had only four known cases in 2004, the PHXNews Website wrote. The other factor that makes these outbreaks notable is the presence of biological warfare facilities in the region, especially in the Nizhny Novgorod area. Those are, an idle biological weapons destruction facility in Chapayvevsk, Nizhny Novogorod, the Gorokhovets bioweapons storage facility in the Vladimir region and a facility used for the production of chemical weapons in Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novogorod. There was more news this week at Red Nova on the Soviets bioweapons program:. The lack of modern biosafety equipment is also raising concern among U.S. officials about the potential for an accidental ...
There are nations that actively pursue biological weapons programs (albeit they declare thats not the case). The government declares these threats to be ever-present (generating a climate of fear) and must be ever guarded against (thats where big daddy government comes in). We are going to concentrate on the greater probable domestic threat: an authoritarian government running wild.
Milton Leitenberg is a senior research associate at the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland (CISSM). His research is concentrated in three disparate areas of study: biological weapons; actual wars and conflicts of the past two decades and the issue of international intervention in these; and the history of nuclear weapons between the United States and Soviet Union and Russia between 1945 and 1995. CISSM published his major monograph, Biological Weapons Arms Control, in 1996. Since 1992, he has published over 30 papers in the area of biological weapons. Several of these papers concern the biowarfare program of the former Soviet Union, and The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History was published by Harvard University Press in 2013. Leitenberg published two other recent books on the subject of biological weapons: The Problem of Biological Weapons (National Defense College, Stockholm, 2004) and Assessing the Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism Threat (US ...
How will the technologies of the future help protect us against terrorism? The new book Safe: The Race To Protect Ourselves in a Newly Dangerous World ...
The pandemic Level 6 influenzas and other similar epidemics are great ways to depopulate human areas. A better option would be to use the pneumonic plague as was trialled in the Ukraine (D225G) during the supposed swine flu (H1N1) level 6 pandemic. Always remember that no natural animal virus can affect a human being without man-made interventions and genetic engineering in laboratories tied to the CDC/WHO. Vaccines are the preferred way to vector these plagues in order to prevent elitists suffering the same fate. For a more indiscriminate method of vectoring then the use of the waterways and the aerosol campaign can be used with the latter being hidden under Stratospheric Aerosol Geo-engineering disguise.
Looking for online definition of biological weapon in the Medical Dictionary? biological weapon explanation free. What is biological weapon? Meaning of biological weapon medical term. What does biological weapon mean?
A biological weapon usually has two parts.[2] The first is the biological agent (also called a bio-agent, biological threat agent, or biological warfare agent). This is the pathogen that is meant to make people sick. The second is the delivery system - how the biological agent is going to get to and expose the people it is supposed to infect. Some bio-agents can be weaponized - changed to make them more dangerous. For example, sometimes scientists can change a pathogens genes so the pathogen is deadlier, and so it will not be killed by usual antidotes or treatments. Some bio-agents can be changed so they are easier to store, spread, or use as weapons.[3]. As of 2016, there are more than 1,200 different kinds of bio-agents that could be made into weapons.[4]. ...
October 2011, a pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid (PBT) vaccine was administered to at-risk workers under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application held by the CDC. Recombinant subunit vaccines are in development, with DynPorts recombinant botulinum vaccine candidate, rBV A/B, completing Phase 2 clinical trials in January 2012. The vaccine was reportedly safe and well-tolerated, and elicited a strong immune response. We are pleased with these results and are looking forward to Phase 3 clinical trials of this vaccine, to support the needs of the Department of Defense and the U.S. warfighter, said Dr. Robert V. House, president of DynPort.. Biodefense vaccine development was discussed at the World Vaccine Congress & Expo USA 2013 (Biodefense vaccines - overview, stockpiling and regulation). If you want to know more about strategy and innovation in vaccines, you might be interested in attending the World Vaccine Congress Asia 2013, 17-20 June 2013, Singapore. Want more from Vaccine ...
The United States and Biological Warfare] is a major contribution to our understanding of the past involvement by the US and Japanese governments with BW, with important, crucial implications for the future…. Pieces of this story, including the Korean War allegations, have been told before, but never so authoritatively, and with such a convincing foundation in historical research…. This is a brave and significant scholarly contribution on a matter of great importance to the future of humanity. ―Richard Falk, Albert G. Milbank Professor of International Law and Practice, Princeton University The United States and Biological Warfare argues persuasively that the United States experimented with and deployed biological weapons during the Korean War. Endicott and Hagerman explore the political and moral dimensions of this issue, asking what restraints were applied or forgotten in those years of ideological and political passion and military crisis. For the first time, there is hard evidence that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flow Cytometry and T-Cell Response Monitoring after Smallpox Vaccination. AU - Poccia, Fabrizio. AU - Gioia, Cristiana. AU - Montesano, Carla. AU - Martini, Federico. AU - Horejsh, Douglas. AU - Castilletti, Concetta. AU - Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo. AU - Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria. AU - Ippolito, Giuseppe. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Orthopoxvirus zoonosis or smallpox as result of bioterrorism or biological warfare represents a risk for epidemic spread. By monitoring T-cell responses by flow cytometry, we observed a recall response after recent vaccination against smallpox. When the high similarity between the orthopoxviruses is considered, this rapid assay that uses vaccinia antigens could identify recently exposures.. AB - Orthopoxvirus zoonosis or smallpox as result of bioterrorism or biological warfare represents a risk for epidemic spread. By monitoring T-cell responses by flow cytometry, we observed a recall response after recent vaccination against smallpox. When the ...
Dr. Luke Blackburn was a respected medical doctor and philanthropist until he allegedly attempted to create a yellow fever outbreak targeting Northern civilians and soldiers during the Civil War. Despite widespread outrage at the time, he later won a landslide victory to become the governor of Kentu...
been in command of chemical tankers (mainly) for more than 6640 days -- spread over 30 years ( a world record! ) . My Chemical posts are free for ALL sailors on this planet . Any profit making person or institution publishing extracts, must clearly write reproduced from ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com ,- it pays to remember, that the chemical contents are patented . This blogsite will transform your mind . You yourself, are the teacher, the pupil, the messiah, the seeker, the traveller and the destination . It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to this profoundly sick society . I am from INDIA, the mother of all civilizations . I will be re-writing world history , and this will surely not gratify the evil hijackers of human history . Awaken your inner voice . Experience the joy of your own being . Your own conscience is the best interpreter . In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act . The naked truth can never be hate speech or defamation. This blogsite ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.library.in.gov/resource/8X2WIUwyT14/ typeof=CreativeWork http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Work,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.library.in.gov/resource/8X2WIUwyT14/,Twenty-first century biological threats : hearing before the Subcommittee on Bioterrorism and Public Health Preparedness of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, first session, on examining twenty-first century biological threats, focusing on dual-purpose preparedness against natural and deliberate microbial threats, May 11, 2005,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.library.in.gov/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a ...
There is ample evidence that the U.S. pursued the development of biological warfare agents long after signing the 1972 convention with Britain and the USSR outlawing such weaponry. The Gulf War Syndrome of as British troops call it, Desert Fever, suffered by many veterans of Operation Desert Storm may have been the result of U.S. attacks on stockpiles of biological agents supplied to Saddam Hussein in the 1980s by then Special Envoy to Iraq Donald Rumsfeld. The Pentagon long denied that Gulf War Syndrome was associated with any weapons or vaccines administered to U.S. troops but Secretary of Defense Les Aspin confirmed the presence in Iraq and Saudi Arabia of banned Sarin and mustard gas. There were also reports at the time that U.S. forces, under the orders of then-Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, deployed banned chem-bio weapons to the theater to prove that Saddam Hussein not only had them in his possession but had used them against allied forces. Saddams use of the weapons would be ...
Scientists in private sector and university labs are attempting to create vaccines for biological warfare agents before attacks can be perpetrated or big industries can whisk away funding opportunities for research and development.
China deception fuels fears of biological weapons ethnic experiments Chinese government deception regarding the coronavirus outbreak is raising new fears about Beijings biological weapons activities, including population-specific research on germ weapons capable of attacking ethnic groups, according to current and former U.S. officials. A senior Trump administration official told The Washington Times that China is…
Emperor Hirohito and the Japanese government decided to build a secret state-of-the-art chemical and biological warfare testing center in the province of Pingfang. The project was started in 1934 and the complex was completed in 1939. The Japanese government had originally named the facility, Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army. The name of the complex was changed to Unit 731 in 1941. The prison camps were filled with prisoners of war from Russia, China, South East Asia, America and from captured British soldiers.. The complex can best be described like a Nazi concentration camp encompassing a cluster of buildings, which made up the laboratory complex, surrounded by prison camps. It was built in an uninhabited area and the local population was prohibited from entering the area. The official explanation was that the Japanese government had built a large lumber mill and declared it a military zone for security reasons.. The Japanese government allocated the ...
Turns out just about every doctor wouldve missed it, according to UNCs Bill Goldman. The first symptoms of the plague really are indistinguishable from the flu, he says. But unlike the flu, the plague is already well on its way to shutting down the lungs by the time a patient begins to feel sick. Its a sneaky, extremely contagious, and fatal disease, three reasons why governments and researchers think the plague is a bioterrorism threat-a twenty-first-century weapon of mass destruction.. In medieval times of war, combatants would catapult infected bodies over city walls. Today, a bioterrorist attack would be stealthier and a lot more dangerous.. After the anthrax scare of 2001, the U.S. government pushed for scientists to research various biological warfare threats, such as Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes the plague. I hate to put it this way, but terrorists arent going to unload a bunch of rats or fleas into town, Goldman says. Theyll culture the bacteria in massive amounts. ...
1961: Dr. Yi Sung-ki oversees construction of the February 8 Vinalon Factory in Hamhung, South Hamgyong Province. Dr. Yi also assumes the position of director of the Chemistry Institute at the Academy of Sciences Hamhung Branch. He is later referred to by Japanese and South Korean sources as the godfather of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including chemical and nuclear weapons.. 1980: North Korea succeeds with experiments in bacteria and virus cultivation for biological weapons and by the late 1980s completes live experiments with such weapons, according to a 1999 white paper by South Koreas Ministry of National Defense.. March 1987: North Korea accedes to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).. 1990-1995: North Koreas chemical warfare effort is intensified and expanded, according to the U.S. Department of Defense. By the late 1980s, North Korea was already able to produce large quantities of chemical agents and munitions independently.. November 1991: South Korean ...
Lt. Gen. Shiro Ishii was the primary organizer, promoter, and director of the Japanese biological warfare (BW) program. He was involved at all levels from pitch-man to the Japanese military and academia to personally supervising research on human subjects. He began his work research on the potential of biological weapons in the late 1920s.. One of Ishiis first facilities was called the Zhong Ma Castle in Beiyinhe northern Manchuria. Initially, their test subjects were trouble makers among the Chinese population: criminals, communists, and other suspicious persons. Ishii began by focusing on plague, glanders, and anthrax. Subjects were injected with the pathogen and the course of their disease was monitored; all were extensively autopsied. (p. 33-34) There are numerous reports of autopsies being carried out on the unconscious, as in not yet dead.. In 1939 the stressed Japanese military allowed Ishii to send several BW attacks against Soviet forces in the Nomonhan region. Details of the mission ...
The Canadian Food Inspection Agencys (CFIA) Acting Chief Veterinary Officer for Canada and Acting Delegate to the World Organisation for Animal Health, Dr. Jaspinder Komal, chaired a keynote panel discussion on global perspectives and health security at the second World Organisation for Animal Healths (OIE) Global Conference on Biological Threat Reduction held in Ottawa, Canada.
US - The Institute for Infectious Animal Diseases (IIAD) has been recognised as a collaborating centre in the specialty of biological threat reduction for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago. The earliest evidence of horses ridden in warfare dates from Eurasia between 4000 and 3000 BC. A Sumerian illustration of warfare from 2500 BC depicts some type of equine pulling wagons. By 1600 BC, improved harness and chariot designs made chariot warfare common throughout the Ancient Near East, and the earliest written training manual for war horses was a guide for training chariot horses written about 1350 BC. As formal cavalry tactics replaced the chariot, so did new training methods, and by 360 BC, the Greek cavalry officer Xenophon had written an extensive treatise on horsemanship. The effectiveness of horses in battle was also revolutionized by improvements in technology, including the invention of the saddle, the stirrup, and later, the horse collar. Many different types and sizes of horse were used in war, depending on the form of warfare. The type used varied with whether the horse was being ridden or driven, and whether ...
Iraq admitted, among other things, an offensive biological warfare capability, notably, 5,000 gallons of botulinum, which causes botulism; 2,000 gallons of anthrax; 25 biological-filled Scud warheads; and 157 aerial bombs. And I might say UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq has actually greatly understated its production.... Over the past few months, as [the weapons inspectors] have come closer and closer to rooting out Iraqs remaining nuclear capacity, Saddam has undertaken yet another gambit to thwart their ambitions by imposing debilitating conditions on the inspectors and declaring key sites which have still not been inspected off limits.... It is obvious that there is an attempt here, based on the whole history of this operation since 1991, to protect whatever remains of his capacity to produce weapons of mass destruction, the missiles to deliver them, and the feed stocks necessary to produce them. The UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq still has stockpiles of chemical and biological ...
Iraq admitted, among other things, an offensive biological warfare capability, notably, 5,000 gallons of botulinum, which causes botulism; 2,000 gallons of anthrax; 25 biological-filled Scud warheads; and 157 aerial bombs. And I might say UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq has actually greatly understated its production.... Over the past few months, as [the weapons inspectors] have come closer and closer to rooting out Iraqs remaining nuclear capacity, Saddam has undertaken yet another gambit to thwart their ambitions by imposing debilitating conditions on the inspectors and declaring key sites which have still not been inspected off limits.... It is obvious that there is an attempt here, based on the whole history of this operation since 1991, to protect whatever remains of his capacity to produce weapons of mass destruction, the missiles to deliver them, and the feed stocks necessary to produce them. The UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq still has stockpiles of chemical and biological ...
____________________________ The allegations by Francis Boyle, legal expert on Biological and Chemical Warfare, that Ebola strain killing thousands of West Africans and infecting tens of thousands more is man-made in U.S. biological warfare laboratories should be the subject of a Congressional investigation. The further question emerges: What is going on in those laboratories? ____________________________ Ebola…
Vaccines are one of the most successful medical interventions of the past millennium (1). Millions of lives have been saved by mass administration of vaccines against deadly pathogens such as smallpox and flu. However, effective vaccines are still lacking for many pathogens, including biothreat agents such as the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis that causes anthrax and the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes plague. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these two organisms are two of the Tier 1 select agents that pose the greatest threat to national security (2). Both are highly virulent resulting in mortality (as high as 100%) of the subjects within 3 to 6 days of infection. The organisms can be weaponized and transmitted through inhalation of aerosolized droplets and can be disseminated relatively easily for the purposes of biological warfare or bioterrorism (3, 4). Designing a vaccine that can protect the public against these threats is ...
human) RATIONALE FOR SURVEILLANCE Anthrax is a widespread zoonosis transmitted from domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, pigs and other) to humans by direct contact or through animal products. Human anthrax is a serious problem in several countries and has potential for explosive outbreaks (especially the gastrointestinal form); while pulmonary (inhalation) anthrax is mainly occupational, the threat of biological warfare attacks should not be forgotten. Anthrax has a serious impact on the trade of animal products. The control of anthrax is based on its prevention in livestock: programmes based only on prevention in humans are costly and likely to be ineffective except for those industrially exposed. There is an effective vaccine for those occupationally exposed, and successful vaccines for livestock, particularly for herds with ongoing exposure to contaminated soil. In most countries anthrax is a notifiable disease. Surveillance is important to monitor the control programmes and to ...
Also in those final months of his life, Ochs began compiling curious lists, with entries that clearly were references to US biological warfare research: shellfish toxin, Fort Dietrich, cobra venom, Chantilly Race Track, hollow silver dollars, New York Cornell Hospital Many years before Ochs metamorphosis, in an interesting bit of foreshadowing, psychological warfare operative George Estabrooks explained how US intelligence agencies could create the perfect spy: We start with an excellent subject we need a man or woman who is highly intelligent and physically tough. Then we start to develop a case of multiple personality through hypnotism. In his normal waking state, which we will call Personality A, or PA, this individual will become a rabid communist. He will join the party, follow the party line and make himself as objectionable as possible to the authorities. Note that he will be acting in good faith. He is a communist, or rather his PA is a communist and will behave as such. Then we develop ...
Rather than having Demons represent the embodiment of a human emotion or fear (as Games Workshop has its Chaos Gods; Khorne is violence and slaughter, Slaanesh is unfettered decadence and perversion and so on) I imagined my Demon Lords (or Ladys) as having a particular fetish or obsession that reflected their attitude to warfare and conquest. So my previous two Demon Lords have been a melee-fighting Warlord and a multi-armed magic using Mage Lord. These are some ideas Ive been sketching for a Demon Lord whose interests are in biological warfare, diseases and poisons. More of these when I get time!. ...
Anthrax has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to design a culture technique to rapidly isolate and identify `live anthrax. In liquid or solid media form, 3AT medium (3-amino-L-tyrosine, the main ingredient) accelerated germination and growth of anthrax spores in 5 to 6 hours to a point expected at 18 to 24 hours with ordinary medium. During accelerated growth, standard definitive diagnostic tests such as sensitivity to lysis by penicillin or bacteriophage can be run. During this time, the bacteria synthesized a fluorescent and thermochemiluminescent polymer. Bacteria captured by specific antibody are, therefore, already labeled. Because living bacteria are required to generate the polymer, the test converts immunoassays for anthrax into viability assays. Furthermore, the polymer formation leads to the death of the vegetative form and non-viability of the spores produced in the medium. By altering the formulation of the medium, ...
This 1449 word essay is about Medicine, Health, Clinical medicine, Vaccines, Anthrax, Biological warfare, RTT, Vaccination, Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed. Read the full essay now!
Public and private health protection is a critical national mission. Following the attacks on 9/11, the United States renewed its focus on the potential threat of biological warfare from rogue terrorist groups. The government set aside significant funding for new laboratories to develop diagnostics, perform analyses, and develop countermeasures for attacks.. A competition for these labs followed, and the University of Texas Medical Branch was awarded one of the two grants, which then became known as the Galveston National Lab. The GNL project was commissioned and went hot in almost record time, making many new discoveries and major contributions to the fight against diseases like Ebola. While NIH was weighing these concerns, so was the newly formed Department of Homeland Security (DHS). They funded a second new lab facility with a two-part mission, to examine the forensic analysis of evidence involved in an attack, and to develop diagnostics and countermeasures for diseases that could be ...
According to two Senate Committee Reports that will be completed in 1994, one on May 25 and another on October 7, dual-use chemical and biological agents exported to Iraq from the US significantly contributed to the countrys weapons arsenal. The initial May report will say the agents were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction and the October report will reveal that the microorganisms exported by the United States were identical to those the United Nations inspectors found and removed from the Iraqi biological warfare program. The 1994 investigation also determines that other exports such as plans and equipment also contributed significantly to Iraqs military capabilities. UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of Commerce, and established] that these items were used to further Iraqs chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile ...
Will biological warfare revolutionize the battle against gynecologic cancers? Two experts share the latest molecular tactics using special agents. Lethal weapons like Herceptin can throw up some roadblocks, even when they cant always destroy a tumor.
880-01Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis, the causative agents of plague and tularemia, have been labeled as potential biological weapons. In the event of an intentional aerosol release of either pathogen, the only FDA-approved treatment is rigorous antibiotic therapy. The focus of this research was to determine if use of known immune stimulants could provide rapid and sustained vaccine protection against pneumonic infections of Y. pestis or F. tularensis.;880-02The AGPs also functioned effectively as adjuvant in a plague vaccine. Our two-dose intranasal (i.n.) vaccine with Y. pestis -derived Caf1 and V antigens provided mice with 100% protection just 21 days after the priming dose. A single i.n. vaccine protected more than 75% of vaccinates 45-180 days post-vaccine. The protection levels seen from our AGP-based vaccine correlated well with total sera IgG titers and promoted a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Our intranasal vaccine protected 90% of Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with ...
Elizabeth Fenn tells the gruesome, riveting story of smallpox during the era of the American Revolution. Few people know that a terrible epidemic ravaged North America in these years, influencing the Revolutionary War, dashing the dreams of freedom-loving African Americans, and wreaking havoc on Native Americans across the continent. Elizabeth also addresses eighteenth-century biological warfare in her talk.. ...
UV irradiation is commonly used in the disinfection of drinking water. Although to a lesser extent, UV has also been used in the disinfection of air, mostly in health care settings. Anecdotal health information as well as laboratory research suggests it is an effective technology for inactivating airborne viruses, bacteria and their spores. However, there is a significant difference between addressing disease-causing organisms in a laboratory setting, and ensuring that deadly biological warfare pathogens are completely removed from an airstream. Installation, construction, and design of UV systems must be of paramount importance, and a focus of air decontamination must now include securing air streams in ducts and HVAC systems from outside infiltration. Since the threat of this kind of terrorism has only recently been realized, independent scientific investigators have begun to do fundamental research into the biological decontamination of airstreams to update this science. In November 2002, a ...
not the greatest author in the world, but ill give it a shot. So as a story line i was thinking that in the semi distant future, 20-30 years, a second cold war had broken out between the Americans and the Russians. Nuclear weapons had gotten to a point where it would spell world disaster if used.The Americans had been working for some time now on modifying genes, and with the start if this war the focus had moved from creating a bigger and badder bomb to biological warfare. The Americans were working on modifying strands of Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) to create a similar effect in humans. eventually a team of scientists felt they had something ready for testing, however it was required to be transported to a larger facility to accommodate these tests. (Obviously they dont test on humans, they would use ordinary cells) 10 containers would be transported via cargo ship to the new facility. When removing the cargo containers (the big metal ones) at the new destination the ...
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Important Note: Back in World-war 2, Ziklon-b pellets (Auschwitz) were found to dispense the deadly compound to the prisoneers from the outside of the concentration camps. In 2013, however, the dispensed biopellets may recombine easily using a electrochemical media (the so-called biopellet dispenser). Therefore the forced installation of RF devices (smart meter) into the homes of civilian populations may be more appropriately defined as a biopellet pharmacochemical inducer device. Hence with the installation of such assault devices the governement modus operandi may seek to enforce asymmetrical biological warfare on civilian populations by attempting to cross-link the human chromosome 21 with synthetically transcripted genes. -ER ...
S. marcescens is credited with a long fanatical history dating back to antiquity, when, because of its ability to produce a red pigment it was described as having masqueraded as blood . Early in this century, this distinctive red pigmentation of S. marcescens, combined with an apparent low level of virulence, led to its use as a biological marker of infection. Consequently, S. marcescens was used in a number of classic bacterial transmission experiments, which led to improved understanding of the epidemiology of infection. Under more controversial settings, S. marcescens was also used by the US military in a series of biological warfare test experiments conducted on the general population . From 1960 onwards, however, non-pigmented isolates of S. marcescenspredominated over pigmented strains in the clinical setting and were increasingly implicated in healthcare-associated infection particularly among compromised patients ...
Welcome!. This page is dedicated to all volunteers of the US Army Project CD22 - Operation Whitecoat and it contains a lot of information on the project. Here you can find information on the history of Project CD22, you can browse the gallery that is full of pictures of the Eight Ball at Fort Detrick, you can find references to books that focus on Operation Whitecoat and biological warfare and so much more.. *NOTE* This website is up and running, and we will be continuously updating and adding articles, photos, and videos as we go along.. Here is a little background information about me:. • My name is Ken Jones and I manage and update this site frequently.. • I was born October 30, 1933, Hill Top, Kentucky (McCreary County). I responded to the draft August 24, 1954, in Louisville, Kentucky, and was processed at Fort Knox as a 1-AO. At Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, I immediately jumped into the first eight weeks of Medical Aid training. I then had an opportunity to have a brief ...
Sorry to hear about your cancer. We are of similar ages/ I grew up on the Pine Bluff Arsenal. I am not sure what all was done there in the 60s and early 70s but some type of Biological warfare deve ...
Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease ...
Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease ...
For several decades, the Laboratory has been at the forefront of protecting the country against biological threats of any type, said Senior Science Adviser Dave Rakestraw, who formerly ran LLNLs biodefense programs and is coordinating the Labs COVID-19 technical response. Weve been putting a large amount of focus for the last six years on using the computational resources at LLNL to try to accelerate the timescales for developing a response to an emerging biological threat. Weve done that, that by using our extensive computational capabilities (staff and computer infrastructure) and developing partnerships with universities, drug companies and tech companies. That effort has put us in a position where we have tools now that are applicable to helping with the current response.. When the COVID-19 outbreak began, LLNLs Adam Zemla developed and published a predicted 3D protein structure of the virus, which was downloaded and used by more than a dozen outside research groups. Since then, the ...