Your biology students will learn about the cell membrane and ins-and-outs of cell transport in this engaging, effective, and fun interactive web lesson. The Cell Transport Webquest includes 6 pages of EDITABLE student questions that include fill in the blank and graphic organizer
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Cell Transport Physiology (part 1/5). See what people are saying about Cell Transport Physiology (part 1/5).
The transport of S-cysteine conjugates was studied in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1, using the nephrotoxin, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), as the model compound. The saturable uptake of this conjugate did not require sodium and was selectively inhibited by the amino acid transport system L-specific substrate, 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid, as well as a variety of other S-cysteine conjugates and neutral amino acids with large, nonpolar side chains. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of both low and high affinity transport systems with Km values that differed by 25-fold. Although these uptake systems showed no discernible differences in substrate specificity, the low affinity transport was more sensitive to trans-stimulation. L-DCVC uptake in subconfluent cultures was about 3-fold that of confluent cells, suggesting either adaptive regulation to cell growth or polarization of transport to the basolateral membrane. L-DCVC toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was inhibited in the ...
Cell transport is the movement of items into and out of the cell through the cells membrane. This movement is done with a variety of proteins to facilitate the action....
Knowing the structure and properties of the transporter molecule may be the key to changing the way that some chemotherapies, for example, could work in the body to prevent tumor growth," said senior author Seok-Yong Lee, PhD, assistant professor of biochemistry at Duke.. The article was published in Nature online on March 11.. The transporter molecule, called a concentrative nucleoside transporter, works by moving nucleosides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, from the outside to the inside of cells. It also transports nucleoside-like chemo drugs through cell membranes.. Once inside the cells, the nucleoside-like drugs are modified into nucleotides that are incorporated into DNA in ways that prevent tumor cells from dividing and functioning.. "We discovered the structure of the transporter molecule, and now we believe it is possible to improve nucleoside drugs to be better recognized by a particular form of the transporter molecule that resides in certain types of tissue," Lee said. "Now we ...
Kucharczyk, R, Kierzek, AM, Slonimski, PP and Rytka, J (2001) The Ccz1p interacts with Ypt7 GTPase in the process of fusion of multiple transport intermediates with the vacuole in S.cerevisiae. ...
RAVINDRA KUMAR, ERRAMPALLI MADHU and ANIL MAAN, Central Road Research Institute, India; SANJEEV SINHA, National Institute of Technology Patna, India Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determination of Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) of different transport related environmental pollutants by a...
Rapid and extensive biliary excretion of [d-penicillamine2,5]enkephalin (DPDPE) in rats as the unchanged peptide suggests that multiple transport proteins may be involved in the hepatobiliary disposition of this zwitterionic peptide. Although DPDPE is a P-glycoprotein substrate, the role of other transport proteins in the hepatic clearance of DPDPE has not been established. Furthermore, the ability of various experimental approaches to quantitate the contribution of a specific hepatic uptake or excretion process when multiple transport systems are involved has not been addressed. 3H-DPDPE uptake in suspended Wistar rat hepatocytes was primarily (,95%) due to temperature-dependent transport mechanisms; similar results were obtained in suspended hepatocytes from Mrp2-deficient (TR-) rats. Pharmacokinetic modeling revealed that saturable and linear processes were involved in 3H-DPDPE uptake in hepatocytes. The use of transport modulators suggested that hepatic uptake of 3H-DPDPE was mediated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potassium transport in normal and transformed mouse 3T3 cells. AU - Spaggiare, S.. AU - Wallach, M. J.. AU - Tupper, J. T.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - The components of unidirectional K influx and efflux were investigated in the 3T3 cell and the SV40 transformed 3T3 cell in exponential and stationary growth phase. Over the cell densities used for transport experiments the 3T3 cell goes from exponential growth to density dependent inhibition of growth (4 x 104 to 4 x 105 cell cm-2) whereas the SV40 3T3 maintains exponential or near exponential growth (4 x 104 to 1 x 106 cell cm-2). In agreement with previous observations, volume per cell and mg protein per cell decrease with increasing cell density. Thus, transport measurements were expressed on a per volume basis. Total unidirectional K influx and effluxin the 3T3 cell is approximately double that of the SV40 3T3 cell at all cell densities investigated. Both cell types have similar volumes initially and show similar decreases ...
Author: Hasselbach, Wilhelm et al.; Genre: Book Chapter; Published in Print: 1974; Title: Anion specific carriers in the sarcoplasmic membranes
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View Notes - Lecture 26 from KIN 110 at UMass (Amherst). Kin 110Lecture #26 Monday April 12th, 2010 Components of Blood Red blood cells: transport oxygen o Deliver oxygen from lungs to other tissues
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Cells may be specialised for a particular function.. The structure will allow them to carry this function out.. Leaf cell - Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis, packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells from a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.. Root hair cell - Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil, long finger-like process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area. Sperm cell - Fertilises an egg cell - female gamete, the head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help pentrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.. Red blood cells - Contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells, thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.. ...
Some molecules like water fit easily through the openings in the cell membrane. They simply flow in and out, always moving from the side where there are more to the side where there are less of them, or down the concentration gradient from high concentration to low ...
My strengths is that I pay attention in class and take down important notes. From taking down extra notes, I can more information and it also make me understand better. My weakness is that I am not able to spell in familiar words and I will write long answers so I will not have time to complete the paper. I also find it difficult to self-study since I will not know how to study before the test so I just remembered stuff which I was quite weak in and the mistakes I made for the past pop-quiz. And the reason for doing average for my science, I was anxious of not completing the paper so I only got part of the marks. So in the future, before the exam, I think I should read through all the notes and summarize all the topics like what are cancer cells. And in the sentence, I must make sure that I have all the keywords.. ReplyDelete ...
bestbooklibrary matches keywords, searched from 3rd-party sites, to affiliate-networks offering unlimited access to licensed entertainment content. bestbooklibrary allows visitors, otherwise looking for free-content to enjoy more for less. ...
Active and Passive Transport. Chapter 5. 1. Passive Transport . Movement of materials in and out of the cell Requires no energy to happen. Two Types of Passive Transport. Diffusion: When substance moves that is dissolved in water Osmosis: When water moves across the membrane. Slideshow 6854745 by humphrey-askew
Whats the difference between Active Transport and Passive Transport? Active and passive transport are biological processes that move oxygen, water and nutrients into cells and remove waste products. Active transport requires chemical energy because it is the movement of biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to are...
Short, helpful video on the topic of cellular transport by top AP US Biology teacher, Patrick. Videos are produced by leading online education provider, Brightstorm.
HYDROGEOCHEM 2 - reactive multispecies-multicomponent chemical transport model - hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilbrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated media
Role of Lipids in the Regulation of Transport Processes across biological membranes. We aim for a holistic molecular description how specific lipids regulate transport of ions, nutrients and compatible solutes across cell membranes and between chemically distinct organelles. Diverse chemo-physical stimuli are involved the regulation of membrane channels and carriers; some of them linked to the adaptation to environment stress. Although these sensing and regulation mechanisms are very divers in all three kingdoms of life the common theme is an essential role of the lipids in stimuli perception and signal transduction. By solving atomic structures of individual transporters and channels in their native membrane environment and in complex with regulatory proteins in combination with functional measurements and spectroscopy we want to determine a molecular movie of lipid-mediated transport regulation.. ...
WP3. Cell biophysics and physiology (IBF): WP3 will be lead by IBF. This work package is focus in the biophysical and physiological characterization of the anionophores and the assessment of the physiological impact of the anionophore-induced anion transport on normal and cystic fibrosis bronchial cell models. Up to date very little is known about the fundamentals of transmembrane anion transport. WP3 will asses several aspects of anionophore activity which are crucial for further development of these compounds as drugs. Electrophysiological characterization of compounds will be obtained using voltage clamp in frog oocytes and patch clamp in mammalian cells. It includes a detailed functional analysis (transport efficiency, ionic composition dependence, pH dependence, temperature effects, voltage dependence), pharmacological analysis, and cell distribution of compounds by biochemical methods. Of particular relevance is the effect in the bronchial epithelial cell, which is among the most affected ...
The movement of genetic materials, such as RNA and ribosomes, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is a critical component in a cells ability to make the proteins necessary for essential biological functions. Until now, it ...
A system and computer program product for tracking and monitoring assets along a transport route. The system includes at least one receiver for receiving asset identifications transmitted from the as
The alkylating peptide PSF shows very promising results in vitro on different cancer cells but its efficacy in animals has not been assessed. Here we evaluate the efficacy of PSF in human melanoma-bearing nude mice and examine the underlying mechanis
Modes of Membrane Transport Transmembrane Transport movement of small substances through a cellular membrane (plasma, ER, mitochondrial..) ions, fatty acids, H 2 O, monosaccharides, steroids, amino acids
Pittsburgh, PA. Reduced models of flow or mass transport in heterogeneous media are often adopted in the computational approach when the geometrical configuration of the system at hand is too complex. A paradigmatic example in this respect is blood flow through a network of capillaries surrounded by a porous interstitium. We numerically address this biological system by a computational model based on a multiscale resolution of embedded domains. Exploiting their large aspect ratio, we avoid resolving the complex 3D geometry of the submerged vessels by representing them with a 1D geometrical description of their centerline and the resulting network [1,2].. Cancer employs mass transport as a fundamental mechanism of coordination and communication and the physics of mass transport within body compartments and across biological barriers differentiates cancer from healthy tissues [3]. Mass transport is also at the basis of cancer pharmacological treatment Delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents ...
Direct carrier transport measurements were performed for different InGaAsP/InGaAlAs MQW test structures. Shallow InGaAlAs barrier QW showed faster carrier transport. Semi-insulating regrown FP lasers with InGaAlAs barrier QW showed improved high temperature operation, modal gain, differential modal gain and chirp.. ...
Active Transport vs Passive Transport As minute as they are, cells in the body carry some very important processes deep within. These processes are all vital to
Crash Course Biology: In Da Club - Membranes and Transport, by Hank Essential Biology 2.4: Membranes For lots more animations on cell structure and function and cell transport, visit North Harris College. You can also work through the Membranes lessons from HippoCampus Biology. ..........o0O0o.......... Membrane Structure: The Fluid Mosaic Model Fluid Mosaic Model Tutorial from…
Drug transport across cells and cell membranes in the human body is crucial for the pharmacological effect of drugs. Active transport governed by transport proteins plays an important role in this process. A vast number of transport proteins with a wide tissue distribution have been identified during the last 15 years. Several important examples of their role in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions have been described to date. Investigation of drug-drug interactions at the transport protein level are therefore of increasing interest to the academic, industrial and regulatory research communities.. The gene expression of transport proteins involved in drug transport was investigated in the jejunum, liver, kidney and colon to better understand their influence on the ADMET properties of drugs. In addition, the gene and protein expression of transport proteins in cell lines, widely used for predictions of drug transport and metabolism, was examined.. The substrate and inhibitor heterogeneity ...
Drug transport across cells and cell membranes in the human body is crucial for the pharmacological effect of drugs. Active transport governed by transport proteins plays an important role in this process. A vast number of transport proteins with a wide tissue distribution have been identified during the last 15 years. Several important examples of their role in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions have been described to date. Investigation of drug-drug interactions at the transport protein level are therefore of increasing interest to the academic, industrial and regulatory research communities.. The gene expression of transport proteins involved in drug transport was investigated in the jejunum, liver, kidney and colon to better understand their influence on the ADMET properties of drugs. In addition, the gene and protein expression of transport proteins in cell lines, widely used for predictions of drug transport and metabolism, was examined.. The substrate and inhibitor heterogeneity ...
Drug transport across cells and cell membranes in the human body is crucial for the pharmacological effect of drugs. Active transport governed by transport proteins plays an important role in this process. A vast number of transport proteins with a wide tissue distribution have been identified during the last 15 years. Several important examples of their role in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions have been described to date. Investigation of drug-drug interactions at the transport protein level are therefore of increasing interest to the academic, industrial and regulatory research communities.. The gene expression of transport proteins involved in drug transport was investigated in the jejunum, liver, kidney and colon to better understand their influence on the ADMET properties of drugs. In addition, the gene and protein expression of transport proteins in cell lines, widely used for predictions of drug transport and metabolism, was examined.. The substrate and inhibitor heterogeneity ...
In experiments on transport tissues in plants, researchers from Heidelberg University were able to identify factors of crucial importance for the formation of the plant tissue known as phloem. According to Prof. Dr Thomas ...
Research into the mechanism of how cells transport nutrients, conducted at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam, has produced a m
Introduction. Road Canals Railways Word Count: 2,575 Contents Page Page 1 - Title Page Page 2 - Contents Page Page 3 - Introduction Page 4-5 - Road Page 6-7 - Canal Page 8-9 - Railway Page 10 - Conclusion Page 11 - Evaluation Page 12 - Bibliography Introduction This term the class 9M have been studying the subject of transport between 1750 and 1900. Now we have to do a project on transport during that period, in particular looking at roads, canals and railways. In this project I will be finding out four main things: * What transport was like before 1750 ? * Why did it need improving ? * How did each type of transport improve ? * How did this help the Industrial Revolution ? Hopefully this project will help you learn more about transport in the past and I hope you enjoy it. Below is a timeline diagram of the transportation between 1750 and 1900 just as a guide ! Road(1700) The need for better roads The increase in population, improvements in farming and growth of industry at the time increased ...
In TOS, presume there was a safety system in the transporter. What it did was this... if the matter stream was lost during transport but the pattern template made it through, the system could supply matter from an emergency stock within the transporter and use the pattern to recreate the lost matter stream. So, when Kirk beamed up the mystery rock stuff scrambled the transporter controls and we can assume it did two things - firstly, it duplicated and distorted the template pattern so that there were two versions of it in the system, each a distorted version of Kirk. For some reason the transporter operator didnt realise this had happened; so he picked one of the patterns, the good Kirk, and he rematerialised it using Kirks original matter stream. As far as hes concerned something went wrong, but they got Kirk through okay. The console, thinking it now had a second person in transport, would presumably flash some sort of alert, but I think we have to assume that the transporter guy missed ...
Adam Huckaby, Mark Dombrovski, Erin Maher, Waheeda Naimi, Matthew Perez, Rolf Skyberg, Christian Smolko, Kelly Barford, Bettina Winckler, Christopher ...
He has pioneered the development of a new microscopy modality, multifocal plane microscopy, to enable the study of fast cellular transport processes in three dimensions. Using microscopy and other techniques, his research group and collaborators investigate the dynamics and transport of new therapeutics and their interactions with their target proteins in a cellular context; for example, engineered antibodies that target tumor cells. The main areas of application are cancer biology and immunology, autoimmunity, etc. They also have studied the molecular basis for the transport of therapeutic agents to specific subcellular compartment and related questions in pharmacokinetics ...
Article The contribution of transport to air quality - TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. The Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) began as part of a project dating from 1998 tha...
(PRWEB) October 20, 2006 -- Evolving lifestyles and changes in standards of living are putting increased pressures on our transport system, particularly in
The Land Transport Management Bill is the toolbox, but it needs more tools in it to do the job, United Future transport spokesman Larry Baldock said today.
... Hyper-Personalised Spaces: Welcome to the Hotel of 2119: Intergalactic getaways, fast-food nutrient pills, 2-3 hour working days and adaptable, personalised rooms that can transport
The anomalous reactive transport considered here is the migration of contaminants through strongly sorbing permeable media without significant retardation. It has been observed in the case of heavy me
Transport authorities will need to audit the data they use in order to understand what it says (and what it does not say) and how it can best be used. ...
With an unparalleled range of equipment available, Mammoet can provide a cost-effective and safe approach for the transport of heavy and oversized objects.
Why does this happen? It makes sense to send all blood from the gut directly to the liver because if there are any poisons in what youve eaten they get broken down by the liver before going around the body. Cunning, eh ...
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1. The present study has determined the kinetics of the uptake of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 3-O-methyl-L-DOPA (3-OMDOPA) in rat renal tubules and examined the effect of 3-OMDOPA on the inward transport of L-DOPA and on its conversion into dopamine in kidney homogenates. 2. The accumulation of both L-DOPA and 3-OMDOPA in renal tubules was found to occur through non-saturable and saturable mechanisms. The kinetics of the saturable component of L-DOPA and 3-OMDOPA uptake in renal tubules were as follows: L-DOPA, Vmax = 11.1 nmol mg-1 protein h-1 and Km = 216 microM (n = 6); 3-OMDOPA, Vmax = 8.1 nmol mg-1 protein h-1 and Km = 231 microM (n = 5). The diffusion constant of the non-saturable component for the accumulation of L-DOPA and 3-OMDOPA was 0.0010 and 0.0014 mumol-1, respectively. 3. 3-OMDOPA (100 to 2000 microM) was found to produce a concentration-dependent decrease (29% to 81% reduction) of the saturable component of the tubular uptake of L-DOPA; the Ki value of 3-OMDOPA for
The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. Uptake of phenylalanine as well as of glucose by the two types of membrane vesicles was found to be Na+-dependent, electrogenic and stereospecific. Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 ...
This cell transport lab will give your students a hands-on and up-close view of osmosis, diffusion, and plasmolysis in living cells. This lab has two different activities. In the first part of this lab, the observation of plasmolysis in a living cell is a qualitative measurement.
metabolism definition process biology britannica cell transport flow chart worksheet acetyl coenzyme compound release molecule an the only solution across membrane
The camera lens diaphragm is an important component in a noncontact optical imaging system and has a crucial influence on the images registered on the CCD camera. However, this influence has not been taken into account in the existing free-space photon transport models. To model the photon transport process more accurately, a generalized free-space photon transport model is proposed. It combines Lambertian source theory with analysis of the influence of the camera lens diaphragm to simulate photon transport process in free space. In addition, the radiance theorem is also adopted to establish the energy relationship between the virtual detector and the CCD camera. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed model is validated with a Monte-Carlo-based free-space photon transport model and physical phantom experiment. A comparison study with our previous hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem based model demonstrates the improvement performance and potential of the proposed model for simulating photon ...
It has been determined that cortisol and a few other steroids are transported outward from certain mammalian cells growing in vitro. The extrusion process is temperature dependent, glucose dependent, saturable, and operates for only a few selected steroids. Many, but not all, steroids are able to block the extrusion process but are not themselves transported. The outward transport process for steroids has been found in mouse fibroblasts, mouse lymphoma cells, and functional mouse adrenal gland tumor cells growing in vitro. The transport process is not present in two varieties of cells cultured from human sources-HeLa or diploid fibroblasts, WI-38.. ...
Multi-particle non-equilibrium dynamics in two-channel biological transport systems is investigated theoretically within the framework of asymmetric simple exclusion processes (ASEP). In exclusion processes particles move along the lattice by hopping between neighboring sites that are vacant. We consider the systems with open boundaries, where particles enter the lattice on the entrance site and leave from the exit site with given rates. Four different ASEP models are studied. The first two models investigate interchannel coupling between parallel channels in a one-way transport system. The third model considers junction of two parallel tracks, while the last model investigates two-way transport system with narrow entrances with coupling on the boundaries. Theoretical investigation of these non-equilibrium systems reveal many interesting phenomena, such as unusual phase diagrams that contain up to seven stationary-state phases, localization of the domain wall in the bulk of the system, ...
Endothelial cells separate the bloodstream from the underlying tissue and play a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. They also form an important barrier for vascular drug delivery. This thesis contains preliminary studies targeted at understanding the mechanisms of binding and transport across endothelial cells cultured in vitro. Specifically, the first study investigates how the recombinant source of Factor IX (FIX), a blood coagulant protein used in the treatment of Hemophilia B, impacts surface ligand binding (FIX to its specific receptors) to bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Competitive binding experiments between 125I-FIX and FIX were undertaken to quantify the interaction of recombinant and transgenic FIX with BAECs and human collagen IV and determine if there was a measurable difference in binding affinity. Results indicate limited specific binding of 125I-FIX to BAECs and no binding to human collagen IV. Concrete conclusions were not drawn from this data due to technical issues ...
Inborn Amino Acid Transport Disorders: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
The SapNP technology allows scientists to work in a detergent free environment however; detergents were initially used to extract the proteins from the membrane. "Ideally we would like to eliminate the use of detergents entirely," explains Löw. These developments are ongoing and will allow us to study membrane proteins that cannot be extracted with detergents in the future. Furthermore, the SapNP method is beneficial for studying the structure of membrane proteins by single particle electron cryo-microscopy which avoids the tedious step of growing crystals." The combination of both methods at the CSSBs cryo-EM facility will provide new structural and functional information about membrane proteins such as the human PepT1 and PepT2 transporters, which transport drugs into human cells ...
... is a key step of your quality process-the integrity of previous sampling phases and/or later analysis phases depends on it. (...)
In order to verify the research from this laboratory that sheep omasal epithelium contains mRNA encoding for a peptide transporter (s) and to determine di- to octapeptide transport capability, poly(A)+ RNA isolated from sheep omasal epithelium was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Poly(A)+ RNA was functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes 4 to 7 d post-injection. Peptide (5 di-, 10 tri-, 6 tetra-, 2 penta-, 1 hepta-, 1 septa-, 1 octapeptide) transport capability was measured by impaling oocytes with a microelectrode to monitor membrane potential (Vm). Oocytes were maintained in pH 5.5 buffer. Peptide transport was identified as being expressed when, in the presence of a buffered peptide substrate (1 mM), the oocyte membrane showed persistent depolarization (a more positive Vm). In the absence of peptide transport, the membrane became depolarized with the addition of buffered substrate, but rapidly repolarized to the resting potential. Peptide transport was expressed for some di-, tri-, and ...
Discoveries spanning several decades have pointed to vital membrane lipid trafficking pathways involving both vesicular and non-vesicular carriers. But the relative contributions for distinct membrane delivery pathways in cell growth and organelle biogenesis continue to be a puzzle. This is because lipids flow from many sources and across many paths via transport vesicles, non-vesicular transfer proteins, and dynamic interactions between organelles at membrane contact sites. This forum presents our latest understanding, appreciation, and queries regarding the lipid transport mechanisms necessary to drive membrane expansion during organelle biogenesis and cell growth.
The hypothesis tested was that ketoconazole can modulate P-glycoprotein, thereby altering cellular uptake and apparent permeability (P(app)) of multidrug-resistant substrates, such as cyclosporin A (CSA) and digoxin, across Caco-2, MDCKII-MDR1, and MDCKII wild-type cell transport models. (3)H-CSA/(3)H-digoxin transport experiments were performed with and without co-exposure to ketoconazole, and (3)H-ketoconzole transport ...
Specific membrane transporters mediate the passage of a wide variety of substances across cellular membranes. Classes of substrates include amino acids, sugars, cations, anions, vitamins, and water. The number of inherited disorders of membrane transport continues to increase with the identification of new transporters on the plasma membrane or intracellular organelles and the clarification of the molecular basis of diseases with previously unknown pathophysiology. The first transport disorders identified affected the gut or the kidney, but transport processes are now proving essential for the normal function of every organ. Mutations in transporter molecules cause disorders of the heart, muscle, brain, and endocrine and sensory organs (Table 435e-1). Inherited defects impairing the transport of selected amino acids that can present in adults are discussed here as examples of the abnormalities encountered; others are considered elsewhere in this text. ...
We present a numerical study of collisional transport in a tokamak pedestal in the presence of non-trace impurities, using the radially global delta-f neoclassical solver PERFECT [M. Landreman et al. 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 045005]. It is known that in a tokamak core with non-trace impurities present the radial impurity flux opposes the bulk ion flux to provide an ambipolar particle transport, with the electron transport being negligibly small. However, in a sharp density pedestal with sub-sonic ion flows the electron transport can be comparable to the ion and impurity flows. Furthermore, the neoclassical particle transport is not intrinsically ambipolar, and the non-ambipolarity of the fluxes extends outside the pedestal region by the radial coupling of the perturbations. The neoclassical momentum transport, which is finite in the presence of ion orbit-width scale profile variations, is significantly enhanced when impurities are present in non-trace quantities, even if the total parallel
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membrane, glucose transmembrane transporter activity, substrate-specific transmembrane transporter activity, sugar:proton symporter activity, glucose import, hexose transmembrane transport, transmembrane transport
Cancer is an extraordinarily complex disease. It is now recognized that methods commonly used in physics can help reducing the complexity of cancer to a manageable set of underlying principles and phenomena [1, 2]. Physical properties of biological barriers control cell, particle, and molecule transport across tissues and this transport and its deregulation play an overarching role in cancer physics. According to [1], tissue invasion is mass transport deregulation at the interface between the cell and the microenvironment; metastasis is a deregulation of local and distant cellular transport at the scale of the organism; tumor-associated angiogenesis completely alters mass and fluid exchange across the microcirculation; alterations in the signaling pathways that accompany the evasion of apoptosis, growth signal dependence and growth inhibitory messages from the immediate environment are also disruptions in molecular transport since molecular signaling depends directly on the transport of ...
Just to extend the answer from @Amory slightly, I think that the terms active and passive transport are best kept for describing transmembrane movement of molecules. In the case of exocytosis the only transmembrane event is when a secreted protein is first inserted (usually cotranslationally) across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Im not aware of any evidence that this uses more energy than that already expended during polpeptide elongation by the ribosome. At that point the secreted protein is topologically extracytoplasmic, and everything else is achieved by rounds of vesicle formation and fusion of vesicles with target membranes. The same is true in reverse for endocytosis. Any molecule that is internalised in an endocytic vesicle is still extracytoplasmic unless some process specifically moves it across the membrane of the vesicle, or a downstream organelle such as the endosome. At that point whether the transport process was active or passive would depend upon the properties of the ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key endothelial cell (EC) signaling molecule that exerts its actions both within the EC and within heterologous target cells. Most investigators have assumed that NO traverses the plasma membrane of the EC by simple diffusion owing to its relative lipophilicity; however, the possibility of transmembrane channel-dependent transport has not been explored in any detail. In this study, we used bovine aortic ECs to test whether the water channel, aquaporin 1 (AQP1), and glucose transporters, could promote NO efflux from and influx into the EC. We measured NO efflux by activating EC NO synthase with 3 uM A23187, and assaying L-NAME-inhibited NO released into the media by nitrite/nitrate determination. We measured NO influx by incubating ECs with DPTA NONOate after loading the cells with the NO-sensitive intracellular fluorophore, DAF-FM. Using Western blot analysis, AQP1 mRNA was detected by quantitative RT-PCR (in human ECs), but protein expression was only detected with ...
In this study, particle transport and captured behaviors in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was investigated with Lattice Boltzmann Method. LBM calculation was performed to a 3D-reconstructed micro porous DPF substrate, which was obtained by micro-focus 3D X-ray technique. Simulating advection-diffusion behaviors of diesel particulates in micro porous channel, we adapted a LBM method used for high Peclet number flow, simulating flow conditions in DPFs. We investigated flow behaviors in a wide variety of inlet velocity. LBM simulation has clearly shown that non-dimensional flow field is similar in wide range of flow conditions in the DPF, because flow Reynolds number in the micro porous substrate is sufficiently low, dominated by laminar flow regime. It was also revealed that less than 40% pore channels was responsible for more than 80% volume flux in the porous substrate without particle loading. We also examined particle deposition behaviors in the porous substrate with LBM simulation. It was ...
Protein aggregation can be a critical problem leading to human pathologies such as Alzheimers or Parkinsons disease.. Mitochondria, the compartments that produce most of the cellular energy, contain surface receptors, which facilitate protein uptake. "These receptors specifically recognize mitochondrial proteins and direct them through pores into the interior of mitochondria", explains Prof. Johannes Herrmann, a specialist for mitochondrial biology. "But, so far, we had no idea what these proteins encounter before they reach the mitochondrial surface". "It was just assumed that newly synthesized proteins are directly targeted to their destination compartment".. In a close collaboration with Professor Maya Schuldiner from the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel, Herrmanns team observed that mitochondrial proteins are initially targeted to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER is a cellular compartment that serves as a central sorting station to deliver proteins to various ...
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One of the most common investigation techniques of type-II superconductors is the transport measurement, in which an electrical current is applied to a sample and the corresponding resistance is measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. At temperatures well below the critical temperature, Tc, the resistance of a superconductor is usually immeasurably low. But at elevated temperatures and fields, in the so-called vortex liquid phase, a substantial linear resistance is observed1. In this dissipative state, which in anisotropic high-temperature superconductors like Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 may occupy most of the mixed-state phase diagram, the transport current is usually assumed to flow uniformly across the sample as in a normal metal. To test this assumption, we have devised a measurement approach which allows determination of the flow pattern of the transport current across the sample. The surprising result is that, in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 crystals, most of the current flows at the edges of the sample
Such requirements resulted, first, in the evolutionary appearance of more constrained channels that could assume carrier functions, secondly, in the appearance of larger, more complex obligatory secondary carriers that could no longer catalyse passive diffusion and, thirdly, in the emergence of primary active transporters and group translocators with superimposed energy-coupling subunits. Thus, the ancestral precursors of all these transporter types were simple peptide channels. The pathways most frequently taken were evidently tandem intragenic duplications giving rise to larger helical bundles that had the potential to form discrete stereospecific intramembranous substrate binding sites. They could also be constrained for coupling to other transport processes and, through conformational coupling, they were subject to control by a superimposed primary energy-yielding process such as ATP hydrolysis. We assume that none of these requirements could be satisfied by the ancestral one, two or three ...
Such requirements resulted, first, in the evolutionary appearance of more constrained channels that could assume carrier functions, secondly, in the appearance of larger, more complex obligatory secondary carriers that could no longer catalyse passive diffusion and, thirdly, in the emergence of primary active transporters and group translocators with superimposed energy-coupling subunits. Thus, the ancestral precursors of all these transporter types were simple peptide channels. The pathways most frequently taken were evidently tandem intragenic duplications giving rise to larger helical bundles that had the potential to form discrete stereospecific intramembranous substrate binding sites. They could also be constrained for coupling to other transport processes and, through conformational coupling, they were subject to control by a superimposed primary energy-yielding process such as ATP hydrolysis. We assume that none of these requirements could be satisfied by the ancestral one, two or three ...
Catalysis of facilitated diffusion of a calcium ion (by an energy-independent process) involving passage through a transmembrane aqueous pore or channel without evidence for a carrier-mediated mechanism.
Four sets of nonreactive solute transport experiments were conducted with micromodels. Each set consisted of three experiments with one variable, i.e., flow velocity, grain diameter, pore-aspect ratio
Most mammalian cells transport glucose through a family of membrane proteins known as glucose transporters (Glut or SLC2A family / solute carrier…
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Description: The transport regulations have changed with an aim to facilitate the transport of certain biological materials. What is new? Are these new regulations really clearer and easier to use? What are the problems? Are there country differences and why? Come and share your experiences and questions and lets see if we can agree on common solutions to unclear situations.. Discussion Group 2: European biosafety: a common approach? ...
... Absence of charge over molecules (Uncharged/Neutral molecules) favours their transport by simple diffusion. Small neutral molecules are usually transported freely across plasma membranes by simple dif
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new approach to the study of ion transport processes by an in situ radiotracer method based on measuring intensity changes and energy spectrum alterations of β-radiation. AU - Németh, Z.. AU - Erdei, L.. AU - Kolics, A.. PY - 1995/3. Y1 - 1995/3. N2 - A new approach for the study of ion transport by an in situ radiotracer method is presented. The method is based upon the measurement of the intensity and energy spectrum change of β-radiation during the penetration of labeled species. The applicability of the radiotracer technique is detailed through the measurement of the transport of labeled chloride ions into a PERMAPLEX-A20 anion exchanger membrane. The proposed method is applicable to in situ monitoring of the motion of ions in the membrane (or adsorbent).. AB - A new approach for the study of ion transport by an in situ radiotracer method is presented. The method is based upon the measurement of the intensity and energy spectrum change of β-radiation during the ...
View Notes - BIO NYA 33 from BIO 111 at McGill. o Active and passive transports o Powered by a concentration gradient o Maintained by a pump using ATP Sucrose loading into phloem Absorption of
Convection motions within the Sun transport heat from its interior to its surface. The hot regions are seen as granular (∼1000 kilometers across) and supergranular (∼30,000 kilometers across) cells in the Sun. Using data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hathaway et al. (p. 1217) found evidence for even larger cells that have long been predicted by theory but not unambiguously detected. The flows associated with these giant cells transport angular momentum toward the equator and are important for maintaining the Suns equatorial rotation.. Video follows: GO WITH THE FLOW Long-lasting plasma flows appear in red and blue in this animation, which portrays data from four solar rotations. Some flows persist for several months; these patterns are especially visible near the suns north pole. Scientists think these flows keep the suns equator rotating faster than its poles.. ...
Ground-based remote sensing observations from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-sky radiometers have recently shown several instances where cloud-aerosol interaction had resulted in modification of aerosol properties and/or in difficulty identifying some major pollution transport events due to aerosols being imbedded in cloud systems. Major Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) field campaigns involving multiple AERONET sites in Japan and South Korea during Spring of 2012 have yielded observations of aerosol transport associated with clouds and/or aerosol properties modification as a result of fog interaction. Analysis of data from the Korean and Japan DRAGON campaigns shows that major fine-mode aerosol transport events are sometimes associated with extensive cloud cover and that cloud-screening of observations often filter out significant pollution aerosol transport events. The Spectral De-convolution Algorithm (SDA) algorithm was utilized to isolate and analyze ...
Mohammad, H#., Marchisella, F#., Ortega-Martinez, S.#,Hollos, P., Eerola, K., Komulainen, E., Kulesskaya, N.Freemantle, E., Fagerholm, V., Savbontaus, E., Rauvala, H., Peterson, B.D., van Praag, H., Coffey, E. JNK1 controls adult hippocampal neurogenesis and imposes cell autonomous control of anxiety behaviour from the neurogenic niche. Molecular Psychiatry. 2016, In press. #equal contribution. Marchisella, F., Coffey, E.T. *, Hollos, P. Microtubule and microtubule associated protein anomalies in psychiatric disorders. Cytoskeleton. Special review issue on Emerging Concepts in Neuronal Cytoskeleton. 2016 in press. Padzik, A#, Deshpande, P#, Hollos, P#, Franker, M, Rannikko, E, Cai, D, Prus, P, Mågard, M, Westerlund, N, Verhey, K, James, P, Hoogenraad, C, Coffey, ET. KIF5C S176 phosphorylation regulates microtubule binding and transport efficiency in neurons. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2016 in press. #equal contribution. Varidaki, A, Mohammad, H, Coffey, ET. Molecular Mechanisms of ...
It has now become possible for the first time to look into the bodys absolutely fundamental engine compartment, and observe the ion pumps that activate cell transport and signal systems. This function ensures that you and me, and all other biological creatures on Earth, work the way they should with the right biomolecular mechanisms.. The calcium pump may not look like a lot. Each pump only measures a few nanometres, millionths of millimetres, in each direction, and sits in the cell membranes of our bodies. But despite its diminutive size, it is crucial to life. This pump is the reason that our muscles can contract, and that neurons can send signals. If the tiny pump stopped working, cells would stop communicating. Without it, we could neither move nor think. This is why cells use so much of their energy - about a fourth of the bodys fuel known as ATP - to keep the pumps running. ...
Developments in the biological sciences are having a major impact on the world around us. Provides introduction to basic principles of biology. Topics will include: the science of biology, chemical building blocks of life, classification of living things, cell structure and function, cell transport and metabolism, cell division, how genes work and are controlled, genetic
Influence of crystalline Defects on Transport Properties of GaN Grown by Ammonia-Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy
A feverish quest exists to uncover the events that lead to cochlear amplification in mammals. The role of the OHC is certainly paramount, and we now have identified many componentsthat form the basis of the cells unique contribution. In my mind, a few observations leadthe story on this hot topic, including the molecular identification of the OHC motor, its modulation by anions and the demonstration of the motors anion transport capabilities. Here I review some of this recent work.. ...
When the shipment is packed and ready for transport, the transport buyer sends a Transport instruction to the supplier of transport services. The business document can be compared to an electronic waybill and contains information about the goods to be transported, for example the SSCC, for all pallets included in the shipment. The message is used as the basis for the invoice and contains details such as a reference to the booking (if a booking was made), other references, sender, recipient, payer and details of the goods. The supplier can confirm receipt of the Transport instruction with a Transport instruction response.. ...
Seven years ago, WA Freight transported just over 100,000 tonnes and managed its business with the help of an accounting software package and a specially written customised transport and logistics industry front-end. Business growth and time, however, were taking their toll on both systems.. Garth Parry, Finance Manager, WA Freight explains, "Wed been using the transport system for four or five years and the biggest issue we had was that every time there was an upgrade in the accounts package, we had to get the transport interface re-written so that everything flowed through to accounts correctly. This was frustrating because it meant we were always lagging with the accounts system. Often we found it wasnt worth carrying out the upgrade because of the interruption it would cause to our transport system.". In addition, the functionality offered by the transport module was falling behind when compared to solutions used by rest of the industry. "We knew it was time to move and upgrade the ...
Ions, their transport across membranes, and their flow through specialized ion channels are central to the understanding of brain function, normal and pathological. The first part of this book deals with the regulation of ions in brain extra- and intracellular fluids. Regulation is effected by the blood-brain barrier, and by membrane ion pumps and other transport mechanisms of neurons and glial cells.
Logistics hubs play an important role in transport processes between sender and recipients. Specific characteristics of logistics hubs cause differences in transport volumes. These transport differences cannot actually be taken up by the transport demand theory, as neither a general nor a node typological classification exists.
The interstitial space (ISS) can be thought of as an organ of translocation. Defined in this way the concentration of any substance in the ISS is equal to the ratio of an input to a clearance function. When substances accumulate, there is a disturbance of one or both functions. The three phase anatomy of the ISS give it unique properties including a high resistance to bulk flow, normal or even augmented diffusion of small ions, marked restriction to macromolecular transport, and some specificity for binding certain substances. Depositional disease in the interstitium can be approached in terms of minimizing the input function or maximizing the clearance function of the deposited substance. In the near future the clinician will have access to importance physical parameters of the ISS.
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the sodium-dependent transport and excretion of organic anions, some of which are potentially toxic. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein and may be localized to the basolateral membrane. Four transcript variants encoding four different isoforms have been found for this gene ...