Developmental evolution as mechanistic science: The inference from developmental mechanisms to evolutionary processes. Wagner, Gunter P. Developmental Evolution as a Mechanistic Science: The Inference from Developmental Mechanisms to Evolutionary Processes1 SYNOPSIS. Developmental Evolution (DE) contributes to various research programs in biology, such as the assessment of homology and the determination of the genetic architecture underlying species differences. The most distinctive contribution offered by DE to evolutionary biology, however, is the elucidation of the role of developmental mechanisms in the origin of evolutionary innovations. To date, explanations of evolutionary innovations have remained beyond the reach of classical evolutionary genetics, because such explanations require detailed information on the function of genes and the emergent developmental dynamics of their interactions with other genetic factors. We argue that this area has the potential to become the core of DEs ...
20 Questions on Adaptive Dynamics Adaptive dynamics is a tool used of studying phenotypic changes in evolving populations over time1. Adaptive dynamics approach is different from population genetic Fishers model2. Fishers population under natural selection will additively increase its population fitness, where as an adaptive dynamics population of unfit individuals are replace by fitter ones but…
Developmental plasticity looks like a promising bridge between ecological and developmental perspectives on evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether plasticity is part of the explanation for adaptive evolution or an optional "add-on" to genes and natural selection. Here, we suggest that these differences in opinion are caused by differences in the simplifying assumptions, and particular idealizations, that enable evolutionary explanation. We outline why idealizations designed to explain evolution through natural selection prevent an understanding of the role of development, and vice versa. We show that representing plasticity as a reaction norm conforms with the idealizations of selective explanations, which can give the false impression that plasticity has no explanatory power for adaptive evolution. Finally, we use examples to illustrate why evolutionary explanations that include developmental plasticity may in fact be more satisfactory than explanations that solely refer to genes and ...
Laubichler, M D.. "Form and Function in Evo Devo: A Conceptual and Historical Analysis." In Form and Function in Developmental Evolution, edited by M D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein, 10-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. ...
Laubichler, M D.. "Form and Function in Evo Devo: A Conceptual and Historical Analysis." In Form and Function in Developmental Evolution, edited by M D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein, 10-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. ...
More recently, some of the Altenberg attendees, among others, launched a web site, The Third Way, as an organizing tool for scientists working on a model of evolution that accommodates the research findings that are stretching the Modern Synthesis. More recently the The John Templeton Foundation has awarded a major grant (£5.7m or $8m) to an international team of leading researchers for a three-year research program "to put the predictions of the extended evolutionary synthesis to the test." The Royal Society in 2015 published an article, The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions that provides additional background information. And in November 2016 the Society hosted a scientific meeting on the topic, entitled, "New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives ...
Living things are organized in a hierarchy of levels. Genes group together in cells, cells group together in organisms, and organisms group together in societies. Even different species form mutualistic partnerships. In the history of life, previously independent units have formed groups that, in time, have come to resemble individuals in their own right. Biologists term such events the major transitions. The process common to them all is social evolution. Each occurs only if natural selection favours one unit joining with another in a new kind of group. This book presents a fresh synthesis of the principles of social evolution that underlie the major transitions, and explains how the basic theory underpinning social evolution, inclusive fitness theory, is central to understanding each event. At the same time, it defends inclusive fitness theory against recent critiques. The book defines the key stages in a major transition, then picks out the shared principles operating at each stage across the
You searched for: -date_tesim:[* TO *] Remove constraint -date_tesim:[* TO *] Collection Group NESCent: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center Remove constraint Collection Group: NESCent: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center ...
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Dieckmann U & Doebeli M (2004). Adaptive dynamics of speciation: Sexual populations. In: Adaptive Speciation. Eds. Dieckmann, U., Doebeli, M., Metz, J.A.J. & Tautz, D., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82842-2 DOI:10.2277/0521828422. Full text not available from this repository ...
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. Current Projects: -Antagonistic coevolution - Experimental Coevolution Test of the Red Queen: This project combines my interests in both mating system evolution and coevolutionary dynamics! The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that selective pressure from coevolving ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[13] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[14] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[15] Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: "what happened and when?". This includes fields such as paleobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either inaccurate or incomplete. It is important, however, to understand the kind of challenge being posed here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that missed the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named "central dogma" of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one way, from DNA to RNA to proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
... watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, share on facebook, share on twitter
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
The foregoing suggests that natural selection theory be formulated as a problem of signal-to-noise ratio. That is, the burden on the theory is to show that the variability of heritable phenotypic traits within a species in a local population, limited as it is by developmental constraints, nonetheless is significant enough to account for the variability of reproductive success among the members of a generation. Can the variability of the heritable traits in a given generation, the signal, rise above the day-in day-out contingencies of the environment and the intrinsic developmental constraints that limit the variability of phenotypes in a given generation, the noise, to override these factors and determine reproductive outcomes generation after generation ...
Abstract Because of the variability of relevant developmental resources across different environments, and because only a portion of the genome is expressed in any individual organism as a result of its specific developmental context and experience,
Page 1 of 2 - Why Evolutionist Dont Like To Give Evidence? - posted in Creation vs Evolution: I find it quite frustrating and amusing that for all their talk about science, many evolutionists refuse to give evidence of their claims. Many seem to think that just by merely saying the word fossil makes it evidence of evolution, without actually demonstrating how it is... So calling all evolutionists to give a summary of how their evidence is evidence of evolution. Just one...
UNUSUAL TIME AND PLACE Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential ...
UNUSUAL TIME Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential equation. ...
Antagonistic coevolution is particularly likely to take place between parasites and their hosts. It is easy to imagine how a change in a parasite, which improves its ability to penetrate its hosts, will reciprocally set up selection for a change in the host. Antagonism can cause cyclical or escalatory coevolution:. • If the range of genetic variants in parasite and host is limited, coevolution can be cyclic. • But if new mutants continually arise, the parasite and host may undergo unending coupled changes in a particular direction. Many properties of the biology of parasites and hosts have been attributed to antagonistic coevolution, such as parasitic virulence, and the simultaneous phylogenetic branching of parasites and hosts. Antagonisms are thought to be the biological factor most likely to cause extinction.. The shells of these molluscs are an example of escalatory coevolution: the fossil record shows that the thickness of the shells increases in response to the evolution of more ...
It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. - Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass http://astore.amazon.com/spectrevision-20/detail/0525951113 Let me tell you the story of the most successful organism of all time: this is the story of the parasite. Early on, evolution branched into two distinct paths: independent organisms-those that exist…
One major feature of the Palaeogene radiation of acanthomorphs-the origin of several clades of pelagic predators-appears related to the filling of vacated functional roles, but additional axes of morphological diversification are not clearly explained under this model. This might reflect the conservative approach applied here, which focuses on regions of morphospace that were devastated, rather than thinned, by extinction, combined with the limitations of a broadly framed landmark-based morphometric scheme in comparison to a targeted functional analysis. A mosaic pattern of turnover could remain an important but subtle mechanism underlying aspects of the acanthomorph radiation. Selection against higher trophic levels of the sort inferred for teleosts during the K-P (Cavin 2001; Friedman 2009) might yield particularly nuanced succession dynamics, because piscivorous fishes assume a range of morphologies and represent the most anatomically disparate diet class in some modern faunas (Chakrabarty ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either a inaccurate or incomplete. It is important however, to understand the kind of challenge being posted here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that miss the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named "central dogma" of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one-way, from DNA to RNA proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analysing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in the number of life cycle stages are associated with rapid phenotypic evolution. Specifically, salamanders with an aquatic-only (paedomorphic) life cycle have frequently added vertebrae to their trunk skeleton compared with closely related lineages with a complex aquatic-to-terrestrial (biphasic) life cycle. The rate of vertebral column evolution is also substantially lower in biphasic lineages, which may reflect the functional compromise of a complex cycle. This study demonstrates that the consequences of life cycle ...
CA, Azlan and N.A., Kadri, and NF, Mohd Nasir and MG, Rah (2006) The study of morphological structure, phase structure and molecular structure of collagen-PEO 600K blends for tissue engineering application. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2 (5). pp. 175-179. ...
We demonstrate how a genetic polymorphism of distinctly different alleles can develop during long-term frequency-dependent evolution in an initially monomorphic diploid population, if mutations have only small phenotypic effect. As a specific example, we use a version of Levenes (1953) soft selection model, where stabilizing selection acts on a continuous trait within each of two habitats. If the optimal phenotypes within the habitats are sufficiently different, then two distinctly different alleles evolve gradually from a single ancestral allele. In a wide range of parameter values, the two locally optimal phenotypes will be realized by one of the homozygotes and the heterozygote, rather than by the two homozygotes. Unlike in the haploid analogue of the model, there can be multiple polymorphic evolutionary attractors with different probabilities of convergence. Our results differ from the population genetic models of short-term evolution in two aspects: (1) a polymorphism that is population ...
This working group will assemble a team of investigators from population, quantitative, demographic and human genetics, and evolutionary biology to analyze the three generation longitudinal Framingham Heart Study cohort data to document microevolutionary changes in a contemporary human population. The team will utilize the rich and diverse morphological, physiological and genomic data collected for nearly sixty years to primarily understand the manifestation of cardiovascular disease in a healthy white North American population. The investigators will use analytical approaches proven in evolutionary biology and if necessary develop novel approaches for the purpose. This concerted effort will yield an evolutionary framework to understand the distribution of human genetic variation and the role of evolution in human health and disease. The specific aims of this working group are to: 1) measure microevolutionary changes at the phenotype level in a white North American human population, using ...
It is definitely true that the so-called Modern Synthesis of Evolution needs an update. That is common knowledge. The problem is that there are not really leading figures that can come down with what might be called The Standard Model of Biological Evolution. I phrase it as such since as such it might also help against the ID movement. ID is constantly challenging biologists and other scientists. The thing they do understand all too well is that every new finding comes with many new questions, which they subsequently abuse to attack evolution. One of the issues they keep on coming back is that evolution is just a theory. Besides the fact that apparently they misunderstand the scientific meaning of theory, they easily put aside the enormous of evidence that backs up this theory. The reason why they keep on doing this is that there are still a number of battle areas , albeit much less then it seems. Here The Standard Model of Biological Evolution might come in quite handy. But who should ...
Page 1 of 3 - Is Macroevolution Testable? - posted in Best all time threads.: Evolutionists frequently affirm that macroevolution in nature is too slow to observe. Fair enough. Supposedly, significant macroevolutionary changes occured by natural selection, such as the evolution of cetaceans from a hippo- like precursor over a period of only 8 million years. The evolution of man from australopithecus supposedly took around 2 million years. My challenge is to produce macroevolutionary ch...
Both evolutionists and creationists stand in agreement that radiocarbon dating, which can be used only to date organic samples, is totally ineffective in measuring the alleged millions or billions of years of the evolutionary timetable. [In truth, even when dating things that are relatively young, carbon-14 dating is imperfect and based upon certain unprovable assumptions (see Major, 1993).] If radiocarbon dating can measure only items that are thousands of years old, why should evolutionists even consider using this dating method on anything that they already believe to be millions of years old? Creationists would like to see evolutionists apply this method to items believed to be millions of years old, because it might help convince evolutionists that coal, diamonds, fossils, etc. are not millions of years old, but only thousands of years old.. Consider that in recent years "readily detectable amounts of carbon-14" in materials evolutionists suppose are millions of years old "have been the ...
From the authors of The Design of Life, William Dembski & Jonathan Wells: "The transition from reptiles into mammals via mammal-like reptiles is regarded by many evolutionary theorists as the best example of an evolutionary lineage in the fossil record. There are, however, three fundamental problems with this and all other examples of inferring Darwinian evolution on the basis of fossil evidence. The first is that any specific hypothesis must use the fossil data selectively; the second is that similarities in fossil or living organisms may not be due to common ancestry; and the third is that fossils cannot, in principle, establish biological relationships." Continue reading at Evolution News & Views. ...
A crustacean with 3,000 lenses in its eyes, 6-foot-long shrimplike creatures and organisms that looked like tulips emerged hastily (from an evolutionary perspective) on the scene some 520 million to 540 million years ago. And now scientists have figured out just how quickly evolution was occurring during
Lateral gene transfer is a major force in the evolution of microorganisms. The ability to obtain genetic novelty can accelerate adaptation to new niches and speeds up evolutionary transitions and speciation events. However, exposure to foreign DNA is also harmful for microbes, mostly because the vectors of gene transfer such as plasmids and viruses are parasitic and often lethal for their hosts. Microorganisms have therefore developed several defense mechanisms to degrade foreign DNA. In prokaryotes CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats) - based systems digest invading DNA or RNA, thus preventing not only viral infections but also the acquisition of potentially beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance. CRISPR systems acquire new invader-derived sequences and thus establish immune memory, and also a record of past infections by selfish mobile elements ...
Microfossils dating from more than 3 billion years ago demonstrate that bacteria were the first life-forms on the planet. Bacteria and Archaea, both prokaryotic, ruled until the advent of nucleated cells with membranous organelles, such as those of which we are constructed (eukaryotic cells). The earliest known fossilized evidence of early life forms are found in stromatolites - large reef structures created by communities of Cyanobacteria. Mistakenly called blue-green algae, the Cyanobacteria are bacteria that evolved relatively late. They are believed to have "invented" oxygenic photosynthesis over 1 billion years ago. As oxygen levels rose, organisms were forced into endosymbiotic unions as - to them - toxic levels of oxygen threatened their continued existence. (Anaerobic bacteria, which are killed by oxygen, persist to this day in environments with very low levels of oxygen.) These serial endosymbiotic transfer events paved the way for evolution of eukaryotic cells, which in turn enabled ...
Ive discussed the nature of evidence more than a few times. In a nutshell, evidence is neutral. Its doesnt "tell" us anything and it doesnt endorse any theory. Instead, theories are created to help make sense of the evidence. Its a classic example of circular reasoning when evolutionists invent a theory to explain the evidence then claim the evidence supports their theory but Im not here to talk about that right now. Rather, Im going to explain why the evolutionists demands for "evidence" are nothing more than special pleading.. Since most physical evidence is neutral, whenever an evolutionist asks for "evidence" for creation, he can only be asking for the creationists explanation of the evidence. After all, I live in the same world as he so I have all the same evidence that he does. But we already know that the evolutionist rejects the creation theory in advance because he has already accepted his own theory as the explanation for the evidence. When he rejects our "evidence," he is ...
In recent papers, Dr. Nowak has argued that cooperation is one of the three basic principles of evolution. The other two are mutation and selection. On their own, mutation and selection can transform a species, giving rise to new traits like limbs and eyes. But cooperation is essential for life to evolve to a new level of organization. Single-celled protozoa had to cooperate to give rise to the first multicellular animals. Humans had to cooperate for complex societies to emerge.. "We see this principle everywhere in evolution where interesting things are happening," Dr. Nowak said.. While cooperation may be central to evolution, however, it poses questions that are not easy to answer. How can competing individuals start to cooperate for the greater good? And how do they continue to cooperate in the face of exploitation? To answer these questions, Dr. Nowak plays games. ...
The Earths environments have been shaped by biological evolution over geologic timescales, and biological evolution has in turn responded to environmental evolution. Geobiology is at this interface, often rooted in modern local observations and integrated over large spatial and temporal scales via the geologic record. The Stanford program in Geobiology has strong emphasis both on how organism metabolism and physiology influence modern environments and how strong feedbacks can emerge when viewed over the great sweep of Earth history via the sedimentary and fossil records. ...
Specifically, I note what I think any evolutionary biologist would immediately see: that Axe and Gauger did not test an evolutionary hypothesis. Todd explains this very well, but heres the basic problem. To test an evolutionary hypothesis, as I mentioned above, one must study an evolutionary transition. In other words, one must study a change or transition from an ancestral state to a current (or later) state. Joe Thorntons work is a great example: his group examined protein function in a reconstruction of an evolutionary transition. What Axe and Gauger did was study a transition that has never been proposed to have happened. They examined a transition from one currently-existing protein to another currently-existing protein. Its as though they analyzed the transition from a cat to a dog, when they should have analyzed the transition from ancestral mammals to dogs and/or cats. Their conclusions tell us something about protein structure and function but, crucially, not about the evolution ...
Now one more problem as far as the generation of information. It turns out that you dont only need information to build genes and proteins, it turns out to build Body-Plans you need higher levels of information; Higher order assembly instructions. DNA codes for the building of proteins, but proteins must be arranged into distinctive circuitry to form distinctive cell types. Cell types have to be arranged into tissues. Tissues have to be arranged into organs. Organs and tissues must be specifically arranged to generate whole new Body-Plans, distinctive arrangements of those body parts. We now know that DNA alone is not responsible for those higher orders of organization. DNA codes for proteins, but by itself it does insure that proteins, cell types, tissues, organs, will all be arranged in the body. And what that means is that the Body-Plan morphogenesis, as it is called, depends upon information that is not encoded on DNA. Which means you can mutate DNA indefinitely. 80 million years, 100 ...
Article Technological cognition and co-adaptation in mesoeconomic plexuses. In this paper we propose a new approach to technological knowledge based on the concept of mesoeconomic plexus conceived as the fundamental analytical unit of the meso level....
THE NEW EVOLUTION. As it becomes increasingly apparent that there are no transitional forms in the fossil record, scientists opposed to the idea of creation are scrambling for a new evolutionary explanation. The new version of evolution is called sudden origins or punctuated equilibrium . It (conveniently) states that there are no transitional forms because the (never observed) beneficial mutations which produce new information don t happen gradually over many generations---instead massive, dramatic mutations occur suddenly and members of the species who don t get these essential mutations simply die out. This completely new species just suddenly appear explanation hopes to get evolutionists off the hook (to produce transitional forms). It also concedes (unintentionally) that the fossil record shows what the Creation Model predicts.. HOW EVOLUTION SURVIVES. Creation is a much better model to explain the evidence than evolution. So how does evolution survive (and even thrive) as a theory---being ...
My group is interested in a variety of topics related to the vertebrate craniofacial (head) development and craniofacial developmental evolution. We use molecular, cellular and developmental genetics approaches to study the precise mechanisms of cranial skeletal differentiation, especially in the context of the dermal intramembranous bone, which is unique to the skull and bones. We also curious about issues of skull morphogenesis and integration of cranial skeleton with cranial musculature. The species we work with range from the laboratory model systems, such as chicken embryos and mouse mutants, to the non-model species used for evolutionary developmental studies, for example Darwin s Finches and their tribe relatives, other birds and, more recently, reptiles ...
Around the beginning of the 20th century, many evolutionists started to realize that natural selection cannot produce new genetic information needed for new organs, species, etc. So they came up with the idea that mutations-random genetic copying mistakes- provide the new information and natural selection guides the evolutionary process. These evolutionists are called neo-Darwinists and they are in majority today.. The genetic information-the coded blueprint of a living organism- is stored in each cell of our bodies, in extremely complex DNA molecules. As this vast amount of information is copied, mistakes do occur sometimes-they are called mutations. Evolutionists recognize that these are the only real changes that can happen in the genes of creatures and they hope that mutations somehow provide the new information needed for macroevolution to occur. But random mutations never add new information, they can only decrease information. Therefore most mutations are harmful, and many of them ...
Evolutionists love to tout the fossil record as evidence for their theory. Fossils are often found where they are not expected, and these finds cause evolutionists to frequently revise their timelines. Evolutionists have a lot of problems with the fossil record.
2012 Evolution and health: Using animal models and an evolutionary perspective to understand bone and joint disease. April 1s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Recently Ben McConnell (Church of the Customer) shared his perspective on the distinction between Word-of-Mouth (WOM) and Buzz. (Its a good read.). His post rekindled some of my thoughts on Creationist WOM vs. Evolutionist WOM (video clip). The Creationist WOM marketing mindset is about making the marketing activity something to talk about as in attention-grabbing stunts and gimmicks. The Evolutionist WOM mindset is about making a companys products, services, and or experiences worth talking about.. Creationist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth just a marketing issue. While, Evolutionist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth is an everyday business issue.. Weve seen Creationist WOM theory at work recently with Dennys stunt of giving away 2-million Grand Slam breakfasts for free and all the gimmicky commercials shown during the Super Bowl.. Specific instances of Evolutionist WOM theory at work are more difficult to notice. Thats because these marketing activities are not supposed to be ...
Recently Ben McConnell (Church of the Customer) shared his perspective on the distinction between Word-of-Mouth (WOM) and Buzz. (Its a good read.). His post rekindled some of my thoughts on Creationist WOM vs. Evolutionist WOM (video clip). The Creationist WOM marketing mindset is about making the marketing activity something to talk about as in attention-grabbing stunts and gimmicks. The Evolutionist WOM mindset is about making a companys products, services, and or experiences worth talking about.. Creationist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth just a marketing issue. While, Evolutionist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth is an everyday business issue.. Weve seen Creationist WOM theory at work recently with Dennys stunt of giving away 2-million Grand Slam breakfasts for free and all the gimmicky commercials shown during the Super Bowl.. Specific instances of Evolutionist WOM theory at work are more difficult to notice. Thats because these marketing activities are not supposed to be ...
Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This book adopts a modern, integrated approach to describe how current molecular genetic techniques and disciplines as diverse as palaeontology, embryology, and genomics have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution. The last decade has seen growing interest in evolutionary biology fuelled by a wealth of data from molecular biology. Modern phylogenies integrating evidence from molecules, embryological data, and morphology of living and fossil taxa provide a wide consensus of the major branching patterns of the tree of life; moreover, the links between phenotype and genotype are increasingly well understood. This has resulted
Time and place: Evolutionary dynamics of species diversity in fish - an interdisciplinary research program in ecology, evolution and conservation June 1, 2012 2:15 PM - 3:00 PM, Room 3508, Kristine Bonnevies hus ...
Fossils, Teeth, and Sex: New Perspectives on Human Evolution - 1987, Page 151 by Charles E. Oxnard. Read Fossils, Teeth, and Sex: New Perspectives on Human Evolution now at Questia.
Time and place: CEES Extra seminar/AQUA seminar: Fatty acids in the marine environment, from photosynthesis to copepod lipids and sequestration Dec. 10, 2015 2:15 PM-3:00 PM, Seminar room 3508 ...
Math Help Forum is a free math help forum for Calculus, Algebra, LaTeX, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics and Probability, Differential Equations, Discrete Math
Critics have argued that the "peppered moth story" showed only microevolution, rather than speciation or other changes at the larger macroevolutionary scale. Biologists agree that this example shows natural selection causing evolution within a species, demonstrating rapid and obvious adaptiveness with such change, and accept that it is not proof of the theory of evolution as a whole. However, though creationists accept "microevolution" of varieties within a "kind", they claim that "macroevolution" does not happen. To biologists there is no dividing line between the two, and in the modern evolutionary synthesis the same mechanisms are seen operating at various scales to cause both evolution within species and speciation at a macroevolution level or wider changes, the only difference being of time and scale." ...
The rock record provides an abundance of fossils, and by the early 1800s, geologists were using physical relationships among rocks as evidence to establish the basis for the geologic time scale. They understood that the fossil record shows major changes in life forms over time. In 1859, Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species described these changes in detail and showed that they indicate that all life on Earth is related through descent with modification and showed that these changes can be explained by natural selection operating on random variations in organisms-the process we now know as biological evolution. Since then, we have continued to uncover details of lifes history, and biologists have elucidated the genetic and molecular basis for evolution. Evolution is not a static idea but a growing concept added to by scientific observation, testing, and debate. Scientific discoveries in these fields and related disciplines have progressively sharpened our understanding of evolution, which ...
The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future?. ...
(2009) Niklas, Kutschera. New Phytologist. New Phytologist (2009) Summary 1I. Introduction 2II. Developmental constraint or a phyletic legacy? 3III. Green plant phylogeny 3IV. The ancestral green plant life cycle 5V. Haplobiontic or diplobi...
The levels of biological organization are the hierarchy of living organisms from simplest to most complex: atoms to molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ
This paper presents some of the recent challenges to theModern Synthesis of evolutionary theory, which has dominatedevolutionary thinking for the last sixty years. The focus ofthe paper is the challenge of soft inheritance - the idea that variations that arise during development can beinherited. There is ample evidence showing that phenotypic variations that are independent of variations in DNAsequence, and targeted DNA changes that are guided by epigenetic control systems, are important sources ofhereditary variation, and hence can contribute to evolutionary changes. Furthermore, under certain conditions, themechanisms underlying epigenetic inheritance can also lead to saltational changes that reorganize the epigenome. These discoveriesare clearly incompatible with the tenets of the Modern Synthesis, which denied any significant role forLamarckian and saltational processes. In view of the data that support soft inheritance, as well as other challengesto the Modern Synthesis, it is concluded ...
Why distanced he began the download disordered systems and biological in the series together but? That said the Function-enrichment closest in his temperature. She referred it in a phosphomimetic download disordered systems and biological organization.
... , The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. We are interested in learning how coevolutionary interactions affect each interacting species, and also understanding the role that mating systems play in determining the outcome of coevolutionary interactions. We work with C. elegans and the bacterial pathogen, ...
Scientists have pinpointed the pace and shape of life as the two key elements in animal life cycles that affect how different species get by in the world. Their findings, which come from a detailed assessment of 121 species ...
We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow
We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow
Id like to stick with this subject, as it is the most important subject, in my opinion, regarding evolution. This isnt too hard of a concept, and Im going to assume that you are smart enough to know what Im looking for. For a reptile to evolve into a bird, it would have to acquire wings, obviously. This could not occur due to changes in shape and size. A new morphological structure is a structure that is entirely new, not changing the shape of an already existing structure, how would changing the shape of an already existing structure create a new one, and explain how it got there to begin with? Can changing the shape of a bacteria, cause it to evolve into a mammal? If you cant show me where even a single new structure new to the species has occured, how do you expect me to even begin to believe in evolution? Im sorry Im not crazy enough to believe such a thing. The fossil record shows no such events ever occured, and most evolutionists admit that the fossil record is one giant gap, so ...
Id like to stick with this subject, as it is the most important subject, in my opinion, regarding evolution. This isnt too hard of a concept, and Im going to assume that you are smart enough to know what Im looking for. For a reptile to evolve into a bird, it would have to acquire wings, obviously. This could not occur due to changes in shape and size. A new morphological structure is a structure that is entirely new, not changing the shape of an already existing structure, how would changing the shape of an already existing structure create a new one, and explain how it got there to begin with? Can changing the shape of a bacteria, cause it to evolve into a mammal? If you cant show me where even a single new structure new to the species has occured, how do you expect me to even begin to believe in evolution? Im sorry Im not crazy enough to believe such a thing. The fossil record shows no such events ever occured, and most evolutionists admit that the fossil record is one giant gap, so ...
Back to Internet Library Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig 7 September 2017 (with a few slight additions on the following days and a postscript on plant galls and the fossil record a week later) Plant Galls and Evolution How More than Twelve Thousand1 Ugly Facts are Slaying a Beautiful Hypothesis: Darwinism2 [T]he great tragedy of Science - the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact. …[But] Science commits suicide …when it adopts a creed. Thomas Henry Huxley If it could be proved that any part of the structure of any one species had been formed for the exclusive good of another species, it would annihilate my theory, for such could not have been produced through natural selection Charles Darwin Even those strongly skeptical about teleological interpretations cannot contest the fact that plant galls are constructions promoting a parasite thus benefiting a foreign organism, devices which already by this support are detrimental to the host plant." Ernst Küster3 The problem which plant galls ...
As more and more scientists adopt the creation model, there ought to be an increasing emphasis on examining data from a creationist viewpoint and a decreasing emphasis on searching out failures of the evolution model to make true or testable predictions. More than enough of the latter has been done than is needed to convince anyone not hindered by non-scientific considerations, such as ignorance, prejudice or philosophy. Although creationists will continue to call attention to unfounded assumptions and conclusions made by evolutionists, increased effort should now be spent on building a more comprehensive creation model. In addition to re-interpreting the data produced by evolutionists, we hope to see creationists increase their emphasis on carrying out studies specifically designed to test and refine the creation model. Although no one seems to think it was unscientific for Watson and Crick to use the data of others in developing the DNA model, a favorite aspersion cast by evolutionists is the ...
His point, of course, is that you would expect a genome full of junk in an evolutionary framework, but you would not expect it if the genome had been designed by a Creator. I couldnt agree more. If evolution produced the genome, you would expect it to contain a whole lot of junk. If the genome had been designed by a loving, powerful Creator, however, it would not. Well…scientists have made a giant leap forward in understanding the human genome, and they have found that the evolutionary expectation is utterly wrong, and the creationist expectation has (once again) been confirmed by the data.. The leap began back in 2003, when scientists started a project called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE).5 Their goal was to use the sequence of the human genome as a map so that they could discover and define the functional elements of human DNA. Back in 2007, they published their preliminary report, based on only 1% of the human genome. In that report, they found that the vast majority of the ...
RESTON, Va. and MT. LAUREL, N.J., March 2, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Physicians Most Likely to Reach Health-Related Content through Natural Search and Direct...
London: It took 100 million years for oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere to increase to the level that allowed the explosion of animal life on the Earth about 600 million years ago, according to new research.
To paraphrase, the argument seems to be something like the following:. (1) Assume a case where evolutionary thinking makes no difference to our understanding.. (2) In that case, evolutionary thinking makes no difference to our understanding.. (3) So, evolutionary thinking cant play a central role in our understanding of the mind.. It seems to me that (3) doesnt follow from (1) and (2). Logic aside, though, the question arises of how often Burnstons scenario might actually hold. First, Id like to see the stats on how often psychologists all agree on the "current functional role" of a psychological trait. Provided we could find some unicorns of this kind, wed then want to know how often it was the case that all evolutionary explanations for the trait in question were equally plausible or implausible-a perfectly flat probability function, so that we could say strictly nothing about the evolution of the trait. As I stress in the book, an evolutionary approach (or any scientific approach, ...
Few, if any, evolutionary biologists deny that HGT complicates the construction of prokaryotic trees. I doubt that any evolutionary biologist would consider this a problem for evolutionary theory. You contend that anything other than a simple, unambiguous, linear tree of life disproves evolution. No one educated in the biological sciences would make such a contention. When I looked at the parts of the quotes that you have put in bold in your posts, it became very clear that you do not understand what these people are saying. They are saying that evolutionary history is complex, not that it is wrong. As Jack has urged, please clarify why you think that HGT falsifies evolutionary theory. Specifically, please provide support that these authors, particularly Koonin, think evolution is bogus. You should thoroughly research something before misrepresenting quotes. Science, which you claim to admire, does not tolerate poor research ...
In 1937, Dobzhansky published these results in a landmark book, Genetics and the Origin of Species. In it, he sketched out an explanation for how species actually came into existence. Mutations crop up naturally all the time. Some mutations are harmful in certain circumstances, but a surprising number have no effect one way or the other. These neutral changes appear in different populations and linger, creating variability that is far greater than anyone had previously imagined.. This variability serves as the raw material for making new species. If the members of a population of flies should breed among themselves more than with other members of the species, their genetic profile would diverge. New mutations would arise in the isolated population, and natural selection might help them to spread until all the flies carried them. But because these isolated flies were only breeding within their own population, the mutations could not spread to the rest of the species. The isolated population of ...
The book Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior, Robert J. Richards is published by University of Chicago Press.
A method and apparatus for compressing digital data derived from an image using non-adaptive predictive techniques. A prediction table, which is pre-generated based on a number of sample images, generates a predicted pixel and source state for each pixel of the original image, as the original image is scanned. The predicted pixel is the expected value of the pixel when considering the values of a group of adjoining pixels, while the source state is indicative of the probability that the predicted pixel is in error. Prediction error pixels are then generated and grouped according to their respective source states to form a plurality of run length symbols with each symbol comprising a white portion and a black portion, which symbols are stored sequentially in order of formation in a memory device according to their respective source states. The symbols are used to provide address data for memory devices which generate variable length code words that are transmitted to a receiving station and decoded using
quote]I used to believe notions that flu could rather magically mutate into a malevolent, super-lethal virus, as suggested by various people, and mentioned by [J.C. Lawrence, in Letters] - and that it would then rampage around the world, killing untold millions.. However, I then saw arguments that this will not happen, based on applying one of the most powerful theories in science - evolution through natural selection - to infectious diseases. In the case of flu, these arguments centre on the need for the disease to be transmitted from one person to another. Typically, this means transmission from people who are well enough to be mobile - whether walking, riding buses, or taking flights. This in turn means that for a widespread form of human flu to evolve, it must be relatively mild in most people. A disease that greatly sickens and even kills many people will itself quickly die out.. These arguments, from scientists including evolutionary biologist Paul Ewald, explain much that is otherwise ...
Distinct evolutionary trends of TFs.Unlike average proteins, TF Ka/Ks correlates positively with regulatory in-degree and very poorly with CAI and the evolution
Perhaps the first thing that should be said about this book is that it does not make for light reading. All nineteen essays composing Brain Evolution and Cognition address cutting-edge issues in the evolution of brains and cognitive functions, and as one might easily expect the discussion is pit
Darwinian thought results in decent science, but is philosophical poison. It is partially true, and, as a half-truth is particularly dangerous. Natural selection -- the fittest survives -- is intuitively obvious and trivial. What is at stake is the ultimate driving mechanism -- mind or matter. More and more, while retaining their darwinian allegiances, scientists are discovering that chemical and biological evolution is law- rather than chance-based ...
Creationists claim there are no transitional fossils, aka missing links. Biologists and paleontologists, among others, know this claim is false," according to a recent LiveScience article that then describes what it claims are 12 specific transitional form fossils.1 But do these examples really confirm Darwinism?. Charles Darwin raised a lack of transitional fossils as a possible objection to his own theory: "Why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms?"2 Later in this chapter of his landmark book, he expressed hope that future discoveries would be made of transitional forms, or of creatures that showed some transitional structure-perhaps a half-scale/half-feather.. Although some creationists do say that "there are no transitional fossils," it would be more accurate to state that there are no undisputed transitional forms. Although the article asserts that the fossil record "is full of them," the reality is that it ...
Curriculum Design and Instruction to Teach Biology: The Biology Of Individual Organisms: Digestion and Excretion: Energy and Waste Control
Yet by the late 1980s it was becoming obvious to most genetic researchers, including myself, since my own main research interest in the 80s and 90s was human genetics, that the heroic effort to find information specifying lifes order in the genes had failed. There was no longer the slightest justification for believing there exists anything in the genome remotely resembling a program capable of specifying in detail all the complex order of the phenotype. The emerging picture made it increasingly difficult to see genes as Weismanns "unambiguous bearers of information" or view them as the sole source of the durability and stability of organic form. It is true that genes influence every aspect of development, but influencing something is not the same as determining it. Only a small fraction of all known genes, such as the developmental fate switching genes, can be imputed to have any sort of directing or controlling influence on form generation. From being "isolated directors" of a one-way game ...
Some subsequent authors have charged that Gould and Lewontin (1979) presented a straw man, and did not provide a fair assessment of what members of the so-called adaptationist camp actually did or said. Nevertheless, I think many biologists feel that theirs was a very important contribution, at least as a warning for how the study of trait evolution could go awry. I would take a stronger position, and argue that not only was the Gould and Lewontin (1979) paper needed at the time, but that it is still needed today. And nowhere is this more true than in studies of human behaviour and anatomy, particularly because these tend to be widely covered in the science media. Evolutionary psychology takes a large amount of flak from evolutionary biologists and others for its perceived tendency to present "just-so stories" or to make extraordinary assumptions about the social and physical habitats of hominin ancestors. But this is not limited to studies of human minds by any means.. I recently discussed one ...
Scientists at the University of Chicago have created the first genetically modified animals containing reconstructed ancient genes, which they used to test the evolutionary effects of genetic changes that happened in the deep past on the animals biology and fitness.
We are up against billions of years of biological evolution - and the question is, can our super science grapple with what nature has decreed? Can we boldly change the rule-set of the ancient game? Can we really make our biological bodies live forever? Can we cheat death? And if we do, will there be some kind of trade-off? Will there be a terrible price to pay for upending the "natural order of things?" ...
This is true of all thirty-two orders of mammals... The earliest and most primitive known members of every order [of mammals] already have the basic ordinal characters, and in no case is an approximately continuous sequence from one order to another known. In most cases, the break is so sharp and the gap so large that the origin of the order is speculative and much disputed... This regular absence of transitional forms is not confined to mammals, but is an almost universal phenomenon, as has long been noted by paleontologists. It is true of almost all classes of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate... it is true of the classes, and of the major animal phyla, and it is apparently also true of analogous categories of plants. ...
NB: This list illustrates only a tiny subset of the diversity of requirements and designs for information-processing functions and mechanisms in products of biological evolution. There may have been thousands of important transitions in information processing functions and designs in our evolutionary ancestors (some more important than others). Some of the solutions seem to have been compiled into genomes for species that have survived for a long time. Others seem to have been meta-compiled into parametrisable specifications that are instantiated during development and can cope with novel environments (like human-toddlers using mouse and pointer on a computer -- unlike any of their ancestors). How information-processing requirements change, depends on both features of the environment and features of the organism (products of previous evolution). Contrast: how designs change. TO BE CONTINUED ...
I. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1. Evolutionary Theory of Behavioral Dynamics ........................................................................... 2. The Virtual Organism. ............................................................................................................ 3. The Rules of the ETBD........................................................................................................... 4. Evidence Supporting the Theory. ........................................................................................... 6. Dynamic Behavior..................................................................................................................... 10. Monkey Experimental Paradigm............................................................................................... 11. Present ...
In other words, there isnt a single element of what distinguishes biology from chemistry.. As a chemical analogy to "natural selection", it is an interesting(?) experiment, that may or may not (Im guessing not) provide insight into population density changes in biological environments.. As far as "abiogenesis" is concerned, this experiment is about as relevant as dropping alka-seltzer in a glass of water, and noticing that the chemical composition of the solution changes.. This, btw, is a good example of why most conversations between evolutionists and creationists are pointless. To an educated creationist, this article is so clearly irrelevant to the entire argument of abiogenesis, it shouldnt even need refuted. To an evolutionist, apparently, this is practically first life, and a clear refutation of any creationist concerns over the impracticability of abiogenesis. Ah, well.. Whether or not "Darwinian Processes" as defined in the post above are common, is irrelevant to the validity of ...
thank god cause no one understand evolution. i make a few word errors and run on sentences because first off this isnt a spelling bee.this is a site with a bunch of atheist who believes in a process which there is no proof of nor how it even begin...sad, so i really dont care if i make a mistake on here, because im arguing with a bunch of people who believe in evolution and actually think that it disproves god sad... you all will believe anything recently a big chunky skull was found called hytomphic-anoglus it dates back 300 million years if i was to post this on the internet about 90% of the atheist will believe it. no wonder evolutionist make so much money becuase they can make up anything and you all will go buy it and think its factual. i may just become an under cover evolutionist so i can make money off you all.. ...
The 12-million-year-old bones of a previously unknown species named Danuvius guggenmosi challenge the prevailing view about when and where our ancestors first started walking upright.
A new study from SciLifeLab at Uppsala University published in PLOS ONE shows that genes crucial for vision were multiplied in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and acquired distinct functions leading to the sophisticated ...
History: Race in the U.S.A., a timeline created by the American Anthropological Association, looks at milestones in thinking and actions about race in government, science and society.
Authors: Frédéric Thomas, Sophie Rome, Frédéric Mery, Erika Dawson, Jacques Montagne, Peter A. Biro, Christa Beckmann, François Renaud, Robert Poulin, Michel Raymond, Beata Ujvari Source: Evolutionary Applications, Volume 10, Issue 7, Pages 651-657, August 2017 Brief summary of the paper: Changes in diet are frequently correlated with the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors (i.e., cancer) in both…
A. Kerkut emphasizes that all seven basic assumptions on which evolu-tionary theory rests are "by their nature… not capable of experimental verification" (Implications of Evolution, p. 7). [1] The assumption that "non-living things gave rise to living material… is still just an assumption" (ibid., p. 150). [2] The assumption that "biogenesis occurred only once… is a matter of belief rather than proof" (op. cit.). [3] The assumption that "Vi-ruses, Bacteria, Protozoa and the higher animals were all interrelated" biologically as an evolutionary phenomenon lacks definite evidence (ibid., p. 151). [4] The assumption that "the Protozoa gave rise to the Metazoa" has no basis in definite knowledge (ibid., pp. 151 ff.). [5] The assumption that "the various invertebrate phyla are interrelated" depends on "tenuous and cir-cumstantial" evidence and not on evidence that allows "a verdict of definite relationships" (ibid., pp. 152 f.). [6] The assumption that "the invertebrates gave rise to the ...
Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology.
Written by: Walt Brown Via: http://www.drdino.com/read-article.php?id=75&c=17 The test of any theory is whether or not it provides answers to basic qu…