Developmental evolution as mechanistic science: The inference from developmental mechanisms to evolutionary processes. Wagner, Gunter P. Developmental Evolution as a Mechanistic Science: The Inference from Developmental Mechanisms to Evolutionary Processes1 SYNOPSIS. Developmental Evolution (DE) contributes to various research programs in biology, such as the assessment of homology and the determination of the genetic architecture underlying species differences. The most distinctive contribution offered by DE to evolutionary biology, however, is the elucidation of the role of developmental mechanisms in the origin of evolutionary innovations. To date, explanations of evolutionary innovations have remained beyond the reach of classical evolutionary genetics, because such explanations require detailed information on the function of genes and the emergent developmental dynamics of their interactions with other genetic factors. We argue that this area has the potential to become the core of DEs ...
20 Questions on Adaptive Dynamics Adaptive dynamics is a tool used of studying phenotypic changes in evolving populations over time1. Adaptive dynamics approach is different from population genetic Fishers model2. Fishers population under natural selection will additively increase its population fitness, where as an adaptive dynamics population of unfit individuals are replace by fitter ones but…
Linksvayer, T A., J Fewell, J Gadau, and M D. Laubichler. Developmental Evolution in Social Insects - Regulatory Networks from Genes to Societies,. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318 (2012): 159-169. ...
Developmental plasticity looks like a promising bridge between ecological and developmental perspectives on evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether plasticity is part of the explanation for adaptive evolution or an optional add-on to genes and natural selection. Here, we suggest that these differences in opinion are caused by differences in the simplifying assumptions, and particular idealizations, that enable evolutionary explanation. We outline why idealizations designed to explain evolution through natural selection prevent an understanding of the role of development, and vice versa. We show that representing plasticity as a reaction norm conforms with the idealizations of selective explanations, which can give the false impression that plasticity has no explanatory power for adaptive evolution. Finally, we use examples to illustrate why evolutionary explanations that include developmental plasticity may in fact be more satisfactory than explanations that solely refer to genes and ...
Laubichler, M D.. Form and Function in Evo Devo: A Conceptual and Historical Analysis. In Form and Function in Developmental Evolution, edited by M D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein, 10-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. ...
More recently, some of the Altenberg attendees, among others, launched a web site, The Third Way, as an organizing tool for scientists working on a model of evolution that accommodates the research findings that are stretching the Modern Synthesis. More recently the The John Templeton Foundation has awarded a major grant (£5.7m or $8m) to an international team of leading researchers for a three-year research program to put the predictions of the extended evolutionary synthesis to the test. The Royal Society in 2015 published an article, The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions that provides additional background information. And in November 2016 the Society hosted a scientific meeting on the topic, entitled, New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives ...
Living things are organized in a hierarchy of levels. Genes group together in cells, cells group together in organisms, and organisms group together in societies. Even different species form mutualistic partnerships. In the history of life, previously independent units have formed groups that, in time, have come to resemble individuals in their own right. Biologists term such events the major transitions. The process common to them all is social evolution. Each occurs only if natural selection favours one unit joining with another in a new kind of group. This book presents a fresh synthesis of the principles of social evolution that underlie the major transitions, and explains how the basic theory underpinning social evolution, inclusive fitness theory, is central to understanding each event. At the same time, it defends inclusive fitness theory against recent critiques. The book defines the key stages in a major transition, then picks out the shared principles operating at each stage across the
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Dieckmann U & Doebeli M (2004). Adaptive dynamics of speciation: Sexual populations. In: Adaptive Speciation. Eds. Dieckmann, U., Doebeli, M., Metz, J.A.J. & Tautz, D., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82842-2 DOI:10.2277/0521828422. Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of sphingolipid extracts on the morphological structure and lipid profile in an in vitro model of canine skin. AU - Cerrato, Santiago. AU - Ramió-Lluch, Laura. AU - Brazís, Pilar. AU - Fondevila, Dolors. AU - Segarra, Sergi. AU - Puigdemont, Anna. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - © 2016 The Authors Ceramides (CER) are essential sphingolipids of the stratum corneum (SC) that play an important role in maintaining cutaneous barrier function. Skin barrier defects occur in both human beings and dogs affected with atopic dermatitis, and have been associated with decreased CER concentrations and morphological alterations in the SC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes induced by three different sphingolipid extracts (SPE-1, SPE-2 and SPE-3) on the morphological structure and lipid composition of canine skin, using an in vitro model, whereby keratinocytes were seeded onto fibroblast-embedded collagen type I matrix at the air-liquid interface. Cell ...
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. Current Projects: -Antagonistic coevolution - Experimental Coevolution Test of the Red Queen: This project combines my interests in both mating system evolution and coevolutionary dynamics! The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that selective pressure from coevolving ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[13] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[14] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[15] Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: what happened and when?. This includes fields such as paleobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either inaccurate or incomplete. It is important, however, to understand the kind of challenge being posed here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that missed the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one way, from DNA to RNA to proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science.. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[7] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[8] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[9]. Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: what happened and when?. This includes fields such as palaeobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics.. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, share on facebook, share on twitter
Dive into the research topics of Phenotypic plasticity, genetic assimilation, and genetic compensation in hypoxia adaptation of high-altitude vertebrates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
The foregoing suggests that natural selection theory be formulated as a problem of signal-to-noise ratio. That is, the burden on the theory is to show that the variability of heritable phenotypic traits within a species in a local population, limited as it is by developmental constraints, nonetheless is significant enough to account for the variability of reproductive success among the members of a generation. Can the variability of the heritable traits in a given generation, the signal, rise above the day-in day-out contingencies of the environment and the intrinsic developmental constraints that limit the variability of phenotypes in a given generation, the noise, to override these factors and determine reproductive outcomes generation after generation ...
Abstract Because of the variability of relevant developmental resources across different environments, and because only a portion of the genome is expressed in any individual organism as a result of its specific developmental context and experience,
Page 1 of 2 - Why Evolutionist Dont Like To Give Evidence? - posted in Creation vs Evolution: I find it quite frustrating and amusing that for all their talk about science, many evolutionists refuse to give evidence of their claims. Many seem to think that just by merely saying the word fossil makes it evidence of evolution, without actually demonstrating how it is... So calling all evolutionists to give a summary of how their evidence is evidence of evolution. Just one...
Phenotypic convergence between distinct species provides an opportunity to examine the predictability of genetic evolution. Unrelated species sharing genetic underpinnings for phenotypic convergence suggests strong genetic constraints, and thus high predictability of evolution. However, there is no clear big picture of the genomic constraints on convergent evolution. Genome-based phylogenies have confirmed many cases of phenotypic convergence in birds, making them a good system for examining genetic constraints in phenotypic convergence. In this study, we used hierarchical genomic approaches to estimate genetic constraints in three convergent avian traits: nocturnality, raptorial behavior and foot-propelled diving. Phylogeny-based hypothesis tests and positive selection tests were applied to compare 16 avian genomes, representing 14 orders, and identify genes with strong convergence signals. We found 43 adaptively convergent genes (ACGs) associated with the three phenotypic convergence cases and
A recent report, published in Nature,1 on the genome sequence of the so-called living fish fossil, the African coelacanth, has some evolutionists scrambling to defend their story. This is because the coelacanths DNA is similar to other types of fish and not land animals, thus forcing the evolutionists to postulate that the coelacanth evolved slowly.1. Although modern coelacanths are found in water about 500 feet deep, Axel Meyer, a member of the study team believes that ancient coelacanths may have lived in shallow water, stating, Other coelacanths lived in more shallow, estuary-like environments 400 million years ago, and you can envisage them using fins more like walking legs.2 In the overall evolutionary scenario, fish are believed to have transitioned to land and then continued evolving into amphibians and eventually into other land creatures.. The ancestral lineage of the coelacanth was thought to have gone extinct 70 million years ago, during the Cretaceous Period-an era most famous for ...
Environmental stochasticity is known to play an important role in life-history evolution, but most general theory assumes a constant environment. In this paper, we examine life-history evolution in a variable environment, by decomposing average individual fitness (measured by the long-run stochastic growth rate) into contributions from average vital rates and their temporal variation. We examine how generation time, demographic dispersion (measured by the dispersion of reproductive events across the lifespan), demographic resilience (measured by damping time), within-year variances in vital rates, within-year correlations between vital rates and between-year correlations in vital rates combine to determine average individual fitness of stylized life histories. In a fluctuating environment, we show that there is often a range of cohort generation times at which the fitness is at a maximum. Thus, we expect optimal phenotypes in fluctuating environments to differ from optimal phenotypes in constant
UNUSUAL TIME AND PLACE Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential ...
UNUSUAL TIME Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential equation. ...
Predicting adaptive trajectories is a major goal of evolutionary biology and useful for practical applications. Systems biology has enabled the development of genome-scale metabolic models. However, analysing these models via flux balance analysis (FBA) cannot predict many evolutionary outcomes including adaptive diversification, whereby an ancestral lineage diverges to fill multiple niches. Here we combine in silico evolution with FBA and apply this modelling framework, evoFBA, to a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli. Simulations predicted the adaptive diversification that occurred in one experimental population and generated hypotheses about the mechanisms that promoted coexistence of the diverged lineages. We experimentally tested and, on balance, verified these mechanisms, showing that diversification involved niche construction and character displacement through differential nutrient uptake and altered metabolic regulation. The evoFBA framework represents a promising new way to
Antagonistic coevolution is particularly likely to take place between parasites and their hosts. It is easy to imagine how a change in a parasite, which improves its ability to penetrate its hosts, will reciprocally set up selection for a change in the host. Antagonism can cause cyclical or escalatory coevolution:. • If the range of genetic variants in parasite and host is limited, coevolution can be cyclic. • But if new mutants continually arise, the parasite and host may undergo unending coupled changes in a particular direction. Many properties of the biology of parasites and hosts have been attributed to antagonistic coevolution, such as parasitic virulence, and the simultaneous phylogenetic branching of parasites and hosts. Antagonisms are thought to be the biological factor most likely to cause extinction.. The shells of these molluscs are an example of escalatory coevolution: the fossil record shows that the thickness of the shells increases in response to the evolution of more ...
It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. - Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass http://astore.amazon.com/spectrevision-20/detail/0525951113 Let me tell you the story of the most successful organism of all time: this is the story of the parasite. Early on, evolution branched into two distinct paths: independent organisms-those that exist…
One major feature of the Palaeogene radiation of acanthomorphs-the origin of several clades of pelagic predators-appears related to the filling of vacated functional roles, but additional axes of morphological diversification are not clearly explained under this model. This might reflect the conservative approach applied here, which focuses on regions of morphospace that were devastated, rather than thinned, by extinction, combined with the limitations of a broadly framed landmark-based morphometric scheme in comparison to a targeted functional analysis. A mosaic pattern of turnover could remain an important but subtle mechanism underlying aspects of the acanthomorph radiation. Selection against higher trophic levels of the sort inferred for teleosts during the K-P (Cavin 2001; Friedman 2009) might yield particularly nuanced succession dynamics, because piscivorous fishes assume a range of morphologies and represent the most anatomically disparate diet class in some modern faunas (Chakrabarty ...
Few major questions in biological evolution have been as daunting to solve as the evolution of social behavior. Most research in the discipline has been structured by natural history observations and experiments designed to support a particular concept of how sociality evolved. Theoretical contributions have also been a significant part of the literature, sometimes linked to a favored concept. The discipline is divided into camps of opposing opinion on concepts of social evolution, and there has been scant increase in insight or understanding beyond positions adopted years ago. In this epistemic environment, characterized by contention and stasis, the catalysis group �Modeling Insect Sociality� has been designed to seek a new way forward. The meeting will assemble evolutionary modelers with a diversity of analytical tool kits together with social insect biologists with a diversity of taxonomic expertise. The intent is to foster discussion in an atmosphere of neutrality with regard to ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either a inaccurate or incomplete. It is important however, to understand the kind of challenge being posted here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that miss the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one-way, from DNA to RNA proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analysing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in the number of life cycle stages are associated with rapid phenotypic evolution. Specifically, salamanders with an aquatic-only (paedomorphic) life cycle have frequently added vertebrae to their trunk skeleton compared with closely related lineages with a complex aquatic-to-terrestrial (biphasic) life cycle. The rate of vertebral column evolution is also substantially lower in biphasic lineages, which may reflect the functional compromise of a complex cycle. This study demonstrates that the consequences of life cycle ...
CA, Azlan and N.A., Kadri, and NF, Mohd Nasir and MG, Rah (2006) The study of morphological structure, phase structure and molecular structure of collagen-PEO 600K blends for tissue engineering application. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2 (5). pp. 175-179. ...
We demonstrate how a genetic polymorphism of distinctly different alleles can develop during long-term frequency-dependent evolution in an initially monomorphic diploid population, if mutations have only small phenotypic effect. As a specific example, we use a version of Levenes (1953) soft selection model, where stabilizing selection acts on a continuous trait within each of two habitats. If the optimal phenotypes within the habitats are sufficiently different, then two distinctly different alleles evolve gradually from a single ancestral allele. In a wide range of parameter values, the two locally optimal phenotypes will be realized by one of the homozygotes and the heterozygote, rather than by the two homozygotes. Unlike in the haploid analogue of the model, there can be multiple polymorphic evolutionary attractors with different probabilities of convergence. Our results differ from the population genetic models of short-term evolution in two aspects: (1) a polymorphism that is population ...
This working group will assemble a team of investigators from population, quantitative, demographic and human genetics, and evolutionary biology to analyze the three generation longitudinal Framingham Heart Study cohort data to document microevolutionary changes in a contemporary human population. The team will utilize the rich and diverse morphological, physiological and genomic data collected for nearly sixty years to primarily understand the manifestation of cardiovascular disease in a healthy white North American population. The investigators will use analytical approaches proven in evolutionary biology and if necessary develop novel approaches for the purpose. This concerted effort will yield an evolutionary framework to understand the distribution of human genetic variation and the role of evolution in human health and disease. The specific aims of this working group are to: 1) measure microevolutionary changes at the phenotype level in a white North American human population, using ...
When evolutionists try to draw their tree of related animals, they have a problem: not everything fits. They must say that some things---even things that are extremely similar---evolved multiple times independently (called convergence). They say that eyes evolved 40-60 times independently. This is awkward for evolutionists to explain, but it makes much more sense for a creationist: God reuses good designs!. Learn More. ...
It is definitely true that the so-called Modern Synthesis of Evolution needs an update. That is common knowledge. The problem is that there are not really leading figures that can come down with what might be called The Standard Model of Biological Evolution. I phrase it as such since as such it might also help against the ID movement. ID is constantly challenging biologists and other scientists. The thing they do understand all too well is that every new finding comes with many new questions, which they subsequently abuse to attack evolution. One of the issues they keep on coming back is that evolution is just a theory. Besides the fact that apparently they misunderstand the scientific meaning of theory, they easily put aside the enormous of evidence that backs up this theory. The reason why they keep on doing this is that there are still a number of battle areas , albeit much less then it seems. Here The Standard Model of Biological Evolution might come in quite handy. But who should ...
Работа на тему «The Modern Synthesis Genetics Darwin Essay Research» в категории «Иностранные языки».
Page 1 of 3 - Is Macroevolution Testable? - posted in Best all time threads.: Evolutionists frequently affirm that macroevolution in nature is too slow to observe. Fair enough. Supposedly, significant macroevolutionary changes occured by natural selection, such as the evolution of cetaceans from a hippo- like precursor over a period of only 8 million years. The evolution of man from australopithecus supposedly took around 2 million years. My challenge is to produce macroevolutionary ch...
Both evolutionists and creationists stand in agreement that radiocarbon dating, which can be used only to date organic samples, is totally ineffective in measuring the alleged millions or billions of years of the evolutionary timetable. [In truth, even when dating things that are relatively young, carbon-14 dating is imperfect and based upon certain unprovable assumptions (see Major, 1993).] If radiocarbon dating can measure only items that are thousands of years old, why should evolutionists even consider using this dating method on anything that they already believe to be millions of years old? Creationists would like to see evolutionists apply this method to items believed to be millions of years old, because it might help convince evolutionists that coal, diamonds, fossils, etc. are not millions of years old, but only thousands of years old.. Consider that in recent years readily detectable amounts of carbon-14 in materials evolutionists suppose are millions of years old have been the ...
From the authors of The Design of Life, William Dembski & Jonathan Wells: The transition from reptiles into mammals via mammal-like reptiles is regarded by many evolutionary theorists as the best example of an evolutionary lineage in the fossil record. There are, however, three fundamental problems with this and all other examples of inferring Darwinian evolution on the basis of fossil evidence. The first is that any specific hypothesis must use the fossil data selectively; the second is that similarities in fossil or living organisms may not be due to common ancestry; and the third is that fossils cannot, in principle, establish biological relationships. Continue reading at Evolution News & Views. ...
A crustacean with 3,000 lenses in its eyes, 6-foot-long shrimplike creatures and organisms that looked like tulips emerged hastily (from an evolutionary perspective) on the scene some 520 million to 540 million years ago. And now scientists have figured out just how quickly evolution was occurring during
Workman, L., Reader, W. & Barkow, J. H. (Eds) (2020) Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior - edited by Lance Workman March 2020 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology) (English Edition) eBook: Workman, Lance, Reader, Will, Barkow, Jerome H.: Amazon.nl: Kindle Store Kin selection and the evolution of male androphilia31. Book summary views reflect the number of visits to the book and chapter landing pages. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior - March 2020 British Wildlife is the leading natural history magazine in the UK, providing essential reading Ontogeny of tactical deception19. 11 - Can Evolutionary Processes Explain the Origins of Morality? Close ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology. It defines a framework of contests, strategies, and analytics into which Darwinian competition can be modelled. It originated in 1973 with John Maynard Smith and George R. Prices formalisation of contests, analysed as strategies, and the mathematical criteria that can be used to predict the results of competing strategies. Evolutionary game theory differs from classical game theory in focusing more on the dynamics of strategy change. This is influenced by the frequency of the competing strategies in the population. Evolutionary game theory has helped to explain the basis of altruistic behaviours in Darwinian evolution. It has in turn become of interest to economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and philosophers. Classical non-cooperative game theory was conceived by John von Neumann to determine optimal strategies in competitions between adversaries. A contest involves players, all of whom ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A multivariate analysis of genetic constraints to life history evolution in a wild population of red deer. AU - Walling, Craig A.. AU - Morrissey, Michael B.. AU - Foerster, Katharina. AU - Clutton-Brock, Tim H.. AU - Pemberton, Josephine M.. AU - Kruuk, Loeske E B. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Evolutionary theory predicts that genetic constraints should be widespread, but empirical support for their existence is surprisingly rare. Commonly applied univariate and bivariate approaches to detecting genetic constraints can underestimate their prevalence, with important aspects potentially tractable only within a multivariate framework. However, multivariate genetic analyses of data from natural populations are challenging because of modest sample sizes, incomplete pedigrees, and missing data. Here we present results from a study of a comprehensive set of life history traits (juvenile survival, age at first breeding, annual fecundity, and longevity) for both males and females ...
Looking for online definition of Co-adaptation in the Medical Dictionary? Co-adaptation explanation free. What is Co-adaptation? Meaning of Co-adaptation medical term. What does Co-adaptation mean?
Evolutionary perspectives on human behavior are almost as old as the science of psychology itself. A new brand of functionalism has emerged; it draws inspiration from developments in evolutionary biology in the past half-century. This chapter offers an overview of evolutionary biology as applied to human psychology. An ecological niche is discussed, and the critical issue of the nature of the niche humans entered and defined is addressed. Unusually, individuals fitness was highly dependent on their ability to attract, form, and maintain cooperative coalitions with others and harness the competencies of others to their own. Several broad, evolution-inspired proposals about human social behavior are described, illustrating how evolutionary perspectives offer integrative understanding of psychological phenomena and generate new research programs. Individual differences from an evolutionary perspective are addressed. Evolutionary perspectives, rather than representing alternatives to social or cultural
Biological evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. [1]Microevolution occurs in terms of biological evolution, but macroevolution does not. ...
Compiled and edited by Andrew Morozov. Mathematical modelling is widely recognised as a powerful and convenient theoretical tool for investigating various aspects of biological evolution and explaining the existing genetic complexity of the real world. The importance of such models stems from their usefulness in providing wide-ranging exploration without a need for expensive and potentially dangerous experiments with biological systems. This theme issue aims to provide a useful guide to important recent findings in some key-areas in modelling biological evolution, to refine the existing challenges and to outline possible future directions. Many of the contributions stress the importance of linking theory and empirical work, emphasised by concrete case study-based examples.. All articles from this issue are now available online.. If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact [email protected] Also of interest. See all Royal Society ...
We consider the stability of strict equilibrium under deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We show that if the correlation between strategies growth rates and payoffs is positive and bounded away from zero in a neighborhood of a strict equilibrium, then this equilibrium is locally stable.
This 727 word essay is about Human evolution, Biological evolution, Apes, Recent African origin of modern humans, Anthropology, Evolution. Read the full essay now!
Antagonistic selection-where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness (sexual antagonism), or between components of fitness (antagonistic pleiotropy)-might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation, and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range-a result that ...
Biological evolution is a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations]]. [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[macroevolution]] does not. == See also == *[[Question evolution! campaign]] [[Category:Evolution ...
This study examines the Colloquium which is a professional development process used in Catholic schools. The Colloquium was designed to help people employed in catholic schools renew their vision of care and service to students and to seek to reshape the curriculum to reflect Gospel values more clearly. This thesis was a research evaluation of the Colloquium process and aimed to exploreits effectiveness in te1ms of its impact on the teachers and their work in Catholic schools. The study is based on the theoretical domains of faith development, school improvement end staff development. The design of the study involved before and after questionnaires about the colloquium experience and unstructured interviews. The conclusion drawn from the qualitative data is that the Colloquium process influences the faith development or the individual as well as the staff collectively. It influences relationships and can lead to the building of a shared vision and an identification of common goals for the improvement of
Biological evolution is any genetic change in a population inherited over several generations. These changes may be obvious or not very noticeable at all.
Download The modern theory of biological evolution an expanded synthesis (2004 03 17) PDF Torrent for free, Full Movie And Tv Shows Streaming Link Also Available to Watch Online
Introduction. There are winds of change in evolutionary biology, and they are blowing from many directions: from developmental biology (particularly the molecular aspects), from microbial biology (especially studies of mutational mechanisms and horizontal gene transfer), from ecology (in particular ideas about niche construction and studies of extensive symbiosis), from behavior (where the transmission of information through social learning is a major focus), and from cultural studies (where the relation between cultural evolution and genetic evolution is under scrutiny). Many biologists feel that the foundations of the evolutionary paradigm that was constructed during the 1930s and 1940s (Mayr, 1982) and has dominated Western views of evolution for the last 60 years are crumbling, and that the construction of a new evolutionary paradigm is underway.. In this paper we focus on one of the important challenges to the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (referred to here as the Modern Synthesis, or the ...
PhD Project - Human Demography and Gene-culture Coevolution: human population dynamics on a (pre)-historical time-scale, and in tandem with microbial evolution at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, listed on FindAPhD.com
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brains energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological ...
In Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass (1871), a sequel to his Alices Adventures in Wonderland (1865), Alice learns from the Red Queen that, in Carrolls
In addition to developmental constraints, the experiences that children have with the world further entrench their intuition, and cause them to develop particular ideas about how the world works. Both of these factors make it difficult to adopt new, more scientifically accurate ones. These intuitions, also referred to as naïve theories or framework theories, provide simple explanations for natural phenomena that work well in everyday life, even if they are not entirely accurate from a scientific standpoint (Wellman and Gelman 1998). For example, childrens everyday experience of the earth is that of a flat stationary surface. The notion of the earth being a giant ball floating in space belies this experience and requires radical restructuring. It is interesting that such restructuring often goes through shifts that involve the construction of alternative conceptions of the earth shape, or synthetic models (Vosniadou and Brewer 1992). For example, a child may confidently claim that there are ...
Evolutionary trade-offs in performance from one environment to another have long been thought to be essential in the balance in population and distribution of organisms. It is an essential concept in natural selection. (The process in nature by which, according to Darwins theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.) An advantageous mutation in a certain environment will increase the likelihood of reaching the age of reproduction, allowing passing on of the gene to the next generation, therefore a positive mutation. If the mutation is detrimental to health and the person dies before reproduction, the mutation is lost and is therefore a negative mutation. Natural selection has to be considered in the context of pre-modern societies. Modern medicine has altered the balance of nature and often allows us to rescue ...
Maropeng is thrilled to announce that it will be hosting the Royal Society of South Africas Broom Colloquium on November 26, 2011. The top scientists behind some of the more recent palaeontological discoveries will be gathering for the day to present papers on a wide range of research issues.. This Broom Colloquium serves to commemorate the death of renowned palaeontologist and medical doctor, Professor Robert Broom, 60 years ago.. The colloquium is an initiative of the Royal Society of South Africa, in partnership with Maropeng, to honour Broom in the context of recent discoveries of and research on hominids and other fossils from the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Maropeng curator Lindsay Marshall says that hosting the colloquium is very prestigious. It adds a huge amount of credibility to Maropengs role, not only as a tourism destination but as a place where international scientific discussion can take place.. An exhibition of original fossils discovered at Bolts Farm, one of ...
The successful experience of the first International Colloquium, in 1997, was on Money, Growth, Distribution and Structural Change: Contemporaneous Analysis, that coincided with the foundation of PhD Program in Economics at the University of Brasilia (UnB). It was an outstanding meeting with the presence of many fine scholars from Brazil and the larger world community.. The 1999 International Colloquium on Economic Dynamics and Economic Policy which was the result of the consolidation of efforts to stimulate and sustain a critical dialogue, continued to develop these critical themes leading to a series of colloquia that followed. These include the 2001 International Colloquium on Structural Change, Growth and Redistribution and the 2003 International Colloquium on Globalization, New Technologies and Economic Relations, both held in Brasilia, with the support of the UnB and other institutions and had the presence of scholars from various countries around the world.. Subsequent to this ...
The successful experience of the first International Colloquium, in 1997, was on Money, Growth, Distribution and Structural Change: Contemporaneous Analysis, that coincided with the foundation of PhD Program in Economics at the University of Brasilia (UnB). It was an outstanding meeting with the presence of many fine scholars from Brazil and the larger world community.. The 1999 International Colloquium on Economic Dynamics and Economic Policy which was the result of the consolidation of efforts to stimulate and sustain a critical dialogue, continued to develop these critical themes leading to a series of colloquia that followed. These include the 2001 International Colloquium on Structural Change, Growth and Redistribution and the 2003 International Colloquium on Globalization, New Technologies and Economic Relations, both held in Brasilia, with the support of the UnB and other institutions and had the presence of scholars from various countries around the world.. Subsequent to this ...
Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwins original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in lifes history, the principal types seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate grades or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the ...
Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwins original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in lifes history, the principal types seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate grades or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the ...
The Comparative - Phylogenetic Method of Reconstructing Evolutionary History. Kramer, Elena M [1]. A molecular perspective on the reconstruction of morphological evolution.. JUST as understanding morphological evolution requires a clear picture of taxonomic relationships, a complete understanding of developmental evolution is dependent on reconstructing the evolution of gene lineages. Therefore, the first step in studying the evolution of genetic pathways that underlie morphological change is analyzing the phylogenetic relationships among the genes that participate in these pathways. The importance of this type of analysis will be discussed in the context of the floral organ identity program and the MADS box genes which play critical roles in this program. In particular, the evolutionary history of the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene lineages in the Ranunculales has the potential to shed light on the morphological diversification of this group. Current evidence suggests that duplications which ...
article{Cl07b, author = {Jens Christian Claussen}, title = {Drift reversal in asymmetric coevolutionary conflicts: influence of microscopic processes and population size}, journal = {European Physical Journal B}, volume = {60}, pages = {391--399}, year = {2007}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2007-00357-2}, abstract = {The coevolutionary dynamics in finite populations currently is investigated in a wide range of disciplines, as chemical catalysis, biological evolution, social and economic systems. The dynamics of those systems can be formulated within the unifying framework of evolutionary game theory. However it is not a priori clear which mathematical description is appropriate when populations are not infinitely large. Whereas the replicator equation approach describes the infinite population size limit by deterministic differential equations, in finite populations the dynamics is inherently stochastic which can lead to new effects. Recently, an explicit mean-field description in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer phenotype as the outcome of an evolutionary game between normal and malignant cells. AU - Dingli, D.. AU - Chalub, F. A.C.C.. AU - Santos, F. C.. AU - Van Segbroeck, S.. AU - Pacheco, J. M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by Mayo Foundation (DD), FCT Portugal (FACCC and JMP), FNRS Belgium (FCS) and FWO Belgium (SVS).. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background: There is variability in the cancer phenotype across individuals: two patients with the same tumour may experience different disease life histories, resulting from genetic variation within the tumour and from the interaction between tumour and host. Until now, phenotypic variability has precluded a clear-cut identification of the fundamental characteristics of a given tumour type. Methods: Using multiple myeloma as an example, we apply the principles of evolutionary game theory to determine the fundamental characteristics that define the phenotypic variability of a tumour. Results: Tumour dynamics is ...
The main focus of my project is to learn more about morphological character evolution in a phylogenetic context.. One of the goals is to erect homology hypotheses of morphological characters. The morphological characters are then used as a data base for reconstructing of a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships (=tree) in combination with existing DNA sequences or are mapped on existing trees to study the character evolution.. The emphasis of my research is to unravel annelid character evolution.. Several anatomical structures are studied: body wall muscles, epidermis and cuticle, and genital ducts, using different methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and routin histology.. Another goal of the project is to study the morphology of homologous characters; characters that come out as derived from a common ancestor in both DNA and morphological analyses and that have long been recognized by morphologists to unite a certain group of organisms, e.g. the clitellum of Clitellata and ...
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host protection investment. Partitioning the coevolutionary dynamics yields testable predictions. The density of defensive microbes influences the strength of selection resulting from host - defensive microbe - parasite coevolutionary interactions. We find that they lessen
Introduction The publication of Darwins Origin of Species in 18591 marked one of the great revolutions in science. Darwins central idea, that species diverged through natural selection and are thus related by a branching pattern of common descent, provided a new materialistic explanation for the diversity of the natural world. How did evolutionary biology develop in South Africa over the subsequent 150 years, and what were the milestones along the way? What are its current strengths and roles in a modern democratic South Africa? To address these questions I review the South African literature on evolutionary biology, first as an historical narrative, and second with respect to noteworthy research themes. I also consider the extent to which sociological misinterpretation of Darwins ideas had an influence on the development of racist ideology in South Africa. Finally, I present the results of a bibliographic analysis of publication trends in evolutionary biology for South Africa, relative to ...
Due to regulations regarding the COVID-19 situation, all the SCCS Colloquium sessions with physical presence are cacelled until further notice. If you need to present your work as part of a graded project, please contact your advisor. Projects that need to and can be presented via videoconference as part of a graded exam can be hosted. The SC²S Colloquium is a forum giving students, guests, and members of the chair the opportunity to present their research insights, results, and challenges. Do you need ideas for your thesis topic? Do you want to meet your potential supervisor? Do you want to discuss your research with a diverse group of researchers, rehearse your conference talk, or simply cheer for your colleagues? This is the right place for you! When and where: Wednesdays at 3 pm, in the room 02.07.023. Guests are always welcome! You dont want to miss a talk? Subscribe to our mailing list and our Colloquium calendar (iCal link, updated regularly). ...
A Joint Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium (BMC) and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC) was held at the University of Cambridge from 11:00 on Monday 30th March 2015 to 13:00 on Thursday 2nd April 2015. This was the 4th Joint Meeting following Warwick (2002), Liverpool (2005) and Edinburgh (2010). ...
A Joint Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium (BMC) and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC) was held at the University of Cambridge from 11:00 on Monday 30th March 2015 to 13:00 on Thursday 2nd April 2015. This was the 4th Joint Meeting following Warwick (2002), Liverpool (2005) and Edinburgh (2010). ...
Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. ...
Biological And Evolutionary Approaches To Personality Definition and Meaning: Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality Theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited.
Genotyping and sequencing of a number of eukaryotic genomes provide us with an opportunity to study the temporal and functional character of evolutionary changes in metazoans. Here we provide a framework for identifying changes in evolutionary constraints on mutated positions in the human genome. Due to lack of SNP data, in the current analysis we captured only higher order patterns at the level of functional categories. But upon availability of resequencing data, using BaseDiver it is possible to achieve higher resolution. In this work we restricted the use of BaseDiver to coding regions only, where most of the base positions are under selection and the effects of hitchhiking are small, it can be used to identify changes in constraints in non-coding regions as well.. Recently outliers of evolutionary patterns like ultra-conserved elements in higher eukaryotes and highly accelerated regions in humans have been identified [4, 7]; here we attempt to capture the comprehensive spectrum of evolution ...
Evolution of digital organism at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. The evolutionary origin of complex features
One of the most difficult problems in evolutionary paleontology [the study of fossils] has been the almost abrupt appearance of the major animal groups (A. G. Fisher, evolutionist, Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1998, fossil section.). The formation of species has long represented one of the most central, yet also one of the most elusive subjects in evolutionary biology (Palumbi, Marine Speciation, Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics, 1994, p. 548.). As Darwin noted in the Origin of the Species, the abrupt emergence of arthropods in the fossil record during the Cambrian presents a problem for evolutionary biology (Osorio, Bacon & Whitington, American Scientist, May/June 1997, p. 244.). How natural selection operates at the molecular level is a major problem in evolutionary biology (Yokoyama, Color vision of the Coelacanth, Journal of Heredity, May/June, 2000.). Genetic variability is an open problem within Darwin theory (David Berlinski, Commentary, September, 1996, p. 38.). Indeed, the ...