Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of chitin particle size on maximum power generation, power longevity, and Coulombic efficiency in solid-substrate microbial fuel cells. AU - Rezaei, Farzaneh. AU - Richard, Tom L.. AU - Logan, Bruce E.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) produce bioelectricity from a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates. Chitin can be used as a slowly degrading substrate in MFCs and thus as a long-term fuel to sustain power by these devices in remote locations. However, little is known about the effects of particle size on power density and length of the power cycle (longevity). We therefore examined power generation from chitin particles sieved to produce three average particle sizes (0.28, 0.46 and 0.78 mm). The longevity increased from 9 to 33 days with an increase in the particle diameter from 0.28 to 0.78 mm. Coulombic efficiency also increased with particle size from 18% to 56%. The maximum power density was lower for the largest (0.78 mm) ...
Microbial fuel cells are batteries in which microorganisms catalyze the conversion of organic fuel (such as lactate) into protons and electrons that power a resistor (e. g., a light bulb) before reducing the terminal electron acceptor (e. g., oxygen is reduced to water). Great improvements in power production and efficiency have been made by engineering inorganic components, such as the electrodes themselves, to be more efficiently utilized by fuel cell-inhabiting organisms. However, other avenues for improvement may exist, that is, engineering the fuel cell-inhabiting organisms themselves. We hypothesized that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism used for studying microbial fuel cells, could be shown to evolve under physiological conditions which mimic those found in microbial fuel cells. These physiological conditions include the planktonic lifestyle, the biofilm lifestyle, and transient association between the two - that is, those cells that rapidly detach from and reattach to the ...
Microbial fuel cells may hold the key to this endeavor. Microbial fuel cells able to convert waste into electricity Microbial fuel cells are
Figure 5.6 shows that the introduction of renewable technologies under the Energy [R]evolution scenario increase the future costs of electricity generation compared to the Reference scenario until 2020. This difference will be less than 0.8 US$ct/kWh up to 2020, however. Because of high prices for conventional fuels and the lower CO2 intensity of electricity generation, from 2030 on electricity generation costs will become economically favourable under the Energy [R]evolution scenario and by 2050 costs will be 7.5 US$ct/kWh below those in the Reference version. Under the Reference scenario, on the other hand, unchecked growth in demand, an increase in fossil fuel prices and the cost of CO2 emissions result in total electricity supply costs rising from todays US$ 96 billion per year to more than US$ 555 billion in 2050, compared to US$ 327 billion in the Energy [R]evolution scenario. Figure 5.6 shows that the Energy [R]evolution scenario not only complies with the ASEAN regions CO2 reduction ...
The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production ...
In this science fair project, build a microbial fuel cell and use it to power an external circuit. The student will also use the microbial fuel cell to harvest electricity from two different mud samples.
I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor ...
Scientists at the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, have demonstrated that a commercially available mobile phone can be charged and powered with urine.. The availability of energy for communication when in remote areas can be a big problem. If you could charge your phone with your own readily available urine, the worry of running out of phone battery in a difficult situation is solved. This research also opens up lots of possibilities for the utilisation of waste for useful energy. The authors of this research told UWE News that they think their technology could be installed into domestic bathrooms to harness the urine and produce sufficient electricity to power showers, lighting or razors as well as mobile phones.. Microbial Fuel Cells use live microorganisms to turn organic matter into electricity. The group created a membrane-less microbial fuel cell, which was made out of ceramic material and used carbon-based electrodes.. Read the story in UWE Bristol News here…. Find out more about how this ...
This is a schematic depiction of simplified mechanism of power generation by the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC), without box labeled 5 corresponding to photosynthesis, and for the microbial photoelectrochemical solar microbial fuel cell (SMFC) reported here, with box labeled 5. Other labels include: (1) biofilm catalyzed anode reaction; (2) biofilm catalyzed cathode reaction; (3) fermentative reaction, and (4) the microbial oxygen barrier.
article{2009645, author = {Virdis, Bernardino and Rabaey, Korneel and Yuan, ZhiGuo and Keller, J{\u}rg}, issn = {0043-1354}, journal = {WATER RESEARCH}, keyword = {cathode,biocatalysis,denitrification,nitrification,microbial fuel cell,wastewater,BIOFILM-ELECTRODE REACTOR,WASTE-WATER TREATMENT,ELECTRICITY-GENERATION,ENERGY GENERATION,ACTIVATED-SLUDGE,DENITRIFICATION,REDUCTION,NITRATE,SHARON}, language = {eng}, number = {12}, pages = {3013--3024}, title = {Microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.03.017}, volume = {42}, year = {2008 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality. AU - Di Lorenzo, M. AU - Thomson, Alexander R.. AU - Schneider, Kenneth. AU - Cameron, Petra J. AU - Ieropoulosc, Ioannis. PY - 2014/12/15. Y1 - 2014/12/15. N2 - The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent.In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring.When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM−1cm−2 with respect to the anode total surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of in situ generated nano-sized metal particles on the coulombic efficiency of MGeO3 (M = Cu, Fe, and Co) electrodes. AU - Kim, Chang H.. AU - Jung, Yoon S.. AU - Lee, Kyu T.. AU - Ku, Jun H.. AU - Oh, Seung M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by WCU program through KOSEF funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (400-2008-0230). The authors also wish to acknowledge the Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage for financial support, and the Pohang Light Source (PLS) for the XAS measurements.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - To improve the coulombic efficiency of GeO2 electrode, a Cu-containing ternary metal oxide (CuGeO3) was prepared and the electrochemical behavior of Cu component was studied. The GeO2 electrode shows a low coulombic efficiency in the first cycle (43%), which is mainly caused by a poor Ge oxidation kinetics (Ge + 2Li2O → GeO2 + 2Li+ + 2e-). The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data illustrate that ...
The ability of Pelobacter carbinolicus to oxidize electron donors with electron transfer to the anodes of microbial fuel cells was evaluated because microorganisms closely related to Pelobacter species are generally abundant on the anodes of microbial fuel cells harvesting electricity from aquatic sediments. P. carbinolicus could not produce current in a microbial fuel cell with electron donors which support Fe(III) oxide reduction by this organism. Current was produced using a coculture of P. carbinolicus and Geobacter sulfurreducens with ethanol as the fuel. Ethanol consumption was associated with the transitory accumulation of acetate and hydrogen. G. sulfurreducens alone could not metabolize ethanol, suggesting that P. carbinolicus grew in the fuel cell by converting ethanol to hydrogen and acetate, which G. sulfurreducens oxidized with electron transfer to the anode. Up to 83% of the electrons available in ethanol were recovered as electricity and in the metabolic intermediate acetate. ...
Under anaerobic conditions, certain bacteria can produce electricity. This behavior can be exploited in microbial fuel cells, with a special focus on wastewater treatment schemes. A weak point is the dissatisfactory power density of the microbial cells. An unconventional solution is now presented by Singaporean and Chinese scientists: as reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, they coated live, electroactive bacteria with a conducting polymer and obtained a high-performance anode for microbial fuel cells.. The history of microbial fuel cells goes back to the beginning of the 20th century when scientists connected bacteria cells with electrodes to generate electricity. The principle is that, if no oxygen is present, the bacterias metabolism changes to produce protons and electrons instead of carbon dioxide and water. These electrons can be used for current generation in an electrochemical cell. Such microbial fuel cells are currently heavily investigated for sustainable energy production and, ...
Another study investigated the contribution of direct electron transfer mechanism on electricity production by physically retaining Shewanella oneidensis cells close to or away from the anode electrode using a dialysis membrane (as well as immobilisation of the cells in alginate). Pyruvate was used as the substrate. The outcome of this study indicated a Pmax value of 114±6 mWm-2 when cells were retained close to the anode, 3.5 times more than when the cells were separated from the anode. Without the membrane Pmax was 129±6 mWm-2 (57% COD reduction ...
Microbial Fuel Cells - a Way to Generate Clean Electricity From Waste Water: Over 1.5 billion people in the world have no access to electricity. That means 1 out of 5 people are forced to live without something that a majority of the world takes for granted everyday! Without electricity, these people are unable to refrigerat…
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Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are emerging as an effective means of treating different types of waste including urine and wastewater. However, the fate of pathogens in an MFC-based system remains unknown, and in this study we investigated the effect of introducing the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in an MFC cascade system. The MFCs continuously fed with urine showed high disinfecting potential. As part of two independent trials, during which the bioluminescent S. enteritidis strain was introduced into the MFC cascade, the number of viable counts and the level of bioluminescence were reduced by up to 4.43±0.04 and 4.21±0.01 log-fold, respectively. The killing efficacy observed for the MFCs operating under closed-circuit conditions, were higher by 1.69 and 1.72 log-fold reduction than for the open circuit MFCs, in both independent trials. The results indicated that the bactericidal properties of a well performing anode were dependent on power performance and the oxidation
The pollution caused by the use of conventional energy sources represents a serious threat to the existing global ecological system, which stimulates the ongoing search for alternative environmentally safe biochemical energy sources that are able to fulfill the future energy demand. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is one of such alternative energy resources conceptualizing the waste-to-energy principle, which can be used for wastewater treatment with simultaneous recovery of bio-energy using microorganisms as biocatalysts. The Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is another promising technology for wastewater treatment, it is combination of activated sludge process and membrane filtration. The integration of these two technologies will be an efficient one for wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation. The selection of proton conducting and water permeable membrane are currently the key factors that decide the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and Membrane bioreactor (MBR), ...
The slow kinetics of the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crucial bottleneck in the development of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This article firstly gives an overview of the particular constraints imposed on ORR by MFC operating conditions: neutral pH, slow oxygen mass transfer, sensitivity to reactive oxygen species, fouling and biofouling. A review of the literature is then proposed to assess how microbial catalysis could afford suitable solutions. Actually, microbial catalysis of ORR occurs spontaneously on the surface of metallic materials and is an effective motor of microbial corrosion. In this framework, several mechanisms have been proposed, which are reviewed in the second part of the article. The last part describes the efforts made in the domain of MFCs to determine the microbial ecology of electroactive biofilms and define efficient protocols for the formation of microbial oxygen-reducing cathodes. Although no clear mechanism has been established yet, several ...
Article Effect of cathode electron acceptors on simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal in microbial fuel cell. The current investigation reports the effect of cathode electron acceptors on simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal in two-c...
A marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) type biosensor was developed for the detection of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in ocean water for the purpose of online water quality monitoring for seawater desalination plants prone to biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The anodophilic biofilm that developed on the graphite tissue anode could detect acetate as the model AOC to concentrations as low as 5 µM (120 µg/L of AOC), which is sufficiently sensitive as an online biofouling risk sensor. Although the sensor was operated at a higher (+200 ± 10 mV) than the usual (-300 mV) anodic potential, the presence of oxygen completely suppressed the electrical signal. In order to overcome this outcompeting effect of oxygen over the anode as electron acceptor by the bacteria, hexacyanoferrate (HCF(III)) was found to enable the development of an adapted biofilm that transferred electrons to HCF(III) rather than oxygen. As the resultant of the reduced HCF(II) could readily transfer electrons to the ...
In the quest for renewable energy some ideas are wackier than others.. This pee-powered toilet created by researchers at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) converts urine into electricity might just be crazy enough to work.. Professor Ioannis Ieropoulos, project leader and director of the universitys Bristol BioEnergy Center, said the urinal uses microbial fuel cell stacks to convert the urine into electricity that powers the restrooms electric lights.. We have already proved that this way of generating electricity works. Work by the Bristol BioEnergy Center hit the headlines in 2013 when the team demonstrated that electricity generated by microbial fuel cell stacks could power a mobile phone. This exciting project with Oxfam could have a huge impact in refugee camps, Ieropoulos said.. The microbial fuel cells work by employing live microbes which feed on urine [fuel] for their own growth and maintenance. The MFC is in effect a system which taps a portion of that ...
The effluents of mainstream anaerobic treatment processes such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) contain dissolved methane that represents a large fraction of the available energy (approximately 50% at 15 °C) and a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission if released to the atmosphere. Microbial fuel cell
An electrical energy storage device for storing electrical energy and supplying the electrical energy to a driving motor at different power levels is disclosed. The electrical storage device has an energy battery connected to a power battery. The energy battery has a higher energy density than the power battery. However, the power battery can provide electrical power to the electrical motor at different power rates, thereby ensuring that the motor has sufficient power and current when needed. The power battery can be recharged by the energy storage battery. In this way, the power battery temporarily stores electrical energy received from the energy battery and both batteries can provide electrical energy at the different power rates as required by the motor. The energy storage device can be releasably connected to an external power source in order to recharge both batteries. Both batteries can be recharged independently to optimize the recharging and lifetime characteristics of the batteries.
Introduction. 11 IB CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL DESIGN PROFORMA NAME;......ESTHER..................................................... INSTRUCTIONS A electrochemical cell also called a voltaic cell, it consist of two different half -cells, converting chemical energy into electrical energy using a spontaneous redox reaction as a source of electrical energy. Anode is negative (reduction), and cathode is positive (oxidation). Electron always flows from anode to cathode. There are lots of factors affecting electrochemical cells, this experiment will find out one of the factor affecting the average voltage of electrochemical cells. Aim: To investigate the effect of the temperature change of the anode electrolyte has on the average voltage produced by a voltaic cell with 50ml of 0.5M Zinc sulphate solution and 50ml of 0.5M Magnesium sulphate solution. Hypothesis: As increase the temperature of anode electrolytes, its average voltage will also increase. DESIGN RESEARCH QUESTION: (Is your research question ...
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity using microbes, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, the chemical catalysts which catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are expensive and unsustainable. Mixed community aerobic biocathode biofilms are an alternative to chemical catalysts. However, little is known about the bacteria, their metabolism, and their mechanisms of electron transfer with the electrode. A novel 4-electrode method was used to determine the minimum potential for production of peroxide on a porous carbon felt biocathode support. Biocathodes with a high onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl were then cultivated in poised-potential half-cells at working electrode potentials of -0.1 and +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. These biofilms show what may be an electrode potential-dependent switch in an electron transfer mechanism from -0.1 to +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. The biofilms ...
0019] As shown in the lower portion of FIG. 2, conventional ball milling of K2FeO4 heats the particles and converts some to the ferric state. Chemically synthesized, re-crystallized K2FeO4 was milled in a Restch PM 100 planetary ball in a steel vessel with steel grinding balls at approximately 500 revolutions per minute (rpm) ball milling for approximately 45 minutes. The resulting nanometer-size particles and 10 weight percent carbon (based on the total amount of K2FeO4 and carbon) were used to form a cathode. The cathode had a decreased coulombic efficiency (approximately 37%) compared to the coulombic efficiency of a comparable cathode made using non-milled K2FeO4 (53% coulombic efficiency). However the discharge voltage increased and the coulombic efficiency increased to approximately 47% when the milling time was shortened to approximately 15 minutes. As seen an the upper portion of FIG. 2, at a lower mill speed of approximately 300 rpm for approximately 30 minutes, the coulombic efficiency ...
Physicist: Electrical energy is nothing special. Just like the chemical energy in our bodies, it breaks down into heat. For example, the heat given off by light bulbs (or electric heaters for that matter!) is a result of electrical energy. When electricity is flowing to a light bulb, thats where the electrical energy is going; its turning into light. When you pull the plug (so to speak) what tiny, tiny amount of electrical energy there is in the wires runs out almost immediately.. The term electrical energy is actually a little vague. So, to be specific, in our nervous system there are tiny ion pumps that maintain an imbalance of charges between the inside and outside of the nerve cells. When a nerve cell fires, charges are allowed to suddenly flow through the cell membrane in a process called an action potential. The way electricity flows along nerve cells is different from the way it flows down a telegraph wire (inside-to-outside instead of along), but whatever. The point is, there ...
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES), including their most important variant, the microbial fuel cell (MFC), are rapidly developing and promising technologies for renewable energy production and wastewater treatment, among other applications (1, 2). The MFC technology aims at generating electrical current through extracellular transfer of electrons, which microorganisms liberate from organic substrates. Microorganisms oxidize organic compounds, and the electrons from the intracellular electron transport chains are transferred to an external electron acceptor (i.e., an anode poised at a suitable potential) (3). One of the challenges facing MFC performance is the efficiency of microbial electron transfer to an anode. The most commonly described transfer mechanisms are direct electron transfer via direct cell contact or protein nanowires and mediated electron transfer via secondary or primary metabolites (4-9). Attempts to improve the biological efficiency of MFCs have therefore focused on ...
This paper describes the detrimental effect of photosynthetically evolved oxygen on anodic current generation in the presence of riboflavin upon illumination of a mixed phototrophic culture enriched from a freshwater pond at +0.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. In the presence of riboflavin, the phototrophic biomass in the anodic compartment produced an electrical current in response to light/dark cycles (12 h/12 h) over 12 months of operation, generating a maximum current density of 17.5 mA.m(-2) during the dark phase, whereas a much lower current of approximately 2 mA.m(-2) was generated during illumination. We found that the low current generation under light exposure was caused by high rates of reoxidation of reduced riboflavin by oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Quantification of biomass by fluorescence in situ hybridization images suggested that green algae were predominant in both the anode-based biofilm (55.1%) and the anolyte suspension (87.9%) with the remaining biovolume ...
As populations continue to grow, the amount of waste produced also increases; 61 percent of energy is wasted by the U.S. economy each year, and most of it can be attributed to our relatively inefficient power plants.1 Fuel cells are capable of reducing waste to increase efficiency and produce marketable energy. Processed municipal waste produces anaerobic digested gas, commonly known as biogas, which can be used as a fuel for fuel cells cell fuel. While hydrogen is the most common fuel type for fuel cells, biogas such as methane, natural gas, propane and diesel can be used as well. Biogas is an ideal option for fuel cells because it is easily stored and produces almost zero net carbon dioxide emissions. When biogas is fed into fuel cells, heat, electricity, and water are produced,2 providing on-site power for the facility. Some fuel cells are efficient enough to create excess hydrogen that can be sold to fuel cell stations and be utilized by fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV).. The Orange County ...
A large-scale, capacitor-based electrical energy storage and distribution system capable of effectuating load-leveling during periods of peak demand on a utility, and of effectuating a cost savings associated with the purchase of electrical energy. A capacitor or multitude of capacitors may be charged with electrical energy produced by the utility, such as during periods of low demand or low cost, and discharged during periods of high electrical energy consumption or high electrical energy cost. One or more capacitors may be located at a consumers residence or business. Alternatively, a farm of capacitors may be provided at or near a utility, or at or near a location experiencing high demand. In another embodiment, one or more capacitors may be located in or on a vehicle, such as an automobile, a truck, or a train of a light rail system.
EE-515 Bioelectricity & Biomagnetism 2002 Fall - Murat Eyüboğlu Location of the Heart The heart is located in the chest between the lungs behind the sternum and above the diaphragm. It is surrounded by the pericardium. Its size is about that of a fist, and its weight is about g. Its center is located about 1.5 cm to the left of the midsagittal plane. Located above the heart are the great vessels: the superior and inferior vena cava, the pulmonary artery and vein, as well as the aorta. The aortic arch lies behind the heart. The esophagus and the spine lie further behind the heart. EE-515 Bioelectricity & Biomagnetism 2002 Fall - Murat Eyüboğlu
One of the biggest barriers to greater adoption of hydrogen fuel cell technology is cost.. Not only is hydrogen more expensive than gasoline, diesel and natural gas, the fuel cells themselves are expensive.. A Vancouver company that has been quietly working on fuel cell efficiency since 2001 claims it has a solution that could bring the cost of hydrogen fuel cells down by 25% and has chosen this weeks Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Conference 2013 to go public.. The biennial conference, organized by the Canadian Hydrogen Fuel Cell Association, will draw more than 600 fuel cell scientists and business leaders from 40 countries to Vancouver.. PowerDisc will be among the Canadian companies demonstrating their technology at the conference.. The companys eFlow technology addresses one of the problems inherent in hydrogen fuel cells: an uneven consumption of oxygen and resulting unequal distribution of current, which requires manufacturers to overbuild fuel stacks to make up for the inefficiency.. Weve ...
At the Beijing Motor Show 2018, a new methanol fuel cell supercar was yesterday, 25 April, presented to the public. The company behind the methanol fuel cell car is the German/Chinese joint venture Gumpert Aiways Automobile GmbH that has made the fuel cell integration in close collaboration with the Danish fuel cell developer and manufacturer SerEnergy A/S. SerEnergy has supplied the fuel cell system and been responsible for designing and carrying out the integration of the system.. For the Danish methanol fuel cell company SerEnergy, the collaboration with Gumpert Aiways started in mid-2017. The two companies quickly found that they shared a vision, and with a joint understanding, it didnt take long before the first steps of the development were carried out. The first car, a proof of concept test car, was designed and built in Ingolstadt, Germany, and the designers and developers at SerEnergys headquarters in Aalborg, Denmark, was deeply involved throughout the process designing the fuel cell ...
June 19, 1962 A. M. MOOS FUEL CELL ELECTRODES Filed Sept. 28, 1960 United States Patent OP 3,040,115 FUEL CELL ELECTRODES Anthony M. Moos, Ossining, N.Y., assigner to Leesona Corporation, Cranston, RJ., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Sept. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 58,888 7 Claims. (Cl. 13G-120) This invention relates to improved fuel cells and more partciularly to novel fuel cell electrodes which are particularly well suited for high temperature operations. A fuel cell, as the term is employed in this specification, is an electrochemical cell in which the free energy of combustion of the fuel is converted directly into electrical energy. A simple cell comprises a housing, a fuel electrode, an oxidizing electrode, and an external means for drawing off electrical current. An oxidizing gas such as oxygen is passed through, or on one side of the oxidizing electrode and a fuel gas is passed through, or on one side of the fuel gas electrode. The oxidizing gas is adsorbed in the pores of the oxygen ...
Humans are highly electrical creatures. For example, the health of our hearts and brains is measured by their electrical activity using EKGs and EEGs. Every cell in our body carries an electrical charge. Our central nervous system and autonomic nervous system both utilize electrical signaling to transmit critical biological messages. In fact, the sophisticated communications of our nervous system act very much like a human Internet.. So what happens when we are exposed to dirty electricity? Scientists believe this chaotic electrical energy can couple to our bodies and create biological harm. For example, the artificial electromagnetic fields from dirty electricity and other EMF pollution may interfere with the natural electrical communication in our bodies, interrupting essential biological functions and triggering a variety of adverse health symptoms and more serious problems over time.. Research shows that exposure to dirty electricity can lead to inflammation, headaches, lack of focus, ...
The depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming, energy security and the need for clean, cheap fuels has made developing sources of renewable energy a global research priority. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) have the potential to generate renewable electricity from a vast array of carbon sources such as waste-water, agricultural by-products and industrial pollutants. In MFCs electrons from microbial metabolism flow from the bacteria toward an anode then on through an external circuit finally converting oxygen into water at the cathode closing the cycle. The optimization of MFC systems is a highly multidisciplinary area of research and two complementary areas of work are required - firstly to design more efficient hardware for the cells by traditional engineering and secondly to understand and improve the interaction and electron transport between microbes and electrode via biological engineering. One of the most important engineering challenges in MFC development is the efficient electron ...
The Alfa Laval Test & Training Center in Aalborg, Denmark, is constructing an innovative fuel cell system that will be used to test high-temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) technology developed by methanol fuel cell specialist Blue World Technologies.. The test installation will explore the potential of methanol fuel cell technology as a source of marine auxiliary power. The fuel cell test setup will have a power of 200 kW, but the fully developed and modular design should be possible to scale up incrementally to a level of 5 MW.. Funded by the Danish EUDP (Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program), the project is a joint effort between Blue World Technologies, Alfa Laval and vessel owners DFDS, Maersk Drilling and Hafnia.. During a year of planned testing at the Alfa Laval Test & Training Center, the fuel cell systems durability and life span will be in focus.. HTPEM fuel cells have a higher tolerance for thermal cycling than other fuel cell types, which makes them well ...
The Tricolor project wants to increase the use of biomass for sustainable heat or electricity production. At the core of the project are transnational networks through which experience and knowledge will be shared.. Today, the potential of the available bioenergy is not fully used, and the project argues that an increase would favor the climate and create job opportunities. Renewable energy is high on the European agenda and efficient use of woody biomass is a common strategic field of interest in the Baltic Sea region. During the last decades, the traditional use of wood for heating has developed in Sweden, Estonia and Ukraine. Despite this progress, some common challenges remain. They include energy wood supply, information support and business models in biomass and cooperation. To meet these challenges, channels for knowledge sharing and cooperation within the area must be developed.. The project aims to strengthen and expand an existing transnational network. The network will focus on ...
A secondary electrochemical cell with at least one positive electrode includes an active material and one negative electrode, which are held directly in a hermetically tight housing which has at least one detector element or which is dynamically connected to one such detector element. The detector element is designed or can be set to acquire a predetermined unallowable operating state of the secondary electrochemical cell, and in an unallowable operating state of the secondary electrochemical cell, to actuate at least one switching element which prevents recharging and/or discharging of the secondary electrochemical cell. By making the housing as a hermetically tight protective housing, which is part of an implantable medical device, contamination of surrounding tissue with toxic substances and hazard to the implant wearer by the malfunction of the secondary electrochemical cell can be precluded under all operating conditions with simultaneously great reduction of all dimensions.
System and method of operating an electrical energy storage device or an electrochemical energy generation device using thermal conductivity materials based on mobile device states and vehicle states - diagram, schematic, and image 12 ...
Electrical energy comes from renewable and nonrenewable sources; it is generally inexpensive and readily available, but it leaves many appliances and heating units defunct when power supplies are...
Hi to all. Im looking for ways heat could be converted directly to electrical energy. I figured out some machinery out there that can convert heat to...
December 2014. Hyundai is set to be the first to sell a fuel cell vehicle in the UK with the arrival of its ix35 Fuel Cell, which will pitch up as part of the next generation of ix35. In place of an internal combustion engine, the fuel cell converts hydrogen into electricity that then powers an 87bhp electric motor. The major advantage of this approach is the only tailpipe emission is water. With the Hyundai system, the ix35 Fuel Cell sees off 0-62mph in 12.7 seconds, has a 100mph top speed and a range of 370 miles on a single fill of hydrogen. It takes only a few minutes to fill up with 5.6kg of hydrogen to brim the tank. The ix35 Fuel Cell also has regenerative braking to charge a battery that can also power the electric motor. Hyundais plan is to lease the ix35 Fuel Cell initially, which could suit fleet users better than private buyers, because Hyundai acknowledges the price of the car could be prohibitive at first and there is a shortage of hydrogen filling stations at present.. ...
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.[9] Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied.. The first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century later in NASA space programmes to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since then, fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, automobiles, ...
In experiments, biofuel cells have harnessed membranes of living bacteria to separate anode from cathode--enabling them to share an electrolyte chamber like a lead-acid battery. Now, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have purified the essential protein performing a fuel-cell membranes electronic function, clearing the way to commercialize biofuel cells sans bacteria. The team purified the bacterium down to the essential protein in the cell wall--eliminating the need to keep the bacterium alive. The only missing element was a fuel source, which biomass could supply, lab scientists reasoned. Now they propose biofuel cell arrays to harvest biomass in tiny reactors. The reaction creates a mobile electron carrier that shuttles electrons to the protein-coated electrodes, generating electricity as it neutralizes the biomass. The proposed biofuel cells would use a cheap porous hematite electrode in which the bacterias purified protein could be bound. The coated electrodes would ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current as an indicator of ammonia concentration during wastewater treatment in an integrated microbial electrolysis cell - Nitrification system. AU - Zhao, Nannan. AU - Angelidaki, Irini. AU - Zhang, Yifeng. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - A key challenge for ammonia monitoring during nitrogen removal process is the extra cost and toxic reagent consuming. Herein the feasibility of current generated by an integrated microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) - nitrification reactor as an indicator of initial ammonia levels (NH3/NH4+) in wastewater was explored. In this loop system, ammonia was first oxidized to nitrate in the nitrification reactor, and then the effluent was introduced into the cathode of MEC where nitrate was reduced as electron acceptor. The correlation between current and ammonia concentration was first investigated with synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater. A good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9419) was observed between current (0.5130-3.906 mA) and ammonia levels (0-62.1 mg ...
Up until now, the issue of using hydrogen fuel cells as alternative sources of power has been a matter of debate. They required fossil fuels for production, needed external inputs of electricity to operate, and were too expensive to be considered as an all-encompassing solution to the global climate crisis. Enter the mighty microbe and a team of brilliant US researchers to provide a little hope for hydrogen.. An article recently published in the National Academy of Sciences describes the newly developed MEC, or Microbial Electrolysis Cell which generates its own hydrogen without the aid of external electricity. Through a process called Reverse Electrodialysis, the cell uses fresh and saltwater membranes to generate and collect power from charged particles created between the gradients. In addition, the microbes manufacture hydrogen gas and small amounts of electricity by breaking down organic material.. This technology has implications far beyond transportation. Without drawing power from the ...
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Electricity production (kWh) in Nicaragua was last measured at 3825000000 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Electricity production is measured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a station. In addition to hydropower, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power generation, it covers generation by geothermal, solar, wind, and tide and wave energy, as well as that from combustible renewables and waste. Production includes the output of electricity plants that are designed to produce electricity only as well as that of combined heat and power plants.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Electricity production (kWh) in Nicaragua.
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Geobacter sulfurreducens produces current densities in microbial fuel cells that are among the highest known for pure cultures. The possibility of adapting this organism
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