TY - JOUR. T1 - Balancing generality and specificity in ecological gradient analysis with species abundance distributions and individual size distributions. AU - Yen, Jian. AU - Keith, Jonathan. AU - Paganin, David. AU - Fleishman, Erica. AU - Dobkin, David. AU - Bennett, Joanne. AU - Nally, Mac. AU - MAC NALLY, Ralph. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - AimData on ecological communities are often condensed into single-valued diversity indices, which support comparisons among ecosystems but may discard important information. At the other extreme, some studies retain full data on the identities of all species present, which retains maximum information on community structure but occludes comparisons among ecosystems. We sought to determine whether the analysis of species abundance distributions and individual size distributions could support more detailed inferences than diversity indices while remaining sufficiently general to identify fundamental ecological responses in multiple ...
There is a large amount of publicly available biodiversity data from many different data sources. When doing research, one ideally interacts with biodiversity data programmatically so their work is reproducible. The entry point to biodiversity data records is largely through taxonomic names, or common names in some cases (e.g., birds). However, many researchers have a phylogeny focused project, meaning taxonomic names are not the ideal interface to biodiversity data. Ideally, it would be simple to programmatically go from a phylogeny to biodiversity records through a phylogeny based query. Ill discuss a new project phylodiv (https://github.com/ropensci/phylodiv/) that attempts to facilitate phylogeny based biodiversity data collection (see Fig. 1). The project takes the form of an R software package. The idea is to make the user interface take essentially two inputs: a phylogeny and a phylogeny based question. Behind the scenes well do many things, including gathering taxonomic names and
This TC will provide a clear understanding of existing environmental assessments and biodiversity analyses that cover the network of parks and protected areas (biological corridors) in the area of influence of the Mundo Maya Sustainable Tourism Program (MMSTP) in El Salvador, Honduras and Mexico. Regional and site-specific biodiversity studies and initiatives will be instrumental in determining the status and of local socioeconomic threats and opportunities for conservation and gaps of knowledge in areas of critical biodiversity importance. Developing a biodiversity baseline for the critical Mundo Maya Program sites will provide local and regional biological and socioeconomic information including: biodiversity inventories, natural and man-made landscape features, existing community-based projects, stakeholders and other key factors. This information will provide better understanding of the current status of biodiversity and of local socioeconomic threats and opportunities for conservation at key
The United Nations discussions on defining a new set of post-2015 development goals focus on poverty eradication and sustainable development. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for poverty eradication, which is also one of the foundations of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Based on an assessment of current proposals of goals and targets, and a quantitative pathway analysis to meet long term biodiversity and food security goals, this paper discusses how biodiversity and ecosystem services can be integrated into a broad set of goals and targets, and concludes with relevant target areas and means of implementation for which specific targets need to be defined. Furthermore, it responds to the call of the CBD to consider the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the related Aichi biodiversity targets in the post-2015 development agenda. The papers analysis identifies three overlapping but also supplemental ways to integrate biodiversity and
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The PhD thesis entitled International cooperation for biodiversity conservation: an economic analysis examines the functioning and effectiveness of different economic instruments for biodiversity conservation at diverse scales. Different methodological approaches such as market theory, contract theory, and game theory are implemented. The first part of the thesis consists of an assessment of the economic conditions under which markets for biodiversity are expected to function, and their potential to be scaled up to a global level. The remainder of the thesis present game theoretical analyses on the modelling and functioning of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) for biodiversity conservation. Game theory provides a novel opportunity to study the impact of key features of biodiversity on the effectiveness and stability of conservation agreements. This type of analysis is then applied to a case study of habitat conservation for a migratory bird species in one of the chapters. ...
Biological diversity, or biodiversity, means the variety of all forms of life: genetic variation within species, the abundance of species and the diversity of their habitats. Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2020 is a global goal. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry safeguards biodiversity by ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources in its administrative branch. This includes agricultural areas and landscapes, forests, game and reindeer husbandry as well as fish and water resources.. The Finnish strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity outlines objectives and measures to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020. The strategy was adopted in December 2012 by the Government Resolution on the Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Finland for the Years 2012-2020, Saving Nature for People. The strategy is based the objectives set in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and EUs Biodiversity Strategy.. ...
Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) is a non-profit organization and community dedicated to developing biodiversity information standards.
Author(s): Hawkins, Bradford A.; Diniz, JAF; Jaramillo, C A; Soeller, S A | Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to test a variant of the evolutionary time hypothesis for the bird latitudinal diversity gradient derived from the effects of niche conservatism in the face of global climate change over evolutionary time. Location The Western Hemisphere. Methods We used digitized range maps of breeding birds to estimate the species richness at two grain sizes, 756 and 12,100 km(2). We then used molecular phylogenies resolved to family to quantify the root distance (RD) of each species as a measure of its level of evolutionary development. Birds were classified as basal or derived based on the RD of their family, and richness patterns were contrasted for the most basal and most derived 30% of species. We also generated temperature estimates for the Palaeogene across the Western Hemisphere to examine how spatial covariation between past and present climates might make it difficult to distinguish between
An important product of marine biodiversity research should be the necessary knowledge and tools for adequately managing and protecting marine biodiversity. This requires knowledge on genetic and ecological mechanisms that control biodiversity (gene flow, dispersal, adaptive value of genetic polymorphisms, determination of dispersal and recruitment, species interactions including invasions, sediment transport, natural and human-induced catastrophes, etc.). It also requires knowledge on the functional role of biodiversity: what is the variability in genes, species and communities that is required for ecosystem functioning; and models on dispersal of genes and organisms, species interactions and food webs, the interaction between food webs and biogeochemical fluxes, and impact assessment of diffuse and point source pollution, coastal constructions, mass tourism and global climate change. ...
Nitrogen (N) enrichment is among the main drivers of the loss of plant biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, a meta-analysis covering multiple dimensions of biodiversity in multiple ecosystems across the globe was lacking. We performed a meta‐analysis of 115 experiments reported in 85 studies assessing the effects of N addition on terrestrial natural and semi‐natural plant communities. We quantified changes in local-scale plant biodiversity in relation to N addition using four complementary metrics: species richness, individual species abundance, mean species abundance and geometric mean abundance. For all the metrics, we found a negative relationship with N addition (so, greater amounts of annual N addition resulted in larger declines in plant diversity). However, the magnitude of the decline for a given amount of N addition differed among the metrics, with the smallest decline for species richness and the largest for individual species abundance. We further found that the ...
which looks like a straight line on semilog axes, where area is logged and the number of species is arithmetic. In either case, the species-area relationship is almost always decelerating (has a negative second derivative) when plotted arithmetically.[9] Species-area relationships are often graphed for islands (or habitats that are otherwise isolated from one another, such as woodlots in an agricultural landscape) of different sizes.[3] Although larger islands tend to have more species, it is possible that a smaller island will have more than a larger one. In contrast, species-area relationships for contiguous habitats will always rise as areas increases, provided that the sample plots are nested within one another. The species-area relationship for mainland areas (contiguous habitats) will differ according to the census design used to construct it.[10] A common method is to use quadrats of successively larger size, so that the area enclosed by each one includes the area enclosed by the smaller ...
which looks like a straight line on semilog axes, where area is logged and the number of species is arithmetic. In either case, the species-area relationship is almost always decelerating (has a negative second derivative) when plotted arithmetically.[9] Species-area relationships are often graphed for islands (or habitats that are otherwise isolated from one another, such as woodlots in an agricultural landscape) of different sizes.[3] Although larger islands tend to have more species, it is possible that a smaller island will have more than a larger one. In contrast, species-area relationships for contiguous habitats will always rise as areas increases, provided that the sample plots are nested within one another. The species-area relationship for mainland areas (contiguous habitats) will differ according to the census design used to construct it.[10] A common method is to use quadrats of successively larger size, so that the area enclosed by each one includes the area enclosed by the smaller ...
In addition to calculating the Singapore Index for Los Angeles, the 2018 Biodiversity Report includes general suggestions that the City can employ as it works to achieve the objectives set forth in the Biodiversity Motion. The information presented is a valuable resource from which an effective biodiversity strategy, action plan, and index, unique to the City, can be developed that appropriately values biodiversity and helps to create equitable access to natural places while protecting and conserving biodiversity, maximizing the ecosystem services associated with biodiversity, and making the City of Los Angeles a better place to live. The index will be measured over time so that progress in preserving and enhancing native biodiversity can be quantified ...
The study provides strong evidence in support of biodiversity and its role in preserving balance in nature. Through its commitment to responsible innovation, Evolva supports the three main aims of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): the conservation of biodiversity; the sustainable use of biological components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.. Read more about the Dutch biodiversity study here: NY Times article and here: Royal Society paper and find out more about Evolvas commitment to biodiversity here.. * To combat the risk of infection from ticks, Evolva is currently developing Nootkatone - a biologically-produced tick repellent which it hopes will be a highly-effective agent against the ticks that transmit Lyme disease.. ...
Sustainable land-use management must account for the potential trade-offs between biodiversity conservation, productive land uses and ecosystem services. In this study, we used Marxan with Zones to generate land use plans that optimize conservation, farming and forestry land uses to reach biodiversity targets while minimizing the opportunity cost for local communities in an inhabited but data-poor National Park in the Andes of Bolivia.. Based on six alternative land-use plans, we identified the synergies and trade-offs between the biodiversity benefits achieved in the different plans and the delivery of four locally important water-related ecosystem services modeled with the web-based tool AguAAndes.. Although we find synergies between the conservation of high altitude Polylepis woodlands and their associated avifauna and three of the ecosystem services investigated, soil erosion levels were actually higher in scenarios with higher achieved biodiversity benefits.. Our study shows how systematic ...
Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether-and how-humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could
Mike Christie, Nick Hanley, John Warren, Tony Hyde, Kevin Murphy and Robert Wright INTRODUCTION The aims of this chapter are to identify problems surrounding the economic valuation of biodiversity, and then to present results from a recent stated preference study on changes in biodiversity on UK farmland, which attempts to get around one major problem, namely the information deficit that typifies the knowledge level of most members of the general public regarding biodiversity. We also provide a first choice experiment estimation of the attributes of biodiversity, an approach that may prove useful in developing policy on biodiversity protection and enhancement; obtain contingent valuation estimates for different policies, which would increase biodiversity on farmland; and compare values obtained using standard survey procedures with those obtained using the valuation workshop technique (Macmillan et al., 2003). Finally, we test for benefits transfer in both values and valuation functions ...
Figure 1. Three dimensions of biodiversity. This solicitation targets the area where all three overlap.. The Dimensions of Biodiversity program currently targets three fundamental dimensions of biodiversity -genetic diversity, taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity. Genetic diversity includes but is not limited to nucleotide sequence diversity at neutral or coding loci or genomic (proteomic, transcriptomic) diversity. Taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity refers to evolutionary lineages at and above the level of the population. Functional diversity includes but is not limited to aspects of ecosystem function such as energy flow, material cycling, ecological resilience, and the role of key innovations in the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. (See examples listed below.) In addition, a primary goal of the program is to address the largest unknowns related to biodiversity; proposals that have the potential to fill large gaps in our understanding of biodiversity are ...
H2S free human exploitation and biodiversity conservation topics in biodiversity; into the firing. Damage study is with complementary bombs to be the other workshop injuries. Back 10 free human exploitation and biodiversity conservation of HE blunt structures of H2S occur effective to civilian reference.
A canopy glider - something akin to a powered hot air balloon - will be used for the first time in Australia as part of a biodiversity study in south-east Queensland to identify signs of climate change.. Queensland Premier Peter Beattie announced $356,000 in state government funding for the Griffith University study in Lamington National Park, in the Gold Coast hinterland, after meeting in Paris with French engineering firm Pro-Natura.. The Biodiversity at the Heights (BATH) project is an international study of fauna and insects. ...
A new study, published in Science, which focuses on mapping biodiversity change in marine and land ecosystems shows that loss of biodiversity is most prevalent in the tropic, with changes in marine ecosystems outpacing those on land. The research, led by scientists from the University of St Andrews, in collaboration with leading universities across Europe, the USA and Canada, including McGill, aimed at reaching a consensus about variation in biodiversity change.
Figure 1. Three dimensions of biodiversity. This Call for proposals targets the area where all these three areas overlap.. The goal of the Dimensions of Biodiversity campaign is to transform, by 2020, how we describe and understand the scope and role of life on Earth. The campaign promotes novel, integrated approaches to identify and understand the evolutionary and ecological significance of biodiversity amidst the changing environment of the present day and in the geologic past.. This campaign seeks to characterize biodiversity on Earth by using integrative, innovative approaches to fill the most substantial gaps in our understanding of the diversity of life on Earth. It takes a broad view of biodiversity, and currently focuses on the integration of genetic, taxonomic/phylogenetic, and functional dimensions of biodiversity. Successful proposals should integrate these three dimensions to understand interactions and feedbacks among them. While this focus complements several core FAPESP and NSF ...
Although hundreds of short-term local experiments indicate that random changes in biodiversity can cause substantial changes in primary productivity, considerable debate remains regarding whether these influences of biodiversity are weaker or stronger at larger spatial and temporal scales in natural ecosystems. Given this knowledge gap, current models often implicitly assume no influence of biodiversity on ecosystem productivity, likely leading to inaccurate predictions in at least some cases. We propose to develop and test a strategy for scaling-up results from biodiversity experiments to natural communities by testing theory and bridging gaps between previous experimental and observational studies. In the four proposed meetings, one of which would be co-funded, we will advance understanding of scaling up in space, scaling up in time, and accounting for non-random shifts in dominant traits. Integrating these three advances will allow us to generalize from a few experiments to data from many ...
Although the context of this paper is a World Biodiversity Update, any attempt at such would be presumptuous if not impossible. What I will attempt, however, is to highlight some of the major developments in biodiversity action and policy that have emerged during the past year or two. In fact, several of these are directly related to agricultural biodiversity, and indeed to the issue of new crops. Then I shall explore the main trends in the appreciation, conservation and sustainable use of what is termed agricultural biodiversity. The coming into effect of the Convention on Biological Diversity has led to a wide range of activities and initiatives as governments attempt to get to grips with the problems of implementing what is no more than an outline convention. The deliberations of the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the Convention and its Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) have been criticized by some as spending too much time on issues such as ...
Nominations are now invited for The MIDORI Prize for Biodiversity 2020. The call for nominations remains open until 30 March 2020.
The purpose of Mission 2015 is to present a solution to the biodiversity crisis. This proposal outlines step-by-step, incremental procedures that will reduce the rate of biodiversity loss and preserve ecosystem services. These steps should be implemented on individual, community, state, private sector, national, and global levels.. This proposal suggests a shift in paradigm based on the interdependence of humans and the rest of the natural world. Humans must not be viewed as external engineers, but rather as integrated parts of the global ecosystem. Our solutions attempt to scale back negative human involvement and increase positive human impact on biodiversity.. ...
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) is the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council. CAFFs mandate is to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and to communicate its findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure the sustainability of the Arctics living resources. It does so through various monitoring, assessment and expert group activities.
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) is the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council. CAFFs mandate is to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and to communicate its findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure the sustainability of the Arctics living resources. It does so through various monitoring, assessment and expert group activities.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability to produce returns for landowners and landowners may have private information about the value of the land to them. Land parcels also differ in the type and quality of habitat and the spatial pattern of land use across multiple landowners is important for determining the conservation value of parcels. This paper analyzes the relative efficiency of simple voluntary incentive-based policies in achieving biodiversity conservation objectives. This topic is important not just for biodiversity conservation but for any effort to provide a public good requiring coordination across multiple decision-makers who have some degree of private information. We develop a method that integrates spatially explicit data, an econometric model of private land-use decisions, landscape simulations, a biological model of biodiversity as a function
Biodiversity and the Law is a timely and provocative volume that combines historical perspective and cutting-edge legal analysis in an authoritative and broad discussion of biodiversity and the law. Leading legal and policy experts consider a variety of options for the worldwide protection of biodiversity and present a succinct but comprehensive overview of the legal mechanisms available. They examine how conservation advocates can better utilize existing law, and consider what new law is needed. Among the topics considered are: scientific and policy foundations of biodiveristy protection, domestic efforts to establish an effective endangered species protection regime, international biodiversity protection, biodiversity as a genuinely public entity, and the future of biodiversity law.. ...
View Publication Poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation are basic social goals and part of the policy agenda of postcolonial states and international agencies. It is not surprising therefore that a large number of programmatic interventions have aimed to achieve the two goals at the same time. These interventions are funded by governments, conservation NGOs, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies, and private sector organizations. In this paper, we first examine the conceptual discussion around poverty and biodiversity, and then analyze three such interventions: community-based wildlife management, extractive reserves, and ecotourism. Our discussion shows that the literature on these programmatic interventions depends on relatively simplified understandings of poverty and biodiversity in stark contrast to the theoretical literature on the two concepts. Further, writings on programmatic interventions tend to operationalize poverty and biodiversity in distinct and quite different ...
N2 - Increasing urbanization worldwide calls for more sustainable urban development.Simultaneously, the global biodiversity crisis accentuates the need of fostering biodiversity within cities. Policies supporting urban nature conservation need to understandpeoples acceptance of biodiversity-friendly greenspace management. We surveyedmore than 2,000 people in 19 European cities about their attitudes toward near-naturalurban grassland management in public greenspaces, and related their responses to ninesociocultural parameters. Results reveal that people across Europe can support urbanbiodiversity, yet within the frames of a generally tidy appearance of public greenery.Younger people and those using greenspaces for a greater variety of activities weremore likely to favor biodiversity-friendly greenspace management. Additionally, people who were aware of the meaning of biodiversity and those stating responsibilityfor biodiversity conservation particularly supported biodiversity-friendly ...
Aquatic ecosystems support a substantial source of the earths biological diversity. They are an essential reservoir and share an enormous proportion of earths biological productivity. Both aquatic resources and its biodiversity are interrelated to each other and they perform a myriad of functions and are valuable and essential for the sustainability of biotic communities. Aquatic biodiversity in both freshwater and marine environments are under continuous decline because of overexploitation of species, introduced exotic plant or animal, pollution sources from cities, industries and agricultural zones, loss and changes in ecological niche. Their conservation and management in the form of bio reserve points and bioregional management and worldwide monitoring are needed for the protection of the aquatic biodiversity. This review is presenting information on biodiversity in aquatic habitats and their resources, in marine and fresh water ecosystems, their importance conservation and restoration
The 16th National Biodiversity Planning Forum will be held from 4 to 7 June 2019 at Alpine Heath Resort, Northern Drakensberg, KwaZulu-Natal.. The Biodiversity Planning Forum, established in 2004, provides an opportunity for individuals, agencies and departments involved in spatial biodiversity planning to share and synthesise valuable lessons from biodiversity planning projects. Much of the biodiversity planning done in South Africa underpins strategic interventions and supports improved environmental decision-making.. For more information on the 2019 Biodiversity Planning Forum please see the invitation and the registration form.. ...
Given the continued destruction, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests, and the associated extinction of species (Sayer & Whitmore 1991; May, Lawton & Stork 1995; Turner 1996), there is an urgent need to develop and test standardized methods for sampling biodiversity (Sutton & Collins 1991; Stork & Samways 1995). This has prompted a growing literature on the search for bioindicators, particularly for insects, because they form the bulk of species and animal biomass in terrestrial habitats and have a strong influence over many ecosystem processes. McGeoch (1998) reviewed the selection and utility of insects as indicators, and emphasized the need for explicit aims and hypothesis testing when nominating a species or group of taxa as a bioindicator. The basic purpose of bioindicators, whatever the ultimate aim, is to indicate a relationship with another biotic or abiotic variable. These relationships with other variables are, however, only as good as the sampling method employed to ...
http://www.marinebiodiversity.ca/en/home.html. Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing ...
Understanding patterns of biodiversity in deep sea systems is increasingly important because human activities are extending further into these areas. However, obtaining data is difficult, limiting the ability of science to inform management decisions. We have used three different methods of quantifying biodiversity to describe patterns of biodiversity in an area that includes two marine reserves in deep water off southern Australia. We used biological data collected during a recent survey, combined with extensive physical data to model, predict and map three different attributes of biodiversity: distributions of common species, beta diversity and rank abundance distributions (RAD). The distribution of each of eight common species was unique, although all the species respond to a depth-correlated physical gradient. Changes in composition (beta diversity) were large, even between sites with very similar environmental conditions. Composition at any one site was highly uncertain, and the suite of species
Plants chapter of the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation.
Fungi chapter of the the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation.
Come October 1, the city of Hyderabad is going to host the biggest ever global summit in the history of independent India - the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. The event, which is the 11th edition of Conference of Parties (CoP-11) for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), will take place in
The difference between continental and oceanic islands: The continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf, and most of them are result of rift of the continent or entrance of seawater in it. Oceanic islands sit on the oceanic shelf and they are result of volcanic activity or bending of the plates during the tectonic movements. One of the key to understand the special biodiversity on islands is the origin of them. Having already or not fauna and flora at the formation of island is a deciding factor of the future biodiversity. For example, think about bird species in UK (continental islands) versus Hawaii (oceanic islands).We discuss about this in a next post, but keep these ideas on your head ...
The aim of the project is a comparative study of the structural biodiversity and the causal factors by which it is induced and regulated. Present environmental factors and historical background (phylogeny of the biota and geographic evolution of the locality) are indeed main causes of the biodiversity observed today. We therefore plan to study the biodiversity in coastal ecosystems and estuaries in tropical and subtropical areas. Lagoons and estuaries are very productive ecosystems with a major impact on the functioning of open sea ecosystems and important for human activities. On the other hand, (sub)tropical areas are known to yield the highest biodiversity on which very few information is available. Moreover, semi-closed systems are very suitable to study speciation phenomena such as gene flow interruption and the origin of endemisms.. ...
Downloadable! Through the entirety of the forms of life, which are interacting among themselves and with the abiotic elements of the environment, biodiversity/biological diversity maintains the ecological processes at local, regional and global level, generating goods and services directly usable by the socio-economic system. Many stress factors (natural disasters, agricultural, industrial and mining activities, tourism activities, etc.) result in significant biodiversity diminution, endangering the ecosystem stability, with economic, scientific, aesthetic and ethic implications, which, mainly in the affected territories, call for concrete protection and preservation measures. As a research field, biodiversity conservation completes the applicative fields (agriculture, forestry, management of protected areas, fishing industry, etc), which, although they started to focus considerably on preservation, they approach it as a subsidiary aspect of other programs.
Surprisingly, many large-scale patterns of biodiversity (such as the latitudinal diversity gradient) are still poorly understood. We use large, global-scale databases of the distributions and phylogenies of mammals and birds to test hypotheses about the underlying causes of global biodiversity patterns. This is not a specific, funded project, but an ongoing research interest in the Macroevolution & Macroecology Group.
In this course, we will give you an overview in how to use molecular tools for ecological biodiversity assessments. We will cover basics in traditional ecology as well, so no previous knowledge is required in this field. We will teach theory and practical work hands-in-hands, so that the course will be varied in theoretical basics, lab work and computer based analysis. You will have seen the complete workflow (although not possible to go very deep) of ecological diversity analyses based on sequence data from the beginning to the end (Sanger and NGS). Basics in bioinformatics will be an additional (short) topic in this practical, since a lot of software used for this purpose are based on the Linux command line. The second week will be mostly dedicated to getting a dataset and analyze it yourself (with our support of course) using the tools acquired in the first week. After the practical you should have a basic understanding of Phylogeny, DNA-Barcoding, Metabarcoding, Genomics and Metagenomics ...
Developed by CIAT and the Crop Trust, the indicator provides an official marker for thousands of economically and culturally important plants. It shows conservation goals set for 2020 will be hard to attain.. The Biodiversity Indicators Partnership officially adopted in July a new indicator to track progress on the conservation of thousands of economically and culturally important plants. Developed by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture and the Crop Trust, the indicator helps rate progress toward the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Aichi Biodiversity Target 13, which includes maintaining the genetic diversity of cultivated plants, their wild relatives, and other socioeconomically and culturally valuable flora. The metric is also listed as a relevant indicator for Sustainable Development Goal 2.5. But based on the very low average score for the plants in the index - about 3 out of 100 - the indicator shows that much work remains to be done to achieve the conservation ...
Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species. The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite
CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY THE CONTRACTING PARTIES, CONSCIOUS of the intrinsic value of biological diversity and of the ecological, genetic, social
Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC UNEP) Characterizing and addressing SLOW ONSET EVENTS climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY
The first and second Federal Plans for Sustainable Development devote special attention to biodiversity[23]. The first Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2000-2004 mentions several strategies in the field of the conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity and in the field of biosecurity. It refers also to national and international integration and coordination measures, to sensibilisation and to the need for scientific knowledge. This plan was the first strategic document endorsed by the federal government that referred to a biodiversity strategy and a national action plan. The Second Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2004-2008 (FPSD2) was adopted by the Federal Council of Ministers on 24 September 2004. Action 18 is devoted to biodiversity and actions 19 and 20 deal with forests and marine waters.. Action 18 foresees the integration of biodiversity issues into four key sectors (transport, the economy, development cooperation and research). For each sector, the Federal ...
Addressing the loss of biodiversity is essential for poverty eradication, sustainable jobs, economic development and meeting the SDGs. The conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity underpin the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Humanitys dependence on biodiversity is widely recognized and nature is critical for the delivery and success of 14 of the 17 SDGs, including those that relate to food security, health, livelihoods, jobs, water security, the ocean, climate change, and disaster prevention. More than half of the worlds GDP is moderately or highly dependent on nature, through the contributions of nature to people such as pollination, water quality, and natural materials. Construction, agriculture, and food and beverages are the three largest sectors most dependent on nature. In recent years, biodiversity loss has been consistently identified by business leaders as one of the top risks to global business.. All people depend on a healthy planet. ...
This book series provides complete, comprehensive and broad subject based reviews about existing biodiversity of different habitats and conservation strategies in the framework of different technologies, ecosystem diversity, and genetic diversity. The ways by which these resources are used with sustainable management and replenishment are also dealt with. The topics of interest include but are not restricted only to sustainable development of various ecosystems and conservation of hotspots, traditional methods and role of local people, threatened and endangered species, global climate change and effect on biodiversity, invasive species, impact of various activities on biodiversity, biodiversity conservation in sustaining livelihoods and reducing poverty, and technologies available and required. The books in this series will be useful to botanists, environmentalists, marine biologists, policy makers, conservationists, and NGOs working for environment protection. ...
Microbial biodiversity is difficult to measure in extreme environments due to the inability to culture many of the species, especially from hypersaline environments. Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA offers a unique ecology to study microbial diversity across a salt gradient. GSL has increasing salt from South to North that varies from marine salt concentrations to saturation, respectively. We used three methods to examine the biodiversity of the GSL-traditional cultivation on solid media, 16s rRNA gene sequencing, multiplexed 16s rRNA gene hybridization to the phylochip, and DNA hybridization to the Geochip for metabolic diversity estimates. Over 40 isolates from the North Arm were obtained, while six were selected for identification. Isolates included gammaproteobacteria, bacilli, and actinobacteria. Sequencing the 16S rRNA genes for identification yielded 350 clones. Refraction curves indicated that this did not represent the bacterial diversity of the GSL, while estimation of the diversity with the
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
Neutral metacommunity models for spatial biodiversity patterns are implemented on river networks acting as ecological corridors at different resolution. Coarse-graining elevation fields (under the constraint of preserving the basin mean elevation) produce a set of reconfigured drainage networks. The hydrologic assumption made implies uniform runoff production such that each link has the same habitat capacity. Despite the universal scaling properties shown by river basins regardless of size, climate, vegetation, or exposed lithology, we find that species richness at local and regional scales exhibits resolution-dependent behavior. In addition, we investigate species-area relationships and rank-abundance patterns. The slopes of the species-area relationships, which are consistent over coarse-graining resolutions, match those found in real landscapes in the case of long-distance dispersal. The rank-abundance patterns are independent of the resolution over a broad range of dispersal length. Our ...
The Conference of the Parties, Recalling its decision V/27 on the contribution of the Convention on Biological Diversity to the ten-year review of progress achieved since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Noting the outcome of the third meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Convinced that the World Summit on Sustainable Development should be an excellent opportunity to mobilize more political will and resources to promote the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and reinvigorate the global commitment to sustainable development, Deeply concerned that, despite many successful and continuing efforts of the international community since the entry into force of the Convention and the fact that some progress has been made, the condition of biodiversity in the worlds major ecosystems continues to deteriorate, almost without exception and often at an ...
Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, among species, and among ecosystems. The rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has beenmore rapid than at any other time in human history, and many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing, including habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, climate change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen (Nr). Of these stressors, climate change and Nr from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, and changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events and migration, and lengthening of the growing season. Nitrogen (N) enrichment can enhance plant growth, but has been shown to favor, fast-growing, sometimes invasive, species over native species adapted to low N conditions. Although there have been only ...
Agriculture and forestry are land use sectors that cover worldwide large areas. A noteworthy peculiarity is that agricultural and forest land uses are most intensively confronted with human interventions compared to other vegetation cover types. Hence, agricultural and forest land management practices play a key role in impacting biodiversity shifts and in sustaining natural capacities to provide a multitude of ecosystem services. A resulting challenge for a comprehensive impact assessment consists of integrating the whole range of actions and interventions in agriculture and forestry from the management scale towards planning and policy consulting. This requires the development of reliable, nested indicator sets and of modelling approaches that support integrative analyses at different spatial and temporal scales. In this chapter, we introduce the modelling and assessment platform GISCAME that was developed to connect planning and decision-making at different scales. The approach particularly
Read Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes?, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
India currently spends about $2 billion per year on biodiversity conservation efforts, but the country requires between $5-15 billion more every year to meet its biodiversity conservation targets
Under pressure to protect the natural environment the European Community in 1973 adopted its First Action Programme for the protection of wild life. Later programmes were more ambitious and detailed and through funding made possible the conservation and rehabilitation of sensitive and important biotopes. The strict protective measures take~ and the emphasis on the setting of priority natural habitats is commendable. The Community signed, and later ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity. This international Convention was weakened when certain important principles, such as the precautionary principle, and the principle that a state is responsible for the damage it causes to biodiversity were deleted. It tries to bridge the North-South divide by fostering the transfer of technology and of Intellectual Property Rights from the developed to the developing countries. The USA objected to this as it considered it a threat to its biotechnology industry. The Directive on the Conservation of ...
Winter migratory birds gather in paddy rice fields to feed shed rice grains. The Korean Ministry of Environment has practiced a policy program Contract on Paddy Field Management (CPFM) during winter fallow since 2002. This program starts with a contract between local governments and farmers, and the government pays a differential subsidy to farmers who finish spreading rice straw, cultivating barley, letting the whole rice plant without harvest, and submerging paddy fields for winter migratory birds. As more local governments have operated CPFM program, the total area on the contract and subsidy budget has increased yearly since 2002. This program could have its stable position as a successful policy by giving profits to farmers. With the program extended, the population of winter migratory birds has been greatly. For the evaluation of environmental performance of a policy, we analyzed this CPFM program by introducing some indicators in the form of Driving Force-State-Response Framework. The
Policies addressing the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services both need to be informed by scientific evidence about biodiversity and require ongoing generation of this information to continue to be effective. This interplay takes place in both national and international policy arenas. National legislatures and environmental ministries establish and implement
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Quantifying the economic impact of ammonia emissions on biodiversity is challenging and the methods used are subject to debate. Available estimates suggest that loss of biodiversity due to ammonia emissions could have impacts in the UK which can be valued, conservatively, at between £0.20 and £4 per kg of ammonia. Combining this with the monetised health impacts, our conservative estimate of the total costs from both health and biodiversity impacts of ammonia in the UK is £2.50 per kg of ammonia (though the range of possible values is from £2 to £56 per kg). This conservative estimate, combined with projected emission data, suggests that if no action is taken to reduce ammonia emissions, the negative impacts on the UK in 2020 could be equivalent to costs of more than £700m per year. However, there are significant uncertainties in these values. The range of possible costs, based on the estimates in the literature and best available projections for emissions, are between £580m and £16.5bn ...
CBD CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 9 May 2001 WORKSHOP ON LIABILITY AND REDRESS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, France, June 2001 INFORMATION FOR PARTICIPANTS Venue
Sampling biases are the greatest impediment to resolving the history of species richness of fossilizable marine invertebrates in the Phanerozoic. Actual patterns of species richness have remained uncertain because no method is available to compensate for variations in sampling intensity. Data are not obtainable which would permit application of techniques that allow direct compensation for sampling intensity, such as rarefaction, but actual patterns can be estimated with a sampling model designed to account for sampling bias. One can estimate the total species richness of a geologic period if one knows the relative sampling intensity devoted to that period, the original species-abundance distribution of all species that existed during the interval, and the number of species that existed during the Cenozoic. The model presented here is based on the assumption that the species-abundance distributions of fossilizable marine invertebrates were lognormal and that sampling was proportional to sediment ...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Hello, we are pleased to announce the opening of the Biodiversity and Ecosystems NEtwork (BENE) webserver, hosted by the W.M. Keck Center for Genome Informatics at Texas A&M University. In addition to the Keck Center, the other founding partners are the National Performance Review NetResults project Smithsonian Institution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency We welcome other partners. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the BENE webserver is: http://straylight.tamu.edu/bene/bene.html The goal of the BENE webserver is to help those interested in biodiversity and ecosystems to find information, and foster dialogue and collaborations. BENE also represents a demonstration of some of the capabilities suggested for the proposed U.S. National Biodiversity Information Center (NBIC). BENE also provides an Email ListServer to encourage discussions, queries, and information sharing. To subscribe to the BENE list, send a message to: listproc at straylight.tamu.edu with the text: subscribe bene ...
The largest widely-recognized biodiversity hotspot in the United States is the California Floristic Province, which extends down the length of the California coast, and into southern Oregon and a small section of northern Mexico. The California Floristic Province is one of five Mediterranean-type habitats in the world. These ecosystems tend to support unique plant and animal species found in few other places, and all five of them are listed as biodiversity hotspots. The California Floristic Province provides habitat for many threatened and endangered plant species, as well as threatened animals like the desert slender salamander and giant kangaroo rat. It is also one of the last remaining habitats for the California condor - a critically endangered bird species. The main threats to this hotspot are presented by urban and agricultural development in California.. ...
Our landscapes need to be managed appropriately to ensure the sustainable delivery of these servcies into the future. But we do not truly understand the linkages between the stocks of biodiversity within those landscape and the flows of services from those stocks. Until we have a better grasp of those linkages, those responsible for managing our landscapes will be doing so under great uncertainty.. Biodiversity & Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) is a six-year (2011-2017) NERC research programme, designed to reduce that uncertainty. It will answer fundamental questions about the functional role of biodiversity in key ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and how these are likely to change in an uncertain future.. By providing a much improved evidence base, those responsible for how landscapes are used and developed should be in much better position to make decisions about the inevitable trade-offs that are required to ensure sustainable ...
The Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Science is looking for a master or Postdoc in molecular ecology for a contract of limited duration (October 2018-September 2019) who will join the Antarctic team of the Biodiversity and Ecosystems Data and Information Centre part of OD Nature. This team is in charge of the management of biodiversity and ecosystem data resulting, for example, from the federal monitoring programmes of the marine environment or from research projects in marine and Antarctic sciences. AntaBIS (www.biodiversity.aq) is a BelSPO (www.belspo.be)-funded project that aims at constructing a dedicated Antarctic biodiversity virtual Laboratory in the framework of the EU Lifewatch program, providing tools for the discovery and analysis of Antarctic biodiversity data. Biodiversity.aq creates new ways of exploring and understanding Antarctic biodiversity by linking various online resources. Biodiveristy.aq contributes Antarctic biodiversity Data to global initiates such as the Ocean ...
ButterflyCircle members also contributed time and expertise by volunteering for surveys and nature events in the community. Although we did not set up a booth at the annual Festival of Biodiversity 2018, our presence was in the form of photos and write-ups on butterflies. Members also participated in scientific surveys organised by NParks, like BioBlitz, Bukit Timah Biodiversity Survey and Pulau Ubin Biodiversity Survey. Photos and write ups on interpretative signages in parks and other facilities also featured ButterflyCircle members work. We also participated in butterfly biodiversity surveys at the Singapore Zoo ...
The variety of life forms and its many processes constitute biodiversity. Humanity is dependent on biodiversity for all its requirements. Presently great conc...
The forests of western Amazonia are among the most diverse tree communities on Earth, yet this exceptional diversity is distributed highly unevenly within and among communities. In particular, a small number of dominant species account for the majority of individuals, whereas the large majority of species are locally and regionally extremely scarce. By definition, dominant species contribute little to local species richness (alpha diversity), yet the importance of dominant species in structuring patterns of spatial floristic turnover (beta diversity) has not been investigated. Here, using a network of 207 forest inventory plots, we explore the role of dominant species in determining regional patterns of beta diversity (community‐level floristic turnover and distance‐decay relationships) across a range of habitat types in northern lowland Peru. Of the 2,031 recorded species in our data set, only 99 of them accounted for 50% of individuals. Using these 99 species, it was possible to ...
We recently announced our sixth and seventh major projects in our freshwater grant portfolio that each create a notable point in our constellation of projects. Our Freshwater Biodiversity & Resources program aims to support freshwater ecosystem assessments and decision-making regarding freshwater resources for conservation and sustainable development. We believe that biodiversity information system efforts that involve partnerships of data providers and knowledge users to address local needs are most likely to be sustained.. The grants we announced to the National Museums of Kenya (NMK) and Ugandas National Fisheries Research Institute (NaFIRRI) pursue strategies that are fundamental to our future grantmaking. NMKs project is organized upon the unit of the Tana River catchment in Kenya. We are interested in catchment boundaries, as these are often functional management areas of basin authorities and may be the key unit of governance and management for transnational catchments. For NMK, this ...
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
AWCSG-GWC. 2011. Searching for the Last Kouprey: Final Project Report to the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund for Grant No. GA 10/0.8 to Global Wildlife Conservation. Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group and Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, USA.. Baltzer, M.C., Nguyen Thi Dao and Shore, R.G. (eds). 2001. Towards a vision for biodiversity conservation in the forests of the lower Mekong Ecoregion complex: summary of the biological assessment for the Ecoregion Biodiversity Conservation Program in the forests of the lower Mekong Ecoregion complex. WWF Indochina Programme and WWF US, Hanoi, Vietnam and Washington, DC, USA.. Bauer, K. 1997. Historic record and range extension for giant muntjac, Muntiacus vuquangensis (Cervidae). Mammalia 61: 265-267.. Birdlife International. 2010. The Biodiversity of Chu Yang Sin National Park, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. BirdLife International in Indochina., Hanoi.. CBD and BGMNP. 2012. Biodiversity survey and conservation status of species of international ...
Summary: The objectives of this Act are, within the framework of the National Environmental Management Act, to provide for the management and conservation of biological diversity within the Republic and of the components of such biological diversity; to provide for the use of indigenous biological resources in a sustainable manner; and to provide for the fair and equitable sharing among stakeholders of benefits arising from bioprosgecting involving indigenous biological resources. Other objecitves of this Act are to give effect to ratified international agreements relating to biodiversity which are binding on the Republic; to provide for co-operative governance in biodiversity management and conservation; and to provide for a South African National Biodiversity Institute to assist in achieving the objectives of this Act ...
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
Many of us would like to contribute to the conservation of our natural environment, but it can be difficult to know where to start. The best place to start is often on our local patch and by doing so we can help to conserve Devons wildlife, as well as improving our own well-being - human well-being and biodiversity are intrinsically linked and a properly functioning natural environment provides substantial economic, environmental, health and community benefits.. To help communities become involved in conserving their own local environment, Devon County Council produced a number of parish biodiversity audits (see below). The audits aim to provide basic information on the wildlife and geology found within each parish, supported by initial ideas for local action: actions which have potential to contribute to nature conservation on a wider scale - from local to county, county to national and beyond.. The parish biodiversity audits have three basic elements:. 1) A description of parish wildlife - ...