This three-day symposium was organized by the US EPA, the USAF AL/EQ, Tyndall AFB FL, and the US AFCEE Technology Transfer Division, Brooks AFB TX. Natural attenuation, the biodegradation or chemical destruction or stabilization of contaminants, can reduce contaminants to levels protective of human health and ecosystems. The symposium was intended to increase understanding of the natural attenuation process and to review methods for screening sites and making decisions to determine the feasibility of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. The symposium obtained feedback from the regulatory and industrial communities on the appropriate application of natural attenuation and the developing protocol for natural attenuation of chlorinated organics. The symposium featured invited platform presentations covering both laboratory studies and field demonstrations conducted in support of natural attenuation at government and industry sites. The theory and principles of methods for
Abstract. The sinks of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere are usually described by oxidation reactions in the gas and aqueous (cloud) phases. Previous lab studies suggest that in addition to chemical processes, biodegradation by bacteria might also contribute to the loss of organics in clouds; however, due to the lack of comprehensive data sets on such biodegradation processes, they are not commonly included in atmospheric models. In the current study, we measured the biodegradation rates of phenol and catechol, which are known pollutants, by one of the most active strains selected during our previous screening in clouds (Rhodococcus enclensis). For catechol, biodegradation transformation is about ten times faster than for phenol. The experimentally derived biodegradation rates are included in a multiphase box model to compare the chemical loss rates of phenol and catechol in both the gas and aqueous phases to their biodegradation rate in the aqueous phase under atmospheric conditions. Model results ...
Application of Screening Effect when Sampling Suspension in Bioremediation Process, Ukpaka CP1 and Igwe FU2
by B. Lekhlif, G. Hébrard, N. Dietrich, A. Kherbeche, J. Echaabi. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.. The present paper reports an experimental work of the influence of initial substrate concentration on the adaptability of bacterial cells and the biodegradation kinetics of the substrate in a submerged aerobic fixed-film reactor, by studying some physicochemical parameters. The bioreactor used in this study is gotten from the biological aerated filter (BAF), but the used filter media is made of plastic of a large size than that used usually in BAF and with a high specific surface. For this purpose, various synthetic wastewaters were prepared based on a non-toxic substrate, in this case, glycerol, and some salts of nitrogen, phosphorus and some oligo-elements with different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of: 330 MgO2/L (S1), 480 MgO2/L (S2), 860 MgO2/L (S3) and 1120 MgO2/L (S4). Experiments have been carried out at laboratory scale in a cylindrical reactor, made of PVC (height of 1 m and ...
Detail záznamu - Chapter 11: Biodegradation of Aromatic Pollutants by Ligninolytic Fungal Strains - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Significant (65%) degradation was observed in a Closed Bottle test utilising a test concentration of 2 mg/L. A modified MITI test using a high test concentration of 100 mg/L resulted in low biodegradability. The higher degree of biodegradation observed in tests with a lower initial test substance concentration indicates limited bioavailability. It is possible that the rate of biodegradation may be limited by the rate of hydrolysis of the test substance and/or the rate with which the substance dissolves. Modelling of possible biodegradation pathways indicate that aerobic degradation is likely, the first steps in this being hydrolysis to trimellitic acid and octanol, both of which have been shown to be readily biodegradable. Tests with a structural analogue of the substance, a trimellitate ester with mixed C8 -C10 side chains, showed significant biodegradation and, while not readily biodegradable, this analogue can be considered to be inherently biodegradable. The differences observed in tests on ...
Author(s): Hunt, JR; Holden, PA; Firestone, MK | Abstract: Volatile organic chemicals present at Superfund sites preferentially partition into the soil gas and may be available for microbial degradation. A simple mass transfer model for biodegradation for volatile substrates has been developed for the aerobic decomposition of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The mass transfer analysis calculates diffusive fluxes from soil gas through water and membrane films and into the cell. This model predicts an extreme sensitivity of potential biodegradation rates to the air-water partition coefficients of the compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons are removed rapidly while the aliphatic hydrocarbons are much slower by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, oxygen transfer is likely to limit aromatic hydrocarbon degradation rates. The model presents results that cast doubt on the practicality of using methane or propane for the co-metabolic destruction of trichloroethylene in a gas phase bioreactor. Toluene as a primary
Video created by Rice University for the course Natural Attenuation of Groundwater Contaminants: New Paradigms, Technologies, and Applications. In this series of lectures, we will learn when biodegradation can or cannot occur and what ...
No data are available for the target substance C12 -14 AAPB. A Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test on inherent biodegradability is available for the source substance C12 -18 AAPB. Aerobic as well as anaerobic biodegradation screening tests on ready biodegradation are available for the source substances C8-18 AAPB and C8-18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB (Coco AAPB). A justification for read-across is given in IUCLID section 5.2. Aerobic biodegradation C8 -18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB A variety of different screening studies for C8-18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB are available, confirming the readily biodegradability. One reliable study (Klimisch 1) was selected as key study and described in more detail. The ready biodegradability of C8-18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB was investigated in a study conducted according to EPA OPPTS 835.3120 (Sealed Vessel Carbon Dioxide Production Test) and ISO/DIS 14593 over a period of 28 days and using activated sludge as inoculum. The biodegradation rate was determined by measurement of CO2 evolution. ...
An additional benefit of hydrogen peroxide and Fentons Reagent is the temporary increase of oxygen levels in and around the treatment area. The increased oxygen levels at the fringes of the treatment area can enhance naturally occurring aerobic biodegradation processes that reduce contaminant mass. While there may be concerns about oxidizing hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the chemical oxidation treatment area, many studies have shown that soil cannot be readily sterilized by Fentons Reagent and that microbial populations rapidly rebound following chemical oxidation treatment. ...
The increasing sensitivity of PCR has meant that in the last two decades PCR has emerged as a major tool in diet studies, enabling us to refine our understanding of trophic links and to elucidate the diets of predators whose prey is as yet uncharacterized. The achievements and methods of PCR-based diet studies have been reviewed several times, but here we review an important development in the field: the use of PCR enrichment techniques to promote the amplification of prey DNA over that of the predator. We first discuss the success of using group-specific primers either in parallel single reactions or in multiplex reactions. We then concentrate on the more recent use of PCR enrichment techniques such as restriction enzyme digests, peptide nucleic acid clamping, DNA blocking and laser capture microdissection. We also survey the vast literature on enrichment techniques in clinical biology, to ascertain the pitfalls of enrichment techniques and what refinements have yielded some highly sensitive ...
Dichloromethane (DCM) is a toxic pollutant showing prolonged persistence in water. So far, biodegradation of DCM has only been reported in soils and freshwater systems. Herein, we studied whether or not biodegradation of DCM could occur in estuarine waters. Results showed over 90% mineralization of DCM in natural estuarine waters supplemented with DCM. Biodegradation of DCM in estuarine waters occurred by association of different bacterial species. Generally, two bacterial species participated in DCM degradation. Two bacterial consortia were obtained. Consortia were able to degrade around 80% of DCM in about 6 days. The species involved in the process were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; a consortium was constituted by Pseudomonas sp. and Brevundimonas sp. and a second consortium was formed by Pseudomonas sp. and an Acinetobacter sp. Our results showed that DCM can be readily biodegraded in estuarine waters ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
Release Date: 05/02/2001. Many Superfund sites are contaminated with mixtures of hazardous substances and designing strategies to remediate them has proven to be a major challenge. To a great extent, the development of remediation processes has focused not on mixtures, but on single contaminants. In order to apply our knowledge to mixtures, we need tools to understand, describe, and predict the interactions of contaminants during remediation processes. Engineers at Colorado State University (CSU) are investigating the bacterial degradation of mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons. Their goal is to use data from simple experimental systems to develop mathematical models that can predict the complex kinetics of biodegradation of chemical mixtures by multiple species of bacteria. This information is fundamental to both the design of bioreactors for remediation and the prediction of the fate of pollutants in the environment. The CSU researchers measured the biodegradation rates of single and mixed ...
Cascade has both the expertise and chemical remediation technology for a wide range of options including in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation.
Note: Some acronyms have more than one meaning. Multiple meanings are listed, separated by semi-colons.. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. A. A&I: Alternative and Innovative (Wastewater Treatment System). AA: Accountable Area; Adverse Action; Advices of Allowance; Assistant Administrator; Associate Administrator; Atomic Absorption. AAEE: American Academy of Environmental Engineers. A&C: Abatement and Control. ACF: Area Cost Factors. ACBM: Asbestos-Containing Building Material. ACE: Any Credible Evidence. ADP: AHERA Designated Person; Automated Data Processing. ADR: Alternate Dispute Resolution. AEA: Atomic Energy Act. AEC: Associate Enforcement Counsels; Army Environmental Center. AEERL: Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. AES: Auger Electron Spectrometry. AFB: Air Force Base. AFCEE:Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environmental. AFW-ERPIMS: Air Force Wide-Environmental Resource Program Information Management System. ALA: Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid. ALA-O: ...
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X, Y, & Z Abandoned Well: A well whose use has been permanently discontinued or which is in a state of such disrepair that it cannot be used for its intended purpose. Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution. Abatement Debris: Waste from remediation activities. Absorbed Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance that penetrates an exposed organisms absorption barriers (e.g. skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract) through physical or biological processes. The term is synonymous with internal dose. Absorption: The uptake of water , other fluids, or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in soil.) Absorption Barrier: Any of the exchange sites of the body that permit uptake of various substances at different rates (e.g. skin, lung tissue, and gastrointestinal-tract wall) Accident Site: The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at a ...
Get this from a library! Environmental monitoring and remediation technologies II : 20-22 September, 1999, Boston, Massachusetts. [Tuan Vo-Dinh; Robert L Spellicy; Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.; Air & Waste Management Association. Optical Sciences Division.; SPIE Digital Library.;]
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with numerous applications in tissue regeneration and repair. The degree of crystallinity governs the rate of degradation in vitro and in vivo. In this project, the effect of the microstructure on the degradation of Polylactic Acid (PLA) is studied.. PLA samples were crystallised to 40% crystallinity at various temperatures between 90°C and 140°C and then subjected to enzymatic degradation using the enzyme Proteinase K. Hot stage microscopy showed that on increasing the crystallisation temperature an increase in the growth rate of spherulites and a decrease in spherulite nucleation was observed. Short-term (five day) and preliminary long-term (ten week) biodegradation studies were conducted on samples crystallised to 40% at 90°C, 108°C and 118°C. DSC and FT-IR analysis in short-term degradation studies showed little difference in samples before and after degradation. However, it is seen that as the crystallisation temperature increased there ...
NUTRIPLEX® is a probiotic formulation of complexing systems, organic acids, nutrients, natural biological systems, buffers, and energy systems which enhances biological degradation. It provides nutrients and energy to support probiotic bioremediation systems.. ...
Biodegradation definition, to decay and become absorbed by the environment: toys that will biodegrade when theyre discarded. See more.
Also a benificial addition in long term bioremediation of lakes and ponds. When alkalinity (calcium buffer) in a pond has been reduced by the addition of nitrifiers,and this reduction and the resulting low alkalinity has become the limiting factor.. Eco-Impact Buffer will increase alkalinity, restoring the balance required by the microbes in the bioremediation process... Product Sales of Eco-Impact Buffer. ...
PubMed journal article Organic Contaminant Biodegradation by Oxidoreductase Enzymes in Wastewater Treatmen were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
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Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 900 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 800 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Introduction. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) combine a biological degradation process with the direct separation of activated sludge and liquid-solid by filtration membranes [1]. In addition, MBRs have important advantages such as space reduction relative to conventional activated sludge process, which leads to a decrease in their environmental impact, the capability of operating with higher concentrations of suspended solids, and the production of better quality effluent. However, one of the main drawbacks of MBR is membrane fouling. Despite the high cost of commonly used ceramic membranes (made of alumina, zirconia or titania), it is known that they are more hydrophilic than polymeric membranes, which means that ceramic membranes have a lower membrane fouling rate. Ceramic membranes are also more chemically, mechanically and thermally resistant. Other characteristics that influence membrane fouling are pore size and configuration (tubular, flat or hollow fiber) [2,3]. Currently, polymeric hollow ...
This chapter discusses the aspects of bioremediation that are related to metabolism of recalcitrant chemicals by bacteria, leaving out also detoxification and immobilization of metal ions and metalloids. The most frequent types of sites amenable to bioremediation include soil, freshwater, seawater, and sediments. The chapter talks about the instances where recalcitrant and/or xenobiotic compounds are endowed with chemical properties that cause a deleterious effect on the catalytic microorganisms present in the site-regardless of whether they can be ultimately metabolized. The chemicals at stake include metals, chaotropic agents, aromatics, and hydrophobic compounds. These stressors can be grouped based on their effect on bacterial metabolism. Heat shock-like stress and oxidative damage are certainly the two more prevalent conditions endured by environmental bacteria during in situ biodegradation of chemical waste. This is true for singular stressors as well as for mixtures of them, the most frequent
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE) is a respected independent not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 to stimulate the regeneration of contaminated land in the UK by raising awareness of, and confidence in, practical and sustainable remediation technologies. Since 1999, CL:AIRE has grown into an organisation that does more than just demonstrate remediation technologies
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE) is a respected independent not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 to stimulate the regeneration of contaminated land in the UK by raising awareness of, and confidence in, practical and sustainable remediation technologies. Since 1999, CL:AIRE has grown into an organisation that does more than just demonstrate remediation technologies
Terpeneliteracy.com is a multi-platform publisher of news and information. Terpeneliteracy.com has earned a reputation as the leading provider of Terpene news and information that improves the quality of life of its readers by focusing on Terpene issues ...
Principal Investigator:AZUMA Jun-ichi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:一般, Research Field:生物資源科学
I am a dedicated PhD with expertise in the field environmental science. The last 10 years of my work has been focused on improving soil and water remediation technologies either by using plants or bacteria to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals from contaminated sites. More specifically, I have worked on removing oil droplet from produced water discharged by oil platforms, reducing the risk associated with organics contaminants by biodegradation and sequestration in the soil, and removing heavy metals in contaminated soil by using plants (phytoremediation). I have managed research projects, planned and carried out experimental assays, managed and analysed large data sets. I have gained good results with peer-reviewed articles and scientific reports plus given presentations at several international conferences. With my masters in environmental science I have a wide interdisciplinary knowledge of biological, physical and chemical processes and I collaborate well across scientific fields ...
Sturm, B., Cheng., Y., Lane, R., Adams, C., Carter, R. (2011) Impact of sludge residence time on the relative biodegradation and biosorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in activated sludge, ACS 241st National Meeting, Anaheim, CA (March 2011).. ...
Article Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents (PDF). Enhanced in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater has been successfully demonstrated at many sites by supplying lactic acid as an electron donor. The source of lactat...
A study was carried out on biodegradation of soil contaminated with used motor oil in aerobic fixed bed bioreactors. Six treatments, labeled TR1 to TR6, were investigated..
The survival of the inoculated microbial culture is critical for successful bioaugmentation but impossible to predict precisely. As an alternative strategy, bioaugmentation of a group of...
Researchers based at Princeton University found that Earths terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 186 billion to 192 billion tons of carbon since the mid-20th century, which has significantly contained the global temperature and levels of carbon in the atmosphere.
Article The Use of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) for CAH Bioremediation.. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC™) is a simple, passive, low-cost and long-term option for the anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via a reduc...
The experts at EAG Laboratories conduct comprehensive environmental fate testing to determine a substances metabolism rate and identify metabolites.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Technology News and Trends (TNT) A newsletter about soil, sediment, and groundwater characterization and remediation technologies
Addresses a Global Challenge to Sustainable Development. Advances in Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Industrial Waste examines and compiles the latest information on the industrial waste biodegradation process and provides a comprehensive review. Dedicated to reducing pollutants generated by agriculturally contaminated soil, and plastic waste from various industries, this text is a book that begs the question: Is a pollution-free environment possible? The book combines with current available data with the expert knowledge of specialists from around the world to evaluate various aspects of environmental microbiology and biotechnology. It emphasizes the role of different bioreactors for the treatment of complex industrial waste and provides specific chapters on bioreactors and membrane process integrated with biodegradation process. It also places special emphasis on phytoremediation and the role of wetland plant rhizosphere bacterial ecology and the bioremediation of complex industrial ...
Motivation: Current methods for the prediction of biodegradation products and pathways of organic environmental pollutants either do not take into account domain knowledge or do not provide probability estimates. In this article, we propose a hybrid knowledge- and machine learning-based approach to overcome these limitations in the context of the University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS). The proposed solution performs relative reasoning in a machine learning framework, and obtains one probability estimate for each biotransformation rule of the system. As the application of a rule then depends on a threshold for the probability estimate, the trade-off between recall (sensitivity) and precision (selectivity) can be addressed and leveraged in practice.. Results: Results from leave-one-out cross-validation show that a recall and precision of ∼0.8 can be achieved for a subset of 13 transformation rules. Therefore, it is possible to optimize precision without compromising recall. ...
Microorganism. The organism, Pseudomonas putida DSM 548 (pJP4), was maintained by weekly subculturing with 2% (w/v) nutrient agar slants that were stored in a refrigerator at 4ºC and the organism was activated by incubation at 28ºC, for 24 hrs. o-cresol biodegradation was performed by using recombinant P. putida. The plasmid pJP4 was purified from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 (formerly Alcaligenes) and the transformation of the related plasmid was executed chemically with 0.1 MCaCl2 solutions in our work previously (unpublished data). Pseudomonas putida DSM 548 and Ralstonia eutropha were obtained from the DSMZ (Deuthsche Sammlung Von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig), Germany.. Medium and culture conditions. The bacteria were grown on nutrient agar (NA), OXOID CM3. For adaptation experiments of the cells to o-cresol, which was also used as a sole carbon source, a simple minimal salts medium (MSM) was used (Mamma et al. 2004). Cells were grown in a synthetic mineral salt medium ...
The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with
Previously... Re: [SANET-MG] Beneficial Soil Microbia] The question is how to get information on IM or IMOs, Indigenous Microorganisms. Well, there is a seminar on Indigenous Microorganisms at the Ecological Farming Conference in California, Jan. 22-25. Gil Carandang, a farmer from the Phillipines, will demonstrate some of the special cultures. http://www.eco-farm.org/efc/efc_main.html Concepts and practices on Indigenous Microorganisms, IM or IMO, originate with Han Kyu Cho and the Korean Natural Farming Association, or KNFA, going back 35 to 40 years. Yet, this knowledge has only come into English language in the last few years. There is one book in English, yet it is not available for-sale from any distributor that I can determine. Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p. Here is an address for KNFA: Korean Natural Farming Association (KNFA) 209-2 Woongok-ri, ...
D5988 - 12 Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in Soil , aerobic, biodegradation, degree (of biodegradation), mineralization, plastics, soil,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative structure-activity relationships for primary aerobic biodegradation of organic chemicals in pristine surface waters. T2 - starting points for predicting biodegradation under acclimatization. AU - Nolte, Tom M.. AU - Pinto-Gil, Kevin. AU - Hendriks, A. Jan. AU - Ragas, Ad M. J.. AU - Pastor, Manuel. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. KW - ACTIVITY-RELATIONSHIP MODELS. KW - MICROBIAL-DEGRADATION. KW - BIOTRANSFORMATION MODELS. KW - EMERGING CONTAMINANTS. KW - BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM. KW - ENVIRONMENT. KW - FATE. KW - PHARMACEUTICALS. KW - TRANSFORMATION. KW - KINETICS. U2 - 10.1039/c7em00375g. DO - 10.1039/c7em00375g. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 157. EP - 170. JO - Environmental Science - Processes & Impacts. JF - Environmental Science - Processes & Impacts. SN - 2050-7887. IS - 1. ER - ...
We present a study of the culturable PAH-degrading bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of several salt marsh plant species in contaminated and uncontaminated estuarine sediments. In addition, a pasteurization method was successful in isolating spore-forming bacteria. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the rhizosphere effect on degradation of organic contaminants. Most of these studies have examined terrestrial plants and agricultural chemicals (1, 2, 27); few have looked at the influence of plant-associated microorganisms on the fate of PCBs (15, 16) and PAHs (34, 39). There have been a limited number of studies on PAH degradation involving wetland or salt marsh ecosystems, but none have studied the diversity of PAH-degrading microorganisms present (28, 30, 49).. Recently, more studies have focused on PAH degradation in marine and estuarine ecosystems (3, 11, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 46). No studies have been conducted on the PAH-degrading microorganisms associated with salt ...
17 EVALUATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS REMOVAL BY SIMULTANEOUS ADSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION Frieda Orshansky and Nava Narkis Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel ABSTRACT Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes were investigated. Three toxic organic compounds, nitrobenzene, aniline, and phenol were selected to be studied individually and in mixtures as a model of polluted toxic industrial wastewaters. Their behavior was assessed separately in adsorption, biotreatment, as well as in combined systems, by physicochemical and respirometric methods. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was used as an adsorbent in these experiments. In the adsorption systems, in single, bi- and trisolute solutions, the limiting adsorption capacities, Q and b, the energy of adsorption related constants, were determined from the linearized forms of Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Q values for aniline and phenol were found to be similar and ...
TY - JOUR AU - Nikolić, V. AU - Lončarević, Branka AU - Popović, Aleksandar R. PY - 2018 UR - http://cer.ihtm.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2411 AB - Biodegradation of methacrylic acid and starch graft copolymers was investigated for the first time in this manuscript. Synthesized copolymer was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. Copolymers with different percentage of grafting, G (%), were buried in three different types of soil. Biodegradation was monitored by measuring mass loss of the samples and using FTIR and SEM. The highest weight loss was in soil for the orchid growth (all samples had biodegradation higher than 89%), followed by soil for the cactus growth (mass loss higher than 70%) and soil rich in humus where some of the samples had biodegradation rate near or less than 50%. The correlation between G (%) and percent of weight loss after ...
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of combining an electro-Fenton pre-treatment and a biological treatment to remove azo dyes from aqueous effluents. The electro-Fenton reaction was performed in a two-compartment system involving a reference (saturated calomel electrode), a platinum anode and a graphite felt cathode. For the three considered dyes, high discoloration (in the range 77.1-97.8%) and low mineralization (in the range 7.7-18.8%) after 4-h reaction were in favor of the hybrid process, which was confirmed during subsequent experiments with methyl red sodium salt (MRSS) as a model dye. When potential-controlled electrolysis at −0.5 V/SCE was performed with a carbon-felt cathode surface of 378 cm2 and a catalytic amount of ferric iron of 1 mmol L−1, less than 1-h reaction was needed for an almost total discoloration (90.5%); while mineralization and oxidation remained low even after 48-h reaction, 11.1 and 57.2%, respectively. High discoloration level concomitantly to low
In 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) named a hazardous waste site in the state of Louisiana to the National Priority List (NPL). It was estimated at the time that the site held approximately eight million cubic feet of contaminated materials. A computer model was constructed for the site that would simulate the contaminant movement in the subsurface. Modeling efforts resulted in a successful negotiation with the EPA for monitored natural attenuation as the accepted remediation alternative. (Natural attenuation refers to the reduction, weakening, and eventual elimination of toxic substances in the soil and groundwater by natures own processes.) This EPA determination was a milestone for the site. Previously a pump-and-treat system, which was based on an initial groundwater model developed to simulate hydraulic containment, had cost millions of dollars to install, operate, and maintain. A carbon absorption system was used to treat the contaminated water recovered. By July ...
Study of the aerobic biodegradation of coke wastewater in a two and three-step activated sludge process.: A laboratory-scale biological plant composed of two ae
The hypothesis that artificial oxic conditions will lead to MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in anoxic, gasoline-contaminated aquifers was examined by adding oxygen in the form of a metal peroxide slurry to an anoxic part of gasoline-contaminated aquifer in South Carolina. Field observations of relatively rapid aerobic MTBE biodegradation following oxygen addition suggest that the indigenous bacteria have become acclimated not only to mg/L concentrations of MTBE in the gasoline plume, but also to periodic delivery of oxygen by recharge events. Significant natural attenuation of MTBE could occur if the oxygen limitations naturally associated with gasoline releases can be removed, either under natural conditions where discharging anoxic groundwater comes into contact with oxygen, or artificial conditions where oxygen can be added to aquifers containing mg/L concentrations of MTBE. This final solution might be an effective strategy for intercepting characteristically long MTBE plumes,
The influence of thermal pretreatment on degradation properties of organics in kitchen waste (KW) was investigated. The kinetics results showed that thermal pretreatment could enhance the degradation efficiency of crude protein (CP), fat, oil and grease (FOG), volatile solid (VS) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Thermal pretreatment showed no significant difference in the final concentration of protein but could decrease the FOG degradation potential (7-36%), while increased the lag phase for degradation of protein and FOG respectively by 35-65% and 11-82% compared with untreated KW. Cumulative biogas yield increased linearly and exponentially with the removal efficiency of VS and other organics (CP and FOG) respectively. Additionally, the reduction of CP increased exponentially with FOG removal efficiency. The calculating methods of biogas yield, organics reduction and corresponding appropriate digestion retention based on FOG and CP reduction amount and pretreatment parameters were ...
Teen uses microbes to biodegrade plastic bags, an article on Bruce Clement - Read all about Teen uses microbes to biodegrade plastic bags here.
D6340-98(2007) Standard Test Methods for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Radiolabeled Plastic Materials in an Aqueous or Compost Environment (Withdrawn 2016)
TY - GEN. T1 - The potential of hydrocarbon biodegradation. AU - Uzukwu, Chukwuemeka Chinaka. AU - Dionisi, Davide. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. M3 - Conference contribution. BT - The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioiC) 2nd annual conference, 28-29 January. CY - Glasgow. T2 - The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC)s 2nd Annual Conference on Realising the Opportunity Y2 - 28 January 2016 through 29 January 2016. ER - ...
After adding 14C-paromomycin to the fermentation broth we observed a varying course of decomposition of the antibiotic, which is dependent on the intensity of paromomycin biosynthesis running simultaneously. At a reduced rate of antibiotic biosynthesis, the activity of alkaline phosphatase is lower than with an increased rate of production. This applies for mycelium as well as for broth. ...
This study evaluated the chronic impact of erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on microbial activities, mainly focusing on changes in process kinetics induced on substrate biodegradation and all related biochemical processes of microbial metabolism. Experiments involved two fill/draw reactors sustained at steady state at two different sludge ages of 10 and 2.0 days, fed with peptone mixture and continuous erythromycin dosing of 50 mg/L. Oxygen uptake rate profiles were generated in a series of parallel batch reactors seeded with biomass from fill/draw systems at selected periods of steady-state operation. Experimental data were evaluated by model calibration reflecting inhibitory effect on process kinetics: continuous erythromycin dosing inhibited microbial growth, reduced the rate of hydrolysis, blocked substrate storage and accelerated endogenous respiration. Adverse impact was mainly due to changes inflicted on the composition of microbial community. Interruption of erythromycin feeding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional genes to assess nitrogen cycling and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. T2 - Primers and processing matter. AU - Ryan Penton, C.. AU - Johnson, Timothy A.. AU - Quensen, John F.. AU - Iwai, Shoko. AU - Cole, James R.. AU - Tiedje, James M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Targeting sequencing to genes involved in key environmental processes, i.e., ecofunctional genes, provides an opportunity to sample natures gene guilds to greater depth and help link community structure to process-level outcomes. Vastly different approaches have been implemented for sequence processing and, ultimately, for taxonomic placement of these gene reads. The overall quality of next generation sequence analysis of functional genes is dependent on multiple steps and assumptions of unknown diversity. To illustrate current issues surrounding amplicon read processing we provide examples for three ecofunctional gene groups. A combination of in silico, environmental and cultured strain sequences was used ...
We are studying a representative of a large group of chlorobenzoate degrading bacteria active in uncontaminated systems - Burkholderia phytofirmans OLGA172. Now we know that anthropogenic chemicals have not always been the driving selective force behind the evolution of chloro-organic degradative genes, we are looking for the natural selectors for these capabilities, initially by looking at the environmental triggers and mobile genetic elements that affect chloroaromatic degradative gene expression. The recent genome sequencing of OLGA172 in the lab has expanded this endeavour.. In addition, my lab carries out research on the species composition of bacterial communities in both natural and contaminated systems. These include waste water treatment systems, contaminated soils, rhizospheric communities and the hyporheic zones of streams.. The UTSC campus is heavily infested with an invasive species known as Dog Strangling Vine. My lab has recently begun research into the microbial associations of ...
Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP), were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating
YAO, Haiyan; REN, Yuan; WEI, Chaohai y YUE, Siyang. Biodegradation characterisation and kinetics of m-cresol by Lysinibacillus cresolivorans. Water SA [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.15-20. ISSN 1816-7950.. A novel strain of m-cresol-degrading bacterium, named as Lysinibacillus cresolivorans, was isolated from aerobic sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant. This bacterium is able to utilise m-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. The optimal pH for growth is 6.8 ~ 7.3 and the optimal temperature is 35ºC. Compared to organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources were easily utilised for the m-cresol biodegradation. The degradation rate of m-cresol at different starting concentrations was analysed with zero-order kinetic characteristics. When the initial concentration of m-cresol was 224.2 mg·ℓ-1, the reaction rate reached a maximum at 46.80 mg·(ℓ·h)-1.The cell growth kinetics was also investigated with initial m-cresol concentrations varying from 0 to 1 200 ...
Leakage of trichloroethene (TCE) from a neutralization pond at a former manufacturing facility near Niagara Falls, N.Y. during 1950-87 into the Guelph Formation of the Lockport Group, a fractured dolomite aquifer, created a plume of TCE and its metabolites that, by 1990, extended about 4,300 feet south of the facility. A smaller plume of dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPL) probably serves as a continuing source of TCE. The presence of the TCE metabolites cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethene in the plume, and the results of previous laboratory microcosm studies, indicate that the TCE is being degraded by naturally occurring microorganisms. Biodegradation rates of TCE and its metabolites were estimated through simulation with BIOMOC, a solute-transport model that represents multispecies reactions through Monod kinetics. A fracture zone in the Guelph Formation was represented as a porous medium containing an extensive, 3-foot thick layer with several interconnected fractures;
2014. Chapleur O., et al., Co-inoculating ruminal content neither provides active hydrolytic microbes nor improves methanization of 13C-cellulose in batch digesters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2014. 87(3): p. 616-629. Desmond-Le Quéméner, E. & Bouchez, T., A thermodynamic theory of microbial growth. The ISME Journal, 2014.. Driss-Limam, R., et al., Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose. MicrobiologyOpen, 2014. 3(2): p.157-167.. Lü, F., et al., Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity. The ISME Journal, 2014. 8: p. 88-102.. Hoyos-Hernandez, C., et al., Elucidation of the thermophilic phenol biodegradation pathway via benzoate during the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. Chemosphere, 2014. 97: p. 115-119.. Bridier, A., & Briandet, R. Contribution of confocal laser scanning microscopy in deciphering biofilm tridimensional structure ...
The purpose of this study is to compare natural attenuation models to predict transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in saturated groundwater Systems. This work was realised within the framework of the research program TRANSPOL. This program was created in order to bring a better and common practice of the use of transport models concerning various pollutants the most encountered. Real case study, Real Case 3, concerns chlorinated solvents fate and transport in groundwater.
EARTH scientists have long recognized(1-4) that the soluble organic acids excreted by soil biota enhance rates of mineral weathering, thereby chemically stratifying the soil and affecting the biodegradation pathways of organic matter, including pollutants(5). Multidentate organic ligands(6,7) also exist in industrial waste waters(8) and can enhance the mobility of heavy elements, including radionuclides(9). Here we examine whether rate coefficients for ligand-promoted disolution of minerals can be predicted from existing studies of dissolved metal complexes. We have performed dissolution experiments on bunsenite (NiO) to compare with published studies of ligand exchange around dissolved Ni(lI)-ligand complexes(10-12). The hypothesis is confirmed with surprising detail: the dissolution rate coefficient increases with the number of ligand functional groups coordinated to the surface metal, as do the exchange rate coefficients(10-12). Furthermore, we find that the dissolution rate coefficients can be
Given that over 80 million barreis of crude oil are consumed daily worldwide, it is unsurprising that petroleumhydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the most common contaminants of soils and groundwater. PHCs are water immiscible, i.e. they occur in the form of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), and commonly display limited water solubilities and relatively high toxicities. Because of this they are difficult to remove from porous media once emplaced and have the potential to be long-lasting sources of ground water contamination. Biodegradation is widely favored as a technique for the treatment of PHC contamination. It offers cost advantages and has the ability to destroy contaminants instead of simply transferring them between media. Furthermore, it can be applied in situ such that treatment can occur with minimal disturbance to existing structures, be they natural or man made. This thesis seeks to shed light on some of the factors which infiuence the effectiveness of biodegradation in the ...
Pyrolysis has been used for the last ten years to study the chemical nature of humic substances. However, obtaining data is hampered by analytical limitations. One of these is that carboxylic acids other than fatty acids are not usually present amongst pyrolysis products. To overcome this problem, a novel method - pyrolysis/methylation - is applied. Simultaneous pyrolysis/derivatization with tetramethylammonium hydroxide protects the carboxyl groups by formation of methyl esters. At the same time, partial methylation of hydroxyl groups occurs. This method permits the identification of a suite of carboxyl-containing aromatic and aliphatic compounds, not previously observed in conventional pyrolysis, providing useful information on the biodegradation processes of plant materials leading to macromolecular humic substances. , Pyrolysis has been used for the last ten years to study the chemical nature of humic substances. However, obtaining data is hampered by analytical limitations. One of these is ...
Biotechnology Conferences 2020 Rome and Bioengineering Conferences 2020 Rome are accredited scientific conferences scheduled in 2020 during June 18-20 is international biotechnology experts gathering
The metabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by an iron-reducing bacterial enrichment culture originating from diesel-contaminated groundwater was examined using d 7 -propylbenzene as a model hydrocarbon. Sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene showed that the dominant part (10 of 10 clones) of the enrichment culture consisted of a bacterium closely related to clones found in benzene-contaminated groundwater and to the iron-reducing β- proteobacterium, Rhodoferax ferrireducens (similarity values were 99.5% and 98.3%, respectively). In degradation studies conducted over 18 weeks, d 7 -propylphenols were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as intra-cellular metabolites concomitant with cell growth in the cultures. The amount of propylphenols increased during the exponential growth phase, and by the end of this phase 4 × 10 -14 moles of ferric iron were reduced and 3 × 10 -15 moles propylphenol produced for every cell formed. During the stationary growth phase the cell density was
Accepted April 2, 2014.. Abstract. In this research, a diesel-degrading bacterium (strain KJ629314) was isolated from a mining soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and properly characterized using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular technique. The 16s rDNA sequence analysis allowed to identify KJ629314 as a strain of Bacillus sp. Experimental phase was conducted to assess the aerobic biodegradation of diesel; to determine the removal effciency and the corresponding microbial growth; diesel was used as a substrate - electron donor - carbon source; and oxygen (via aeration) as the electron acceptor. Tests were conducted in microcosms with sterile sand with nutrients according to the Nitrogen:Phosphorus ratio of 15:1 at different diesel concentrations (10,000; 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 50,000 mg/kg soil). Results showed that the strain of Bacillus sp KJ629314 has a high potential in the biodegradation of diesel at the evaluated concentrations, and it was demonstrated ...
The number of approaches to evaluate the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within contaminated aquifers is limited. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of a novel method based on the combination of in situ and laboratory microcosms using 13C-labelled PAHs as tracer compounds.. The biodegradation of four PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene) was investigated in an oxic aquifer at the site of a former gas plant. In situ biodegradation of naphthalene and fluorene was demonstrated using in situ microcosms (BACTRAP®s). BACTRAP®s amended with either [13C6]-naphthalene or [13C5/13C6]-fluorene (50:50) were incubated for a period of over two months in two groundwater wells located at the contaminant source and plume fringe, respectively. Amino acids extracted from BACTRAP®-grown cells showed significant 13C-enrichments with 13C-fractions of up to 30.4% for naphthalene and 3.8% for fluorene, thus providing evidence for the in situ biodegradation and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [J L Castro-Mayorga, A Martínez-Abad, M J Fabra, Catarina Olivera, M Reis, J M Lagarón].
Approximately 500 Tg of isoprene are emitted to the atmosphere annually, an amount similar to that of methane, and despite its significant effects on the climate, very little is known about the biological degradation of isoprene in the environment. Isolation and characterisation of isoprene degraders at the molecular level has allowed the development of probes targeting isoA encoding the α-subunit of the isoprene monooxygenase. This enzyme belongs to the soluble diiron centre monooxygenase family and catalyses the first step in the isoprene degradation pathway. The use of probes targeting key metabolic genes is a successful approach in molecular ecology to study specific groups of bacteria in complex environments. Here, we developed and tested a novel isoA PCR primer set to study the distribution, abundance, and diversity of isoprene degraders in a wide range of environments. The new isoA probes specifically amplified isoA genes from taxonomically diverse isoprene-degrading bacteria including members
Gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) has made it possible to analyze natural stable isotope ratios (e.g., 13C/12C, 15N/14N, 2H/1H) of individual organic contaminants in environmental samples. They may be used as fingerprints to infer contamination sources, and may demonstrate, and eve Journal of Environmental Monitoring Top Cited Papers 2009 and 2010
Marić, Petra; Ahel, Marijan; Babić, Olivera; Simeunović, Jelica; Smital, Tvrtko (2020) Ecotoxicological profiling of selected cyanobacterial strains using multi-endpoint effect-directed analysis. Ecotoxicology, 2020 . ISSN 0963-9292 Kostanjevečki, Petra; Petrić, Ines; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko; Ahel, Marijan; Terzić, Senka (2019) Aerobic biodegradation of tramadol by pre- adapted activated sludge culture: Cometabolic transformations and bacterial community changes during enrichment. Science of the Total Environment, 687 . pp. 858-866. ISSN 0048-9697 Kostanjevečki, Petra; Sviličić Petrić, Ines; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko; Ahel, Marijan; Terzić, Senka (2019) Biodegradation study of methadone by adapted activated sludge: Elimination kinetics, transformation products and ecotoxicological evaluation. Chemosphere, 214 . pp. 719-728. ISSN 0045-6535 Terzic, Senka; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina; Jurina, Tamara; Krizman-Matasic, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Mihaljević, Ivan; Lončar, Jovica; ...
This volume focuses on biosynthesis, metabolism, biodegradation, functions, properties and applications of miscellaneous polymers, such as hemozoin, thymine-containing styrene polymers, polythioesters, polyphosphate, polyhydroxymethionine, polyketides, natural polyacetals, biodegradation of a wide range of synthetic polymers.
This volume focuses on biosynthesis, metabolism, biodegradation, functions, properties and applications of miscellaneous polymers, such as hemozoin, thymine-containing styrene polymers, polythioesters, polyphosphate, polyhydroxymethionine, polyketides, natural polyacetals, biodegradation of a wide range of synthetic polymers.
Chlorinated organic compounds are extensively employed in industry and agriculture. These chemicals are considered among the most severe public health issues, due to their widespread and uncontrolled release in the environment combined to the recalcitrance to degradation and tendency to bio-accumulate. 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is one of the most widespread chlorinated pollutants. This solvent is a key intermediate in the production of PVC. The public health concern and environmental safety issues related to 1,2-DCA, have fueled the scientific interested on the application of feasible and effective bioremediation strategies, on the identification of microorganisms able to efficiently and rapidly degrade it. 1,2-DCA can undergo microbial-mediated degradation through several aerobic or anaerobic metabolic processes. Due to the typical presence of this pollutant in anoxic environments research has been focused on the anaerobic dehalogenation process based on reductive dechlorination in which ...
Our goal was to tackle the biological conversion of hydrocarbons in an aqueous environment. The basis of the project was generating a biological chassis, which provides the framework for varying and multiple characteristics needed for the conversion of hydrocarbons, including considerations like conversion ability, hydrocarbon tolerance/solubility and halo (salt) tolerance. This chassis could than be used in for example specifically the biological degradation of oil particles in oil sands tailing water. ...