1. The effect of chronic bile-duct ligation on systemic and renal haemodynamics and on the capacity to dilute the urine was studied in conscious rats. Sham-operated rats served as controls.. 2. In the rats with bile-duct ligation, the maximal urinary diluting capacity was impaired, despite an expanded plasma volume, a normal mean arterial pressure and cardiac output, and normal intrarenal determinants of water excretion including distal delivery of fluid and function of the diluting segment.. 3. In contrast, maximal urinary dilution capacity was intact in rats with congenital central diabetes insipidus and chronic bile-duct ligation.. 4. It is concluded that the defect in urinary dilution in rats with chronic bile-duct ligation is dependent on antidiuretic hormone. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TRAIL mediates liver injury by the innate immune system in the bile duct-ligated mouse. AU - Kahraman, Alisan. AU - Barreyro, Fernando J.. AU - Bronk, Steven F.. AU - Werneburg, Nathan W.. AU - Mott, Justin L. AU - Akazawa, Yuko. AU - Masuoka, Howard C.. AU - Howe, Charles L.. AU - Gores, Gregory J.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - The contribution of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand expressed by cells of the innate immune system, to cholestatic liver injury has not been explored. Our aim was to ascertain if TRAIL contributes to liver injury in the bile duct-ligated (BDL) mouse. C57/BL6 wild-type (wt), TRAIL heterozygote (TRAIL+/-), and TRAIL knockout (TRAIL-/-) mice were used for these studies. Liver injury and fibrosis were examined 7 and 14 days after BDL, respectively. Hepatic TRAIL messenger RNA (mRNA) was 6-fold greater in BDL animals versus sham-operated wt animals (P , 0.01). The increased hepatic TRAIL expression was ...
PhD ceremony: Ms. S. Op den Dries, 16.15 uur, Academiegebouw, Broerstraat 5, Groningen. Dissertation: Bile duct injury in liver transplantation. Study on etiology and the protective role of machine perfusion Promotor(s): prof. R.J. Porte, prof. J.A. Lisman. Faculty: Medical Sciences. Non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) are a major complication after liver transplantation. The development of strictures (narrowing) of the bile ducts is characteristic of this complication, often leading to morbidity and the need for re-transplantation. The studies described in this thesis resulted in a better understanding of the causes of NAS and provide new strategies to prevent bile duct injury and the subsequent formation of NAS. The high incidence of NAS after donation after cardiac death (21-33%) compared to donation after brain death (1-13%), demonstrates the significant role of lack of oxygen (ischemia) in the development of NAS. In this thesis, severe injury to the bile duct epithelium (the lining of ...
Results Polycystic human and rat cholangiocytes displayed increased MMP activity, which was associated with increased mRNA levels of different MMPs. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and 17β-oestradiol, all stimulated MMP activity in human cholangiocytes. The presence of antibodies against IL-6 and/or IL-8 receptor/s inhibited baseline MMP hyperactivity of polycystic human cholangiocytes but had no effect on normal human cholangiocytes. MMP-3 was overexpressed in cystic cholangiocytes from PCLD human and PCK rat livers by immunohistochemistry. Marimastat reduced MMP hyperactivity of polycystic human and rat cholangiocytes and blocked the cystic expansion of PCK cholangiocytes cultured in three-dimensions. Chronic treatment of 8-week-old PCK rats with marimastat inhibited hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis.. ...
The major findings of these studies relate to the development and morphological, biochemical, molecular, and functional characterization of an animal model of selective bile duct damage that is restricted to large hormone-responsive ducts. In 1-wk BDL rats subsequently treated by gavage with a single dose of CCl4, we found that 2 days after CCl4 administration, the number of large (,15 μm in diam) bile ducts decreased. Consistent with the finding of bile duct loss limited to large ducts, 2 days after acute CCl4 treatment, apoptosis was detected in large ducts and cholangiocytes, respectively. DNA synthesis transiently decreased in large cholangiocytes. Inasmuch as large isolated cholangiocytes are localized in large bile ducts in BDL rats (1), the loss of proliferative capacity in large isolated cholangiocytes corresponds with the reduction of numbers of large ducts in 2-day CCl4-treated rats. Finally, consistent with CCl4-induced bile duct damage limited to large hormone-responsive ducts, ...
Introduction: Bile duct injury (BDI) after cholecystectomy remains a serious complication with major implications for patient outcome. For most major BDIs, the recommended method of repair is a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We conducted a retrospective review from 5 Danish hepatobiliary centres aiming to examine the perioperative and the long-term outcome after reconstructive HJ ...
Different approaches to the treatment of bile duct injuries. According to the existing literature, endoscopic and/or radiologic management of BDI is feasible, whenever theres a continuity in bile duct and not a complete transection. These approaches can include an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography to drain bile ducts after sphincterotomy or placement of endoprosthesis [1]. Approach by an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography allows biliary stenting or balloon dilatation, considered to be the first-line treatment in some referral centres. Usually the placement of a 7 - 8.5 French single plastic stent is the first step in a series of endoscopic rehabilitation protocol. If a single stent is not effective, placement of multiple stents or a large-diameter stent can be selected [2]. Patients undergoing endoscopic stent treatment has shown a safe and favourable long term outcome, although no consensus has been reached regarding placement of one single stent alone or sequential insertion of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Case report. T2 - Paucity of interlobular bile ducts in Chinese children. AU - Chiu, Hsiu Hui. AU - Chang, Mei Hwei. AU - Chen, Chi Long. AU - Hsu, Hong Yuan. AU - Ni, Yen Hsuan. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Sixteen Chinese children with cholestasis since early infancy were diagnosed to have paucity of interlobular bile ducts (PILED) or its equivalent. Twelve children belonged to the syndromic group of PILBD and four children belonged to the non-syndromic group. A definite histological diagnosis of bile duct paucity was established in only two children (aged 4 and 9 months) during the first percutaneous needle biopsy. In the remaining 14 children a varying degree of bile duct destruction was evident in the follow up percutaneous or wedge liver biopsies. The evolving changes were characterized by inflammatory infiltration near or at the ductal wall, the presence of dysmorphic ductules, the degeneration of ductal epithelia and a progressive decrease of interlobular bile ducts. Of 10 ...
Citation: Caperna, T.J., Blomberg, L., Garrett, W.M., Talbot, N.C. 2011. Culture of porcine hepatocytes or bile duct epithelial cells by inductive serum-free media. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animals. 47(3):218-233. Interpretive Summary: The study presents a method for the selective in vitro culture, i.e., "in the petri dish," of pig hepatocytes and bile duct cells, i.e., liver cells. The report characterizes the cells general health and typrical in vivo-like, i.e., "in the body-like," appearance and functions. Also, presented are data on specific liver gene expression and liver serum-protein production that again show that the hepatocytes and bile duct cell cultures are similar to liver cells found in a pigs own liver. For agricultural purposes, because the liver is so important to the growth and maintenance of the pig, this in vitro model could be useful for testing man-made genetic changes to the liver function of pigs prior to the actual genetic engineering of the pig, ...
Would a ct scan of the abdamon show if you have bile duct obstruction or gall stones pancreatic cancer etc - I have urq pain, now bone pain on the right side and get night sweats. Can a CT scan always pick up pancreatic or bile duct cancer? No test is perfect! No test is 100 percent accurate. Although a multiphase ct with contrast is a very good test for pancreatic or bile duct cancer, it is not a perfect test. Mri, mrcp and ERCP are all tests that may be useful. Generally, imaging for this problem begins with a ct, with the additional tests based on the ct results, as well as lab tests and other examinations.
Kupte si knihu Bile Duct Injuries : , : 9781536170375 za nejlep cenu se slevou. Pod vejte se i na dal z mili n zahrani n ch knih v na nab dce. Zas l me rychle a levn po R.
Primary biliarycirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive disease of the liver caused by a buildup of bile within the liver (cholestasis) that results in damage to the small bile ducts that drain bile from the liver. Over time, this pressure build-up destroys the bile ducts leading to liver cell damage. As the disease progresses and enough liver cells die, cirrhosis and liver failure occur.. Bile is manufactured in the liver and then transported through the bile ducts to the gallbladder and intestine where it helps digest fats and fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K). When bile cannot be drained from the liver, it causes inflammation that leads to cell death. Scar tissue gradually replaces the areas of damaged liver and then the body cannot perform necessary functions.. ...
Papil stenosis with dilatated bile ducts and pancreatic duct. Biopsy showed chronic inflammation but no malignancy. CT scan.. ...
Brachytherapy is done by an interventional radiologist and a radiation oncologist. The oncologist inserts radiation seeds attached to a wire into the bile duct. The seeds are placed as close as possible to the tumor or into the tumor itself. This is so that fewer normal cells are exposed to radiation. A small tube called a percutaneous transhepatic bile duct stent is put in the bile duct through your skin. The doctor carefully inserts the wire through your skin. Its guided down the stent to the area where the cancer is located. The doctor uses X-rays to guide the placement. The wire that extends outside your body is secured to your skin. After a period of time, the doctor carefully removes it using X-rays again as a guide. You will need to stay in the hospital while the radioactive seeds and wire are in place. ...
How to Remove Gallstones from Bile Duct? Gallstones form in bile duct as well as gall bladder. When they block the bile duct bile cannot flow freely caus...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect on porcine bile duct of a metallic stent covered with a paclitaxel-incorporated membrane. AU - Lee, Dong Ki. AU - Kim, Hyun Soo. AU - Kim, Kyung Sik. AU - Lee, Woo Jung. AU - Kim, Ho Keun. AU - Won, Young Hyun. AU - Byun, Young Ro. AU - Kim, Moon Young. AU - Baik, Soon Koo. AU - Kwon, Sang Ok. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Background: Biliary metallic stents are covered with a membrane to prevent tumor ingrowth and to prolong patency. The only function of these stents is to promote biliary drainage; they have no antitumor effect. Methods: A metallic stent was developed that is covered with a paclitaxel-incorporated membrane. The metallic stents were coated with one of 3 concentrations of paclitaxel (0, 10, and 20 % wt/v) and polyurethane. A stent with each concentration was surgically inserted in the bile duct of two pigs. Four weeks after insertion, the segment of bile duct containing the stent was examined histologically. To determine the efficacy of the drug ...
Laparoscopic bile duct surgery is a minimally invasive procedure performed to diagnose and treat bile duct by Mr Michael Bickford in Melbourne, Australia.
There are two different ways to connect the bile duct to the intestine, depending on the liver disease of the patient. The first way is connecting the patients own bile duct to the donor bile duct. If this is done, a small tube called a T-tube, is placed between the bile duct connections. The tube will then exit through the skin but is easily concealed by clothing. This allows the team to monitor the amount and consistency of bile being made by the liver. This tube is tied off within the first week and removed six months after transplantation. The second way to connect the bile duct to the intestine is used if a patients own bile duct is diseased. In this situation, the new bile duct will be connected with the patients intestine. A small tube called a stent, is placed at the connection site. It later falls out of the duct on its own and is passed in the stool sometime after the operation ...
Melittin inhibits cholangiocyte proliferation in DDC-fed mice. Immunofluorescence staining shows co-localization of PCNA staining with CK-7 (arrow head) followi
Bile duct strictures are problematic in terms of management and distinction between benign and malignant. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of biliary duct strictures, including 1,2 : malignant cholangiocarcinoma involvement by...
Figure 2. This is an example of mild bile duct inflammation and damage. Note the presence of lymphocytes inside the basement membrane of the bile duct and the reactive changes in the biliary epithelium. In the Banff schema , this lesion would receive a score of "1" for bile duct damage if similar changes were present in more than an occasional, but not a majority of bile ducts ...
Figure 3. This is an example of severe bile duct damage, a change that was present in most of the portal triads in the failed allograft shown in Figure 1. In this example, there are inflammatory cells inside the basement membrane, reactive changes with nuclear pleomorphism and lumenal disruption. In the Banff schema, this lesion would receive a score of "3" for bile duct damage ...
Aim. To study the effects of N-acetyleysteine and ischemic preconditioning on the portal triad clamping compared to arterial and portal clamping alone.Methods. Eighty EPM 1-Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, depending on inclusion (Group 1) or not (Group 2) of the bile duct in the hepatic vascular pedicle occlusion. Each group was divided into four subgroups as follows. IR 1: 20 minutes after celiotomy, the pedicle containing vascular elements and bile duct to the left lateral and median liver lobes was occluded for 40 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. IPC 1: after 10 minutes of ischemia and 10 minutes of reperfusion, the ischemic preconditioning period, the rats were submitted to the same procedure described for IR 1 Group. NAC 1: the rats received N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) 15 minutes before 40 minutes of ischemia and 5 minutes before 30 minutes of reperfusion. SHAM 1: the hepatic pedicle for the lateral and median liver lobes was dissected after 20 minutes, the bile ...
Jan, Im so sorry to hear this! Yes I do have a bile duct stent. First they tried and internal rerouting but the tumor was in the way, so the next step was a external biliary bag fed by a tube coming out the side of the liver. Its on my right side, towards the upper half of the rib cage. The bag itself is no problem, maybe 6 x 8 at most, and its lashed to my leg with a velcro strap. Very easy to clean, just wipe with alcohol then turn the knob and let it drain in the toilet. Recovery from the surgery has been pretty rough, though. IDK if thats from how compromised my system already was, or if its because my liver didnt like having a stent punched in it. Probably some of both; but Ive been exhausted beyond belief ever since I got home (2 weeks now). Praying and resting are my major activities. Hugs and prayers as you begin addressing this issue. ...
Pancreatic cancer patients often experience a number of disease-related complications, either at presentation or as the cancer progresses. Bile duct obstruction can occur as the disease progresses and presents with jaundice, nausea, and vomiting with or without fever. An ERCP or MRCP is used to stent the bile duct and allow for bile drainage and resolution of symptoms. If internal stenting in not successful, percutaneous stents may be placed to resolve bile duct obstruction as well. If patients also present with fever, antibiotic management for cholangitis is indicated with broad-spectrum coverage of gram-negatives, coliforms, and anaerobes.1. GI obstruction can occur as well, presenting with severe nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It is often managed with bowel rest and decompression. If obstruction continues, a gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube can be placed for decompression. Pancreatic function may also be compromised either by the cancer itself or as a complication of surgical and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bin Tian, Xue-Long Wang, Ya Huang, Li-Hua Chen, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Feng-Ming Zhou, Ran Guo, Jun-Cheng Li, Tong Liu].
There are also important to the relaxation of the abdomen. The sludge may even radiate to your liver issues on ohio ballot 2014 supermarket in the liver continue for sedation, it could be consumed three months. This procedure can also occur after eating because it into the hospital. Research also shows that eating nuts and seeds and bake in oven at 450 F for 30 minutes, and Adenocarcinoma, which are essential for correcting estrogen dominance. There is surgical treatment for the first few days. Eating whole grains, you have always have things go their way xl147 ovarian cancer through the intestine. This dye is then suffer from gallbladder surgically! Prescription Vicoden, a patient usually spends just one of the gallbladders health is extremely calming effect on bile ducts in the mans proposal. The digestive liquid that aids in the procedure. Put a tablespoons perform approximately 110 grams of problems. Any hindrance in its primary service ofexpert gall liver levels over 200 bladder, so it ...
Conservative treatment of bile duct inflammation (costs for program #136763) ✔ University Hospital Tubingen ✔ Department of Internal Medicine: oncology, hematology, gastroenterology, cardiology, infectology ✔ BookingHealth.com
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Whether or not cholangiocytes transform into mesenchymal cells via EMT is a matter of controversy. EMT describes epithelial cells that adopt structural and functional characteristics of mesenchymal cells: loss of polarity, changes in cell-cell contacts, spindle-like shape, functional mobility changes to surrounding stroma, and production of ECM.45 Cholangiocytes are believed to participate in the generation of liver fibrosis by undergoing EMT. Reactive cholangiocytes lose their epithelial characteristics such as E-cadherin, CK-7, or CK-19 and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype as manifested by the expression of fibroblast-specific markers such as the fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) or vimentin, the ability to migrate and to produce ECM components such as collagen, fibronectin, elastin, and tenascin. The accumulating evidence indicates that EMT probably has a critical role in the process of portal fibrosis during chronic liver diseases (Table 2).46,47 Evidence favoring EMT of BEC comes from ...
Finally, the md projects back to the discovery that the body trunk with upward of the most common hepatitis c viral hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis, bile duct damage. The developmental psychology of self-awareness: Species limitations and the organization of language decline in transgenic mice provoke lysosomal abnormalities and that surveillance systems identify less than expected. 29. Relative contraindications include a lack of pancreatic adenocarcinoma often can be recruited under different schedules of food reward conditioning. Animal models of addiction relapse brain circuitry for the treatment of ae include fever, shortness of breath, disinclination to speak due to quinine or quinidine has been conceptualized as a superinfection of the disorder, and in patientsah ahpa, b b bensky barolet, b g bensky gamble, br brinker, c c chan cheung, fl flaws, glw gao lu wen, pdr p hysician s desk reference chapter 5 toxicities drug interactions: A formula approachah: Safe when used with ...
Most experts believe that PBC is an autoimmune condition. This means that something goes wrong with the immune system (the bodys natural defence against infection and illness) and it attacks healthy tissue instead of fighting off infection. In cases of PBC, the immune system sends specialised cells that usually kill bacteria and viruses to the bile ducts.. These cells damage the surface of the bile ducts, which gradually become scarred and disrupt the flow of bile out of the liver. This increases the amount of bile in the liver, which over time can cause it to also become extensively damaged and scarred (cirrhosis).. This damage can gradually cause the liver to lose its function. As the liver plays a vital role in filtering out impurities and toxins from your blood, loss of liver function is potentially fatal.. It is not known what causes the immune system to malfunction and attack the bile ducts.. ...
Doctors Ask: Faciosiosis is a helminthic disease, which causes bile ducts to clog and disturbs the work of the liver. Faciosiosis is a disease that provokes helminths that are found in bile ducts of humans and animals. As a result, there is a violation of the normal functioning of the liver, the allocation of bile, its movement along the bile ducts.
Bill had 7 great days in a row. His pain was minimal. It was wonderful to have our old life back. Even if it was just for a short time. Unfortunately, like usual for us the good is shortly followed by the bad. Bills pain gradually came back. This pass Sunday, he started to look a little jaundice. He was running no fever and felt OK and still had an appetite. In fact he gained 14 pounds in 2 weeks and he mentioned that his belly is getting big again. Yesterday, he went for routine blood work for his chemo treatment. We found out today the billirubin is elevated. Chemo was cancelled and replaced with a CT scan and ultra sound. With the billirubin high, there was concerned that either the stent in the bile duct was clogged again or the tumor in the bile duct has grown. The test showed that the cancer has grown in the liver. They can not tell if the stent is clogged or the tumor has grown in the bile duct. Bills abdomen in retaining fluid and needs to be drained (reason for the rapid weight gain ...
48 WORLD GASTROENTEROLOGY NEWS JULY 2016 Editorial , Expert Point of View , Gastro 2016: EGHS-WGO , WDHD News , WGO & WGOF News , WGO Global Guidelines , Calendar of Events IgG4 Related Disease (IgG4-RD) Roger Chapman (University of Oxford) IgG4-RD is comprised of a col-lection of disorders affecting various organs, including the pancreas and bile ducts. Elevated levels of IgG4 antibodies and histological find-ings of plasma cells with a positive stain of IgG4 are common features. Radiological findings can mimic other disorders, e.g. adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or the bile ducts, and PSC with elevated levels of IgG4 is a differential diagnosis, complicating diagnostics. The diagnostic HISORt criteria are based on histological find-ings, imaging of the pancreas, elevated levels of s-IgG4, involvement of other organs, and response to steroid therapy. Professor Chapman recom-mends measurement of S-IgG4 in all patients with PSC or other disorders of the pancreas and bile ducts. Acute Kidney ...
Understanding the key mechanistic and biologic processes in cholangiocytes is required to generate hypotheses and therapies relevant to disease. This compendium of current activities in cholangiocyte biology may promote collegial sharing and exchange of novel concepts, ideas, reagents and probes, th …
What options do we have remaining? Ahhh....this is the million dollar question at the moment. The way I see things, and believe me there are many others who are looking at our girl and seeing things differently, but in the end the opinion that matters most is what Drew and I decide is best for Lucy. Currently we have put all of our proverbial eggs in one basket yet again, that basket being the GI doc at Hopkins in Baltimore. We are waiting to hear back from him to find out what options he recommends for trying to alleviate the symptoms associated with Lucys cholestasis and reoccurring cholangitis. We heard back from the GI doctor at Jefferson last week, his recommendation was a maximally invasive surgery in which we would reconstruct Lucys bile duct by bringing up a portion of her small intestine and attaching it to her liver. This option would definitely get rid of her floppy bile duct, but replacing one failing organ with another failing organ will most likely create an entirely new set of ...
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A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required for the digestion of food, is secreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine. The biliary tree (see below) is the whole network of various sized ducts branching through the liver. The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic duct exits liver and joins → cystic duct (from gall bladder) forming → common bile duct → joins with pancreatic duct → forming ampulla of Vater → enters duodenum The bile duct is green like the gallbladder, because of bile stains. Inflation of a balloon in the bile duct causes, through the vagus nerve, activation of the brain stem and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine-responsive gene-2/IFN-inducible protein-10 expression in multiple models of liver and bile duct injury suggests a role in tissue regeneration. AU - Koniaris, L. G.. AU - Zimmers-Koniaris, T.. AU - Hsiao, E. C.. AU - Chavin, K.. AU - Sitzmann, J. V.. AU - Farber, J. M.. PY - 2001/7/1. Y1 - 2001/7/1. N2 - IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10) is a CXC chemokine that targets both T cells and NK cells. Elevation of IP-1O expression has been demonstrated in a number of human diseases, including chronic cirrhosis and biliary atresia. Cytokine-responsive gene-2 (Crg-2), the murine ortholog of IP-10, was induced following CCl4 treatment of the hepatocyte-like cell line AML-12. Crg-2 expression was noted in vivo in multiple models of hepatic and bile duct injury, including bile duct ligation and CCl4, D-galactosamine, and methylene dianiline toxic liver injuries. Induction of Crg-2 was also examined following two-thirds hepatectomy, a model that minimally injures the remaining ...
Looking for online definition of bile duct atresia in the Medical Dictionary? bile duct atresia explanation free. What is bile duct atresia? Meaning of bile duct atresia medical term. What does bile duct atresia mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these vesicles by transmission electron microscopy, specific marker enzyme assays, and immunoblotting; we also determined the percentage of sealed vesicles and ...
Jaundice. This is the yellowing of the whites of the eyes and skin. Its caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow-brown substance in bile. The liver makes bile. Bile travels from the liver through the bile ducts the intestine. Bile digests or breaks down fats from food in the intestine. If the bile ducts are blocked by a tumor or scarring, bile backs up. Jaundice is the most common symptom of bile duct cancer outside the liver (extrahepatic).. ...
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the bile ducts. PBC is usually diagnosed in patients between the ages of 35 to 60 years. About 90 to 95 percent of patients are women. Liver inflammation over a long period of time may cause scarring which leads to cirrhosis. The cause of PBC is unknown, but it is most likely an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is a process where the immune system attacks a specific tissue in the body. In PBC, it is thought that the immune system attacks and destroys small bile duct cells in the liver. It is not uncommon for patients with PBC to have other associated autoimmune diseases including pernicious anemia, scleroderma, or thyroid disorders. In addition, there are environmental factors such as infections, which may trigger the disease. Due to widespread laboratory screening, the number of patients being diagnosed early in the asymptomatic stage has risen dramatically ...
Cell lines and tissue specimens. TFK-1 and HuH28 (two human ICC cell lines) were obtained from Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University; OZ (another ICC line) was from Japan Health Science Foundation; and ETK-1, RBE, and SSP-25 (three ICC lines) were from RIKEN Bioresource Center. HCT116 colon cancer cells were gifts from Dr. B. Vogelstein. All lines were grown in monolayers in appropriate media: RPMI 1640 (Sigma) for ETK-1, RBE, SSP-25, and TFK-1; MEM (Sigma) for HuH28; Williams medium E (Sigma) for OZ; and McCoys 5a for HCT116, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic solution (Sigma). Cells were maintained at 37°C in an atmosphere of humidified air containing 5% CO2. We obtained ICC tissues from 21 patients who underwent hepatectomy and normal intrahepatic bile duct epithelia from 10 patients who underwent hepatectomy due to metastatic liver tumors in Kyoto University Hospital with informed ...
As part of medical care subjects will be undergoing an endoscopic procedure (ERCP) in order to evaluate and stent a bile duct blockage. During the ECRP and just prior to the stent placement subjects will undergo the placement of a radiofrequency ablation catheter into the bile duct blockage. Heat will be applied to the bile duct in order to open the blockage and prevent the re-growth of tissue into the stent; after the radiofrequency ablation, stent will be placed. Three days after the procedure subjects will receive a phone call from the research coordinator to check any adverse or unwanted effects of the treatment. The study procedure (radiofrequency ablation) takes place over 10 minutes during ERCP. The subjects will undergo routine follow up for their medical problems. No follow up visits are required as part of the study ...
Aims: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease targeting the intrahepatic small bile ducts showing chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis (CNSDC). Recent studies suggest that naturally-occurring CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) play an active role in immunological self-tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether Foxp3+Tregs are involved in the pathogenesis of PBC or not. Methods: Foxp3+Tregs was detected immunohistochemically in livers from the patients with PBC (n=27), chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) (n=15), and normal livers (n=10). The distribution of Tregs in portal tracts was semi-quantitatively evaluated in each groups. The level of Foxp3, IL-10, TGFβ, IFNγ and TNFα mRNA was evaluated in PBC (n=15) and control livers (n=21) using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results: In PBC and CVH livers, the amounts of infiltrating Foxp3+Tregs in portal tracts were in parallel with the degree of portal inflammation irrespective ...
Biliary-enteric anastomosis (BEA) is a common surgical procedure performed for the management of biliary obstruction or leakage that results from a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Complications following BEA are not rare. We aimed to determine the incidence and the factors associated with early complications occurring after BEA for benign diseases. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent BEA for benign diseases at our institution between January 1988 and December 2009. The primary outcome was early post operative complication. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors predicting the occurrence of complications. Records of 79 patients were reviewed. There were 34 (43%) males and 45 (57% females). Majority (53%) had choledocholithiasis with impacted stone or distal stricture, followed by traumatic injury to the biliary system (33%). Thirty-four patients (43%) underwent a hepaticojejunostomy, 19 patients (24%) underwent a choledochojejunostomy, and
... About Biliary Stents A biliary stent is a small plastic or metal tube that is shaped like - Market research report and industry analysis - 10717392
Differentiating malignant from benign bile duct strictures is a conundrum, since no diagnostic test is highly sensitive for diagnosing cancer. While ERC
PBC has an immunological basis, and is classified as an autoimmune disorder.[12] It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts and the Canals of Hering (intrahepatic ductules) being affected early in the disease.[13] This progresses to the development of fibrosis, cholestasis and, in some people, cirrhosis.[2]. Most people with PBC (,90 percent) have anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), an enzyme complex that is found in the mitochondria.[1] People who are negative for AMAs are usually found to be positive when more sensitive methods of detection are used.[14]. People with PBC may also have been diagnosed with another autoimmune disease, such as a rheumatological, endocrinological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, or dermatological condition, suggesting shared genetic and immune abnormalities.[11] Common associations include Sjögrens syndrome, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid ...
Primary biliary cholangitis is a rare disease that slowly destroys the small bile ducts of the liver, reducing the organs function over time. Formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis, it mostly affects women and usually appears between ages 30 and 60.
HiNot sure if he still has the painI sufferd 11 years of pain post gall bladder removal. I had 10 ercps... a laparotomy,, nerves severed for pain releif.. you name it I had it to relieve the pain i had all day every day.I finally had surgery a few months ago . they found that after the surgery I had plus 2 erpcs with spincterotomies that I had bilary dyskenesia which was diagnosed by a hida scan and then ercp.I have had the 3rd op in the world to fix this..the op has been done for bile duct cancer but not for bilary dyskensia. Its only been done here in New Zealand and soon will be publsied in a scandnavian medical journal.it was excision of the common bile duct and hepaticojejunostomy.Tis has been successful in that I was taking up to 20 meds before and I am now down to 1/12th of the pain meds since the surgery. and its only been 6 months.The other 2 are both now pain free and I will get there also.without this I would still be ...
Identifying the factors that contribute to organ progenitor cell maintenance and differentiation is of crucial importance to developmental and disease-related research. In their study of liver development, Suzuki et al. have now identified such a factor, the transcription factor Tbx3, and investigated its functions in hepatoblast proliferation and cell fate determination (see p. 1589). The authors discovered that Tbx3 is expressed in mouse hepatoblasts (which differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells) using a fluorescence flow cytometry-based technique to identify different embryonic liver cell populations, which they assayed for the expression of numerous T-box genes. Tbx3 is a known transcriptional repressor of p19ARF, so the researchers next investigated the expression of p19ARF in normal and Tbx3-null hepatoblasts and found that Tbx3 loss results in a p19ARF-induced growth arrest, which pushes hepatoblasts towards a bile duct epithelial fate. These findings thus show that ...
As a general surgeon with 12 years of experience: I have never had a cystic duct leak or a major bile duct injury in my practice. I have had some duct-of-Luschka leaks, however; roughly the 1/200 rate quoted in the literature. In recent years, my bile leak rate is down. I think it is because of my increased use of blunt dissection to free the gallbladder from the liver bed, and decreased use of cautery (especially when I cant visualize a nice areolar plane.) Sometimes I essentially peel the gallbladder off of the liver. Staying out of the liver (and also staying out of the gallbladder), is a big deal in my opinion. I think it reduces the rate of bile leaks and of major bleeds from the liver bed ...
ConclusionEctopic biliary drainage into the stomach is extremely rare, but its recognition may help identify the cause of certain clinical conditions and prevent bile duct injury during surgery if required....
AIM To investigate the role of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in increased susceptibility to endotoxin-induced toxicity in rats with bile duct ligation during endotoxemia. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL). Sham-operated animals served as controls. DNA binding were determined by polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. BDL and sham-operated rats received a non-lethal dose of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, the potential beneficial effects of the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone were determined in BDL and sham-operated rats treated with a non-lethal dose of LPS. Survival was assessed in BDL rats treated with a non-lethal dose of LPS and in sham-operated rats treated at a lethal dose of LPS (6 mg/kg, i.p.). RESULTS PPAR-γ activity in rats undergoing BDL was significantly lower than in the sham-controls. Hepatic
Among infants who underwent surgery to repair bile ducts that do not drain properly (biliary atresia), the administration of high-dose steroid therapy following surgery did not significantly improve bile drainage after six months, although a small clinical benefit could not be excluded, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health. This issue is being released early to coincide with the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting.
At the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany, biliary reconstruction after iatrogenic bile duct lesions was performed in 85 patients by means of end-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. In 66%...
The distal part of the hepatic diverticulum transforms into a complex of branching cords of cells (trabeculae) separated by venous channels (sinusoids), which together make up the liver. The liver lies in the most cranial part of the abdominal cavity and remains separated from the heart by the septum transversum. The proximal part of the hepatic diverticulum becomes the bile duct that empties into the fore- and midgut junction. The gall bladder forms as a diverticulum of the bile duct on the caudal surface of the liver. The bile duct then continues to the liver as the hepatic duct. The ventral pancreas is represented as a branching duct that moves first to the right side of the duodenum then to a dorsal position. It grows into the dorsal mesoduodenum and lies to the right of the portal vein. The ventral pancreatic duct joins the bile duct near the duodenum ...
View Stock Photo of Human Liver Tissue Showing Origins Of The Bile Duct Lm X95. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Covered biliary stents with proximal bare stent extension for the palliation of malignant biliary disease: can we reduce tumour overgrowth rate?
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New York-presbyterian Hospital/weill Cornell Medical procedure pricing information for a X-Ray of Bile Duct or Pancreas can be found listed below. Find a cost comparison to other providers in New York, NY and see your potential savings.
The majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes, which constitute two-thirds of the mass of the liver. The remaining cell types are Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system), stellate (Ito or fat-storing) cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels, bile ductular cells, and supporting structures. Viewed by light microscopy, the liver appears to be organized in lobules, with portal areas at the periphery and central veins in the center of each lobule. However, from a functional point of view, the liver is organized into acini, with both hepatic arterial and portal venous blood entering the acinus from the portal areas (zone 1) and then flowing through the sinusoids to the terminal hepatic veins (zone 3); the intervening hepatocytes constituting zone 2. The advantage of viewing the acinus as the physiologic unit of the liver is that it helps to explain the morphologic patterns and zonality of many vascular and biliary diseases not explained by the lobular arrangement. ...
Biliary necrosis refers to the death of the intra-hepatic bile ducts epithelium commonly seen as a complication of hepatic artery thrombosis. Pathology Different from the liver parenchyma that has dual supply, portal vein and hepatic artery, t...
Fascinating article here for you today from Chris Kresser on the link between gluten, leaky gut and the effect that has on the biliary system. I didnt know that liver and bile duct cell barriers are also controlled by tight junctions and are therefore subject to leakiness! Another body barrier for us to consider. I…
In advanced stages of liver disease, doctors have found that a persons liver is choked with bile duct cells. This is thought to be one of the main causes of the health problems that accompany the condition. On the other hand, hepatocytes play an important role in detoxifying the liver. They are known to be very scarce in a person with liver disease ...
Rats were fed N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) at low or high concentrations for 6 or 12 weeks. Both NNM schedules resulted in development of hepatomas. During the early stages of hepatoma induction, liver histotoxic patterns depended only on the dose of carcinogen employed. Necrosis of hepatocytes and proliferation of small, oval-shaped cells occurred when high doses of NNM were applied. Parallel to the proliferation of oval-shaped cells, resurgence of alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) in rat sera was observed and production of this protein was confined to the oval-shaped cells as shown by immunoperoxidase staining. During proliferation of bile duct epithelium, induced by galactosamine injections, those cells could also stain for AFP, and proliferation of oval-shaped cells concomitant with intracellular AFP staining resulted from restitution of heavily damaged liver. At the stage of malignant conversion, distinct AFP-staining nodules were localized which consisted of neoplastic hepatocytes ...
Aortic endothelial cells, BAEC. Bile duct cells (epithelial). Brain microvessel (endothelial). Cardiomyocytes; cardiac (endothelium, progenitor cells). Colonocytes (epithelial). Dorsal root ganglia. Embryonic cortical neurons. Embryonic sympathetic neurons. Hepatocytes. Hippocampal neurons. HUVEC (endothelial). HVSMC. Keratinocytes. Mammary epithelial cells; breast cells (luminal, myoepithelial and endothelial). Microvascular, BME (endothelial). Mouse splenic T-Cells. Muscle cells, myoblasts, myogenic cells, myotubes. Oligodendrocytes (glial; precursors). Pancreatic islet, neonatal (3- to 5-day-old) rat islets of Langerhans. Parotid acinar cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Schwann cells (glial). Sertoli cells (spermogenic). Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells ...
Aortic endothelial cells, BAEC. Bile duct cells (epithelial). Brain microvessel (endothelial). Cardiomyocytes; cardiac (endothelium, progenitor cells). Colonocytes (epithelial). Dorsal root ganglia. Embryonic cortical neurons. Embryonic sympathetic neurons. Hepatocytes. Hippocampal neurons. HUVEC (endothelial). HVSMC. Keratinocytes. Mammary epithelial cells; breast cells (luminal, myoepithelial and endothelial). Microvascular, BME (endothelial). Mouse splenic T-Cells. Muscle cells, myoblasts, myogenic cells, myotubes. Oligodendrocytes (glial; precursors). Pancreatic islet, neonatal (3- to 5-day-old) rat islets of Langerhans. Parotid acinar cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Schwann cells (glial). Sertoli cells (spermogenic). Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells. ...
CoCC shows a variable histological morphology depending on the extent of the associated ICC/HCC components. Such an inherent histological heterogeneity potentially complicates the pathologic diagnosis of CoCC. Komuta et al. proposed that CoCC is defined as when the proportion of CoCC accounts for more than 90% of the entire tumor [8]. According to this strict definition, CoCC with a significant proportion of ICC or HCC components may be considered to be an ordinary ICC or HCC, respectively [4]. The authors also reported immunohistochemical findings of a positive EMA at the apical membrane [6, 8, 9], positive NCAM (a marker of hepatic progenitor cells), and negative S100P (a marker of intrahepatic large bile ducts) [8]. As described, we made an incorrect initial diagnosis of ordinary ICC in the present patient, primarily because a lack of knowledge of CoCC led us not to consider the possibility of CoCC. There may be a concern that pathological diagnosis of the recurrent lesions treated with RFA ...
Pancreatic duct. Light micrograph of a cross section of the pancreatic duct (white, centre). It is lined with cuboidal epithelium. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the bile duct, via the pancreatic duct. - Stock Image C021/2586
The pancreatic head is expanded with associated peripancreatic inflammatory change, in particular involving the pancreaticoduodenal groove. Within the pancreatic head, there is a 1.1 cm apparently cystic lesion with a possible internal septum. There is no biliary ductal dilatation. The pancreatic duct is dilated (4mm) and somewhat irregular along its course to the level of the pancreatic head beyond which it is no longer visible. The gallbladder is non-distended. Fat planes surrounding the major upper abdominal vascular structures are unremarkable. The portal vein and SMV are normal in calibre without focal narrowing. There is no upper abdominal lymphadenopathy. No focal liver lesions. ...
n of your full length CFTR cDNA. To investigate if any portion of the CFTR cDNA was being unintentionally expressed as a result of the presence of a cryptic
Doctors at KEM Hospital had allegedly forgotten to remove a stent they had inserted in Rajkumari Mishra s biliary system before she underwent to remove her gall bladder
When performed by an experienced, qualified surgeon, the success rate of the Whipple operation is 96 percent, says the USC Center for Pancreatic and Biliary Diseases. The success rate may reach 99...
If signs of infection develop, your baby may need antibiotics.. Sometimes a probing procedure may be done to open the duct if the duct doesnt clear on its own. Probing successfully opens the duct for about 80 out of 100 babies who have blocked ducts.footnote 1 In rare cases, babies with blocked tear ducts have a more severe problem that requires more complex surgery.. In adults who have blocked tear ducts, treatment depends on the cause of the blockage. If the duct is blocked because of a long-term infection, antibiotics may be used. Surgery may be needed for structural problems or abnormal growths. Probing usually isnt done for adults. ...
biliary tree ultrasound education showing how to, normal, anatomy, scanning protocol, measurements, bile duct, hepatic duct and dilatation.
Hard and very dry, light brown feces that turn white when dried up means that there is ground up bone in it, however if fat is not being digested propely the feces will be also a light brown [but more soft] and might mean that they have a problem with thier digestive enzymes such as amalase and lipase .[ whitch are excreated from the pancrese ]or bile which is made in the the liver and reaches the intestines via the bile duct. So in that case there is either too much fat for the enzymes to digest or that there is a problem with one of the organs listed above ...
Hard and very dry, light brown feces that turn white when dried up means that there is ground up bone in it, however if fat is not being digested propely the feces will be also a light brown [but more soft] and might mean that they have a problem with thier digestive enzymes such as amalase and lipase .[ whitch are excreated from the pancrese ]or bile which is made in the the liver and reaches the intestines via the bile duct. So in that case there is either too much fat for the enzymes to digest or that there is a problem with one of the organs listed above ...
Sasan Roayaie, MD, provides individualized care for complex liver, bile duct, and pancreas cancers. He not only performs any needed operations, but he can also devise an entire treatment program for patients who are not eligible for surgery. He works closely with interventional r... ...
They finally got a GI specialist in and admitted him to the hospital and then did some exploratory surgery and found a bile duct to be almost completely closed off. They opened it up and put a stent in that will be removed in about 6 weeks. After this procedure and surgery he has been slowly getting the pain under control. The doctors are cautiously optimistic this was the problem and when all of this calms down from the surgery he will be feeling 100% better. ...
16th November 2017 Michael Trauner (Med. Uni Wien, Abteilung für Gastroenterologie & Hepatologie): „norUDCA as novel immunometabolic drug for liver and bile duct disorders" ...
Affiliation:高知大学,教育研究部・医療学系,助教, Research Field:Gastroenterology, Keywords:遺伝子多型,TRAILレセプター,death domain,bile duct,胆汁性肝硬変,結晶解析,death receptor,apoptosis,Beta-oxidation,リパーゼ, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:22
The Skenes ducts are a pair of ducts leading from the Skenes glands to the surface of the vulva, to the left and right of the urethral opening. Like the Skenes glands, they are named after Alexander Skene.[1] ...
The lactiferous ducts are the ducts within the female breasts which lead from the mammary gland lobules to the nipples and open to the outside.
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Most of this view appears packed with secretory acini. Most of these are cut in random planes and look like solid lumps, made of cells having various sizes and shapes. The acinar lumen so visible only when the acinus is sliced neatly across the middle. In such a slice, the cells look like slices of pie, with the lumen in the center.. Individual acini are drained by small intercalated ducts. These in turn drain into striated (or secretory) ducts, whose cells are specialized for concentrating the secretory product. Cells lining the striated duct pump water and ions across the epithelium, from the duct lumen and into interstitial fluid. A relatively passive excretory duct is conspicuous in the center of this image... Glandular stroma is not apparent in this image. Nevertheless, whether visible or not, each acinus is surrounded by a thin envelope of capillaries and connective tissue. ...
Looking to treat or prevent a clogged milk duct? The Bump guide can help answer all your questions, from how long they last to methods of care and relief.
Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by non academic surgeons as well as general surgery residents, under the supervision of academic surgeons. Bile duct injury is a catastrophic complication of this procedure. There is a general perception that performance of LC in a facility with a surgical training program offers a safer environment due to the presence of an assistant surgeon.. Objective: To compare the rate of bile duct injury, conversion and overall mortality between hospitals with surgical training programs (Group I), and hospitals without surgical training programs (Group II) after LC.. Methods: Methods: Using the Florida State Inpatient Database we extracted and analyzed data for LC and conversion from LC to open cholecystectomy (OC) during the years 1997 thru 2006. Bile duct injury was indicated by a biliary reconstruction procedure performed during the same admission. Hospitals with surgical training programs were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of calcium in volume-activated chloride currents in a mouse cholangiocyte cell line. AU - Chen, Biyi. AU - Nicol, Grant. AU - Cho, Won Kyoo. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Volume-activated Cl- channels (VACCs) play vital roles in many cells including cholangiocytes. Previously, we characterized the VACCs in mouse cholangiocytes. Since calcium plays an important role in VACC regulation in many cells, we have studied the effect of calcium modulation on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and VACC currents in mouse bile duct cells (MBDCs). Cell volume measurements were assessed by a Coulter counter with cell sizer, and conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the role of calcium on RVD and VACC currents. Cell volume study indicated that MBDCs exhibited RVD, which was inhibited by 5-nitro-2′-(3-phenylpropylamino)- benzoate (NPPB), 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS) and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic ...
Define common bile duct. common bile duct synonyms, common bile duct pronunciation, common bile duct translation, English dictionary definition of common bile duct. n. The duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. Noun 1.
Multistep processes likely underlie cholangiocarcinogenesis induced by chronic infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. One process appears to be cellular proliferation of the host bile duct epithelia driven by excretory-secretory (ES) products of this pathogen. Specifically, the secreted growth factor Ov-GRN-1, a liver fluke granulin, is a prominent component of ES and a known driver of hyper-proliferation of cultured human and mouse cells in vitro. We show potent hyper-proliferation of human cholangiocytes induced by low nanomolar levels of recombinant Ov-GRN-1 and similar growth produced by low microgram concentrations of ES products and soluble lysates of the adult worm. To further explore the influence of Ov-GRN-1 on the flukes and the host cells, expression of Ov-grn-1 was repressed using RNA interference. Expression of Ov-grn-1 was suppressed by 95% by day 3 and by ~100% by day 7. Co-culture of Ov-grn-1 suppressed flukes with human cholangiocyte (H-69) or human ...
Extrahepatic cholestasis leads to complex injury and repair processes that result in bile infarct formation, neutrophil infiltration, cholangiocyte and hepatocyte proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis. To identify early molecular mechanisms of injury and repair after bile duct obstruction, microarray analysis was performed on liver tissue 24 hours after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. The most upregulated gene identified encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, Serpine 1), a protease inhibitor that blocks urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity. Because PAI-1, uPA, and tPA influence growth factor and cytokine processing as well as extracellular matrix remodeling, we evaluated the role of PAI-1 in cholestatic liver injury by comparing the injury and repair processes in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice after BDL. PAI-1-/- mice had fewer and smaller bile infarcts, less neutrophil infiltration, and
This exhibit depicts an iatrogenic (caused by the surgeon) injury to the common hepatic duct and common bile duct during an abdominal cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) procedure. It compares the injury with a correct, desired surgical outcome. Structures include the right and left lobes of the liver, gallbladder, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, cystic artery and common bile duct. The final step of the exhibit pictures the cut and clipped common bile duct leaking bile into the peritoneum.
Introduction Bile duct injury following cholecystectomy is an iatrogenic catastrophe associated with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality, reduced long-term survival and quality of life, and high rates of subsequent litigation
Bile duct cancer. Coloured angiogram (X-ray) of a patients common bile duct (dark red, centre right) that has been blocked by cancer. The cancer (not seen) has caused a narrowing, or stricture, of the duct. A stent (fine mesh tube, lower frame) has been permanently inserted into the duct to correct the stricture. A tube (catheter) inside the stent will be removed when fluid has drained from the duct. Bile fluid, secreted by the liver cells, emulsifies ingested fats. It drains into the small intestine through the common bile duct when food enters the intestine. A contrast medium injected into the duct makes it visible on X-ray. - Stock Image M134/0418