Diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common problem in Veterans and progresses to end-stage renal disease in many people. It is important to identify treatment strategies that will help prevent the progression of CKD to overt kidney failure. The purpose of this study is to see if sodium bicarbonate reduces urinary markers of kidney damage in Veterans with diabetic CKD and normal serum bicarbonate levels ...
When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE2-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na2CO3 solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE2 was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na2CO3 solution completely compensated for the ...
A recent report from the National Kidney Foundation 2011 Spring Clinical Meetings retrospectively evaluated 50 hemodialysis patients hospitalized in October 2010. Their outpatient dialysate prescription included a 35 mEq/L bicarbonate solution and an acid concentrate which contained 8 mEq/L of acetate (total bicarbonate of 43 mEq/L). At presentation, the patients mean serum bicarbonate level was 31.3 mEq/L and 54 percent had a serum bicarbonate ,30 mEq/L. (Pande S, Raja R, Bloom E, Chewaproug D, Dissanayake I. Effect of dialysate baths on serum bicarbonate levels in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Disease 2011; 57(4): A75 (Abstract #234)) (journal subscription or payment is required to view ...
294846378 - EP 1035847 A1 2000-09-20 - STABLE SOLUTION OF ZINC AND BICARBONATE IONS - [origin: US5855873A] A storage stable aqueous or aqueous/alcoholic solution of zinc ions in the presence of bicarbonate ions is disclosed. The solution comprises: (a) a source of zinc ion, (b) a source of a stabilizing anion which can stabilize soluble zinc and bicarbonate in solution; (c) a source of bicarbonate ion; and (d) a solvent therefor. The solvent comprises: (i) a major proportion of water; (ii) optionally a minor amount of a lower monohydric alcohol; and (iii) optionally a minor amount of a humectant having at least 3 hydroxy groups. The zinc salt is present in an amount A sufficient to provide from about 0.01 weight % to about 1 weight % zinc ion; the stabilizing anion in an amount B of at least 1.2 equivalents per equivalent of zinc ion; and the bicarbonate ion cannot exceed certain levels which are related to the level of the stabilizing anion.[origin: US5855873A] A storage stable aqueous or aqueous
Fig. 4. Number of respondents who currently use calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, or both solutions Eleven of the thirty-eight respondents currently use either or both bicarbonate solutions. Figure 4 shows which of the two (or both) solutions these paper conservators are using. It was particularly interesting to note that all but one of the conservators determine the concentration of bicarbonate solutions by measuring the pH of the solution and adjusting it to levels between pH 6 and pH 9, instead of determining ppm calcium or magnesium. the relationship between the pH and the concentration of bicarbonate solution is, however, only a very tentative one, as has been indicated by several authors. Brederick et al. noted the pH level decreases with increasing solution concentrations as carbon dioxide is added (p. 173, Table 3).3 Wilson et al. determined the pH levels of magnesium bicarbonate solutions from which carbon dioxide has been removed: a 1M solution that had an initial pH of 6.98 ...
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Individuals with a serum bicarbonate level below 24 mEq/L have a 2-fold increased risk of AKI compared with those with a level of 25-28 mEq/L.
Detective Nephron, world-renowned for expert analytical skills, trains budding physician-detectives on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. L.O. Henle presents a new case to the master consultant.
The rate of bicarbonate reabsorption (JHCO3) by in vitro initial collecting tubules (ICT) from aquatic- and land-phase Ambystoma tigrinum was measured. These animals intrinsically have different levels of plasma bicarbonate, 17.6 and 27.1 mM, respectively. ICT from both phases reabsorbed bicarbonate at 11 pmol X mm-1 X min-1 when perfused in solutions equilibrated with 3% CO2. The induction of metabolic acidosis or alkalosis had no effect on JHCO3 by in vitro ICT. JHCO3 was abolished when ICT from aquatic animals were perfused with solutions equilibrated with 1% CO2 and returned toward the control value when 3% CO2 was reintroduced. The effect of plasma CO2 partial pressure on JHCO3 of the ICT may explain, at least in part, the observed difference in plasma bicarbonate of the aquatic- and land-phase animals. JHCO3 was reduced to 22% of control with amiloride and to 42% of control when a Na+-free perfusate was used, but was insensitive to ethoxzolamide. These data are consistent with the presence of a
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Global Ammonium Bicarbonate Market Research Report 2017 contains historic data that spans 2012 to 2016, and then continues to forecast to 2022. That makes this report so invaluable, resources, for the leaders as well as the new entrants in the Industry
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Experiencing fluctuating bicarbonate levels? Some dietary modifications may keep these levels in check, though this is yet to be medically established.
1. Chest. 2013 May;143(5):1284-93. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1132. Serum bicarbonate level improves specificity of STOP-bang screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Chung F, Chau E, Yang Y, Liao P, Hall R, Mokhlesi B. Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for the identification of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 is highly sensitive but only moderately specific. Apnea/hypopnea during sleep can lead to intermittent hypercapnia and may result in serum bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) retention. The addition of serum HCO₃⁻ level to the STOP-Bang questionnaire may improve its specificity. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-seven preoperative patients were approached for consent and screened by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography was performed and preoperative HCO₃⁻ level was ...
1. Chest. 2013 May;143(5):1284-93. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1132. Serum bicarbonate level improves specificity of STOP-bang screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Chung F, Chau E, Yang Y, Liao P, Hall R, Mokhlesi B. Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for the identification of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 is highly sensitive but only moderately specific. Apnea/hypopnea during sleep can lead to intermittent hypercapnia and may result in serum bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) retention. The addition of serum HCO₃⁻ level to the STOP-Bang questionnaire may improve its specificity. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-seven preoperative patients were approached for consent and screened by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography was performed and preoperative HCO₃⁻ level was ...
The present invention provides devices and methods for stabilizing bicarbonate-based solutions for peritoneal dialysis or hemofiltration. The bicarbonate-based solutions of the present invention are formulated and stored in at least two parts-an alkaline bicarbonate concentrate and an acidic concentrate. The alkaline bicarbonate concentrate is adjusted to have a pH of about 8.6 to 10.0. The acidic concentrate is adjusted to have a stable, acidic pH ranging from about 1.0 to 3.0. Upon mixing, although some variation in the pH of the mixed bicarbonate solution exists, the inventors have discovered that with the appropriate selection of the parameters of the concentrates, the pH of the mixed solution is always within an acceptable physiological range.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in rabbit cortical collecting tubules. AU - Schuster, V. L.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - We studied the effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on HCO3- transport by rabbit cortical collecting tubules perfused in vitro. Net HCO3- secretion was observed in tubules from NaHCO3- loaded rabbits. 8-Bromo-cAMP-stimulated net HCO3- secretion, whereas secretion fell with time in control tubules. Both isoproterenol and vasopressin (ADH) are known to stimulate adenylate cyclase in this epithelium; however, only isoproterenol stimulated net HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of cAMP-stimulated HCO3- secretion was examined. If both HCO3- and H+ secretion were to occur simultaneously in tubules exhibiting net HCO3- secretion, cAMP might increase the net HCO3- secretory rate by inhibiting H+ secretion, by stimulating HCO3- secretion, or both. These possibilities were examined using basolateral addition of the disulfonic stilbene ...
The human body has four native buffer systems - bicarbonate, hemoglobin, protein, and phosphate systems. An ideal buffering system has a pKa of ~ 7.4 (normal physiologic pH). Bicarbonate has a pKa of 6.1, which is NOT ideal in normal physiologic conditions. In fact, the pH range of effectiveness is probably ~ 5.1 - 7.1 for the bicarbonate buffer system. Bicarbonate is better described as a CO2 transport mechanism and not as a buffer - protons combine with hydrogen ions which are at equilibrium with carbonic acid (H2CO3), water, and CO2.. According to Miller, "Volatile acid is principally buffered by hemoglobin. Deoxygenated hemoglobin is a strong base, and there would be a huge increase in the pH of venous blood if hemoglobin did not bind hydrogen ions that are produced by metabolism." Thus, it seems that the primary function of bicarbonate is to accept protons which can be ultimately converted to water and CO2 (and excreted as volatile acid), whereas the protons produced by accumulation of ...
Generally healthy older individuals with normal or high bicarbonate levels in the blood had a similar risk of dying during follow-up, but patients with low bicarbonate had a 24 percent increased risk compared with these groups.
Inappropriate prescription of NaturaLyte and GranuFlo products can lead to a high serum bicarbonate level in patients undergoing hemodialysis. These products can help kidney failure patients during the process of dialysis by converting into bicarbonate, which helps clean the bloodstream of a patient in a way that the kidneys would otherwise be able to do. However, the FDA investigation showed that doctors were administering the drug at too high a level for healthy human consumption. Dosage errors may contribute to metabolic alkalosis, which is a significant risk factor associated with low blood pressure, hypokalemia, hypoxemia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia, which, if not appropriately treated, may culminate in cardiopulmonary arrest. This product may cause serious adverse health consequences, including death ...
Background Serum bicarbonate is associated with mortality, heart failure (HF) and progression of renal failure in studies of healthy people and patients with chronic kidney disease, but the...
Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven
We all want to look well and be healthy regardless of our age, seasons, weather or our finances. More and more people are getting interested in natural and affordable beauty products. The most accessible, natural and affordable products get often overlooked though. Did you know for instance that bicarbonate of soda is an amazing product that can be used for health and beauty purposes?. I discovered bicarbonate of soda or baking soda a couple of years ago and it is officially the second of my two favourite beauty and health products - after coconut oil. Bicarbonate of soda is another universal body care product that I use a lot. Instead of a number of bottles, tubes and colourful boxes that I used to have a few years ago I now have two pots - with coconut oil and bicarbonate of soda!. NB! If you decide to give it a go after reading this article, make sure the label reads bicarbonate of soda or baking soda and not baking powder! Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and a dry acid, such as ...
সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড, আপনি যা করতে পারেন কেনা ভাল মানের সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড , আমরা সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড পরিবেশক & সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড উত্পাদক চীন থেকে বাজার.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients.. Methods: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods.. Results: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement.. Conclusion: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of ...
Of 1328 records reviewed, hospital discharge data, ETCO2, and all 6 prehospital vital signs were available in 1088 patients. Low ETCO2 levels were the strongest predictor of mortality in the overall group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.85), as well as subgroup analysis excluding prehospital cardiac arrest (AUC of 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.87). The sensitivity of abnormal ETCO2 for predicting mortality was 93% (95% CI 79%-98%), the specificity was 44% (95% CI 41%-48%), and the negative predictive value was 99% (95% CI 92%-100%). There were significant associations between ETCO2 and serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.429, P , .001), anion gap (r = -0.216, P , .001), and lactate (r = -0.376, P , .001).. ...
This is the first, large scale, community-based randomized controlled trial evidence demonstrating that comprehensive community-based intervention by multidisciplinary care team in conjunction with a community care network teams of non-healthcare members can slow the rate of eGFR decline and is feasible and in CKD patients residing in resource-limited settings. Given similar medical care between the two groups including medication in particular ACEi/ARBs and educational materials, our study demonstrated that integrated CKD care significantly improved several clinical parameters with respect to serum bicarbonate levels, 24-h urine nPNA, 24-h urine Na, HbA1C, and serum triglyceride levels. Each parameter had been proven effectiveness on delaying CKD progression or lowering cardiovascular events by single-factorial intervention studies [22-27]. In other words, we may imply that the key factors in delaying CKD progression of Integrated CKD Care were improvement of compliance with medication and ...
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Previous studies that have evaluated the Na(+)-H+ antiporter in cells from hypertensive subjects were generally performed under conditions in which HCO3-CO2, the physiological buffer system, was absent from the assay media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter and that of the Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchangers in cells assayed in the presence of HCO3-CO2 in the media. Lymphocytes from 6- to 8-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were obtained from the thymus gland and assayed immediately after isolation. The activity of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter after stimulation by cell acidification (pHi approximately 6.4) was similar in SHR and WKY rats (18.67 +/- 1.03 and 16.12 +/- 0.92 mmol H+/L per minute, respectively). Recovery from cell alkalinization was effected by an Na(+)-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchanger, with maximal activity at an alkaline pHi (approximately 7.7). The ...
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Insert the stopper of a Black Top Tube into the Cups transfer port. This will pierce the stopper and allow the tube to automatically fill. Allow tube to fill until flow ceases ...
Calculate weight of Bicarbonate ion per volume, it weighs 2 540 kg/m³ (158.56702 lb/ft³). Materials, substances and compounds volume to weight conversions
71-52-3 - BVKZGUZCCUSVTD-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Bicarbonate ion - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI), used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better
Haihua China, Detailed Product Description Features: 1) Total alkali NH4HCO3: 99.2% - 101.0% 2) Chloride Cl: 0.003% max. 3) Sulphate SO4: 0.007% max. 4) Ash: 0.008% max. 5) As: 0.0002% max. 6) Heavy
PURPOSE: To test our hypothesis that differences in urinary calcium excretion among blacks and whites may be secondary to ethnic variations in acid (H(+)) metabolism and to prove that increases in titratable acid excretion would be found among indivi
For some people with kidney disease and kidney failure, maintaining serum bicarbonate at clinically appropriate levels has shown to slow the rate of kidney failure or kidney disease progression.
Abstract: Background: Renal potassium excretion (JK) is enhanced by hormones such as vasopressin, and in conditions where urine bicarbonate excretion rises. The presence of impermeant anions such as sulfate has also been shown to enhance renal potassium secretion. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the role of vasopressin and of impermeant anions and alkaline pH in JK. Methods: Stationary microperfusion was performed on late distal segments, which were punctured with a K-sensitive resin / reference microelectrode. A single micropipette impaled another loop, and the voltage between the electrode barrels was used to obtain K+ activities; transepithelial PD was also measured, and secretory K+ fluxes (JK) were calculated from the rate of increase of K+ concentration and tubule geometry.Results: Control rates of JK were 0.65±0.05(n = 15) nmol.cm-2.s-1.When 10-12 to 10-9 M vasopressin was perfused luminally, JK increased up to 49% by action on V1 receptorsWhen 20 mM NaCl and 53 mM ...
We studied the changes in urinary bicarbonate, urinary pH and some physical parameters such as minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO,sub,2,/sub,), respiratory carbon dioxide (VCO,sub,2,/sub,), heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate, before and after the submaximal exercise. Six male subjects aged 28-33 years were involved in the study. They performed the incremental exercise test using a bicycle ergometer until exhaustion. Levels of VE, VO,sub,2,/sub,, VCO,sub,2,/sub,, heart rate, and blood pressure increased continuously with an increase in cycling intensity. These parameters markedly decreased and reached the baseline levels within 5-10 minutes after the termination of exercise. According to an increase in cycling intensity, blood lactate increased continuously during exercise, but after termination of exercise the return of lactate to the baseline level was markedly retarded. Urinary bicarbonate and pH were within the range of those at 0 time (baseline levels) from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bicarbonate kinetics and predicted energy expenditure in critically ill children. AU - Sy, Jama. AU - Gourishankar, Anand. AU - Gordon, William E.. AU - Griffin, Debra. AU - Zurakowski, David. AU - Roth, Rachel M.. AU - Coss-Bu, Jorge. AU - Jefferson, Larry. AU - Heird, William. AU - Castillo, Leticia. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Background: To determine nutrient requirements by the carbon oxidation techniques, it is necessary to know the fraction of carbon dioxide produced during the oxidative process but not excreted. This fraction has not been described in critically ill children. By measuring the dilution of 13C infused by metabolically produced carbon dioxide, the rates of carbon dioxide appearance can be estimated. Energy expenditure can be determined by bicarbonate dilution kinetics if the energy equivalents of carbon dioxide (food quotient) from the diet ingested are known. Objective: We conducted a 6-h, primed, continuous tracer infusion of NaH13CO3 in critically ...
The back-titration procedure, associated with the Gran Plot method to detect the process end point, was compared with other volumetric procedures for the potentiometric acid-base titration determination of bicarbonate and was explored as a tool for the determination of the bicarbonate content in substrates used as growing media. This procedure was compared with the second derivative approach as well as with continuous titration with standard HCl on the extract solution (direct measurement), until reaching pH 4.0. By using known standard samples, it was noted that the results obtained with the second derivative method were both lower and inconsistent, because of the high dilution of both the sample solution and the titrant. On the other hand, the continuous direct titration (until pH 4.0) presents positive errors due to the presence of dissolved CO2 in the titrated solution. Although comparable in precision, the best performance and accuracy were observed for the back-titration with the Gran ...
The chemical formula for zinc bicarbonate is Zn(HCO3)2, according to EndMemo. Zinc bicarbonate is also referred to as zinc hydrogen carbonate. Zn is the chemical symbol for zinc, H is the chemical...
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What is the Spanish word for bicarbonate of soda? bicarbonate of soda is translated by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as
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The diagnostic criteria for DKA and HHS are shown in Table 1. The initial laboratory evaluation of patients include determination of plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, electrolytes (with calculated anion gap), osmolality, serum and urinary ketones, and urinalysis, as well as initial arterial blood gases and a complete blood count with a differential. An electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and urine, sputum, or blood cultures should also be obtained.. The severity of DKA is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of metabolic acidosis (blood pH, bicarbonate, and ketones) and the presence of altered mental status (4). Significant overlap between DKA and HHS has been reported in more than one-third of patients (36). Although most patients with HHS have an admission pH ,7.30 and a bicarbonate level ,18 mEq/l, mild ketonemia may be present (4,10).. Severe hyperglycemia and dehydration with altered mental status in the absence of significant acidosis characterize HHS, ...
The mathematical analysis showed that the diluent [SID] required to maintain unmodified the baseline pH equals the baseline bicarbonate concentration, [HCO3−], assuming constant PCO2 throughout the process. The experimental data confirmed the theoretical analysis. In fact, at the baseline [HCO3−] of 18.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l (PCO2 35 mmHg) the pH was 7.332 ± 0.004 and remained 7.333 ± 0.003 when the diluting [SID] was 18.5 ± 0.0 mEq/l. At baseline [HCO3−] of 19.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l (PCO2 78 mmHg) the pH was 7.010 ± 0.003 and remained 7.004 ± 0.003 when the diluting [SID] was 19.1 ± 0.1 mEq/l. At both PCO2 values infusion with [SID] lower or greater than baseline [HCO3−] led pH to decrease or increase, respectively.. ...
to make a bite, make this paste, easy to apply: mix 2 to 3 measures of bicarbonate, 1 measure of water or sweet almond oil. Rub the stitched part. For stinging insects or ticks with heads under the skin, consult a pharmacist or doctor. Prevent sprinkling bicarbonate on animal carpets and cushions (1 to 2 tablespoons / m2) to discourage mites, fleas and ticks.For sunburn or superficial burns, make the same recipe on a compress, to apply on the skin, for a soothing effect. ...