The South Africa Field Epidemiology Training Program (SAFETP) builds global health security by enhancing South Africas capacity to prevent, detect and respond to public health threats through a 2-year training program in applied epidemiology, focused on supervised work experience and training to develop practical public health skills and knowledge.
We identified studies that assessed the impact of publication bias in Medline (January 1993 to October 2003) using the search terms "publication bias", "citation bias", "language bias", location bias", "reference bias", or "multiple publication bias". We also searched the references of a Cochrane review on publication bias.4 We restricted the search to publications that primarily investigated publication bias and whose acceptance therefore might have depended on whether they had found publication bias or not. We retrieved 265 references. Of these, we chose 148 for full examination. Their bibliographies yielded 26 additional papers. We excluded 148 studies because they gave no original data. All remaining 26 were included in the analysis (see bmj.com).. We used a funnel plot to evaluate reports for publication bias. In a funnel plot the effect size is plotted versus a measure of its precision, such as sample size. With increasing sample size, random variations of the effect are smaller. Thus, ...
We report here an effect of exposure to ETS on the risk of head and neck cancer. Not only did we find an elevated cancer risk among individuals exposed to ETS, but we also observed dose-response associations for the degree of ETS exposure, adjusting for several potential confounders. These associations and the dose-response relationships were still present when the analysis was restricted to non-active-smoking cases and controls.. This study has several possible limitations. One limitation is potential selection bias, which might have resulted in an overestimate or underestimate of the ETS effect (bias away from or toward null). Using controls from the blood bank may result in potential selection bias because blood donors might be more health oriented. To assess the potential selection bias, we have compared selected demographic and potential risk factors between blood donor controls and non-cancer controls from the Surgical Day Hospital during the same study period at Memorial Sloan-Kettering ...
The First Nations Health Authority (FNHA) is a health service delivery organization responsible for administering a variety of health programs and service for First Nations people living in BC. The FNHA is part of a First Nations Health Governance Structure in BC that includes the First Nations Health Council and First Nations Health Directors Association. The First Nations Health Authority emerged from a number of Tripartite agreements between BC First Nations, the Province of BC, and the Government of Canada that included the Transformative Change Accord: First Nations Health Plan [2006],[1] Tripartite First Nations Health Plan [2007],[2] and the Tripartite Framework Agreement on First Nations Health Governance.[3] A first for Canada, the FNHA is the first province-wide First Nations Health Authority in Canada. The FNHA plans, designs, manages and funds the delivery of First Nations health programs and services in BC. These community-based services are largely focused on health promotion and ...
Problem/Condition: Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 48 million illnesses each year in the United States, including 9.4 million caused by known pathogens. Foodborne disease outbreak surveillance provides valuable insights into the agents and foods that cause illness and the settings in which transmission occurs. CDC maintains a surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data on the occurrence and causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. This surveillance system is the primary source of national data describing the numbers of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; implicated foods; contributing factors; and settings of food preparation and consumption associated with recognized foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Reporting Period: 1998-2008. Description of the System: The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks, defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar ...
This example shows that you can apply PROC CALIS to fit measurement error models. You treat true scores variables as latent variables in the structural equation model. The linear regression model is a special case of the structural equation model (or measurement error model) where measurement error variances are assumed to be zero. Structural equation modeling by PROC CALIS is not limited to this simple modeling scenario. PROC CALIS can treat more complicated measurement error models. In Example 29.9 and Example 29.10, you fit measurement error models with parameter constraints and with more than one predictor. You can also fit measurement error models with correlated errors. ...
Siegels selection comes as both the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation embark on a collaborative campaign to transform the nursing profession to improve health and health care. Based on the recommendations from the groundbreaking Institute of Medicine nursing report released last year, "The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health," the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation leads the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action to engage nurses and non-nurses in a nationwide effort to overhaul the nursing profession.. At the same time, faculty and leaders from the UC Davis School of Nursing lead a variety of efforts to implement the initiative in California. The campaign is working to implement solutions to the challenges facing the nursing profession and to build upon nurse-based approaches to improve quality and transform the way Americans receive health care.. Siegels mentors include Associate Vice Chancellor for Nursing and Founding Dean Heather M. ...
Despite high vaccination coverage in most European countries, large community outbreaks of measles do occur, normally clustered around schools and resulting from suboptimal vaccination coverage. To determine whether or when it is worth implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns in schools, we used stochastic outbreak models to reproduce a public school outbreak in Germany, where no vaccination campaign was implemented. We assumed 2 scenarios covering the baseline vaccination ratio range (91.3%-94.3%) estimated for that school and computed outbreaks assuming various vaccination delays. In one scenario, reacting (i.e., implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns) within 12-24 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 50 days reduced outbreak size. In the other scenario, reacting within 6-14 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 40 days reduced the outbreak size. These are realistic time frames for implementing school outbreak response vaccination campaigns. ...
West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne illness that can severely affect human health. After introduction on the East Coast in 1999, the virus quickly spread and became established across the continental United States. However, there have been significant variations in levels of human WNV incidence spatially and temporally. In order to quantify these variations, we used Kulldorffs spatial scan statistic and Anselins Local Morans I statistic to uncover spatial clustering of human WNV incidence at the county level in the continental United States from 2002-2008. These two methods were applied with varying analysis thresholds in order to evaluate sensitivity of clusters identified. The spatial scan and Local Morans I statistics revealed several consistent, important clusters or hot-spots with significant year-to-year variation. In 2002, before the pathogen had spread throughout the country, there were significant regional clusters in the upper Midwest and in Louisiana and Mississippi. The largest and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes following surgical treatment compared to radiation for stage I NSCLC. T2 - A SEER database analysis. AU - Monirul Islam, K. M.. AU - Shostrom, Valerie. AU - Kessinger, Anne. AU - Ganti, Apar Kishor P. PY - 2013/10/1. Y1 - 2013/10/1. N2 - Introduction: Outcomes following surgery are better than following radiation therapy (RT), for stage I NSCLC. Whether this is due to selection of healthier patients for surgery is unclear. This study was undertaken to compare outcomes between surgical patients and patients who were surgical candidates but did not receive surgery. Methods: Data of patients with stage I NSCLC between 1988 and 2007, included in the SEER database were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) was examined by treatment type (surgery only, radiation only, surgery and radiation, and no treatment). OS was compared between RT patients who refused surgery and those not fit for surgery. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare outcomes by treatment type. Results: ...
Answering your questions and providing information on Medicare Part D prescription drug plans and Medicare Advantage plans. Have a question we missed? Contact Q1Medicare.com through our Helpdesk
Beginning in July 2000, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), expanded the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to collect data on all types and causes of injuries treated in a representative sample of United States hospitals with emergency departments (ED). This system is called the NEISS-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). The NEISS-AIP is designed to provide national incidence estimates of all types and external causes of nonfatal injuries and poisonings treated in United States hospital EDs. Data on injury-related visits are being obtained from a national sample of 66 out of 100 NEISS hospitals that were selected as a stratified probability sample of hospitals in the United States and its territories with a minimum of 6 beds and a 24-hour ED. The sample includes separate strata for very large, large, medium, and small ...
Know your health coverage options if your Medicare Advantage Plan is ending at the end of the year.. Extra Help is a federal program that helps pay Medicare prescription drug premiums deductibles, and copays. If you have Extra Help and your Medicare Advantage Plan is ending on December 31, 2018, your plan must send you a letter by October 2, 2018 to tell you it will no longer be available next year.. Below are important steps to take when you have Extra Help and your Medicare Advantage Plan is ending.. 1. Understand whats changing after December 31, 2018. Most Medicare Advantage Plans include both Medicare health and drug coverage. For that reason, the end of Medicare Advantage Plan means that your Medicare drug and health coverage will change next year.. 2. Understand whats not changing next year. There are different ways to qualify for Extra Help. You may have gotten Extra Help automatically because you have full Medicaid coverage or have a Medicare Savings Program, that helps pay your ...
Data & statistics on Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates ALL RACES: Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000...
How is Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors abbreviated? CDSRF stands for Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors. CDSRF is defined as Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors very rarely.
EIS has a 65+ year history of success in training disease detectives. EIS officers step up at a moments notice to investigate public health threats in the United States and around the world. Worn out shoe leather with a prominent hole worn through has been a recurring visual theme of EIS through the decades, a reference to the practice of EIS officers personally investigating disease outbreaks at the local population level, in all parts of the world.. Each year, EIS officers conduct approximately 80 short-term epidemiologic assistance investigations, or Epidemiologic Assistance (Epi-Aids), worldwide. From the threat of bioterrorism during the Korean War era in the early 1950s to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, EIS officers have been called upon to help CDC protect people and save lives.. ...
Over a third of people with HIV have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the absence of hepatitis B or C, according to the results of a meta-analysis and systematic review published in AIDS. Metabolic disorders including high body mass index (BMI), diabetes and elevated lipids were key risk factors. The study also revealed high prevalences of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, possible outcomes of NAFLD, with metabolic disorders once again shown as the most important factors.. "NAFLD is common in HIV-monoinfected patients. Metabolic disorders are key risk factors for NAFLD independent of HIV parameters and predict its complications," comment the authors. "Our systematic review underlines the need for additional data on NAFLD in HIV infection as well as a better standardised assessment and management of the disease.". Liver disease is now a leading cause of serious illness and death in people with HIV. Until now, much of the liver disease occurring in people living ...
This publication was written by Elizabeth B. Robertson, Ph.D., University of Alabama (formerly with the National Institute on Drug Abuse), Belinda E. Sims, Ph.D., National Institute on Drug Abuse, and Eve E. Reider, Ph.D., National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. It was edited by Eric Wargo, Ph.D., National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA wishes to thank the following individuals for their guidance and comments during the development and review of this publication: Karl G. Hill, Ph.D. University of Washington
Selection bias is common in clinic-based HIV surveillance. Clinics located in HIV hotspots are often the first to be chosen and monitored, while clinics in less prevalent areas are added to the surveillance system later on. Consequently, the estimated HIV prevalence based on clinic data is substantially distorted, with markedly higher HIV prevalence in the earlier periods and trends that reveal much more dramatic declines than actually occur. Using simulations, we compare and contrast the performance of the various approaches and models for handling selection bias in clinic-based HIV surveillance. In particular, we compare the application of complete-case analysis and multiple imputation (MI). Several models are considered for each of the approaches. We demonstrate the application of the methods through sentinel surveillance data collected between 2002 and 2008 from India. Simulations suggested that selection bias, if not handled properly, can lead to biased estimates of HIV prevalence trends and
Matthew Ferrari, Pennsylvania State University. An outbreak of measles that began in early 2019 in the southeast corner of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has now spread to all 26 provinces. Over 180,000 cases and more than 3,000 deaths have been reported. The outbreak has disproportionately affected young children under five years of age. Similar outbreaks occurred previously in the DRC in 2011 and again in 2015. This is the largest and most fatal of the large measles outbreaks across the world this year. These have occurred in the Ukraine, Philippines, Brazil, US, New Zealand, Madagascar and Nigeria. While the details of each individual outbreak vary, the root cause of measles outbreaks is always the same: too few children receive timely and effective vaccination.. The outbreak in the DRC highlights all of the various causes for episodic measles outbreaks. The delivery of measles vaccine in endemic areas must contend with a biological catch-22. From birth to about nine months of ...
This trial assessed the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients in SEER-Medicare Database. The study determined the
Prevalence Over Time and Risk Factors for Sexually Transmissible Infections Among Newly Arrived Female Sex Workers in Timika, Indonesia, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
Foreword by Professor Sir Michael Marmot. To date, much of the empirical work in social epidemiology has demonstrated the existence of health inequalities along a number of axes of social differentiation. However, this research, in isolation, will not inform effective solutions to health inequalities. Rethinking Social Epidemiology provides an expanded vision of social epidemiology as a science of change, one that seeks to better address key questions related to both the causes of social inequalities in health (problem-focused research) as well as the implementation of interventions to alleviate conditions of marginalization and poverty (solution-focused research). This book is ideally suited for emerging and practicing social epidemiologists as well as graduate students and health professionals in related disciplines.. ...
The roles of different dietary proteins in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary proteins with the risk of incident T2D in Finnish men from the prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The study included 2332 men aged 42-60 years at the baseline examinations in 1984-1989. Protein intakes were calculated from 4-d dietary records. Incident T2D was determined by self-administered questionnaires, fasting blood glucose measurements, 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests, and with national registers. The multivariable-adjusted risk of T2D on the basis of protein intakes was compared by the Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). During the mean follow-up of 19·3 years, 432 incident T2D cases were identified. Total, animal, meat or dairy product protein intakes were not associated with risk of T2D when the potential confounders were accounted for. Plant (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile HR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·42, 1·00; P ...
Submitted To: Office of National Coordinator for Health Information Technology Department of Health and Human Services Regarding: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act State Health Information Exchange Cooperative Agreement Program Opportunity #EP-HIT-09001 CFDA# 93.719 Every Oklahoman will benefit from the improved quality and decreased cost of health care afforded by the secure and appropriate communication of their health information to all providers involved in their care, raising the health status of individuals and the entire state population. - Oklahoma Health Information Exchange Trust Vision Statement Submitted by: Oklahoma Health Information Exchange Trust March 11, 2011 Oklahomas Revised Operational Plan for the State Health Information Exchange Cooperative Agreement Program (SHIECAP) OHIET OKLAHOMA HEALTH INFORMATION EXCHANGE TRUST / OPERATIONAL PLAN - MARCH 2011 PAGE 1 Oklahoma Health Information Exchange Trust Operational Plan Table of Contents 1. Strategic Plan (under separate ...
How is Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health abbreviated? CSEPH stands for Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health. CSEPH is defined as Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health very rarely.
Introduction: Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) are recommended in patients with venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) and a contraindication to anticoagulation therapy. Observational studies of IVCF have often failed to adjust for immortal time bias, which is the period of follow-up time before the IVCF is placed during which death cannot occur in the intervention arm but can occur in the control group.. Methods: Hospitalized patients with VTE plus a contraindication to anticoagulation were identified in the State Inpatient Databases from California (2005-2011), Florida (2005-2013), and New York (2005-2012). Propensity score matching was used to adjust for baseline differences in patients receiving IVCF and those who did not and was performed with and without adjustment for immortal time bias via exclusion of matched pairs where the control patient died prior to the day of filter placement in their matched partner. Multivariable Cox models were constructed with IVC filter use as a time-fixed ...
Function to examine publication bias. For both fixed- and random-effects models, estimates from no-pooling effects model are used as study-specific estimates. For random-effects models, the corresponding fixed-effects models are implemented at background to obtain pooled estimate. For example, if users call bmeta to run random-effects meta-analysis with normal prior, fixed-effects meta-analysis with normal prior are implemented at background to obtain pooled estimate for graphing. In the absence of publication and heterogeneity, the scatter resembles a symmetrical funnel and the triangle area formed by connecting the centred summary estimate with its 2.5% and 97.5% quantiles on either side includes about 95% of the studies if the fixed-effects model assumption holds (i.e. all the studies estimate the same effect).
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. Methods: We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012.. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. Results: HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012.. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ,=25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six ...
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime risk of undergoing primary total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement in the UK. METHOD: A Population-based cohort study of 25,845 patients who had undergone a THR and 23,260 patients who had undergone a TKR between 1991 and 2006, using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. RESULTS: The estimated mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of THR at age 50 for the year 2005 was 11.6% (95% CI: 11.1, 12.1) for women and 7.1% (95% CI: 6.7, 7.5) for men. For TKR the risks were 10.8% (95% CI: 10.3, 11.3) for women and 8.1% (95% CI: 7.6, 8.5) for men. Between 1991 and 2006, the lifetime risk of THR at age 50 rose from 4.0% (95% CI: 3.5, 4.4) to 11.1% (95% CI: 10.6, 11.6) for women and for men from 2.2% (95% CI: 1.8, 2.5) to 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2, 7.0). Over the same period, for TKR the risk for women increased from 2.9% (95% CI: 2.6, 3.3) to 10.6% (95% CI: 10.1, 11.1) and for men from 1.8% (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2) to 7.7% (95% CI: 7.3, 8.2). CONCLUSION: The lifetime risk of
Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma
BACKGROUND: Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain raw data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a two-stage approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of one-stage approaches which combine all individual participant data in a single meta-analysis have been suggested as providing a more powerful and flexible approach. However, they are more complex to implement and require statistical support. This study uses a dataset to compare two-stage and one-stage models of varying complexity, to ascertain whether results obtained from the approaches differ in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 24 randomised controlled trials, evaluating antiplatelet agents, for the prevention of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. We performed two-stage and one-stage IPD meta-analyses to estimate overall treatment effect and to explore potential
1 1J1D1ES A SPECIAL REPORT SERIES BY THE N.C. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, AND NATURAL RESOURCES STATE CENTER FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS P.O. BOX 29538, RALEIGH, N.C. 27626-0538 No. 67 June 1992 THE QUALITY OF CANCER INCIDENCE DATA IN NORTH CAROLINA An Evaluation ofthe CentralCancerRegistry 1990Database by Carol R. Dickinson and Tim E. Aid rich ABSTRACT The North Carolina Central Cancer Registry (CCR) has completed its first year of statewide data collection. During 1990, 127 of 132 facilities submitted cancer incidence data; 29 of those were tumor registries. For the facilities without tumor registries, the CCRconducted a complete review ofall incidence reports for quality assurance and completeness, and provided trainingto all new staffmembers. Thisquality control process led to two-thirds of these facilities having an accuracy rate in excess of 96 percent. For facilities with new tumor registrars, CCR offered training sessions and a 100 percent evaluation of their abstracts ...
Mary Schmeida, PhD, RN Citation: Schmeida, M., (October 10, 2005). "Legislative: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996: Just an Incremental Step in Reshaping Government." OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 11, No 1.. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol11No01LegCol01. Introduction to HIPAA. In 1996, the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was adopted as a step toward reshaping government health care. Referred to as the HIPAA, it enables portability of health care insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs (Title I), sets a standard or benchmark for safeguarding electronic and paper exchange of health information, and requires national identifiers for providers, health plans, and employers (Title II). The final policy implementation rule outlines the entities affected by the legislation as health care providers, health plans, health care clearinghouses, and vendors offering computer software ...
The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commissions work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.. ...
A Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Protein Expression, Mutations And Survival In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Abstract - Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the extent of the public health problem presented by palatine tonsillar cancer in the United States by analyzing recent incidence and mortality rate trends.. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program database, age-adjusted incidence rates (1973-2001) for five histological types of palatine tonsillar cancer by race and sex were calculated. For total palatine tonsillar cancer age-specific incidence (1973-2001) and mortality (1969-2001) rates by race and sex were calculated. Mortality and population data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the U.S. Census Bureau. The Joinpoint Regression Model was employed to establish the statistical significance of incidence and mortality rate trends.. Results: The majority of palatine tonsillar cases diagnosed in SEER-9 registries from 1973 to 2001 occurred among white males, age 40-64 years, with ...
High blood cholesterol is a leading risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) (1,2). The risks associated with high blood cholesterol can be reduced by screening and early intervention (3). Current clinical practice guidelines provide evidenced-based standards for detection, treatment, and control of high blood cholesterol (4). Healthy People 2020 monitors national progress related to screening and controlling high blood cholesterol through the National Health Interview Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). State-level estimates of self-reported cholesterol screening and high blood cholesterol prevalence are available using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. To assess recent trends in the percentage of adults aged ≥18 years who had been screened for high blood cholesterol during the preceding 5 years, and the percentage among those who had been screened within the previous 5 years and who were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of supervised exercise therapy on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in intermittent claudication. AU - Jansen, Sandra C. P.. AU - Hoorweg, Beatrijs B. N.. AU - Hoeks, Sanne E.. AU - van den Houten, Marijn M. L.. AU - Scheltinga, Marc R. M.. AU - Teijink, Joep A. W.. AU - Rouwet, Ellen V.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. KW - Intermittent claudication. KW - Peripheral artery disease. KW - Supervised exercise therapy. KW - Cardiovascular risk. KW - PERIPHERAL ARTERY-DISEASE. KW - TREADMILL EXERCISE. KW - SECONDARY PREVENTION. KW - ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION. KW - WALKING ABILITY. KW - OLDER PATIENTS. KW - WEIGHT-LOSS. KW - HEART-RATE. KW - REHABILITATION. KW - STRENGTH. U2 - 10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.069. DO - 10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.069. M3 - Review article. VL - 69. SP - 1293-1308.e2. JO - Journal of Vascular Surgery. JF - Journal of Vascular Surgery. SN - 0741-5214. IS - 4. ER - ...
CALL FOR PAPERS Workshop on Computational Advances in Molecular Epidemiology (CAME 2011) held in conjunction with the 5th IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM 2011) Atlanta, GA, November 12-15, 2011 http://alan.cs.gsu.edu/CAME11/ Molecular epidemiology is an integrative scientific discipline that considers molecular biological processes in specific epidemiological settings. It relates molecular biological events to etiology, distribution and prevention of disease in human populations. Over years, molecular epidemiology has became extensively fused with mathematical and computational science and immensely benefitted from this tight association. The CAME workshop aims to bring together field practitioners of molecular epidemiology, molecular evolutionists, population geneticists, medical researchers, bioinformaticians, statisticians and computer scientists interested in the latest developments in algorithms, mining, visualization, modeling, simulation and other ...
The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Hip Fracture Incidence Map displays country-specific incidence of hip fracture per population of 100 000. The country-specific risk of hip fractures has been determined on a worldwide basis from a systematic review of literature.. The Hip Fracture Incidence Map was developed by J. A. Kanis et al. on behalf of International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Epidemiology/Quality of Life Working Group. "A systematic review of hip fracture incidence and probability of fracture worldwide" Osteoporosis International 2012.. CLOSE. ...
Background: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (called soft drinks) and juices, which have a high glycemic load relative to other foods and beverages, have been hypothesized as pancreatic cancer risk factors. However, data thus far are scarce, especially from non-European descent populations. We investigated whether higher consumption of soft drinks and juice increases the risk of pancreatic cancer in Chinese men and women.. Methods: A prospective cohort analysis was done to examine the association between soft drink and juice consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer in 60,524 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study with up to 14 years of follow-up. Information on consumption of soft drinks, juice, and other dietary items, as well as lifestyle and environmental exposures, was collected through in-person interviews at recruitment. Pancreatic cancer cases and deaths were ascertained by record linkage of the cohort database with records of population-based Singapore Cancer ...
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is fully engaged in technology transfer. NIDA views technology transfer as offering unique opportunities to establish collaborative relationships with the private sector in order to facilitate the transfer of research results into public health advances. Opportunities based upon basic research findings, applied research findings, and in potential product development are considered and appropriate agreements facilitating further research and development may be negotiated within the context of National Institutes of Health (NIH) policies. Technology transfer activities involving both extramural and intramural research are handled directly through an NIH interagency agreement with the National Cancer Institutes Technology Transfer Center, which provides services to support NIDAs technology development activities. Among these activities are: The exchange of confidential information under a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA). The exchange of
The present meta-epidemiological study highlights that almost half of orthodontic trials involve clinical evaluation of the relative merits of marketed products. Many of these do not confirm the effectiveness of these interventions, with almost 44% reporting no improvement related to the product. While these findings do not detract from the centrality of developing novel interventions in enhancing and streamlining orthodontics, it does suggest that there may be a disconnect between the marketing and clinical outcomes. This also highlights the potential merit in incorporating independent clinical research earlier in the research and development process [8].. A relatively high percentage of contemporary clinical trials (one third) focused on techniques to hasten orthodontic treatment-a zeitgeist in contemporary practice. These include both and non-surgical adjuncts with these thus far offering limited, largely equivocal results. Moreover, little difference in the rate of tooth movement with both ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Completion of therapy by medicare patients with stage III colon cancer. AU - Dobie, Sharon A.. AU - Baldwin, Laura Mae. AU - Dominitz, Jason A.. AU - Matthews, Barbara. AU - Billingsley, Kevin. AU - Barlow, William. PY - 2006/5/3. Y1 - 2006/5/3. N2 - Background: Certain factors, such as race or age, are known to be associated with variation in initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, but little is known about what factors are associated with completion of adjuvant therapy. To determine whether predictors of initiation also predict completion, we analyzed Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data linked to Medicare claims. We investigated mortality as a means to testing the validity of the completion measure that we created. Methods: We studied 3193 stage III colon cancer patients whose diagnosis was recorded in 1992-1996 SEER program data linked to 1991-1998 Medicare claims and who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy after colon cancer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic syndrome and angiographic coronary artery disease prevalence in association with the framingham risk score. AU - Konstantinou, Dimitris M.. AU - Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.. AU - Louridas, George E.. AU - Giannoglou, George D.. PY - 2010/6/1. Y1 - 2010/6/1. N2 - Background: The association of metabolic syndrome with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the effect of Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic syndrome components on the association of metabolic syndrome with angiographically significant CAD. Our aim was to investigate whether that relationship is influenced by individuals 10-year CAD risk profile as assessed by FRS. Furthermore, we sought to elucidate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with angiographically significant CAD independently of its individual components. Methods: We studied a consecutive sample of 150 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. Metabolic ...
Downloadable! In the neighbourhood effects literature, the socialisation mechanism is usually investigated by looking at the association between neighbourhood characteristics and educational attainment. The step in between, that adolescents actually internalise educational norms held by residents, is often assumed. We attempt to fill this gap by looking at how educational commitments are influenced by neighbourhood characteristics. We investigate this process for migrant youth, a group that lags behind in educational attainment compared to native youth, and might therefore be particularly vulnerable to neighbourhood effects. To test our hypothesis we used longitudinal panel data with five waves (N=4179), combined with fixed-effects models which control for a large portion of potential selection bias. These models have an advantage over naïve OLS models in that they predict the effect of change in neighbourhood characteristics on change in educational commitment, and therefore offer a more dynamic
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A population-based cross-sectional study of age-specific risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus prevalence in rural Nigeria. AU - Clarke, Megan A.. AU - Gage, Julia C.. AU - Ajenifuja, Kayode O.. AU - Wentzensen, Nicolas A.. AU - Adepiti, Akinfolarin C.. AU - Wacholder, Sholom. AU - Burk, Robert D.. AU - Schiffman, Mark. PY - 2011/8/2. Y1 - 2011/8/2. N2 - Background: Cervical cancer, caused by persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), is particularly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with a high mortality rate. Some studies in West Africa, including our own, have found unusually high HR-HPV across all ages with a slight peak in older women. This increased prevalence at older ages may complicate screen-and-treat programs, which are implemented in regions where HPV prevalence declines with age and typically target women between 30-49 years. A better understanding of the determinants of high HR-HPV prevalence at older ages is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Esophageal Cancer in a High HIV Prevalence Area. T2 - A Survival Analysis and Evaluation of Prediction Scores. AU - Loots, Emil. AU - Anderson, Frank. AU - Clarke, Damian L. AU - Mulder, Chris J J. AU - Madiba, Thandinkosi E. PY - 2016/12. Y1 - 2016/12. N2 - INTRODUCTION: Esophageal cancer (EC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common in parts of South Africa. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa presents generally in advanced stages and is mostly palliated by the deployment of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). This study analyses these relationships between coexistent HIV infection, SEMS deployment, and survival scores.METHODOLOGY: Information on patients managed with SEMS between October 2013 and December 2014 was retrieved from a prospective database of EC and followed up until April 2015. Data collected included demographics, HIV status, clinical presentation, prognostic indicators, management, and ...
Objective Recommendations regarding physical activity typically include both leisure time and occupational physical activity. However, the results from previous studies on occupational physical activity and the association with myocardial infarction have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate if occupational physical activity is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction.. Design Prospective cohort study.. Participants Data from the Swedish Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen (WOLF) study was used, comprising 9961 employees (6849 men, 3112 women, mean age 42.7 years) having no history of myocardial infarction. The participants were categorised into 3 groups according to their level of occupational physical activity.. Outcome Data regarding incident myocardial infarction were obtained from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazard regression was used for estimation of HRs for different levels of occupational physical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth. T2 - A systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: Assessing the effects using the best level of evidence) - study protocol. AU - Crowther, Caroline A.. AU - Aghajafari, Fariba. AU - Askie, Lisa M.. AU - Asztalos, Elizabeth V.. AU - Brocklehurst, Peter. AU - Bubner, Tanya K.. AU - Doyle, Lex W.. AU - Dutta, Sourabh. AU - Garite, Thomas J.. AU - Guinn, Debra A.. AU - Hallman, Mikko. AU - Hannah, Mary E.. AU - Hardy, Pollyanna. AU - Maurel, Kimberly. AU - Mazumder, Premasish. AU - McEvoy, Cynthia (Cindy). AU - Middleton, Philippa F.. AU - Murphy, Kellie E.. AU - Peltoniemi, Outi M.. AU - Peters, Dawn. AU - Sullivan, Lisa. AU - Thom, Elizabeth A.. AU - Voysey, Merryn. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Yelland, Lisa. AU - Zhang, Sasha. PY - 2012/2/12. Y1 - 2012/2/12. N2 - Background: The aim of this individual participant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of pathobiologic determinants of atherosclerosis in youth risk score and carotid artery intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients. AU - Cheng, Hao Ming. AU - Ye, Zhong Xuan. AU - Charng, Min Ji. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder characterized by extremely high cholesterol level, accelerated atherosclerosis and premature cardiovascular disease.We need an early risk stratification method for this population. Arisk score formula to estimate the probability of advanced atherosclerosis using coronary heart disease risk factors was developed for persons 15-34 years of age by the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study. This studys aim was to investigate the relation between PDAY risk score and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and inflammation markers in asymptomatic young FH subjects. Methods: We included 23 ...
The incidence of molar pregnancy has demonstrated marked geographic and ethnic differences. The reported data in Nepal is inconsistent with minimal published literature. Thus, we designed a study to determine prevalence of molar pregnancies and demonstrate clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients attending a tertiary care center in eastern Nepal. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted to determine the prevalence of molar pregnancies at the B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) from the year 2008 to 2012. Secondary data from the medical records were analyzed. Annual and 5-year prevalence of molar pregnancy per 1000 live births was calculated. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, management methods and complications of molar pregnancy were studied. The 5- year prevalence of molar pregnancy at BPKIHS is 4.17 per 1000 live births with annual prevalence ranging 3.8-4.5 per 1000 live births. More than one third of the patients were in the age
Rationale: Xpert MTB/RIF is a novel automated molecular diagnostic recently endorsed by the World Health Organization. However, performance-related data from high HIV prevalence settings are limited. Objectives: The impact of sample-related factors on performance and the significance of Xpert MTB/RIF-positive culture-negative discordance remain unclear. Methods: Xpert MTB/RIF was evaluated using single archived spot-sputum samples from 496 South African patients with suspected TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and phenotypic resistance to rifampicin served as reference standards. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, Xpert MTB/RIF detected 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-98%; 89 of 94) of smear-positive culture-positive cases and the specificity was 94% (91-96%; 320 of 339). The sensitivity in smear-negative cases was 55% (35-73%; 12 of 22) when the analysis was restricted to 1 ml of unprocessed sputum and culture time-to-positivity of less than or equal to 28 days. ...
Stroke is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. No study has evaluated the association between diuretic use and risk of vertebral fracture in stroke patients, although a considerable proportion of stroke patients are prescribed diuretics for hypertension. Our study aimed to investigate whether treatment with thiazides or loop diuretics affects the risk of vertebral fracture after stroke. A population-based propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a new diagnosis of stroke between 2000 and 2011 were included. After propensity score matching, 9468 patients were included in the analysis of the effect of thiazides, of who 4734 received thiazides within 2 years after stroke. To analyze the loop diuretic effect, 4728 patients were included, of who 2364 received loop diuretics. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of vertebral fractures among
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational asbestos exposure and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. T2 - An ecologic study. AU - Treggiari, Miriam M.. AU - Weiss, Noel S.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - PURPOSE: A previous case-control study observed a strong association between occupational exposure to asbestos and the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract (GINHL). To test this hypothesis, we sought to determine whether the geographic pattern of the incidence of GINHL in the US has paralleled that of mesothelioma. METHODS: Using data obtained from the nine US regions participating in the National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, we examined the incidence of malignancies among men ages 50 to 84 years between 1973 and 1984. RESULTS: Results The rates of mesothelioma, but not of GINHL, were about two times higher in the areas of Seattle and San Francisco, than in the other regions. Overall, there was no correlation ...
Data & statistics on Georgia Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Georgia Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Geography, Breast Cancer Mortality7 (Graph 19) Breast cancer mortality rates declined slightly for all women during 1997 to 2005. In 2005, at the local and state level, African American women followed by white women had the highest rates of breast cancer mortality.10, Age specific incidence of the breast cancer, rates per 100000 women, Georgia, 2007...
Geographic expansion of dengue incidence has drawn a global interest to identify the influential factors that instigate the spread of this disease. The objective of this study was to find the environmental factors linked to dengue incidence in a dengue epidemic area of Nepal by negative binomial models using climatic factors from 2010 to 2017. Minimum temperature at lag 2 months, maximum temperature and relative humidity without lag period significantly affected dengue incidence. Rainfall was not associated with dengue incidence in Chitwan district of Nepal. The incident rate ratio (IRR) of dengue case rise by more than 1% for every unit increase in minimum temperature at lag 2 months, maximum temperature and relative humidity, but decrease by .759% for maximum temperature at lag 3 months. Considering the effect of minimum temperature of previous months on dengue incidence, the vector control and dengue management program should be implemented at least 2 months ahead of dengue outbreak season.
Free Online Library: Impact of nonresponse on medicare current beneficiary survey estimates.(Report) by Health Care Financing Review; Business Health care industry Medical care surveys Research Medicare Surveys Respondents (Social science research) Influence
Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of Enterobacter spp. from three distinct populations in Grampian, UK. AU - Wagenlehner, F. M.. AU - MacKenzie, Fiona. AU - Forbes, Kenneth James. AU - Gould, Ian M. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The distribution of Enterobacter spp. within the population of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary was compared with the outpatient population with regard to molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Enterobacter spp. from 60 patients and one environmental site were characterised as ITU, non ITU and outpatients isolates. Thirty-five percent were blood culture isolates. Cefotaxime resistant strains in the hospital were frequent. Cefotaxime (64%) sensitive isolates were inducible for hyperproduction of Bush group I P-lactamase. Isolates were further investigated by PFGE. Isolates (27%) were clonally related and typed in four clusters. Consecutive isolates were studied in selected patients showing minor genomic changes. One environmental isolate ...
BACKGROUND Surgery is the only curative therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). Combined portal vein resection (PVR) could achieve negative resection margins in HCCA patients with portal vein invasion. This systematic review aimed to analysis the efficiency of combined PVR for HCCA. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and clinical trial registries were searched through April 2015. Risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS The analysis included 21 retrospective studies, altogether involving 2403 patients (patients with PVR, n=637; patients without PVR, n=1766). Patients with PVR were likely to have more advanced HCCA (lymphatic invasion: RR=1.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28; perineural invasion: RR=1.31, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63) and suffered less curative resections (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). Postoperative morbidity was similar between patients with or without PVR (RR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94
Sampling biases are the greatest impediment to resolving the history of species richness of fossilizable marine invertebrates in the Phanerozoic. Actual patterns of species richness have remained uncertain because no method is available to compensate for variations in sampling intensity. Data are not obtainable which would permit application of techniques that allow direct compensation for sampling intensity, such as rarefaction, but actual patterns can be estimated with a sampling model designed to account for sampling bias. One can estimate the total species richness of a geologic period if one knows the relative sampling intensity devoted to that period, the original species-abundance distribution of all species that existed during the interval, and the number of species that existed during the Cenozoic. The model presented here is based on the assumption that the species-abundance distributions of fossilizable marine invertebrates were lognormal and that sampling was proportional to sediment ...
Abstract:. Background: Hemoglobinopathies comprising of thalassemias and various hemoglobin (Hb) variants continue to plague the health system of India. Aims: To find out the prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies in the study population and to identify any association with the various ethnic groups residing in rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Naxalbari block of Darjeeling district, West Bengal from June 2011 to August 2011, involving hemoglobin variant screening by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method of 188 antenatal women, selected through multistage random sampling technique. Results: 26.6% of mothers had abnormal hemoglobin, the commonest being the Hemoglobin E (Hb E) trait (15.42%). The prevalence of homozygous HbE, HbE thalassemia, -thalassemia trait and hemoglobin S-trait in the studied population was 6.91%, 0.53%, 2.12% and 1.06% respectively. There was a single ...
Weight: A nonresponse bias analysis was conducted to create sample weights. Researchers compared respondents and nonrespondents on the administrative data elements provided by the universities, which included age, university, race/ethnicity, and year of study. Although little nonresponse bias was detected, weights adjusting for nonresponse were developed using a Generalized Exponential Model to reduce nonresponse bias and increase sample representativeness. Cohens effect size was used as a measure of the magnitude of the bias, and weights were added for university, gender, year of study, and race/ethnicity, which reduced the bias to negligible levels. All prevalence estimates and multivariate models were computed using weighted data. The following weight variables are included in the data file: (1) CSAWT -- Case weight based on race, gender, and age of sample population, (2) FWWEIGHT -- Female weight, normalized for sample size, and (3) MWWEIGHT -- Male weight, normalized for sample size. Mode ...
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public health-local, state, territorial, federal, and international-to share notifiable disease-related health information. Annual statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public health-local, state, territorial, federal, and international-to share notifiable disease-related health information. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of laryngectomy alone for treatment of locally advanced laryngeal cancer. T2 - A stage- and subsite-specific survival analysis. AU - Cervenka, B. P.. AU - Rao, Shyam. AU - Farwell, D Gregory. AU - Bewley, Arnaud. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective: Total laryngectomy is a well-established treatment for locally advanced laryngeal cancer. Evidence for the benefit of post-operative radiotherapy after laryngectomy in patients with locally advanced primaries and N0 or N1 nodal disease is limited. This study aimed to determine whether total laryngectomy alone is adequate therapy for certain patient subgroups with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. Design: We performed a retrospective survival analysis of patients in the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database with locally advanced laryngeal cancer between 2004 and 2012. Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was overall survival. Results: For all patients with T3-4aN0-1 tumours, overall survival ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymph node ratio as a prognostic factor in elderly patients with pathological N1 non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Wisnivesky, Juan P.. AU - Arciniega, Jacqueline. AU - Mhango, Grace. AU - Mandeli, John. AU - Halm, Ethan A.. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Background: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is an important predictor of survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic significance of the extent of LN involvement among patients with N1 disease remains unknown. A study was undertaken to evaluate whether involvement of a higher number of N1 LNs is associated with worse survival independent of known prognostic factors. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, 1682 resected patients with N1 NSCLC diagnosed between 1992 and 2005 were identified. As the number of positive LNs is confounded by the total number of LNs sampled, the cases were classified into three groups according to the ratio of positive to ...
The purpose of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to assess the association of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)/progression-free survival (PFS) in ovarian cancer patients. Systematic searches of Pubmed databases was performed to identify relevant literature published before February 28, 2018. A total of 14 studies (13 articles) with 2210 ovarian cancer patients were pooled. All included studies were performed by using Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of ALDH expression. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted from included studies to evaluate the correlation of ALDH expression with OS and DFS/PFS. High expression of ALDH was associated with worse OS (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.73) and poor DFS/PFS (HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12-2.14). No evidence of publication bias was observed in OS (Beggs test, P = 0.113; Eggers test, P = 0.355) and DFS/PFS (Beggs test, P = 0.655; Eggers test, P = 0.189) in ovarian
South Koreas National Intelligence Service (NIS) said Monday that North Korea has completed preparations for another nuclear test at its Punggye-ri test site, adding that Pyongyang was likely to launch a ballistic missile during the ongoing US-South Korean Ulchi Freedom Guardian (UFG) military drills or on September 9 to commemorate the anniversary of its states foundation.. "Preparations for the nuclear test have been completed at the second and third tunnels [of Punggye-ri]," the intelligence services representative told a parliamentary briefing, as quoted by the Yonhap news agency.. The NIS also suggested that North Korea would carry out another missile launch in the coming days either during the UFG drill, or around September 9, marking the Day of the Foundation of the Republic.. "There is the possibility that the North will launch a ballistic missile on the Foundation Anniversary [September 9], and we are preparing for that," the NIS said.. When briefing the parliament on Pyongyangs ...
Waterborne Campylobacter jejuni outbreaks are common in the Nordic countries, and PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) remains the genotyping method of choice in outbreak investigations. However, PFGE cannot assess the clonal relationship between isolates, leading to difficulties in molecular epidemiological investigations. Here, we explored the applicability of whole genome sequencing to outbreak investigation by re-analysing three C. jejuni strains (one isolated from water and two from patients) from an earlier resolved Finnish waterborne outbreak from the year 2000. One of the patient strains had the same PFGE profile, as well as an identical overall gene synteny and three polymorphisms in comparison with the water strain. However, the other patient isolate, which showed only minor differences in the PFGE pattern relative to the water strain, harboured several polymorphisms as well as rearrangements in the integrated element CJIE2. We reconstructed the genealogy of these strains with ClonalFrame
Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) announced on Monday that is looking to develop mosquito insecticides from locally grown pyrethrum flowers. This is good news to Kenyas pyrethrum farmers in the country who are set to be the first hand beneficiaries of the project.. In her bid to contain the deadly malaria disease that claims nearly 23,000 lives in the East African, plans to replace the synthetic insecticides available in the country with pyrethrum-based insecticide.. KEMRI announced plans for the study after the countrys health ministry discovered from a research that the synthetic pyrethroids cannot kill 60% of the malaria-causing mosquitos. The study is also aimed and providing a lasting solution to the mosquito menace that is increasingly becoming resistant towards the available synthetic pyrethrum.. Kenyas pyrethrum farmers are set to be the major benefactors as if the study and trials are success it will mean that a Pyrethrum plant will be established by the Kenya Pyrethrum ...
BOSTON (WHDH) - The Massachusetts Department of Public Health announced Thursday that the West Nile virus has been detected in mosquitoes in Massachusetts for the first time this year.. The presence of WNV was confirmed by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory in a mosquito sample that was collected July 3 in Boston in Suffolk County, according to DPH.. No human or animal cases of WNV or Eastern Equine Encephalitis have been detected so far this year. There is no elevated risk level or risk-level change associated with this finding.. "The first WNV positive mosquito sample is often identified in Massachusetts sometime during the last week of June or the first week in July," DPH State Epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown said in a statement. "Risk for human infection generally builds through the season with peak risk occurring in August.". WNV is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.. In 2018, there were 49 human cases of WNV infection acquired in ...
article{f963b6fc-e756-4df4-ac43-a0f6062f09ae, abstract = {,p,Aims/hypothesis: Sleep duration is a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and CHD. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, in sex-specific analyses, the role of incident diabetes as the possible biological mechanism for the reported association between short/long sleep duration and incident CHD. Considering that diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD, we hypothesised that any association with sleep duration would not hold for cases of incident CHD occurring before incident diabetes (non-diabetes CHD) but would hold true for cases of incident CHD following incident diabetes (diabetes-CHD). Methods: A total of 6966 men and 9378 women aged 45-73 years from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based, prospective cohort, who had answered questions on habitual sleep duration and did not have a history of prevalent diabetes or CHD were included in the analyses. Incident cases of diabetes and CHD were ...
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 led to a decrease in the incidence of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), but not of other cancers, among people with HIV or AIDS (PWHA). It also led to marked increases in their life expectancy. METHODS: We conducted a record-linkage study between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and nine Swiss cantonal cancer registries. In total, 9429 PWHA provided 20,615, 17,690, and 15,410 person-years in the pre-, early-, and late-HAART periods, respectively. Standardised incidence ratios in PWHA vs the general population, as well as age-standardised, and age-specific incidence rates were computed for different periods. RESULTS: Incidence of KS and NHL decreased by several fold between the pre- and early-HAART periods, and additionally declined from the early- to the late-HAART period. Incidence of cancers of the anus, liver, non-melanomatous skin, and Hodgkins lymphoma increased in the early- compared with the ...
We talk about Lyme disease and the serious threat here in Massachusetts all the time, but its not the only tick-borne illness we should be aware of. Black-legged ticks are very prevalent in South Shore and Fall River, and they can carry several other diseases as well: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Powassan, and now the newest tick disease recognized in this area Borellia miyamotoi, are all transmitted by the deer tick. In an article published by the Herald News, deputy state epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown warns of the concerns of these illnesses. Not only from deer ticks but also the Lone Star tick that is "moving this way". Lone Star ticks carry STARI, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever which is rare in Massachusetts but expected to grow. Dr. Brown believes that humans moving out of the cities into the suburbs can be causing the introduction of newer disease. Powassan and B. Miyamotoi are the latest of these diseases and while still rare, a recognized threat. ...
Social studies do not show in the fallacies in history with history themes and that has lived as a Credit Score. The credit score indicates whether the borrower has clean credit history, poor credit history record. Due to the fallacies in history and continuous growth of civilization is the fallacies in history that has specific implications for us scared me into a state of frantic planning. It was reinforced by the fallacies in history. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was at the fallacies in history and waiting for the fallacies in history of convincing Baals prophets. He prayed for a miracle, for fire from heaven, so that Gods own people would believe. The fire came. It burned up the fallacies in history of Christian historians to write reasonable history and mythology which brings together different aspects of the fallacies in history and how would the fallacies in history of creating of fire come into being? If the Hindu religion did not pray for his own egos sake, and he did not have been ...
Abstract. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages. Median patient age was 19.5 years (interquartile range 2-48.5 years); 52% (50) were female. Forty-three spa types, representing 17 lineages, were identified. Fifty-eight percent (56) of all isolates encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), representing six lineages: half of these patients had abscesses and three had positive blood cultures. The dominant lineage was CC121 (39; 41%); all but one isolate encoded PVL and 49% (19) were from children under five.
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Previous studies have examined the association between polymorphisms in the coagulation factor VII gene and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but those studies have been inconclusive. This study was conducted to assess the associations between these polymorphisms and CHD and evaluated the associations in different ethnicities. Literature-based searching was conducted to collect data and two methods, namely fixed-effects and random-effects, were performed to pool the odds ratio (OR), together with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Publication bias and between-study heterogeneity were also examined. Thirty-nine case-control studies of the three polymorphisms, R353Q (rs6046), HVR4 and -323Ins10 (rs36208070) in factor VII gene and CHD were enrolled in this meta-analysis, including 9,151 cases of CHD and 14,099 controls for R353Q, 2,863 cases and 2,727 controls for HVR4, and 2,862 cases and 4,240 controls for -323Ins10. Significant association was only found in Asian population for R353Q (Q vs R),
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This study addresses the epidemiologic relatedness of a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients attending the Pediatric Clinic, Catania, Sicily. Genome macrorestriction analysis after pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterise all strains. Furthermore, a rapid typing procedure, developed in this study, based on polymerase chain reaction amplified ribosomal DNA spacer polymorphisms (PCR-ribotyping), straight from bacterial cultures, was used. On the basis of macrorestriction analysis after PFGE, persistence of infection was shown in all patients; two cross-transmission episodes were identified in the nosocomial as well as in the familiar environment. PCR-ribotyping proved to be useful for a DNA-based identification test, suitable for screening purposes. The rapid amplification protocol here tested is proposed to evaluate the discriminatory power of other specific target sequences in PCR-based typing assays, for epidemiologic purposes.
The field of travel medicine is concerned primarily with ways to maintain the health of international travelers. Remaining current in this area requires up-to-date knowledge of global infectious diseases, patterns of drug resistance, advances in preventive measures, and public health regulations pertaining to the crossing of international borders. This review of off-line commercial databases and Internet sources will assist infectious disease consultants in accessing current reliable travel health information. Of the North American pretravel off-line databases, TRAVAX (United States) and The Medical Letter are the most comprehensive, whereas the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network is extraordinary in its provision of global infectious disease epidemiology for posttravel assessment. A total of 65 Web sites are listed within 9 categories, covering such areas as authoritative government travel health recommendations, commercially-oriented sites, and travel medicine listserv ...
10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases ...
Read "Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Combined cell implantation has been widely applied in tissue engineering in recent years. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to establish whether the combined transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promotes angiogenesis and tissue repair, compared with transplantation of a single cell type, following tissue injury or during tissue regeneration. The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Chinese Biomedical Literature, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen controlled preclinical studies involving MSC and EPC transplantation in animal models of disease, or in coculture in vitro, were included in this review. The vessel density and other functional indexes, which were classified according to the organ source, were used to evaluate the efficiency of cotransplantation. Publication bias was assessed. There was no obvious difference in angiogenesis following combined cell
Previous reports have suggested an increasing incidence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli causing bacteremia among cancer patients on prophylactic therapy. We used genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digests and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting to study clonal relationships among such isolates obtained at 10 cancer centers located across Europe and the Middle East. Analysis by both methods indicated that isolates from different centers were genotypically unrelated to each other. There were five centers from which more than one individual patient isolate was available, and most demonstrated significant within-center genetic diversity of strains. Strains shared among patients could be identified at two centers. At the center with the largest number of bloodstream isolates from cancer patients available, fluoroquinolone-resistant control isolates from surgical patients and fluoroquinolone-susceptible control isolates from patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality. T2 - All sunlight is not the same (United States). AU - Schwartz, Gary G.. AU - Hanchette, Carol L.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Objective: We showed previously that Caucasian mortality rates from prostate cancer for 1970-1979 are significantly inversely correlated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We now present the analysis of prostate cancer mortality data over a 45-year period (1950-1994) in order to examine the persistence of this pattern. Furthermore, because vitamin D synthesis does not occur during winter months at latitudes higher than 40° N, we examined this relationship above and below 40° N latitude. Methods: We used trend surface and linear regression analyses to characterize the relationship between prostate cancer mortality and UV radiation for U.S. counties at northern and southern latitudes. Results: For U.S. Caucasians, prostate cancer mortality rates at the county and SEA levels followed a ...
Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin D have a key role in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. However, despite adopting similar risk assessment protocols, estimates from authoritative agencies over the last 6 years have been diverse. This may have arisen from diverse approaches to data analysis. Modelling strategies for pooling of individual subject data from cognate vitamin D randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are likely to provide the most appropriate DRV estimates. Thus, the objective of the present work was to undertake the first-ever individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-regression, which is increasingly recognized as best practice, from seven winter-based RCTs (with 882 participants ranging in age from 4 to 90 years) of the vitamin D intake-serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dose-response. Our IPD-derived estimates of vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of 25(OH)D concentrations >25, 30, and 50 nmol/L across the population are 10, 13, and 26 µg/day, respectively.
TY - JOUR. T1 - How many lymph nodes properly stage a periampullary malignancy?. AU - Gutierrez, Juan C.. AU - Franceschi, Dido. AU - Koniaris, Leonidas G.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - The impact of lymphadenectomy in prognosis and staging in periampullary malignancies remains largely undefined. We examined all pancreaticoduodenectomies for periampullary carcinomas in the SEER cancer registry from 1993 through 2003. Overall, 5465 pancreaticoduodenectomies for nonmetastatic periampullary carcinomas were identified. The cohort was comprised of 62.5% pancreatic, 18.9% ampullary, 11.6% distal bile duct, and 7.0% duodenal cancers. A linear association between the number of lymph nodes (LNs) examined and overall survival was observed overall and for pancreas and ampullary cancers for node-negative (N0) disease. Median survival for all patients with localized, N0 disease improved from 24 to 31 months, with sampling of a minimum of 10 LNs, whereas 2 and 5-year survival improved from 52 and 29%, ...
1 National Cancer Institute. A Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/adolescent-young-adult.. 2 Archie Bleyer et al., "The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults," Nature Reviews Cancer 8, no. 4 (2008): 288-298. Available at: http://www.mendeley.com/catalog/distinctive-biology-cancer-adolescents-young-adults-1.. 3 National Cancer Institute. 2006 Fact Book. Available at: http://obf.cancer.gov/financial/attachments/06Factbk.pdf.. 4 American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2011- 2012. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-030975.pdf. 5 National Cancer Institute. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. SEER Stat Fact Sheets 2013: Breast. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html.. 6 Carey K. Anders et al., "Breast Carcinomas Arising at a Young Age: Unique Biology or a Surrogate for Aggressive ...
We identified one study in which 141 young, active adults with acute ACL injury were randomised to either ACL reconstruction followed by structured rehabilitation (results reported for 62 participants) or conservative treatment comprising structured rehabilitation alone (results reported for 59 participants). Built into the study design was a formal option for subsequent (delayed) ACL reconstruction in the conservative treatment group, if the participant requested surgery and met pre-specified criteria.. This study was deemed at low risk of selection and reporting biases, at high risk of performance and detection biases because of the lack of blinding and at unclear risk of attrition bias because of an imbalance in the post-randomisation exclusions. According to GRADE methodology, the overall quality of the evidence was low across different outcomes.. This study identified no difference in subjective knee score (measured using the average score on four of the five sub-scales of the KOOS score ...
BACKGROUND: Calls have been made for increased access to individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials, to ensure that complete evidence is available. However, despite the obvious benefits, progress towards this is frustratingly slow. In the meantime, many systematic reviews have already collected IPD from clinical trials. We propose that a central repository for these IPD should be established to ensure that these datasets are safeguarded and made available for use by others, building on the strengths and advantages of the collaborative groups that have been brought together in developing the datasets. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the level of support, and identify major issues, for establishing a central repository of IPD. DESIGN: On-line survey with email reminders. PARTICIPANTS: 71 reviewers affiliated with the Cochrane Collaborations IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group were invited to participate. RESULTS: 30 (42%) invitees responded: 28 (93%) had been involved in an IPD review and 24 (80%) had been
Pooling of data from 14,874 women in an individual participant data meta-analysis by Nicola Low and colleagues reveals that some intravaginal practices increase the risk of HIV acquisition.
Investigations of the compositions of microbial communities are important steps in understanding the role of bacterial and archaeal populations in biogeochemical processes. Due to poor culturability of natural bacteria, particularly anaerobic bacteria, we used molecular approaches based on rDNA sequences to investigate microbial community structure in the anoxic Cariaco Basin. However, we caution that the 16S rDNA library strategy for sequence retrieval contains several sources of potential bias. A bias caused by the reannealing kinetics of product molecules can skew gene frequencies when PCR product concentrations exceed threshold values (39). Another important potential bias is that organisms belonging to the domain Archaea have been found to have only one or a few gene copies of the 16S rRNA gene, while members of the domain Bacteria can have from one to seven or more copies, which may bias amplification towards theBacteria (26). Therefore, the frequency of rDNA clones should be regarded as ...
The effect of statin treatment on circulating coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been studied in numerous randomized controlled trails (RCTs). However, whether statin treatment decreases circulating CoQ10 is still controversial. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify RCTs to investigate the effect of statin treatment on circulating CoQ10. We calculated the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) using a fixed effect model or random effect model to assess the effect of statin treatment on circulating CoQ10. The methodological quality of the studies was determined according to the Cochrane Handbook. Publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot, the Egger regression test, and the Begg-Mazumdar correlation test. Twelve RCTs with a total of 1776 participants were evaluated. Compared with placebo, statin treatment resulted in a reduction of circulating CoQ10 (SMD, − 2.12; 95% CI, − 3.40 to − 0.84; p = 0.001), which was not associated with the duration of statin treatment (Exp, 1.00;
Non-differential exposure misclassification is one of the largest concerns in occupational case-control studies and is likely to lead to an underestimate of the true odds ratio. Because we were unable to directly measure personal exposure to triazine herbicides, a surrogate measurement of cumulative exposure was constructed from a JEM. There are many factors that influence how the amounts of herbicide used in any given location relate to the levels in the air and soil including half life, adherence to soil, method of application, and weather conditions.16-18 Although the JEM estimate may be a reasonable proxy for exposure, many factors influence uptake of the herbicide so it is important to realise that the JEM is essentially a method to rank subjects relative to one another on a continuous scale rather than the traditional categorical scales.. Two major strengths of the study were the use of the prompt list to aid recall of work histories and the comprehensiveness of the California DPR ...
Two simple scoring systems, (based on the number of symptoms/risk factors reported on a respiratory questionnaire) produced high positive predictive values when compared with majority opinion of three respiratory physicians regarding possible obstructive airways disease.. Two important sources of selection bias could have occurred. First, non-respondents to the questionnaire survey could have been materially different from respondents. This was examined after the first questionnaire survey in 1993, when a comparison was made between the practice medical records of a random sample of 100 respondents and 100 non-respondents. No important differences were found with respect to age, gender, and total number of consultations and consultations for respiratory problems in the previous year. There is no reason to suspect that the situation was different in 1995. Second, the adults attending for clinical review may have been different from those who were invited but who did not attend. These two groups ...
Background: Increasing numbers of individuals are choosing to opt out of population-based sampling frames due to privacy concerns. This is especially a problem in the selection of controls for case-control studies, as the cases often arise from relatively complete population-based registries, whereas control selection requires a sampling frame. If opt out is also related to risk factors, bias can arise.. Methods: We linked breast cancer cases who reported having a valid drivers license from the 2004-2008 Wisconsin womens health study (N = 2,988) with a master list of licensed drivers from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WDOT). This master list excludes Wisconsin drivers that requested their information not be sold by the state. Multivariate-adjusted selection probability ratios (SPR) were calculated to estimate potential bias when using this drivers license sampling frame to select controls.. Results: A total of 962 cases (32%) had opted out of the WDOT sampling frame. Cases age ...