The South Africa Field Epidemiology Training Program (SAFETP) builds global health security by enhancing South Africa's capacity to prevent, detect and respond to public health threats through a 2-year training program in applied epidemiology, focused on supervised work experience and training to develop practical public health skills and knowledge.
We report here an effect of exposure to ETS on the risk of head and neck cancer. Not only did we find an elevated cancer risk among individuals exposed to ETS, but we also observed dose-response associations for the degree of ETS exposure, adjusting for several potential confounders. These associations and the dose-response relationships were still present when the analysis was restricted to non-active-smoking cases and controls.. This study has several possible limitations. One limitation is potential selection bias, which might have resulted in an overestimate or underestimate of the ETS effect (bias away from or toward null). Using controls from the blood bank may result in potential selection bias because blood donors might be more health oriented. To assess the potential selection bias, we have compared selected demographic and potential risk factors between blood donor controls and non-cancer controls from the Surgical Day Hospital during the same study period at Memorial Sloan-Kettering ...
This example shows that you can apply PROC CALIS to fit measurement error models. You treat true scores variables as latent variables in the structural equation model. The linear regression model is a special case of the structural equation model (or measurement error model) where measurement error variances are assumed to be zero. Structural equation modeling by PROC CALIS is not limited to this simple modeling scenario. PROC CALIS can treat more complicated measurement error models. In Example 29.9 and Example 29.10, you fit measurement error models with parameter constraints and with more than one predictor. You can also fit measurement error models with correlated errors. ...
3rd ed. "This course covers basic epidemiology principles, concepts, and procedures useful in the surveillance and investigation of health-related states or events. It is designed for federal, state, and local government health professionals and private sector health professionals who are responsible for disease surveillance or investigation. A basic understanding of the practices of public health and biostatistics is recommended. " - p. viii Second edition published 1992 as Principles of epidemiology : an introduction to applied epidemiology and biostatistics (Self-study course ; 3030-G ...
Data & statistics on Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates ALL RACES: Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000...
Selection bias is common in clinic-based HIV surveillance. Clinics located in HIV hotspots are often the first to be chosen and monitored, while clinics in less prevalent areas are added to the surveillance system later on. Consequently, the estimated HIV prevalence based on clinic data is substantially distorted, with markedly higher HIV prevalence in the earlier periods and trends that reveal much more dramatic declines than actually occur. Using simulations, we compare and contrast the performance of the various approaches and models for handling selection bias in clinic-based HIV surveillance. In particular, we compare the application of complete-case analysis and multiple imputation (MI). Several models are considered for each of the approaches. We demonstrate the application of the methods through sentinel surveillance data collected between 2002 and 2008 from India. Simulations suggested that selection bias, if not handled properly, can lead to biased estimates of HIV prevalence trends and
Foreword by Professor Sir Michael Marmot. To date, much of the empirical work in social epidemiology has demonstrated the existence of health inequalities along a number of axes of social differentiation. However, this research, in isolation, will not inform effective solutions to health inequalities. Rethinking Social Epidemiology provides an expanded vision of social epidemiology as a science of change, one that seeks to better address key questions related to both the causes of social inequalities in health (problem-focused research) as well as the implementation of interventions to alleviate conditions of marginalization and poverty (solution-focused research). This book is ideally suited for emerging and practicing social epidemiologists as well as graduate students and health professionals in related disciplines.. ...
How is Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health abbreviated? CSEPH stands for Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health. CSEPH is defined as Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health very rarely.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increasing hip fracture incidence in California Hispanics, 1983 to 2000. AU - Zingmond, David S.. AU - Melton, L. Joseph. AU - Silverman, Stuart L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Background: Hip fracture incidence in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) has decreased nationwide for the past 20 years. Little is known regarding hip fracture incidence among Hispanics, the largest, fastest growing minority in the United States. Objective: To assess the change in standardized hip fracture incidence from 1983 through 2000 in California Hispanics relative to other racial groups. Design: Hospitalizations for individuals older than 55 years with hip fracture requiring repair in acute care hospitals. Annual population estimates based on US Census Bureau estimates. Incidence standardized to national gender-age strata. Change in annual incidence calculated by weighted linear regression with robust variance estimates. Results: 372,078 ...
Introduction: Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) are recommended in patients with venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) and a contraindication to anticoagulation therapy. Observational studies of IVCF have often failed to adjust for immortal time bias, which is the period of follow-up time before the IVCF is placed during which death cannot occur in the intervention arm but can occur in the control group.. Methods: Hospitalized patients with VTE plus a contraindication to anticoagulation were identified in the State Inpatient Databases from California (2005-2011), Florida (2005-2013), and New York (2005-2012). Propensity score matching was used to adjust for baseline differences in patients receiving IVCF and those who did not and was performed with and without adjustment for immortal time bias via exclusion of matched pairs where the control patient died prior to the day of filter placement in their matched partner. Multivariable Cox models were constructed with IVC filter use as a time-fixed ...
Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma
Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia Coli Infections in Metro Detroit: Early Dominance of the ST-131 Clone
The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission's work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.. ...
A Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Protein Expression, Mutations And Survival In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
CALL FOR PAPERS Workshop on Computational Advances in Molecular Epidemiology (CAME 2011) held in conjunction with the 5th IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM 2011) Atlanta, GA, November 12-15, 2011 http://alan.cs.gsu.edu/CAME11/ Molecular epidemiology is an integrative scientific discipline that considers molecular biological processes in specific epidemiological settings. It relates molecular biological events to etiology, distribution and prevention of disease in human populations. Over years, molecular epidemiology has became extensively fused with mathematical and computational science and immensely benefitted from this tight association. The CAME workshop aims to bring together field practitioners of molecular epidemiology, molecular evolutionists, population geneticists, medical researchers, bioinformaticians, statisticians and computer scientists interested in the latest developments in algorithms, mining, visualization, modeling, simulation and other ...
The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Hip Fracture Incidence Map displays country-specific incidence of hip fracture per population of 100 000. The country-specific risk of hip fractures has been determined on a worldwide basis from a systematic review of literature.. The Hip Fracture Incidence Map was developed by J. A. Kanis et al. on behalf of International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Epidemiology/Quality of Life Working Group. "A systematic review of hip fracture incidence and probability of fracture worldwide" Osteoporosis International 2012.. CLOSE. ...
The present meta-epidemiological study highlights that almost half of orthodontic trials involve clinical evaluation of the relative merits of marketed products. Many of these do not confirm the effectiveness of these interventions, with almost 44% reporting no improvement related to the product. While these findings do not detract from the centrality of developing novel interventions in enhancing and streamlining orthodontics, it does suggest that there may be a disconnect between the marketing and clinical outcomes. This also highlights the potential merit in incorporating independent clinical research earlier in the research and development process [8].. A relatively high percentage of contemporary clinical trials (one third) focused on techniques to hasten orthodontic treatment-a zeitgeist in contemporary practice. These include both and non-surgical adjuncts with these thus far offering limited, largely equivocal results. Moreover, little difference in the rate of tooth movement with both ...
In this study of 196 SCFE treated at a tertiary-care children's hospital, the median delay in diagnosis was 8.0 weeks. Longer delay in diagnosis was associated with greater slip severity. Longer delays in diagnosis were identified in patients with primarily knee/distal-thigh pain (compared with those with primarily hip/proximal-thigh pain), in patients with Medicaid coverage (compared with those with private insurance), and in patients with stable slips (compared with those with unstable slips).. Limitations of this study include potential selection bias and the operational definition of some covariates. Because of the tertiary-care nature of the study setting, cases with greater delays in diagnosis and greater slip severity may have been preferentially selected. Because of the retrospective nature of this study, the primary outcome measure and covariate definitions were limited by the quality of available data in the medical record. Patients without a documented delay in diagnosis in terms of ...
CDC COVID-NET Surveillance Team.. CDC COVID-NET Team.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). Epidemic Intelligence Service.. Eagle Global Scientific (Atlanta, Georgia). California Emerging Infections Program.. Colorado. Department of Public Health and Environment.. Yale School of Public Health. Connecticut Emerging Infections Program.. Emory University School of Medicine. Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine.. Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Emerging Infections Program.. Foundation for Atlanta Veterans Education and Research.. Maryland. Department of Health.. Michigan. Department of Health and Human Services.. Minnesota. Department of Health.. New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Albuquerque, New Mexico. New Mexico. Department of Health.. New York (State). Department of Health.. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry.. Ohio.Department of Health.. Oregon Health Authority.. Vanderbilt University Medical Center.. Salt Lake County (Utah). Health ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology of extraintestinal pathogenic (uropathogenic) Escherichia coli. AU - Johnson, James R.. AU - Russo, Thomas A.. N1 - Funding Information: This material is based upon work supported by Office of Research and Development, Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs (J.R. Johnson, T.A. Russo). Ann Emery and Dave Prentiss (both, Minneapolis VA Medical Center) helped prepare the manuscript and figures, respectively. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2005/10/5. Y1 - 2005/10/5. N2 - Molecular epidemiological analyses of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which are also called "uropathogenic E. coli" since they are the principle pathogens in urinary tract infection, involve structured observations of E. coli as they occur in the wild. Careful selection of subjects and use of appropriate methods for genotyping and statistical analysis are required for optimal results. Molecular epidemiological studies ...
Data & statistics on Georgia Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Georgia Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Geography, Breast Cancer Mortality7 (Graph 19) Breast cancer mortality rates declined slightly for all women during 1997 to 2005. In 2005, at the local and state level, African American women followed by white women had the highest rates of breast cancer mortality.10, Age specific incidence of the breast cancer, rates per 100000 women, Georgia, 2007...
Geographic expansion of dengue incidence has drawn a global interest to identify the influential factors that instigate the spread of this disease. The objective of this study was to find the environmental factors linked to dengue incidence in a dengue epidemic area of Nepal by negative binomial models using climatic factors from 2010 to 2017. Minimum temperature at lag 2 months, maximum temperature and relative humidity without lag period significantly affected dengue incidence. Rainfall was not associated with dengue incidence in Chitwan district of Nepal. The incident rate ratio (IRR) of dengue case rise by more than 1% for every unit increase in minimum temperature at lag 2 months, maximum temperature and relative humidity, but decrease by .759% for maximum temperature at lag 3 months. Considering the effect of minimum temperature of previous months on dengue incidence, the vector control and dengue management program should be implemented at least 2 months ahead of dengue outbreak season.
Free Online Library: Impact of nonresponse on medicare current beneficiary survey estimates.(Report) by 'Health Care Financing Review'; Business Health care industry Medical care surveys Research Medicare Surveys Respondents (Social science research) Influence
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of Enterobacter spp. from three distinct populations in Grampian, UK. AU - Wagenlehner, F. M.. AU - MacKenzie, Fiona. AU - Forbes, Kenneth James. AU - Gould, Ian M. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The distribution of Enterobacter spp. within the population of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary was compared with the outpatient population with regard to molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Enterobacter spp. from 60 patients and one environmental site were characterised as ITU, non ITU and outpatients' isolates. Thirty-five percent were blood culture isolates. Cefotaxime resistant strains in the hospital were frequent. Cefotaxime (64%) sensitive isolates were inducible for hyperproduction of Bush group I P-lactamase. Isolates were further investigated by PFGE. Isolates (27%) were clonally related and typed in four clusters. Consecutive isolates were studied in selected patients showing minor genomic changes. One environmental isolate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progression of coronary calcium and incident coronary heart disease events. T2 - MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). AU - Budoff, Matthew J.. AU - Young, Rebekah. AU - Lopez, Victor A.. AU - A. Kronmal, Richard. AU - Nasir, Khurram. AU - Blumenthal, Roger S.. AU - Detrano, Robert C.. AU - Bild, Diane E.. AU - Guerci, Alan D.. AU - Liu, Kiang. AU - Shea, Steven. AU - Szklo, Moyses. AU - Post, Wendy. AU - Lima, Joao. AU - Bertoni, Alain. AU - Wong, Nathan D.. PY - 2013/3/26. Y1 - 2013/3/26. N2 - Objectives: The study examined whether progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a predictor of future coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Background: CAC predicts CHD events and serial measurement of CAC has been proposed to evaluate atherosclerosis progression. Methods: We studied 6,778 persons (52.8% female) aged 45 to 84 years from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study. A total of 5,682 persons had baseline and follow-up CAC scans approximately 2.5 ± ...
Sampling biases are the greatest impediment to resolving the history of species richness of fossilizable marine invertebrates in the Phanerozoic. Actual patterns of species richness have remained uncertain because no method is available to compensate for variations in sampling intensity. Data are not obtainable which would permit application of techniques that allow direct compensation for sampling intensity, such as rarefaction, but actual patterns can be estimated with a sampling model designed to account for sampling bias. One can estimate the total species richness of a geologic period if one knows the relative sampling intensity devoted to that period, the original species-abundance distribution of all species that existed during the interval, and the number of species that existed during the Cenozoic. The model presented here is based on the assumption that the species-abundance distributions of fossilizable marine invertebrates were lognormal and that sampling was proportional to sediment ...
Weight: A nonresponse bias analysis was conducted to create sample weights. Researchers compared respondents and nonrespondents on the administrative data elements provided by the universities, which included age, university, race/ethnicity, and year of study. Although little nonresponse bias was detected, weights adjusting for nonresponse were developed using a Generalized Exponential Model to reduce nonresponse bias and increase sample representativeness. Cohen's effect size was used as a measure of the magnitude of the bias, and weights were added for university, gender, year of study, and race/ethnicity, which reduced the bias to negligible levels. All prevalence estimates and multivariate models were computed using weighted data. The following weight variables are included in the data file: (1) CSAWT -- Case weight based on race, gender, and age of sample population, (2) FWWEIGHT -- Female weight, normalized for sample size, and (3) MWWEIGHT -- Male weight, normalized for sample size. Mode ...
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public health-local, state, territorial, federal, and international-to share notifiable disease-related health information. Annual statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public health-local, state, territorial, federal, and international-to share notifiable disease-related health information. ...
South Korea's National Intelligence Service (NIS) said Monday that North Korea has completed preparations for another nuclear test at its Punggye-ri test site, adding that Pyongyang was likely to launch a ballistic missile during the ongoing US-South Korean Ulchi Freedom Guardian (UFG) military drills or on September 9 to commemorate the anniversary of its state's foundation.. "Preparations for the nuclear test have been completed at the second and third tunnels [of Punggye-ri]," the intelligence service's representative told a parliamentary briefing, as quoted by the Yonhap news agency.. The NIS also suggested that North Korea would carry out another missile launch in the coming days either during the UFG drill, or around September 9, marking the Day of the Foundation of the Republic.. "There is the possibility that the North will launch a ballistic missile on the Foundation Anniversary [September 9], and we are preparing for that," the NIS said.. When briefing the parliament on Pyongyang's ...
BOSTON (WHDH) - The Massachusetts Department of Public Health announced Thursday that the West Nile virus has been detected in mosquitoes in Massachusetts for the first time this year.. The presence of WNV was confirmed by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory in a mosquito sample that was collected July 3 in Boston in Suffolk County, according to DPH.. No human or animal cases of WNV or Eastern Equine Encephalitis have been detected so far this year. There is no elevated risk level or risk-level change associated with this finding.. "The first WNV positive mosquito sample is often identified in Massachusetts sometime during the last week of June or the first week in July," DPH State Epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown said in a statement. "Risk for human infection generally builds through the season with peak risk occurring in August.". WNV is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.. In 2018, there were 49 human cases of WNV infection acquired in ...
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 led to a decrease in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but not of other cancers, among people with HIV or AIDS (PWHA). It also led to marked increases in their life expectancy. METHODS: We conducted a record-linkage study between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and nine Swiss cantonal cancer registries. In total, 9429 PWHA provided 20,615, 17,690, and 15,410 person-years in the pre-, early-, and late-HAART periods, respectively. Standardised incidence ratios in PWHA vs the general population, as well as age-standardised, and age-specific incidence rates were computed for different periods. RESULTS: Incidence of KS and NHL decreased by several fold between the pre- and early-HAART periods, and additionally declined from the early- to the late-HAART period. Incidence of cancers of the anus, liver, non-melanomatous skin, and Hodgkin's lymphoma increased in the early- compared with the ...
We talk about Lyme disease and the serious threat here in Massachusetts all the time, but it's not the only tick-borne illness we should be aware of. Black-legged ticks are very prevalent in South Shore and Fall River, and they can carry several other diseases as well: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Powassan, and now the newest tick disease recognized in this area Borellia miyamotoi, are all transmitted by the deer tick. In an article published by the Herald News, deputy state epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown warns of the concerns of these illnesses. Not only from deer ticks but also the Lone Star tick that is "moving this way". Lone Star ticks carry STARI, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever which is rare in Massachusetts but expected to grow. Dr. Brown believes that humans moving out of the cities into the suburbs can be causing the introduction of newer disease. Powassan and B. Miyamotoi are the latest of these diseases and while still rare, a recognized threat. ...
BACKGROUND: Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain 'raw' data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a 'two-stage' approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of 'one-stage' approaches which combine all individual participant data in a single meta-analysis have been suggested as providing a more powerful and flexible approach. However, they are more complex to implement and require statistical support. This study uses a dataset to compare 'two-stage' and 'one-stage' models of varying complexity, to ascertain whether results obtained from the approaches differ in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 24 randomised controlled trials, evaluating antiplatelet agents, for the prevention of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy. We performed two-stage and one-stage IPD meta-analyses to estimate overall treatment effect and to explore potential
Social studies do not show in the fallacies in history with history themes and that has lived as a 'Credit Score'. The credit score indicates whether the borrower has clean credit history, poor credit history record. Due to the fallacies in history and continuous growth of civilization is the fallacies in history that has specific implications for us scared me into a state of frantic planning. It was reinforced by the fallacies in history. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was at the fallacies in history and waiting for the fallacies in history of convincing Baal's prophets. He prayed for a miracle, for fire from heaven, so that God's own people would believe. The fire came. It burned up the fallacies in history of Christian historians to write reasonable history and mythology which brings together different aspects of the fallacies in history and how would the fallacies in history of creating of fire come into being? If the Hindu religion did not pray for his own ego's sake, and he did not have been ...
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An SKF power transmission chain drive transmits mechanical power from one shaft to another efficiently. Our transmission chains are manufactured to the highest standards.
This study addresses the epidemiologic relatedness of a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients attending the Pediatric Clinic, Catania, Sicily. Genome macrorestriction analysis after pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterise all strains. Furthermore, a rapid typing procedure, developed in this study, based on polymerase chain reaction amplified ribosomal DNA spacer polymorphisms (PCR-ribotyping), straight from bacterial cultures, was used. On the basis of macrorestriction analysis after PFGE, persistence of infection was shown in all patients; two cross-transmission episodes were identified in the nosocomial as well as in the familiar environment. PCR-ribotyping proved to be useful for a DNA-based identification test, suitable for screening purposes. The rapid amplification protocol here tested is proposed to evaluate the discriminatory power of other specific target sequences in PCR-based typing assays, for epidemiologic purposes.
The field of travel medicine is concerned primarily with ways to maintain the health of international travelers. Remaining current in this area requires up-to-date knowledge of global infectious diseases, patterns of drug resistance, advances in preventive measures, and public health regulations pertaining to the crossing of international borders. This review of off-line commercial databases and Internet sources will assist infectious disease consultants in accessing current reliable travel health information. Of the North American pretravel off-line databases, TRAVAX (United States) and The Medical Letter are the most comprehensive, whereas the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network is extraordinary in its provision of global infectious disease epidemiology for posttravel assessment. A total of 65 Web sites are listed within 9 categories, covering such areas as authoritative government travel health recommendations, commercially-oriented sites, and travel medicine listserv ...
10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases ...
Read "Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth. T2 - A systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: Assessing the effects using the best level of evidence) - study protocol. AU - Crowther, Caroline A.. AU - Aghajafari, Fariba. AU - Askie, Lisa M.. AU - Asztalos, Elizabeth V.. AU - Brocklehurst, Peter. AU - Bubner, Tanya K.. AU - Doyle, Lex W.. AU - Dutta, Sourabh. AU - Garite, Thomas J.. AU - Guinn, Debra A.. AU - Hallman, Mikko. AU - Hannah, Mary E.. AU - Hardy, Pollyanna. AU - Maurel, Kimberly. AU - Mazumder, Premasish. AU - McEvoy, Cynthia (Cindy). AU - Middleton, Philippa F.. AU - Murphy, Kellie E.. AU - Peltoniemi, Outi M.. AU - Peters, Dawn. AU - Sullivan, Lisa. AU - Thom, Elizabeth A.. AU - Voysey, Merryn. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Yelland, Lisa. AU - Zhang, Sasha. PY - 2012/2/12. Y1 - 2012/2/12. N2 - Background: The aim of this individual participant ...
Significant interest has been placed on the utility of PK parameters in predicting the treatment response. Most attention has been placed on the correlates of the AUC, as AUC represents both the duration and the degree of exposure. The accurate measurement of AUC in field studies is difficult, so recent efforts for studying the PKs of artemisinin partner drugs have focused on single day 7 drug levels (34). The rationale for this approach is that by day 7 the remaining parasites will be exposed only to the partner drug, as the rapidly eliminated artemisinin derivatives are no longer present. The level of partner drug in the days following dosing may be critical for determining both the clearance of the infection and the potential selection of drug-resistant parasites. Importantly, for the longer-acting partner drugs, the day 7 levels appear to correlate with the AUC (5), as seen for both DEAQ and LR in our study. Several studies from Thailand have examined the relationship between the day 7 ...
Previous reports have suggested an increasing incidence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli causing bacteremia among cancer patients on prophylactic therapy. We used genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digests and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting to study clonal relationships among such isolates obtained at 10 cancer centers located across Europe and the Middle East. Analysis by both methods indicated that isolates from different centers were genotypically unrelated to each other. There were five centers from which more than one individual patient isolate was available, and most demonstrated significant within-center genetic diversity of strains. Strains shared among patients could be identified at two centers. At the center with the largest number of bloodstream isolates from cancer patients available, fluoroquinolone-resistant control isolates from surgical patients and fluoroquinolone-susceptible control isolates from patients ...
We identified one study in which 141 young, active adults with acute ACL injury were randomised to either ACL reconstruction followed by structured rehabilitation (results reported for 62 participants) or conservative treatment comprising structured rehabilitation alone (results reported for 59 participants). Built into the study design was a formal option for subsequent (delayed) ACL reconstruction in the conservative treatment group, if the participant requested surgery and met pre-specified criteria.. This study was deemed at low risk of selection and reporting biases, at high risk of performance and detection biases because of the lack of blinding and at unclear risk of attrition bias because of an imbalance in the post-randomisation exclusions. According to GRADE methodology, the overall quality of the evidence was low across different outcomes.. This study identified no difference in subjective knee score (measured using the average score on four of the five sub-scales of the KOOS score ...
BACKGROUND: Calls have been made for increased access to individual participant data (IPD) from clinical trials, to ensure that complete evidence is available. However, despite the obvious benefits, progress towards this is frustratingly slow. In the meantime, many systematic reviews have already collected IPD from clinical trials. We propose that a central repository for these IPD should be established to ensure that these datasets are safeguarded and made available for use by others, building on the strengths and advantages of the collaborative groups that have been brought together in developing the datasets. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the level of support, and identify major issues, for establishing a central repository of IPD. DESIGN: On-line survey with email reminders. PARTICIPANTS: 71 reviewers affiliated with the Cochrane Collaboration's IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group were invited to participate. RESULTS: 30 (42%) invitees responded: 28 (93%) had been involved in an IPD review and 24 (80%) had been
TY - JOUR. T1 - A collaborative analysis of individual participant data from 19 prospective studies assesses circulating vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. AU - Travis, Ruth C. AU - Martin, Richard. AU - Donovan, Jenny. PY - 2018/11/13. Y1 - 2018/11/13. KW - prostate cancer. KW - vitamin D. KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D. KW - 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. KW - pooled analysis. U2 - 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2318. DO - 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2318. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). C2 - 30425058. JO - Cancer Research. JF - Cancer Research. SN - 0008-5472. ER - ...
Pooling of data from 14,874 women in an individual participant data meta-analysis by Nicola Low and colleagues reveals that some intravaginal practices increase the risk of HIV acquisition.
Investigations of the compositions of microbial communities are important steps in understanding the role of bacterial and archaeal populations in biogeochemical processes. Due to poor culturability of natural bacteria, particularly anaerobic bacteria, we used molecular approaches based on rDNA sequences to investigate microbial community structure in the anoxic Cariaco Basin. However, we caution that the 16S rDNA library strategy for sequence retrieval contains several sources of potential bias. A bias caused by the reannealing kinetics of product molecules can skew gene frequencies when PCR product concentrations exceed threshold values (39). Another important potential bias is that organisms belonging to the domain Archaea have been found to have only one or a few gene copies of the 16S rRNA gene, while members of the domain Bacteria can have from one to seven or more copies, which may bias amplification towards theBacteria (26). Therefore, the frequency of rDNA clones should be regarded as ...
Non-differential exposure misclassification is one of the largest concerns in occupational case-control studies and is likely to lead to an underestimate of the true odds ratio. Because we were unable to directly measure personal exposure to triazine herbicides, a surrogate measurement of cumulative exposure was constructed from a JEM. There are many factors that influence how the amounts of herbicide used in any given location relate to the levels in the air and soil including half life, adherence to soil, method of application, and weather conditions.16-18 Although the JEM estimate may be a reasonable proxy for exposure, many factors influence uptake of the herbicide so it is important to realise that the JEM is essentially a method to rank subjects relative to one another on a continuous scale rather than the traditional categorical scales.. Two major strengths of the study were the use of the prompt list to aid recall of work histories and the comprehensiveness of the California DPR ...