Background: Escherichia coli is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infection. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens has become a prominent public health problem. Multidrug resistance bacteria have limited the therapeutic possibilities by producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL). Objective: Since routine monitoring of ESBL producers are not conducted in clinical laboratories their true prevalence is still unknown. So the objective of this research was to assess multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices and determine ESBL production among Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples. Methods: Standard microbiological techniques and antibiotic sensitivity test were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method to identify E. coli. ESBL screening was done by using Ceftriaxone, Aztreonam, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime and Cefpodoxime whereas confirmation by combined disc assay. SPSS 16 software was used to analyze data. Results: 86.95% E. coli isolates were MDR strains. 27 ...
Free Online Library: TEM & SHV genes in extended spectrum [beta]-lactamase producing Klebsiella species & their antimicrobial resistance pattern.(Temoneira, Sulphydryl variable, Report) by Indian Journal of Medical Research; Health, general Biological sciences Beta lactamases Genetic aspects Physiological aspects Drug resistance in microorganisms Genes Microbial drug resistance
A new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was detected in a lactose-positive Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain that caused a nosocomial outbreak involving eight patients in a pediatric cardiology unit. This strain showed high levels of resistance to ceftazidime and aztreonam and relatively low levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Resistance was associated with a conjugative plasmid of 59 kb, which encoded a new beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 5.9 that strongly hydrolyzed ceftazidime and to a much lesser extent hydrolyzed cefotaxime. The enzyme activity was inhibited by clavulanate. The corresponding bla gene was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed three significant amino acid replacements with respect to the TEM-1 sequence: Arg-164--,His, Glu-240--,Lys, and Thr-265--,Met. This combination is unique among extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and served to characterize the new enzyme, TEM-27. ...
The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is a matter of great concern worldwide (1, 2, 10). In Taiwan, TEM-, SHV-, and CTX-M-type ESBLs and CMY- and DHA-type AmpC β-lactamases have been reported in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a few individual institutions (3, 17-20). The present multicenter study was conducted to determine the distribution of ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases among clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that showed decreased susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan.. Isolates that were suspected of ESBL production by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) screening method (8) with disks of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, and/or cefpodoxime were considered to exhibit decreased susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and consecutively collected between March and August 2003 from seven medical centers ...
Read "Faecal colonization of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC in Mozambican university students, BMC Infectious Diseases" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. frequently cause bloodstream infections. There has been a worldwide increase in resistance in these species to antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins, largely driven by the acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase or plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes. Carbapenems have been considered the most effective therapy for serious infections caused by such resistant bacteria; however, increased use creates selection pressure for carbapenem resistance, an emerging threat arising predominantly from the dissemination of genes encoding carbapenemases. Recent retrospective data suggest that beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, such as piperacillin-tazobactam, may be non-inferior to carbapenems for the treatment of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producers, if susceptible in vitro. This study aims to test this hypothesis in an effort to define carbapenem-sparing alternatives for these
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Cobalt atom in PDB 1fof: Crystal Structure of the Class D Beta-Lactamase Oxa-10
Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen in clinical infections, which has different mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs) are a very important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in this bacterium. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing P. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Purpose. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Methodology. A total of 501 fecal samples were screened. Diluted samples in saline were cultured in MacConkey agar plates with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem and meropenem disks. Colonies growing within the inhibition zone of either disk were selected. Characterization of ESBLs and CPEs were performed by PCR and sequencing. The Wider system was used for the bacterial identification. In addition, clonal analysis was carried out for species predominant among the fecal carriage. Key Findings. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6 %) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6 %) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli
Background & Aims: The production of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) is the main mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The outbreak of isolates simultaneously possessing several resistance mechanisms to β-lactam antibiotics caused a decrease in sensitivity of the confirmatory tests for ESBL. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the β-lactamase disk test method in the detection of ESBLs in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: A total of 100 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from burn patients. The sensitivity of the isolates to different antibiotics was determined using the standard disk diffusion method. ESBL-producing isolates were detected through the combination disk test with clavulanic acid, double disk synergy test, and β-lactamase disk test. Carbapenemase-producing isolates were detected using the Modified Hodge Test (MHT). The ESBLs genes (blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPER, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaPSE) were
In the United States, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is the most common carbapenemase, followed by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM). OXA-48-like and VIM carbapenemases predominate in other parts of the globe, but do occur in the United States. The genes blaOXA-48-like and blaVIM encode OXA-48-like and VIM enzyme production, respectively. PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid means of identifying these genes.. This test detects the genes encoding OXA-48-like (oxacillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase) and VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase) types of beta-lactamases in stool and perirectal/rectal/perianal/anal swabs. It can be used as a tool to find colonized patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends surveillance to detect unrecognized colonized patients who may be a potential source for transmission of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli under certain circumstances. Such surveillance may be focused in certain high-risk settings or ...
Two different strains of Escherichia coli exhibiting unusual patterns of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics were isolated from patients at Cochin Hospital. Both isolates showed a low level of resistance to amoxycillin, ticarcillin and ureidopenicillins but were susceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam and imipenem; beta-lactamase inhibitors potentiated the activities of the beta-lactams to only a limited extent. All resistance characteristics of the strains were transferable by conjugation to E. coli K12. Resistance was shown to be due to beta-lactamases of pI 5.20 and relative molecular masses of 24,000. The hydrolytic and inhibition profiles of these enzymes were similar to each other but differed from those of broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM-1). The rates of hydrolysis (Vmax) of amoxycillin (c. 200%) were higher than that for TEM-1 (84%). Ticarcillin, ureidopenicillins and cephaloridine were hydrolyzed slowly. However, as for TEM-1, no hydrolysis was observed with cefoxitin, third generation
Archives issue of International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences which aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
This study aims to isolate, to identify, and to seek out fragments of encoding gene Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase on Escherichia coli isolated from swab surface of broiler chicken meat in a number of traditional markets in Surabaya. The result shows that 31 out of 50 samples positively contain Escherichia coli, shown through EMBA isolation media and identified using indole test. Sensitivity test shows that 100% of the isolates are resistant to Ampicilin, 48.4% are resistant to Cephazoline, 13% are resistant to Ceftazidime, 9.6% are resistant to Cefotaxime, 6.4% are resistant to Ceftriaxone and 87.2% are resistant to Tetracycline. 8 out of 8 (100%) samples of E. coli resistant show the presence of band towards blaTEM gene of 768 basepair (bp).. ...
Abstract: Susceptibility of nosocomial potential AmpC-beta-lactamases producers strains (n=128), isolated from patients admitted to 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia has been investigated. The susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method. The most active antibacterial agents acting to the investigated strains remained carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). PCR-based detection of beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) was investigated in 51 E. cloacae strains. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 31 (60,8%) isolates, SHV - in 22 (43,1%), and CTX - in 22 (43,1%). There were negative results of TEM, SHV, CTX beta-lactamases genotyping in 13 (25,5%) E. cloacae suspect strains ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Extended-spectrum beta lactamase-producing bacteria are one of the fastest emerging resistance problems worldwide. ESBL-producing bacteria were observed in human medical practice, the observation of these bacteria in companion animals and the increase in livestock has initiated monitoring studies concentrating on livestock [13, 21].. Livestock may be an important vehicle for the community-wide dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, also P. aeruginosa especially ESBL-producing type isolates have been found in increasing numbers in food-producing animals [9, 10, 22].. Accordingly to the hypothesis that animals might become infection sources or even natural persistent sources acting as risky reservoirs of infection leading to the spread of these bacteria specifically multidrug resistant types in community [23]. There are essential needs for monitoring or surveillance studies incorporating veterinary medicine to identify transmissible pathogens to human and its risk ...
High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India Ashish Pathak1,2, Yogyata Marothi3, Vandana Kekre4, Kalpana Mahadik5, Ragini Macaden6, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Microbiology, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RD Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India; 6St Johns Research Institute, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: Recent reports of the rapid evolution of bacterial resistance in India require urgent antibiotic stewardship programs. This study aimed to define the magnitude and pattern of resistance of bacterial pathogens to guide empirical therapy.Methods: We prospectively collected consecutive, clinically significant, and nonduplicate bacterial isolates from each patient from two hospitals in Ujjain, India. The antibiotic susceptibility
AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C beta-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C beta-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C beta-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C ...
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CARB-9 beta-lactamases: a carbenicillinase encoded in the VCR region of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 belongs to a family of cassette-encoded beta-lactamases
Beta-lactamases (β-lactamases, also known as penicillinase) are enzymes (EC 3.5.2.6) produced by bacteria, that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecules antibacterial properties. Beta-lactam antibiotics are typically used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Beta-lactamases produced by Gram-negative organisms are usually secreted, especially when antibiotics are present in the environment. The structure of a Streptomyces β-lactamase is given by 1BSG. Penicillinase is a specific type of β-lactamase, showing ...
Objectives: During 2003, the Health Protection Agencys Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory began to receive isolates of Escherichia coli for confirmation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production with a phenotype implying a CTX-M-type β-lactamase, i.e. MICs of cefotaxime ≥8-fold higher than MICs of ceftazidime. Many were referred as being from community patients. We examined 291 CTX-M-producing isolates from the UK and investigated the genetic basis of their phenotype.. Methods: PCR was used to detect alleles encoding CTX-M enzymes and to assign these to their blaCTX-M phylogenetic groups. Selected alleles were sequenced. Producers were compared by analysis of banding patterns generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNA. MICs were determined by an agar dilution method or by Etest.. Results: Of 291 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates studied from 42 UK centres, 70 (24%) were reportedly from community patients, many of whom had only limited ...
Learn more about Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Infection at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC-type beta-lactamases (ACBLs) and carbapenemases are among the most important resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,352), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 697), and Proteus mirabilis (n = 275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4.3% were also non-susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaR). ESCR-carbaS isolates were contributed by all three species, with higher proportions among isolates from inpatients (20.3%) but remarkable proportions also among those from outpatients (11.1%). Most ESCR-carbaS isolates were ESBL-positive (90.5%), and most of them were contributed by E. coli carrying blaCTX-M group 1 genes. Acquired ACBLs were less common and mostly
Background and Objectives: Pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli are dangerous for human population due to acquisition of resistance genes to beta-lactam antibiotics. This resistance is due to extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) genes, which are caused by plasmids, transposons, and/or mutation. The main cause of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics ...
Free Online Library: Community-acquired extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase producers, United States.(LETTERS, Letter to the editor) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Beta lactamases Health aspects Ciprofloxacin Infection
BioAssay record AID 43435 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration required for its inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli K12(OXA1) class D beta-lactamase; Not tested.
Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh and Lavaei, Shokoufeh and Hosseinzadeh, Hossein (2012) Interaction of methylxanthines and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Role of phosphodiesterase inhibition. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 59 (1). pp. 13-20. ISSN 1217-8950 Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh and Naderinasab, Mahboobeh and Mohamadpoor, Amir Hooshang and Farshadzadeh, Zahra and Ahmadi, Samaneh and Yousefi, Forough (2009) The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among clinical isolates from a general hospital in Iran. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 56 (1). pp. 89-99. ISSN 1217-8950 ...
Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh and Naderinasab, Mahboobeh and Mohamadpoor, Amir Hooshang and Farshadzadeh, Zahra and Ahmadi, Samaneh and Yousefi, Forough (2009) The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among clinical isolates from a general hospital in Iran. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 56 (1). pp. 89-99. ISSN 1217-8950 ...
Escherichia coli strains were isolated from a single dairy farm as a sentinel organism for the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in the farm environment. Selective microbiological media were used to isolate 126 E. coli isolates from slurry and faeces samples from different farm areas. Antibiotic resistance profiling for 17 antibiotics (seven antibiotic classes), showed 57.9% of the isolates were resistant to between 3 and 15 antibiotics. The highest frequency of resistance was to ampicillin (56.3%), and the lowest to imipenem (1.6%), which appeared to be an unstable phenotype and was subsequently lost. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistance (ESBL) was detected in 53 isolates and blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected by PCR in twelve, four and two strains, respectively. Phenotypically most isolates showing resistance to cephalosporins were AmpC rather than ESBL, a number of isolates having both activities. Phenotypic resistance patterns suggested co-acquisition of some ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Sebastian Amyes on Beta-lactamases: clinical impact and epidemiology, part of a collection of online lectures.
Detection of TEM and SHV Genes in Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing E. Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolated From a Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital,2014;4(3):201- ...
Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported from a number of European countries
To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent TEM type, were preferentially observed in B2 phylogenetic group strains that exhibited numerous VFs but were fluoroquinolone-susceptible, whereas the newly emerged CTX-M type was associated with the D phylogenetic group strains that lacked VF but were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Thus, the emergence of ESBL-producing E. coli seems to be the result of complex interactions between the type of ESBL, genetic background of the strain, and selective pressures in ecologic niches.
To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent TEM type, were preferentially observed in B2 phylogenetic group strains that exhibited numerous VFs but were fluoroquinolone-susceptible, whereas the newly emerged CTX-M type was associated with the D phylogenetic group strains that lacked VF but were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Thus, the emergence of ESBL-producing E. coli seems to be the result of complex interactions between the type of ESBL, genetic background of the strain, and selective pressures in ecologic niches.
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The antibiotic-resistant bacterium Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) is killing both people and swine in Denmark. The bacteria has been implicated in the deaths of a number of cancer and liver disease patients. The number of infected patients jumped 50 percent last year. Health officials said the bacteria is being transmitted to humans through pigs.…. Details ...
James Foster (foster at cs.uidaho.edu) wrote: ,Ahhh...gotcha. That is indeed an interesting question. Im not sure ,what the answer is. I know that many new functions are co-opted from ,similar functions (I think the classical example is some enzyme ,beginning with the letter l...but cant remember right now). But that ,begs the question of where the co-opted behaviors came from. True, and I think also the important issue is how this new function arose from a similar function. The evolution, and natural selection, of classes of beta-lactamases are the examples I know. While we havent observed it, the early beta-lactamases are hypothesised to have arisen from cell-wall enzymes and the bacteria were facing an enemy in nature (beta-lactams in fungi). Today, we have artificial beta-lactams that are not seen anywhere in nature, yet there are bacteria resistant to it. One explanation that this new function /arose/ (evolved) in the the last few decades, compared to the initial ones, which mightve ...
In the first years of bisphosphonate use the efficacy of these substances was thought to lie purely in the inhibition of osteoclasts. MicroRNA-126 contributes tadalafilo to Niaspan treatment induced vascular restoration after diabetic retinopathy. In the case of the shake flask, the production time was extended to 226 h and the maximal antibiotic concentration was 76 mg/l.. YnKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match abscisic acid and light response elements, but not cold/dehydration response elements. Performance of extended spectrum beta warnings for cialis lactamases (ESBL) screening agar in various clinical specimens. E2F1 mediates death of B-amyloid-treated cortical neurons in a manner independent of p53 and dependent on Bax and caspase 3.. Emotion discrimination deficits represent a well-established finding in tadalafil dosage schizophrenia. Rsp5 WW domains interact directly with the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.. On the other side of the argument is the possibility ...
?-lactams, like penicillin and the cephalosporins, are the most widely prescribed class of antibiotics in clinical use today. In response to their extensive use...
Totrov, M.M. and Abagyan, R.A. (1994) Detailed Ab initio Prediction of Lysozyme-Antibody Complex With 1.6 Accuracy. Nature Structural Biology 1, 259-263 Strynadka, N.C.J., Eisenstein, M., Katchalski-Katzir, E., Shoichet, B.K., Kuntz, I.D., Abagyan, R., Totrov, M., Janin, J., Cherfils, J., Zimmerman, F., Olson, A., Duncan, B., Rao, M., Jackson, R., Sternberg, M., and James, (1996) M.N.G. Molecular Docking Programs Successfully Predict The Binding of A Beta-Lactamase inhibitory Protein To Tem-1 Beta-Lactamase. Nature Struct. Biol. 3, 233-239 Fernandez-Recio, J., Totrov, M., and Abagyan, R. ICM-DISCO (2003) Docking by Global Energy Optimization with Fully Flexible Side-Chains Proteins 52:113-117. The ICM Protein-Protein docking method, which ranked highly in the worldwide CAPRI docking competition. See the two papers below by Mendez et al. for evaluation of results. Fernandez-Recio, J., Totrov, M.M., and Abagyan, R.A. (2002) Soft Protein-Protein Docking in Internal Coordinates Protein Science ...
Simply waiting for 25% of a plastic cannula to be curative, but days rather complex and behavioural disturbances of the crease! It is not a general preventative, but a drug used to address specific bouts and disturbances of a cardiovascular nature? There is a lot less documentation with non-prescription products and this one is relatively new, regretfully clindamycin topical gel cost so we didnt find much on it. IP3 binds to specific receptors on intracellular membranes, resulting in the release of intracellular calcium, which is rapidly augmented by an influx of extracellular calcium! During the past year, arava border human and animal studies conducted in Egypt and Canada by 2 different groups of investigators have suggested a possible role for the intra-cavernosal injection of BoNT-A in the treatment of ED. 1 - 3 One important mechanism is the production of beta-lactamases, soon cost of aygestin which are enzymes that cleave the beta-lactam ring. Clavulanate binds to bacterial beta-lactamase ...
Mercks Investigational Beta-lactamase Inhibitor Relebactam (MK-7655) Granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and Fast Track Designations
Escherichia coli strain 15 plasmid pT15 insertion sequence ISEcp1 transposase (tnpA) gene, complete cds; beta-lactamase CTX-M-65 (blaCTX-M-65) gene, complete cds; and insertion sequence IS903, complete ...
3GMV: Insights into positive and negative requirements for protein-protein interactions by crystallographic analysis of the beta-lactamase inhibitory proteins BLIP, BLIP-I, and BLP.
BACKGROUND Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are emerging worldwide. Contact precautions are recommended for known ESBL-E carriers to control the spread of ESBL-E within hospitals. OBJECTIVE This study quantified the acquisition of ESBL-E rectal carriage among patients in Dutch hospitals, given the application of contact precautions. METHODS Data were used from 2 cluster-randomized studies on isolation strategies for ESBL-E: (1) the SoM study, performed in 14 Dutch hospitals from 2011 through 2014 and (2) the R-GNOSIS study, for which data were limited to those collected in a Dutch hospital in 2014 ...
1FCN: Crystal Structures of Substrate and Inhibitor Complexes with AmpC -Lactamase: Possible Implications for Substrate-Assisted Catalysis
beta Lactamase Monoclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and ELISA applications. This antibody reacts with Bacteria samples. Supplied as 500 µg purified antibody (2 mg/ml) in PBS with no preservative; pH 7.4.
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Number of laboratories reporting isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCREC), numbers of 3GCREC isolates identified and percentage of isolates positive for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), as ascertained by the participating laboratories, EU/EEA countries, 2014. ...
Evidence for clonal spread of a single strain of β-lactamase-producing Enterococcus (Streptococcus) faecalis to six hospitals in five states. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1991 ...
The class C enzymes are considered to be the most homogeneous and least effective among the different groups of β-lactamases. The design of novel inhibitors is discussed in this chapter. Besides the
Results: The specificity of the THT (91.5%) was significantly lower than other methods, each of which had 100% specificity (P,0.003). This can be attributed to the false detection of Ampler class C β-lactamases (AmpC) carriers. The CNPt-direct and CIM yielded the highest sensitivities (P,0.003), which were comparable (92.8% vs 93.5%, P,0.999). Because of improved detection of NDM carriers, THT showed significantly higher sensitivity than the MHT (84.9% vs 75.5%, P,0.001). However, poor performances in detecting OXA still influenced the sensitivities of the CNPt (66.2%) and BCT (82.0%), as well as the MHT and THT ...
Backbone RMSDs are shown for native and S130 mutant SHV β-lactamase at 300 K, black color indicate native SHV, point mutant form S130G SHV β-lactamase shown i
Tn2603 that differs from Tn21 only by a single additional cassette encoding the OXA-1 Beta-lactamase gene (46). aureus infections among patients in the emergency orde ment.
Rapid emergence of class C β‐lactamases has urged an immediate need for developing class C β‐lactamase specific inhibitors for effective clinical treatment. To ...
Hi all, I live in the southeastern part of the US, and we are beginning to see more and more patients with ESBL infections- all that I know of have been of the E. Coli type. Are you seeing an
A 1536-nucleotide-long sequence that carries the ampC beta-lactamase gene of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome has been determined. This gene codes for a protein of 377 amino acids, of which the first 19 amino acids form a signal peptide. The molecular weight of the mature enzyme was determined to be 39,600. The ampC beta-lactamase with a substrate specificity for cephalosporins showed no significant sequence homologies with beta-lactamases of the penicillinase type or with D-alanine carboxypeptidases. However, because the region around serine-80 of the ampC beta-lactamase has extensive homology with an active-site fragment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cephalosporinase, we suggest that the ampC cephalosporinase as well as related cephalosporinases form a distinct group of serine beta-lactamases that have an evolutionary origin different from that of the serine penicillinases and thus constitute a new class of beta-lactamases.. ...
Anonymous, 2012: Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing beta-Lactamase OXA-229 from Acinetobacter bereziniae
CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are infrequently reported in the United States. In this study, we analyzed nonduplicate ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates collected during 2005-2012 at a tertiary care medical center in suburban New York City, USA, for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaKPC genes. Despite a high prevalence of blaCTX-M genes in ESBL-producing E. coli since 2005, blaCTX-M genes were not detected in K. pneumoniae until 2009. The prevalence of CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae increased significantly over time from 1.7% during 2005-2009 to 26.4% during 2010-2012 ( ...
Mora, A., Blanco, M., López, C., Mamani, R., Blanco, J.E., Alonso, M.P., García-Garrote, F., Dahbi, G. et al. (2011) Emergence of clonal groups O1:HNM-D-ST59, O15:H1-D-ST393, O20:H34/HNM-D-ST354, O25b:H4-B2-ST131 and ONT:H21,42-B1-ST101 among CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Galicia, northwest Spain. Int J Antimicrob Agents 37, 16-21 ...
The β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) does not induce ampC β -lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae Christine Miossec, Monique Claudon, Premavathy Levasseur, Michael T Black Novexel, Romainville, France Abstract: Induction of ampC β-lactamase expression can often compromise antibiotic treatment and is triggered by several β-lactams (such as cefoxitin and imipenem) and by the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) is a potent inhibitor of both class A and class C enzymes. The potential of avibactam for induction of ampC expression in Enterobacter cloacae was investigated by ampC messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation. Cefoxitin and clavulanic acid were confirmed as ampC inducers, whereas avibactam was found to exert no effect on ampC expression. Thus, avibactam is unlikely to diminish the activity of any partner β-lactam antibiotic against AmpC-producing organisms. Keywords: β-lactamase, ampC, induction, NXL104, avibactam
INFECTION CONTROL STAFF FACT SHEET Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms WHAT ARE THEY? • • • • • ESBLs (extended spectrum beta lactamases) are enzymes that may be produced by Gram negative bacteria. They were first reported in 1983. The bacteria have become resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, by their ability to produce an enzyme (beta-lactamase) which can break down the antibiotics (eg. penicillins and cephalosporins). ESBL producing organisms not only have the ability to break down beta-lactam antibiotics but they are also able to transfer these resistance enzymes to other microorganisms via plasmids. The bacteria may also be resistant to other antibiotics such as aminoglycosides (eg. gentamycin and tobramycin) and quinolones (eg. ciprofloxacin). The most common ESBL producing organisms include Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Acinetobacter spp and Escherichia coli. HOW ARE THEY SPREAD? • • • ESBL producing organisms usually colonise the bowel without ...
The emergence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represents a major challenge to public and animal health in many countries including Lebanon. Carriage of ESBLs confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics and more than 200 different sub-types have been identified, all of which are primarily encoded by genes located on conjugative plasmids. Despite the high prevalence of ESBLs, there is still a paucity of information regarding the impact of ESBL plasmid carriage on the host bacterium and how the spread of antibiotic resistance relates to antibiotic use in hospital environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was, firstly, to characterise the genetic and phenotypic properties of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a hospital in Lebanon. Secondly, to assess the fitness of isolates harbouring different sub-types of ESBLs in order to better understand the influence of the plasmid on the host bacterium, and thirdly, to correlate ...
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a serious antibiotic management problem as resistance genes are easily transferred from one organism to another. Fifty-one strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from sporadic cases in various hospitals throughout Malaysia were analysed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR detection of ESBL-encoding genes and DNA fingerprinting. Although 27 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains were MDR (i.e. resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics), the majority of the strains (98 %) were sensitive to imipenem. PCR detection using ESBL gene-specific primers showed that 46 of the K. pneumoniae strains harboured bla SHV, 19 harboured bla CTX-M, 5 harboured bla OXA-1 and 4 harboured bla TEM-1. Class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase was detected in 21 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains and amplification of the integron 5′CS region showed the presence of several known antibiotic resistance gene
IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase-producing bacteria have recently emerged worldwide. We conducted a case-control study in which 69 inpatients harboring blaIMP-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 247 control subjects with blaIMP-negative pathogens were investigated. Prolonged hospitalization, antineoplastic chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy (P =.001), and indwelling urinary catheters (P =.04) were risk factors for isolation of blaIMP-positive pathogens. The predominant source was urine (P =.001). The duration of antibiotic treatment and the total dose (including of carbapenems) were significantly greater among case patients than among control subjects (P ,.01). blaIMP-positive P. aeruginosa isolates were more frequently resistant to multiple drugs (P =.001) and caused more infections (P =.001) than blaIMP-negative pathogens. There were no significant differences in bacteriological outcome (P =.94); however, infection-related death was more frequent among case patients than among control subjects ...
Klebsiella oxytoca is primarily a health care-associated pathogen acquired from environmental sources. During October 2006-March 2011, a total of 66 patients in a hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, acquired class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. oxytoca with 1 of 2 related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. New cases continued to occur despite reinforcement of infection control practices, prevalence screening, and contact precautions for colonized/infected patients. Cultures from handwashing sinks in the intensive care unit yielded K. oxytoca with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to cultures from the clinical cases. No infections occurred after implementation of sink cleaning 3×/day, sink drain modifications, and an antimicrobial stewardship program. In contrast, a cluster of 4 patients infected with K. oxytoca in a geographically distant medical ward without contaminated sinks was contained with implementation of active screening and contact ...
ESCAPPM or ESCHAPPM is a mnemonic for the organisms with inducible beta-lactamase activity that is chromosomally mediated. E: Enterobacter spp. S: Serratia spp. C: Citrobacter freundii H: Hafnia spp. A: Aeromonas spp.[citation needed] P: Proteus spp. (P. vulgaris) P: Providencia spp. M: Morganella morganii In vitro sensitivities are not applicable in vivo. In general, treatment with cephalosporins results in inducible beta-lactamase activity. Treatment with an aminoglycoside or carbapenem is usually indicated. Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. They have a structure that renders them highly resistant to beta-lactamases. Examples of Carbapenems include meropenem and imipenem. "Feedback for Practical 10: Antimicrobial Agents". Archived from the original on July 23, 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-26. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ...
Concluding remarks.The rising incidence of ESBL- and KPC-producing pathogens presents challenges in the empirical therapy for Gram-negative bacterial infections. Acknowledging the increased mortality rates with ineffective initial therapy (13, 16), the timely recognition of ESBL- and KPC-producing organisms may have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Nucleic acid microarrays can be important in achieving this end.. In this study, the nucleic acid microarray technology (Check-KPC/ESBL kits) demonstrated accurate and reproducible results with regard to the presence of ESBL and KPC genes within the Enterobacteriaceae (2, 3, 8, 9). Current practice requires 24 h of adequate growth prior to testing on the microarray system. Our study shows that the Check-KPC/ESBL kit could be employed with DNA extracted directly from blood cultures before species identification. This could reduce the notification time by as much as 18 to 20 h. Depending on the method used, the time savings, costs of materials, ...
We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklins gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklins gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and ...
Table 4: Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing|i| Klebsiella pneumoniae|/i| Compared to Nonproducing Isolates
en] The Bacillus licheniformis BS3 beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of penicillins, cephalosporins, and related compounds. The production of beta-lactamases is the most common and thoroughly studied cause of antibiotic resistance. Although they escape the hydrolytic activity of the prototypical Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase, many cephems are good substrates for a large number of beta-lactamases. However, the introduction of a 7alpha-methoxy substituent, as in cefoxitin, extends their antibacterial spectrum to many cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The 7alphamethoxy group selectively reduces the hydrolytic action of many beta-lactamases without having a significant effect on the affinity for the target enzymes, the membrane penicillin-binding proteins. We report here the crystallographic structures of the BS3 enzyme and its acyl-enzyme adduct with cefoxitin at 1.7 Angstrom resolution. The comparison of the two structures reveals a covalent ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacteraemia caused by Enterobacteriaceae (EB) producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL+) has been associated with higher mortality compared with non-ESBL-producing (ESBL-) EB bacteraemia in observational studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies to assess how adjusting for confounding in multivariate analyses affects the pooled estimate, and whether multivariate analyses that include intermediates in the causal pathway of outcome (sepsis severity and inadequate empirical therapy) have lower estimates of attributable mortality. DATA SOURCES: PubMed search on 23 November 2010 followed by manually searching reference lists of included studies. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Cohort studies published in English with separate mortality rates for ESBL+ and ESBL- EB bacteraemia. SYNTHESIS METHODS: Random-effects pooling of unadjusted and adjusted ORs followed by subgroup analyses to explore effects of adjustment procedures on adjusted ORs. ...
Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. An enzyme called beta-lactamase is present in many different types of bacteria, which serves to break the beta lactam ring, which effectively nullifies the antibiotics effectiveness. An example such enzyme is the NDM-1 discovered in 2009.. As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin/CLA, that are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme. Augmentin/CLA (FGP) is made of amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is designed to overwhelm all beta-lactamase enzymes, bind irreversibly to them, and effectively serve as an antagonist so that the amoxicillin is not affected by the beta-lactamase enzymes.. Full article ▸. ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative aerobic rod shaped bacterium and is an opportunistic pathogen that usually causes nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patient with various infections and affects normal healthy human as well. P. aeruginosa is also an omnipresent pathogen that can be inhabited in soil, water, vegetable, human and animal. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa are known to be resistant to almost the entire anti-pseudomonas agent via mechanism of low outer membrane permeability, β-lactamases synthesis and the efflux systems. This study was conducted to detect the potential of metallo-β-lactamases producing P. aeruginosa presence in water samples from various parts of Malaysia. In this study, 52 water samples were collected from various parts of Malaysia. These P. aeruginosa isolates were processed to these phenotypic methods, Hodge test which is used to detect the carbapenemase production, Imipenem- EDTA combined disc test (CDT). Imipenem-EDTA
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are an emerging concern in public health. Antimicrobial use, hospitalization and foreign travel are associated with human carriage of ESBL-PE. Duration of carriage with ESBL-PE can vary. The main objective of this thesis is to provide an overview of the current scientific knowledge on persistence ... read more of ESBL carriage in humans. In addition, risk factors for duration of ESBL carriage will be described. After a literature search, 14 studies met the criterion that duration of ESBL-PE was assessed. Eight studies were conducted in patients, two in NICU patients, and four in non-patients (travelers, adopted children, medical students). Approximately half of adult (hospitalized) patients carried ESBL-PE after 6 months (range 33-53%). After 12 months, this percentage was around 25%. Median carriage time was reported from 98 days till more than 9 months. For a minority of patients carriage time was more than three years. ...
The range of antibiotics available to combat bacterial infectious diseases is diminishing due to the development of resistance to all classes of antibiotics. The emergence of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is one of the most significant and urgent threats to global human health. CRE strains that have acquired and expressed genes encoding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity have now been reported across the globe. One strategy for prolonging the use of existing antibiotics has been to develop adjuvants that inhibit the function of β-lactamases and thus restore the bacterias sensitivity to the β-lactam antibiotic (e.g. clavulanic acid and tazobactam). However, for carbapenemase enzymes which are class B β-lactamases (i.e. the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs)), such inhibition strategies have, so far, been ineffective.. Consequently, there is a market need for effective inhibitors of class B MBLs as adjuvants for carbapenems. These MBL inhibitors have the ...
Simplified Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination for the prevention of ICU infections in a setting of high-level antibiotic resistance. Scientific Background:. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB), Gram-positive bacteria and fungi are responsible for hospital acquired infections. This problem is especially typical in intensive care units (ICUs) due to the complexity of disease and wide use of invasive procedures. The common use of empiric wide-range antibiotic therapy had lead to the development significant resistance of these pathogens and this group of bacteria was defined as Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDRO). Among these bacteria the most important and virulent are: Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) as well as Fluconazol resistant Candida.. The main reservoir of these organisms is the intestinal tract, which raises the possibility that their ...
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) commonly results in the empiric use of broad spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems that can select for resistant organisms. This review will discuss the management of uncomplicated and complicated IAIs as well as highlight stewardship initiatives focusing on the proper use of broad spectrum antibiotics.
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Author: MEHRUNNISA J., , THYGARAJAN RAVINDER, RADHIKA KATRAGADDA. Category: Microbiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. The purpose of the study is to detect Metallobetalatamase (MBL) producing GNB (Gram Negative Bacilli) isolated from various clinical samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Kilpauk Medical College & Hospital, Chennai. All the isolates that were resistant to ceftazidime collected and MBL production was demonstrated by combined disc test with EDTA and double disc synergy test. Among the GNBs isolated from clinical samples, 41 % showed resistance to ceftazidime. These GNBs which were resistant to ceftazidme were tested for MBL production, 29% were found to be MBL producers. These 29% of MBL producers showed resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Thus, MBL producers are seen not only among non fermenters like pseudomonas aeruginosa but also produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing problems in treating patients with infections.. Keywords: Ceftazidime (CAZ) ...
NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase) gene encodes a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) with high carbapenemase activity, which makes the host bacterial strain easily dispatch the last-resort antibiotics
Oxacillin is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name "penicillin" can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins. Oxacillin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Oxacillin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Oxacillin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Oxacillin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases ...
Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC 32 NDM 11 IMP 8 OXA-48 4 OXA-181 2 OXA-232 5 IMI 4 VIM and 3 SME producers) aztreonam-avibactam was energetic against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC- IMI- SME- and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-β-lactamase makers. and certain class D β-lactamases by covalent acylation of the β-lactamase active site serine residue. It restores susceptibility of harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) AmpC cephalosporinases and class A carbapenemases to ceftazidime or ceftaroline (1). studies of avibactam in combination with aztreonam have also proven activity against harboring NDM (a class B metallo-β-lactamase); however you will find scant data for the additional less commonly experienced carbapenemases (2 -4). The aim of this study was to examine the activities of ceftazidime and aztreonam with and without ...
Acquired MBLs are emerging resistance determinants of increasing clinical importance, especially in P. aeruginosa (33). Understanding the epidemiology and mechanisms of dissemination of MBL determinants and MBL-producing strains is an essential step toward controlling this phenomenon.. In Europe, although infections caused by VIM-producing P. aeruginosa strains have been observed for almost a decade, little is yet known about the epidemiological relationships between isolates from different countries. Since the genes encoding enzymes of the VIM-1 lineage are usually chromosomally located (43), there is reason to believe that clonal dissemination could be of importance for the transmission of these isolates, although the mobilization of integrons facilitated by transposons represents another option (41). Transmission of isolates by human carriers has been suggested by some authors (20, 40), but no strong molecular epidemiological evidence has supported this hypothesis so far. One of the key ...
A new series of phosphonyl derivatives has been prepared and tested for inhibition of serine (classes A and C) beta-lactamases. The results were compared with those previously acquired with aryl phosphonate monoesters and with alkaline hydrolysis rates. A methyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate monoanion was markedly poorer as an inhibitor of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 than a comparable p-nitrophenyl phosphonate. Phosphonyl fluorides, thiophenyl esters, N-phenylphosphonamidates and a p-nitrophenyl thionophosphonate were, in general, comparable with p-nitrophenyl phosphonates in inhibitory power. The incorporation of a specific amino side chain led to an increase in the rates of inhibition of around 10(4)-fold. Apparently unresponsive to the addition of the side chain to the enzyme was N-phenyl methylphosphonamidate, where binding of the side chain may interfere with access of the leaving group to a proton which is necessary to active-site phosphonylation and inhibition. ...
in Biochemical Pharmacology (2007), 74(12), 1686-1701. One strategy employed by bacterial strains to resist beta-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-beta-lactamases requiring Zn+2 for activity. In the last few years, many new zinc beta-lactamases ... [more ▼]. One strategy employed by bacterial strains to resist beta-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-beta-lactamases requiring Zn+2 for activity. In the last few years, many new zinc beta-lactamases have been described and several pathogens are now known to synthesize members of this class. Metallo-beta-lactamases are especially worrisome due to: (1) their broad activity profiles that encompass most beta-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenems; (2) potential for horizontal transference; and (3) the absence of clinically useful inhibitors. on the basis of the known sequences, three different lineages, identified as subclasses B1, B2, and B3 have been characterized. The three-dimensional structure of at least one ...
This study was designed to detect and compare ESBLs distribution among vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women. Most of this study-included isolates were resistant to CTX and more than half of them were resistant to CAZ. All of CAZ resistant isolates were also resistant to CTX. The members of Enterobacteriaceae possess many mechanisms of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, however, β-lactamases are the most common and clinically significant mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among this bacterial group [7]. Four types of ESBLs were detected in this study, namely: TEM-, SHV-, CTX-M-, and OXA-type. Of this study-included isolates, 65.5% (40/61) were ESBL producers by PCR technique. In Iraq, previous researchers [17, 18] reported ESBL production by 100% of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates from infants, most of them were suffering from watery diarrhea for more than 10 days, for that they were hospitalized. The important reason for this difference with ...
HardyCHROM ESBL is the only selective and differential chromogenic culture media for the detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing organisms.
E coli beta-lactamase LAT-3 protein: C-class beta-lactamase from cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli; closely related to AmpC beta-lactamase; GenBank Y15411
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2ffy: Ampc Beta-Lactamase N289A Mutant in Complex With A Boronic Acid Deacylation Transition State Analog Compound SM3
Two classification plans for β-lactamases are in make use of. subgroups of each of the major groups are explained based on specific attributes of individual enzymes. A list of attributes is also suggested for the description of MK-5108 a new β-lactamase including the requisite microbiological properties substrate and inhibitor profiles and molecular sequence data that provide an adequate characterization for a new β-lactam-hydrolyzing enzyme. MK-5108 Hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics by β-lactamases is the most common mechanism of resistance for this class of antibacterial brokers in clinically important Gram-negative bacteria. Because penicillins cephalosporins and carbapenems are included in the favored treatment regimens for many infectious diseases the presence and characteristics of these enzymes play a critical role in the selection of appropriate therapy. β-Lactamase production is most frequently suspected in a Gram-negative bacterial isolate that demonstrates resistance to a ...
Toho-1 which is also designated CTX-M-44 is an extended-spectrum class A β-lactamase that has high activity toward cefotaxime. have certain effects on expansion of substrate specificity while those of Cys69 and Phe160 have less effect and that of Asp240 has no effect on the hydrolysis of any substrates examined. Gly232 which have been assumed to … Continue reading Toho-1 which is also designated CTX-M-44 is an extended-spectrum class A. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [G Amicosante, A Oratore, N Franceschini, M Maccarrone, R Strom, M Galleni, J M Frère].
Read independent reviews on Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database has been updated, http://card.mcmaster.ca. This February 2018 release is our largest to date and includes new data types, a new classification system, an entirely new version of the Resistance Gene Identifier, and website improvements.. CARD Curation: 37 new ADC beta-lactamases, 21 PDC beta-lactamases, new MCR proteins, 23 rRNA mutations, resistant isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases, hundreds of new resistance mutations, and more. While in past releases all curated AMR mutations were those characterized from clinical isolates, CARD now additionally includes mutations discovered via in vitro selection experiments. Ontological improvements have been made to enable an entirely new classification system for CARD data and RGI results: resistance determinants are now systematically categorized by AMR Gene Family, Drug Class, and Resistance Mechanism. The Antibiotic Resistance Ontology is now additionally available via GitHub, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of colonization and infection by klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in long-term acute-care hospitals. AU - Hayden, Mary K.. AU - Lin, Michael Y.. AU - Lolans, Karen. AU - Weiner, Shayna. AU - Blom, Donald. AU - Moore, Nicholas M.. AU - Fogg, Louis. AU - Henry, David. AU - Lyles, Rosie. AU - Thurlow, Caroline. AU - Sikka, Monica. AU - Hines, David. AU - Weinstein, Robert A.. PY - 2015/4/15. Y1 - 2015/4/15. N2 - Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (hereafter "KPC") are an increasing threat to healthcare institutions. Long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) have especially high prevalence of KPC. Methods. Using a stepped-wedge design, we tested whether a bundled intervention (screening patients for KPC rectal colonization upon admission and every other week; contact isolation and geographic separation of KPC-positive patients in ward cohorts or single rooms; bathing all patients daily with ...
The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with ...
U.S. and international efforts to control carabapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are critical to protect public health. Clinicians caring for patients infected with such organisms have few, if any, therapeutic options available. CRE containing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), first reported in a patient who had been hospitalized in New Delhi, India, in 2007 (1), are of particular concern because these enzymes usually are encoded on plasmids that harbor multiple resistance determinants and are transmitted easily to other Enterobacteriaceae and other genera of bacteria (2). A urine specimen collected on March 4, 2012, from a patient who recently had been hospitalized in Viet Nam, but who was receiving care at a hospital in Rhode Island, was found to have a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate containing NDM. The isolate was susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. Point-prevalence surveys of epidemiologically linked patients revealed transmission to a second patient on ...
Trends in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) collected from hospitals nationwide in Singapore over 3 years are presented. Hospital isolates with imipenem or meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ,1 mg/L were sent to the National Public Health Laboratory for further investigation. A total of 400 CRE were submitted, 227 (56.8%) of which carried a carbapenemase gene. blaNDM was the most common (130/400; 32.5%), followed by blaOXA-48-like (blaOXA-48, -181, -232) (55/400; 13.8%). Interestingly, four isolates bearing dual carbapenemase genes were also detected. KPC- and OXA-48-like-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were fingerprinted by DiversiLab® rep-PCR. Locally, KPC producers do not appear to have clonal dissemination. In contrast, OXA-48-like producers were found to have a greater degree of clustering than KPC producers. © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer ...
Identifying Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are one of the most common sources of infection, accounting for up to 40% of health care-associated infections each year in the United States. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are frequent causes of urinary tract infections in health care settings. Prevalent use of carbapenems has led to the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections, leaving clinicians with few treatment options. Reducing carbapenem use and investigating alternative options for low-severity extended-spectrum β-lactamase infections is imperative to prevent more cases of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Although carbapenems are the antibiotics of choice for treating extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae catheter-associated urinary tract infections, carbapenem-sparing regimens may be appropriate for treating hemodynamically stable patients with low inoculum levels. Moreover, frontline health care providers ...
The blaNDM-1 (New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1) gene has disseminated around the globe. NDM-1 producers are found to co-harbour resistance genes against many antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolones. The spread of large plasmids, carrying both blaNDM and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR) markers, is one of the main reasons for the failure of these essential antimicrobials. Enterobacteriaceae (n = 73) isolated from the blood of septicaemic neonates, admitted at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Kolkata, India, were identified followed by PFGE, antibiotic susceptibility testing and determination of MIC values for meropenem and ciprofloxacin. Metallo-β-lactamases and PMQRs were identified by PCR. NDM-positive isolates were studied for mutations in GyrA & ParC and for co-transmission of blaNDM and PMQR genes (aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrS) through conjugation or transformation. Plasmid types, integrons, plasmid addiction systems, and genetic environment of the blaNDM gene in NDM
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to public and clinical health because of their high levels of resistance to various antibiotics. We assessed the efficacy of combination therapy with meropenem (MEM) and cefmetazole (CMZ) against Imipenemase (IMP)-producing CRE, using the checkerboard method and time-killing assay on 13 Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboring blaIMP-1 (4 Enterobacter hormaechei, 5 Escherichia coli, and 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates) and 13 isolates harboring blaIMP-6 (8 E. coli and 5 K. pneumoniae isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of MEM and CMZ ranged from 2 to 64 and 64 to 2048 μg/mL, respectively. Checkerboard method demonstrated the synergy of the MEM/CMZ combination in all the tested IMP-producing CRE isolates, and the time-kill assay indicated a bactericidal effect for both blaIMP-1 and blaIMP-6 positive CRE when MEM/CMZ combination was used. In vitro, the MEM/CMZ combination was potentially effective against IMP-1-