Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in Helsinki, Tallinn, and Tartu, respectively: sulphonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2), tetracycline resistance genes (tetM and tetC), and resistance genes for extended spectrum beta-lactams (blaoxa-58, blashv-34, and blactx-m-32). To avoid inconsistencies among qPCR assays we normalised the ARG abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted p,0.01) between the inflow and effluent were detected in only four cases. Effluent values for blaoxa-58 and tetC decreased in the two larger plants while ...
have discovered a novel mechanism of resistance to ?-lactams that is independent of penicillinase and the low affinity penicillin bindin protein (PBP), PBP2a, the two known mechanisms of ?-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. This new type of resistance was identified during experiments in which methicillin- susceptible S. aureus strains were passaged in the presence of each of the two so-called "fifth generation" anti-MRSA cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline. Whole genome sequencing of a ceftobiprole- passage mutant revealed mutations in genes encoding PBP4, a non-essential, low-molecular weight PBP; GdpP, a putative signaling protein; and AcrB, a putative transporter. Ceftaroline also selected for PBP4 and GdpP mutants, but not AcrB mutants, indicating the primary importance of the former two proteins. We hypothesize 1) that a gain of transpeptidase function by mutant PBP4 accounts for high-level ?-lactam resistance; and 2) that GdpP contributes to resistance via a signaling ...
The optimal method to screen for gastrointestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) has yet to be established. The direct MacConkey (direct MAC) plate method demonstrates high sensitivity for CRO detection, but established zone diameter (ZD) criteria for ertapenem (≤27 mm) and meropenem (≤32 mm) result in high rates of false positives upon confirmatory testing. To increase specificity, we screened for CRO in two high-risk wards using the direct MAC plate method, recorded ZDs for each sample, and generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate the optimal ZD cutoff criteria. Of 6,868 swabs obtained over an 18-month period, 4,766 (69%) had growth on MAC plates, and 2,500 (36%) met criteria for further evaluation based on previously established ZDs around the carbapenem disks. A total of 812 (12%) swabs were confirmed positive for at least one CRO and included 213 (3%) carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO), resulting in a specificity of 78% for the ...
Publisher : International Dairy Federation All titles : An evaluation of the Idexx SNAP test for detecting beta-Lactam antibiotics in raw milk [enzyme linked receptor-binding assay] ...
1IYS: Crystal Structure of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Toho-1: Insights into the Molecular Mechanism for Catalytic Reaction and Substrate Specificity Expansion
1IYS: Crystal Structure of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Toho-1: Insights into the Molecular Mechanism for Catalytic Reaction and Substrate Specificity Expansion
Trends in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) collected from hospitals nationwide in Singapore over 3 years are presented. Hospital isolates with imipenem or meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ,1 mg/L were sent to the National Public Health Laboratory for further investigation. A total of 400 CRE were submitted, 227 (56.8%) of which carried a carbapenemase gene. blaNDM was the most common (130/400; 32.5%), followed by blaOXA-48-like (blaOXA-48, -181, -232) (55/400; 13.8%). Interestingly, four isolates bearing dual carbapenemase genes were also detected. KPC- and OXA-48-like-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were fingerprinted by DiversiLab® rep-PCR. Locally, KPC producers do not appear to have clonal dissemination. In contrast, OXA-48-like producers were found to have a greater degree of clustering than KPC producers. © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer ...
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page about new carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), untreatable or difficult-to-treat Enterobacteriaceae that have developed high levels of resistance to antibiotics, including last-resort antibiotics called carbapenems. Includes NC DHHS and CDC communications about this emerging public health concern as well as links to infection prevention information tailored for patients and healthcare providers.
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult to treat bacteria that are resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and nearly all available antibiotics. They can cause serious illness and death; bloodstream infections are fatal in 40% -50% of cases. CRE was designated by the CDC in 2013 as one of the three most urgent drug resistant threats in the United States. An estimated 9,000 CRE infections cause 600 deaths yearly in the U.S.. Risk factors for CRE colonization or infection include open wounds, presence of indwelling devices (such as endotracheal tubes, feeding tubes, and catheters), multiple medical problems, and high antimicrobial use. CRE are easily spread between infected or colonized patients by health care workers and equipment, unless rigorous infection prevention precautions are taken. Cases and outbreaks of CRE have been increasingly recognized in recent years in Northern California, including Alameda County. In June 2017, the Alameda County Public Health ...
Provider Role in Transmission of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae - Volume 38 Issue 11 - Marika E. Grabowski, Hyojung Kang, Kristen M. Wells, Costi D. Sifri, Amy J. Mathers, Jennifer M. Lobo
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a serious threat to public health. Infections with CRE are difficult, and in some cases impossible, to treat and have been associated with mortality rates up to 50%(1). Due to the movement of patients throughout the healthcare system, if CRE are a problem in one facility, then typically they are a problem in other facilities in the region as well. To help protect patients and prevent transmission, CDC has updated 2012 CRE toolkit; this document will continue to be updated as new information becomes available.. ...
PubMedID: 24985124 | Successful management of an outbreak due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit. | European journal of pediatrics | 7/2/2014
Schwaber et al identified risk factors for acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospitalized patient. These can help to identify a patient who should be screened for carriage. The authors are from Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center.
Despite the unfavorable double-room configuration of our ICU, the 4.1% rate of ESBL acquisition was much lower than the 13% reported by Razazi et al. in a 24-bed ICU with eight single rooms but without any protocol of contact precautions for ESBL carriers [13]. It is close to that reported by Alves et al. in an ICU with only single rooms, in which contact precautions were also applied [17]. Unlike Barbier et al., who reported that half of the ESBL carriers acquired their ESBL during their ICU stay [16], and Gardam et al., who reported that ESBL acquisition accounted for two-thirds of ESBL carriage in the ICU [18], ESBL acquisition accounted for only 12.7% of all ESBL carriage in our study, confirming that ESBL carriage is mostly imported, whereas high-level cephalosporinase (HL-Case) is mostly acquired, in the ICU [19]. In multivariate analysis, the severity (SAPS II) at admission was the only factor identified to be associated with the acquired carriage of ESBL, while some authors have reported ...
What are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)? Enterobacteriaceae are a group of bacteria normally found in the human gut. Common types include E. coli and Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are a class of antibiotics that were developed to treat bacteria that are resistant to other drugs. Due to the overuse of these antibiotics, some types of Enterobacteriaceae have developed resistance to carbapenems; these bacteria are called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).. Who gets CRE? Healthy people usually do not get CRE infections. In healthcare settings, CRE infections may occur among patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines), urinary (bladder) catheters, or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for CRE infections.. How are CRE spread? CRE can be transmitted via direct person-to-person contact with an infected person or ...
It was a week into my elderly patients hospital admission when he began to have fever and profuse diarrhea, some 10-12 bowel movement a day. The diagnosis was not hard to make: a stool test showed he had C difficile. Another patient, a thin women in her late 40s who had become paraplegic after a […]. ...
(PRWEB) May 15, 2015 -- GeneWEAVE, Inc.,a clinical diagnostics company addressing multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO), announced that initial data presented
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On the right plate, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is able to grow even in the presence of antibiotics. Photo by CDC A ...
Besides the constant care of patients, healthcare facilities have one more thing on their hands: the CRE (carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria. This lethal enemy is unfortunately growing to be very common in intensive care settings to the point that there is an alert rising due to this.
Brink, Adrian et al. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in South Africa: Risk factors for acquisition and prevention. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., July 2012, vol.102, no.7, p.599-601. ISSN 0256- ...
After reports that a dangerous drug-resistant bacterium, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, or CRKP, had spread to at least 356 patients in Southern California last year, Times staff writer
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
James Foster (foster at cs.uidaho.edu) wrote: ,Ahhh...gotcha. That is indeed an interesting question. Im not sure ,what the answer is. I know that many new functions are co-opted from ,similar functions (I think the classical example is some enzyme ,beginning with the letter l...but cant remember right now). But that ,begs the question of where the co-opted behaviors came from. True, and I think also the important issue is how this new function arose from a similar function. The evolution, and natural selection, of classes of beta-lactamases are the examples I know. While we havent observed it, the early beta-lactamases are hypothesised to have arisen from cell-wall enzymes and the bacteria were facing an enemy in nature (beta-lactams in fungi). Today, we have artificial beta-lactams that are not seen anywhere in nature, yet there are bacteria resistant to it. One explanation that this new function /arose/ (evolved) in the the last few decades, compared to the initial ones, which mightve ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2ffy: Ampc Beta-Lactamase N289A Mutant in Complex With A Boronic Acid Deacylation Transition State Analog Compound SM3
The global dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Carbapenemases, or carbapenem-hydro...
The global dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Carbapenemases, or carbapenem-hydro...
Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported from a number of European countries
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Backbone RMSDs are shown for native and S130 mutant SHV β-lactamase at 300 K, black color indicate native SHV, point mutant form S130G SHV β-lactamase shown i
Veinberg G.; Shestakova I.; Bokaldere R.; Dikovskaya K.; Grigan N.; Musel D.; Vorona M.; Kanepe I.; Domracheva I.; Zharkova O.; Mežapuķe R.; Kalvinsh I.; Lukevics E. Cytotoxic properties of beta-lactam antibiotics structural analogs. Abstr., Baltijas valstu onkologu un radiologu 2. kongr. = 2nd Baltic congr. of oncology and radiology; 10.-12. sept.: Rīga, Latvija, 1998; 173 ...
A growing body of evidence and expert reviews suggests that we should be altering our administration regimes of beta-lactam and carbapenams to accommodate an altered volume of distribution (or RRT) status of the critically ill patient in order to more effectively reach the inhibitory concentrations of drug required to kill susceptible pathogens. ...
Background. During 2006, Israeli hospitals faced a clonal outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae that was not controlled by local measures. A nationwide intervention was launched to contain the outbreak and to introduce a strategy to control future dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals.. Methods. In March 2007, the Ministry of Health issued guidelines mandating physical separation of hospitalized carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and dedicated staffing and appointed a professional task force charged with containment. The task force paid site visits at acute-care hospitals, evaluated infection-control policies and laboratory methods, supervised adherence to the guidelines via daily census reports on carriers and their conditions of isolation, provided daily feedback on performance to hospital directors, and intervened additionally when necessary. The initial intervention period was 1 April 2007-31 May 2008. The primary outcome measure ...
Nosocomial pathogens can be associated with a variety of infections, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs) and in immunocompromised patients. Usually these pathogens are resistant to multiple drugs and pose therapeutic challenges. Among these organisms, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most frequent being encountered in the clinical setting. Carbapenems are very useful to treat infections caused by these drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, but carbapenem resistance is increasing globally. Combination therapy is frequently given empirically for hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients and is usually composed of an adequate beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of plazomicin against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Amikacin was used as a comparator. The activity of plazomicin in combination with several different antibiotics was tested by disk diffusion, the checkerboard method, and time-kill ...
Identifying Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of carbapenemase production and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in 47 carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by phenotypic confirmatory tests and molecular assay.. Methodology: Carbapenem resistance genes KPC, OXA-48 and NDM were investigated with the BD MAX CRE assay kit in the BD MAX real time PCR instrument. Modified Hodge test, MBL gradient strip test, D70C Carbapenemase Detection Set, Temocillin gradient strip test methods were used as phenotypic confirmatory tests. Clonal relationship between study isolates was investigated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.. Results: Analysis with BD MAX CRE assay revealed OXA-48 positivity in 17 (36%) strains, NDM positivity in 6 (13%) strains and coexistence of OXA-48 + NDM positivity in 8 (17%) strains. In 16 (34%) strains, none of the KPC, OXA-48 and NDM genes were detected. While MHT was the most sensitive phenotypic confirmatory test, D70C disc set had not been ...
Read "Faecal colonization of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC in Mozambican university students, BMC Infectious Diseases" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of …
Define Beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactam antibiotics synonyms, Beta-lactam antibiotics pronunciation, Beta-lactam antibiotics translation, English dictionary definition of Beta-lactam antibiotics. n. Any of a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins, that contain a beta-lactam ring
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Carbapenems, such as imipenem and meropenem, are antibacterial agents with activity against many gram-negative, gram-positive, and anaerobic microorganisms. Carbapenems are often used to treat multidrug-resistant isolates, especially strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (21, 29, 30, 47, 58). However, the recent appearance of β-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems, in addition to other mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, creates an increasing therapeutic dilemma (21, 29, 30, 47,58). Therefore, a better understanding of carbapenem resistance mechanisms is critical to optimizing therapy.. Here we describe the fourth class A β-lactamase with high carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity isolated from a strain ofEnterobacteriaceae. The enzyme KPC-1 shows 45% amino acid identity to Sme-1 (41) from S. marcescens S6. Unlike KPC-1, the other three class A carbapenemases (Nmc-A [42], IMI-1 [57], and Sme-1 [41]) show ,90% similarity to each other at the nucleotide level (41, 47). These ...
Looking for online definition of beta-lactam antibiotics in the Medical Dictionary? beta-lactam antibiotics explanation free. What is beta-lactam antibiotics? Meaning of beta-lactam antibiotics medical term. What does beta-lactam antibiotics mean?
Table 4: Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing|i| Klebsiella pneumoniae|/i| Compared to Nonproducing Isolates
Identifying transmission route of antimicrobial-resistant pathogen is essential for appropriate infection control strategy in healthcare facilities. We report the utility of single-nucleotide...
Learn more about Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Infection at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs), especially those who have patients with wounds, are encouraged to take steps to protect their most vulnerable patients from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a family of germs that have become difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. In addition to patients at high risks, PTs and PTAs should take all necessary precautions to prevent the spread of CRE to healthy individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CRE are resistant to all, or nearly all, antibiotics-even the most powerful drugs of last-resort. CRE also have high mortality rates, killing 1 in 2 patients who get bloodstream infections from them. Additionally, CRE easily transfer their antibiotic resistance to other bacteria. For example, carbapenem-resistant klebsiella can spread its drug-destroying properties to a normal E. coli bacteria, which makes the E.coli resistant to antibiotics ...
Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs), especially those who have patients with wounds, are encouraged to take steps to protect their most vulnerable patients from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a family of germs that have become difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. In addition to patients at high risks, PTs and PTAs should take all necessary precautions to prevent the spread of CRE to healthy individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CRE are resistant to all, or nearly all, antibiotics-even the most powerful drugs of last-resort. CRE also have high mortality rates, killing 1 in 2 patients who get bloodstream infections from them. Additionally, CRE easily transfer their antibiotic resistance to other bacteria. For example, carbapenem-resistant klebsiella can spread its drug-destroying properties to a normal E. coli bacteria, which makes the E.coli resistant to antibiotics ...