While expert recommendations caution against long-term benzodiazepine use in the elderly, survey data suggest increasing benzodiazepine use with age. Computerized pharmacy records of staff-model HMO were used to examine benzodiazepine prescribing. Six-month prevalence of benzodiazepine use 2.8% and prevalence of continued use 0.7% were lower...
Problem benzodiazepine use can be associated with various deviant behaviors, including drug-related crime. In a survey of police detainees carried out by the Australian Government, both legal and illegal users of benzodiazepines were found to be more likely to have lived on the streets, less likely to have been in full-time work and more likely to have used heroin or methamphetamines in the past 30 days from the date of taking part in the survey. Benzodiazepine users were also more likely to be receiving illegal incomes and more likely to have been arrested or imprisoned in the previous year. Benzodiazepines were sometimes reported to be used alone, but most often formed part of a poly drug-using problem. Female users were more likely than men to be using heroin, whereas male users were more likely to report amphetamine use. Benzodiazepine users were more likely than non-users to claim government financial benefits and benzodiazepine users who were also poly-drug users were the most likely to be ...
Benzodiazepines are widely used clinically to treat anxiety and insomnia. They also induce muscle relaxation, control epileptic seizures, and can produce amnesia. Moreover, benzodiazepines are often abused after chronic clinical treatment and also for recreational purposes. Within weeks, tolerance to the pharmacological effects can develop as a sign of dependence. In vulnerable individuals with compulsive drug use, addiction will be diagnosed. Here we review recent observations from animal models regarding the cellular and molecular basis that might underlie the addictive properties of benzodiazepines. These data reveal how benzodiazepines, acting through specific GABA(A) receptor subtypes, activate midbrain dopamine neurons, and how this could hijack the mesolimbic reward system. Such findings have important implications for the future design of benzodiazepines with reduced or even absent addiction liability ...
Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse,[1] is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects.[2][3] Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally. When used recreationally benzodiazepines are usually administered orally but sometimes they are taken intranasally or intravenously. Recreational use produces effects similar to alcohol intoxication.[3][4] In tests in pentobarbital trained rhesus monkeys benzodiazepines produced effects similar to barbiturates.[5] In a 1991 study, triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam.[6] A 1985 study found that triazolam and temazepam maintained higher rates of self-injection than a variety of other benzodiazepines.[7] A 1991 study indicated that diazepam, in ...
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders when used in conjunction with benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy and when used as a monotherapy. Patients using CBT alone have dropout rates similar to or lower than those patients undergoing other forms of therapy, including benzodiazepines. CBT also works well with patients who do not respond adequately to pharmacotherapy. Combined CBT and benzodiazepine treatment has additive effects when compared with benzodiazepine monotherapy; however, patients receiving combined therapy who subsequently discontinue benzodiazepine treatment experience a loss of efficacy compared with CBT and placebo, perhaps due to fear extinction being context dependent. To avoid this loss of efficacy, CBT may be administered alone or as a bridge between benzodiazepine use and discontinuation during a medication taper. The case report upon which this supplement is based questions the value of CBT for patients experiencing cognitive ...
Antipsychotics are the most important treatment for schizophrenia. However, antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, are associated with severe weight gain/obesity side-effects. Although numerous studies have been carried out to identify the exact mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, it is still important to consider other pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and its associated inflammation pathway is one of the most important pathways involved in regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we examined the role of hypothalamic protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase- eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (PERK-eIF2α) signaling and the inflammatory IkappaB kinase β- nuclear factor kappa B (IKKβ-NFκB) signaling pathway in olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. In this study, we found that olanzapine significantly activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Olanzapine treatment for ...
Question - Ive just started taking benzodiazepines again - this time - DM. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to (1) estimate the frequency of benzodiazepine use in psychiatric practice, (2) investigate factors associated with use, (3) establish whether a relationship exists between benzodiazepine dose and length of use, and (4) investigate factors associated with time to discontinuation. METHODS: This study was conducted in South Verona, Italy. All individuals who were exposed to benzodiazepines during 2005 were extracted from the local Psychiatric Case Register, and the longitudinal history of benzodiazepine exposure was retrospectively described. RESULTS: In 2005, a total of 1,771 individuals were in contact with at least one of the psychiatric facilities of the South Verona catchment area. Of these, 535 were benzodiazepine users, yielding a frequency of use of 30.2% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 28.0, 32.4]. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower level of education, diagnosis of affective illness, longer length of illness and higher service use were
A growing number of observational studies have shown the critical role of potentially inappropriate medications for increasing the risk of cognitive impairment. In a linked paper, Billioti de Gage and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.g5205) extend the pharmacoepidemiological research on the adverse cognitive effects of benzodiazepines with an investigation of their link with Alzheimers disease.1 Their results suggest that long term exposure to benzodiazepines might be a modifiable risk factor for this condition.. The authors conducted a nested case-control study of about 2000 older members of a public drug plan in the province of Quebec, Canada. They observed a cumulative dose-effect association between exposure to benzodiazepines (at least 90 days) and risk of developing Alzheimers disease and found that exposure lasting more than 180 days was associated with a nearly twofold increase in risk. In further analyses, they showed that longer acting benzodiazepines were associated with greater risk of ...
Long term use of benzodiazepines which have a similar effect on the brain as alcohol and are also associated with depression.[23] Major depressive disorder can also develop as a result of chronic use of benzodiazepines or as part of a protracted withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines are a class of medication which are commonly used to treat insomnia, anxiety and muscular spasms. As with alcohol, the effects of benzodiazepine on neurochemistry, such as decreased levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, are believed to be responsible for the increased depression.[24][25][26][27] Major depressive disorder may also occur as part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.[28][29][30] In a long-term follow-up study of patients dependent on benzodiazepines, it was found that 10 people (20%) had taken drug overdoses while on chronic benzodiazepine medication despite only two people ever having had any pre-existing depressive disorder. A year after a gradual withdrawal program, no patients had taken any ...
The advent of palliative care played an important role in widening the appropriate use of opioid analgesics. The relatively high level of benzodiazepine prescriptions in our study suggests that the same is happening here. Protocols for the use of benzodiazepines in other healthcare settings emphasize the need for short courses, low doses and the avoidance of as required prescriptions. There is little evidence for long term efficacy, but with a median stay under the hospices care of just over three months, relatively few of our patient group could be said to have long term benzodiazepine use unless they had been taking this class of drug prior to hospice referral. Indeed, the fact that half of all benzodiazepine use was within the last three weeks of life and by a parenteral route implies that the patient group under consideration here is different from those with which usual guidance for benzodiazepine use is concerned. The relevance of benzodiazepine protocols to palliative care settings ...
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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking aim at concurrent use of opioid medications and benzodiazepines. The federal agency announced Aug. 31 that it is requiring new boxed label warnings and patient-focused Medication Guides for nearly 400 prescription opioids, opioid-containing cough medicines and benzodiazepines.. The FDA added in its announcement that because of the unique medical needs of patients who receive medication-assisted treatment for opioid dependence, it will continue to review evidence on the effects of concurrent use of opioids for addiction with benzodiazepines.. An agency data review, coinciding with a petition signed by many state and local public health officials last February, found that the number of patients who were prescribed an opioid and a benzodiazepine jumped 41% from 2002-2014. In addition, overdose deaths involving both medication classes nearly tripled from 2004-2011.. "It is nothing short of a public health crisis when you see a substantial increase of ...
An automated high-performance liquid chromatographic method, benzodiazepines by REMEDi HS, was used to analyze benzodiazepines and their metabolites after β-glucuronidase hydrolysis of 1-mL urine specimens from the following: 924 clinic and hospital patients whose specimens had previously been found to be presumptively positive using either EMIT® or Triage® immunoassay methodologies and 128 individuals whose specimens had screened negative by EMIT d.a.u.™. REMEDi analyses did not correlate with the immunoassay results in 136 of the positive and three of the negative urine specimens. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmatory analyses were performed on these discordant specimens using 3 mL β-glucuronidasehydrolyzed urine followed by extraction with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1) and derivatizatlon with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Two benzodiazepines, flunitrazepam and clonazepam, and their 7-amino metaholites were analyzed without prior derivatization. The ...
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV. In the case of benzodiazepine dependence, however, the continued use seems to be associated with the avoidance of unpleasant withdrawal reaction rather than from the pleasurable effects of the drug. Benzodiazepine dependence develops with long-term use, even at low therapeutic doses, without the described dependence behavior. Addiction, or what is sometimes referred to as psychological dependence, includes people misusing or craving the drug not to relieve withdrawal symptoms, but to experience its euphoric or intoxicating effects. It is important to distinguish between addiction and drug abuse of benzodiazepines and normal physical dependence on benzodiazepines. The increased GABAA inhibition caused by benzodiazepines is ...
Synonyms for benzodiazepines at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Some of the street names associated with benzodiazepines include benzos, tranx and sleepers, according to the Addiction Help Center. Benzodiazepines are a commonly abused and potentially...
Immediate-release (IR) benzodiazepines have a short duration of therapeutic effect and are generally less effective for anxiety than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in reducing concomitant depressive symptomatology. Common criticisms of benzodiazepines also include the patients tendency to develop a tolerance to the anxiolytic effect and a dependence on the drug itself. The newer extended-release (XR) benzodiazepine formulation was designed to increase efficacy, duration of therapeutic effect, tolerance, compliance, and ease of discontinuation. The XR benzodiazepine alprazolam has shown efficacy in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder comparable to the older benzodiazepine formulations. Pharmacokinetic data show that the XR formulation has a longer therapeutic effect compared with IR formulations, which reduces the potential for breakthrough anxiety symptoms. Data also indicate that the XR formulation has less abuse liability than the IR formulation. This article reviews the ...
Like many drugs being abused these days, benzodiazepines are often prescribed by a doctor. The most commonly prescribed and abused benzos are Xanax®, Valium®, and Klonopin®, but there are dozens of other ones as well. They may be prescribed to treat a variety of symptoms, but are most often prescribed to treat mood disorders such as generalized anxiety and major depressive. Drugs like Rohypnol® have been used to aid in anesthesia before surgery.. As tranquilizers, benzos produce a sedated effect in both mind and body. This is helpful in treating anxiety, seizures, insomnia, and muscle spasms. This same effect makes these pills at extremely high risk for abuse. Unlike many other substances and prescriptions, a person can build tolerance and dependence within just a few week of taking the medication as prescribed. Some people seek out benzos, while others become addicted without any intention of doing so. Because of the potential for dependence to develop, many people become addicted quickly ...
Weight gain, a serious problem associated with some antipsychotic drugs, notably olanzapine and clozapine, was suggested to be associated with -759C/T polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene. This study aimed to examine a potential association of two functional polymorphisms of the promoter region of this gene: -759C/T (rs3813929) and -697G/C (rs518147), with weight gain after 6 weeks of olanzapine monotherapy. It included 107 patients with schizophrenia; among them 36 are first-episode drug-naive patients. Analysis was carried out by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A protective effect of -759T and -697C alleles was found: significantly less patients with -697C (3/51) and no patient with -759T (0/28) alleles experienced body mass index increase |or=10% (P=0.0006 and 0.002, respectively). The same was true for drug-naive patients possessing any of the variant alleles. There was a significant association of haplotypes with a |or=10% body mass index increase (P=0.001). On the basis of the
Of the studies that used strategies to deal with reverse causation, our findings are in line with one recent study14 but are in contrast with two previous studies that reported an increased risk of dementia with benzodiazepine use.8 9 In a case-control study conducted using administrative data from the UK based Clinical Practice Research Datalink, high use of benzodiazepines, as determined by number of prescriptions, was not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimers disease after use initated in the prodromal phase was accounted for. In fact, people who filled more than 100 benzodiazepine prescriptions had a lower risk for Alzheimers disease than non-users, a finding the authors cautioned against overinterpreting.14 In contrast, in a prospective population based study conducted in France of 1063 older adults, new use of benzodiazepines was associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.43).8 In regard to this latter study, our results ...
This invention relates to benzodiazepine derivatives which are useful as drugs exhibiting antagonism at the gastrin and/or CCK-B receptor, and to their production.
The valid review by Furukawa and colleagues shows that benzodiazepines may add to the efficacy of antidepressants. The effect is strongest after 1 week, lasts until 4 weeks, and disappears after 6 to 8 weeks, although this last finding is based on data concerning only 162 patients. What could cause this somewhat unexpected benefit? First, it may be that benzodiazepines prevent the occurrence of anxiety-related adverse effects in the first weeks of treatment, which may have led to fewer dropouts, particularly in the studies with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The 2 studies (126 patients) evaluating SSRIs do not seem to exclude such a trend, but no subgroup analysis was done. The effect, however, is still statistically significant after exclusion of dropouts. Second, the beneficial effect may be because of a reduction in anxiety and sleep disturbance, leaving the core symptoms of low mood and anhedonia undisturbed. Such a subgroup analysis was not possible and would require ...
Background: the STOPP criteria advise against the use of long-acting benzodiazepines (LBs). Objective: to study whether LBs are associated with a higher fall risk than short-acting benzodiazepines (SBs) (elimination half-life ≤10 h). Methods: we used base-line data and prospective fall follow-up from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a longitudinal cohort study including 1,509 community-dwelling older persons (Study 1) and from a separate fall prevention study with 564 older persons after a fall (Study 2). Time to the first fall after inclusion and number of falls in the first year after inclusion were the primary endpoints. Results: both in Study 1 and Study 2 the use of SBs was associated with time to the first fall, hazard ratio (HR) 1.62 (95% CI: 1.03-2.56) and HR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.19-2.26),respectively. LBs were not significantly associated with time to first fall, HR 1.40 (0.85-2.31) and HR 1.08 (0.72-1.62). In both studies, the use of SBs was also associated with number of falls, ...
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Benzo (benzodiazepines) Addiction - Benzodiazepines (sometimes called benzos ) work to calm or sedate a person, by raising the level of the inhibitory
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Vol 266 No 7148 p668-670. May 19, 2001 Pharmacists have a role to play in assisting patients addicted to benzodiazepines, according to Sheena Macgregor, prescribing adviser for Borders Primary Care NHS Trust, Roxburghshire, Scotland. Ms Macgregor told The Journal on May 16 that, despite increased medical and public awareness of the long-term effects of benzodiazepines, many patients still requested sleeping tablets, or "something to help them cope" with a difficult life event.. Ms Macgregors comments follow a BBC Panorama programme that highlighted the degree to which benzodiazepines are being prescribed in the United Kingdom. The programmes presenter claimed that more than one million adults in Britain were addicted to tranquillisers prescribed by their general practitioners. This was despite guidance that was issued in 1988 by the Committee on Safety of Medicines, which stated that benzodiazepines should not be prescribed for more than four weeks at a time.. Speaking on the programme, which ...
narrow-angle glaucoma.. FDA pregnancy category C. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication. Taking antipsychotic medication during the last 3 months of pregnancy may cause problems in the newborn, such as withdrawal symptoms, breathing problems, feeding problems, fussiness, tremors, and limp or stiff muscles. However, you may have withdrawal symptoms or other problems if you stop taking your medicine during pregnancy. If you become pregnant while taking olanzapine, do not stop taking it without your doctors advice. Olanzapine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while using olanzapine ...
narrow-angle glaucoma.. FDA pregnancy category C. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication. Taking antipsychotic medication during the last 3 months of pregnancy may cause problems in the newborn, such as withdrawal symptoms, breathing problems, feeding problems, fussiness, tremors, and limp or stiff muscles. However, you may have withdrawal symptoms or other problems if you stop taking your medicine during pregnancy. If you become pregnant while taking olanzapine, do not stop taking it without your doctors advice. Olanzapine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while using olanzapine ...
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Benzodiazepines and antidepressants are both metabolised by CYP 450 enzymes which may result in the inhibition or induction of either drug group. Therefore, individuals should be monitored closely to ensure outcomes are appropriatex ...
Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed medications that promote short-term anxiety relief but cause long-term harm and even death when abused.
Aside from their pharmacokinetic properties, e.g. their speed of action and the duration of residual effects, benzodiazepines are still considered as equivalent in terms of their effects on cognition. Here we review evidence ...
The ancestral allele is C. The rs7412(T) allele, also known as Arg176Cys, generally indicates the presence of an Apoε2 allele; see the ApoE page for a full discussion of the ApoE alleles and their association with Alzheimers disease. Another SNP related to ApoE is rs429358. In a study of 67 mostly Caucasian patients prescribed the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine, carriers of a rs7412(C) allele were more likely to gain significant weight compared to rs7412(T;T) carriers, as assessed by physiogenomic analysis of corresponding weight profiles. Two other SNPs, rs5092 and rs4765623, were also significantly associated with weight profiles in these patients.[PMID 17199131] ...
Falls are a major problem for older adults, causing injury, disability and, in serious cases, death. Poor muscle strength, thinning bones, certain medical conditions, medications, and a variety of other factors may contribute to greater risk. Now a study presenting updated research on medication use and the risk of falls finds that people taking antidepressants are more likely to experience falls. Taking benzodiazepines for mood disorders or sedatives and hypnotics for sleep problems were also associated with greater risk.. The researchers couldnt determine whether the medications themselves, the medical conditions these drugs treat, or some other factor was to blame. But drowsiness and/or dizziness are common side effects of using antidepressants and benzodiazepines.. In the study, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, researchers looked at fall occurrences among 79,000 participants age 60 and older and the use of medications in nine unique drug classes (including high blood pressure ...
Half-Life. When a benzodiazepine is taken on a regular basis, there is an ongoing process of drug absorption and elimination. The time it takes for half of the drug to be eliminated or for the blood concentration level to fall by half is known as the half-life. This may vary according to individual, particularly in the elderly.. When someone on a longer acting half-life drug misses several doses or abruptly discontinues the drug, it can take days before withdrawal symptoms surface. This is important to know as some people who stop taking the medication abruptly spend a brief period thinking that they will not have withdrawal symptoms only to be unpleasantly surprised days later.. Tolerance. When the receptors in the brain become habituated to the action of a benzodiazepine, more of the drug is needed in order for the desired therapeutic effect to be achieved. This often develops with regular use and is known as tolerance.. Inter-dose Withdrawal. People who use benzodiazepines sporadically or ...
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Jacqmin, P. ; Lesne, Michel. Measurement of Benzodiazepines By Radioimmuno Assay and Radioreceptor Assay in Biological Samples.In: Annales de Biologie Clinique, Vol. 40, no. 4, p. 480-481 (1982 ...