TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA damage in human volunteers during fire extinction exercises. AU - Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra. AU - Saber, Anne Thoustrup. AU - Clausen, Per Axel. AU - Pedersen, Julie Elbæk. AU - Løhr, Mille. AU - Kermanizadeh, Ali. AU - Loft, Steffen. AU - Ebbehøj, Niels. AU - Hansen, Åse Marie. AU - Pedersen, Peter Bøgh. AU - Koponen, Ismo Kalevi. AU - Nørskov, Eva-Carina. AU - Møller, Peter. AU - Vogel, Ulla Birgitte. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood ...
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This review exposes the current poor understanding of the internal segmental chain dynamics of dendrimers in solution probed by monitoring the process of excimer formation between pyrene labels covalently attached to the chain ends of dendrimers. The review begins by covering the bases of fluorescence and the kinetics of pyrene excimer formation before describing a procedure based on the Model Free (MF) analysis that is used to analyze quantitatively the fluorescence decays acquired for dendrimers, the ends of which have been fully and covalently labeled with pyrene. Comparison of the various trends obtained by different research groups describing the efficiency of pyrene excimer formation with the generation number of dendrimers illustrates the lack of consensus between the few studies devoted to the topic. One possible reason for this disagreement might reside in the presence of minute amounts of unattached pyrene labels which act as potent fluorescent impurities and affect the analysis of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding of isomers of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide to chromatin. AU - Kootstra, A.. AU - Slaga, T. J.. PY - 1980/4/14. Y1 - 1980/4/14. N2 - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. AB - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. UR - ...
To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, {sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange)in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts ({sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the ...
Consumption of charbroiled red meat and meat-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels have been demonstrated to increase in response to charbroiled red meat intake but to date there have been no studies that have investigated the relationship between leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels and risk of colorectal adenoma. We investigated the relation of leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct formation and colorectal adenoma in a clinic-based case-control study of colorectal adenomas. The study comprised 82 cases of colorectal adenoma and 111 polyp-free controls, none of whom were current smokers. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adducts were measured by a sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay using an antiserum elicited against DNA modified with (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene that recognizes several PAHs bound to human DNA. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulations of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adduct, cyclin D1 and PCNA in oral tissue by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate. AU - Chen, Kun Ming. AU - Sacks, Peter G.. AU - Spratt, Thomas E.. AU - Lin, Jyh Ming. AU - Boyiri, Telih. AU - Schwartz, Joel. AU - Richie, John P.. AU - Calcagnotto, Ana. AU - Das, Arunangshu. AU - Bortner, James. AU - Zhao, Zonglin. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Guttenplan, Joseph. AU - El-Bayoumy, Karam. PY - 2009/5/22. Y1 - 2009/5/22. N2 - Tobacco smoking is an important cause of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco smoke contains multiple carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Surgery is the conventional treatment approach for SCC, but it remains imperfect. However, chemoprevention is a plausible strategy and we had previously demonstrated that 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) significantly inhibited tongue tumors-induced by the synthetic 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (not present ...
Pyrene derivatives can be carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic, thus having the potential to cause malignant diseases. In this work, the interactions of two selected pyrene derivatives (1-OHP and 1-PBO) and human tumor-related DNA (p53 DNA and C-myc DNA) are investigated by spectroscopic and non-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Using fluorescence spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD), DNA interactions of pyrene derivatives are confirmed to occur mainly via the groove binding mode supported by the intercalation into the base pairs of DNA. There is an obvious binding order of pyrene derivatives to the targeted DNA, 1-OHP | 1-PBO. The binding constants of 1-OHP are 1.16 × 106 L×mol−1 and 4.04 × 105 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively, while that of 1-PBO are only 2.04 × 103 L×mol−1 and 1.39 × 103 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively. Besides, the binding of pyrene derivatives to p53 DNA is stronger than that for C-myc DNA. CD and PAGE
BACKGROUND: We investigated if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities are increased and total plasma antioxidant concentration is decreased in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. METHODS Ninety-six coke oven workers participated in the study. Nonexposed workers (n = 105) were randomly sampled among power plant workers in the same age range. The examination included a questionnaire on health status, occupational history, smoking, and dietary habits. Blood samples completed the examination. Coke oven workers were classified into low-, middle-, and high-exposure groups based on the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) air concentrations and were further classified into the categories 'topside' and 'non-topside,' according to their proximity to the ovens. RESULTS: Erythrocyte glutathiane peroxidase activity increased with age (r = 0.18, P = 0.061) in power plant workers, whereas plasma glutathione peroxidase activity decreased with age (r = -0.18,
Stereoselective metabolism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (2-Cl-DB[a,l]P) and 10-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (10-Cl-DB[a,l]P) by rat liver microsomes was studied and effects of the chloro substituent on the metabolism were determined. All three compounds produced trans-8,9-dihydrodiol, trans-11,12-dihydrodiol, and the 7-hydroxyl derivative as major metabolic products and several other phenolic derivatives as minor metabolites. The trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols of DB[a,l]P and 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P preferentially adopted a quasidiequatorial conformation, whereas 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols preferentially adopted a quasidiaxial conformation. The yields of the trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites are: DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol | 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol || 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis indicates that the trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites from DB[a,l]P, 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P
0192]The compounds of the present invention include: [0193]S-2-(3-carbamoyl-6-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylam- ino)-2-oxo ethyl 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanethioate; [0194]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophe- ne-3-carboxamide; [0195]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thioph- ene-3-carboxamide; [0196]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiop- hene-3-carboxamide; [0197]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thio- phene-3-carboxamide; [0198]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xo ethoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0199]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xoethylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0200]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- xopropan-2-yloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0201]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- ...
Covalent adducts of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide ((+)-anti-BPDE) in polynucleotides have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The pyrenyl chromophores of the BPDE adducts, linked by the C10 atom to the exocyclic nitrogen of guanine, interact in the photoexcited state, as evidenced by excimer fluorescence. Strong BPDE excimer fluorescence is observed in the alternating poly(dGdC).poly(dGdC) sequence, whereas it is weak in the homopolymeric poly(dG).poly(dC) and in calf thymus DNA. No excimer fluorescence is observed for the BPDE adducts in poly(dAdC).poly(dGdT) or poly(dAdG).poly(dCdT). It is concluded that the formation of BPDE excimers in polynucleotides requires binding to guanines on different strands on consecutive basepairs. The experimental results are supported by graphics modeling and energy minimization of BPDE adducts in various oligonucleotide sequences. The results show that the most favorable arrangement for
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Dye No. A B C D E X Y b c C-1 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino 2-hydroxyethylamino 2 1 pyrido C-2 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6-sulfo-1- 2-sulfoethylamino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-3 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- amino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-4 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,6-disulfo-1- 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino ethoxyamino C-5 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido ethoxyamino C-6 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- morpholino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-7 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6,8-disulfo-2- morpholino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-8 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6-sulfo-1- 2-sulfoethylamino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-9 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- amino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-10 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,6-disulfo-1- 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino ethoxyamino C-11 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino ...
Formation of stable adducts and absence of depurinating DNA adducts in cells and DNA treated with the potent carcinogen dibenzo [a, l] pyrene or its diol epoxides
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smoking-related dna adducts. T2 - P-postlabeling analysis of 7-methylguanine in human bronchial and lymphocyte dna. AU - Mustonen, Rütta. AU - Schoket, Bernadette. AU - Hemminki, Kari. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - 7-methylguanine DNA adducts were determined in macroscopically normal bronchial specimens and peripheral blood lymphocytes of 20 patients undergoing pulmonary surgery. A recently developed 32P-postlabeling assay was applied with anion exchange chromatography as an adduct enrichment method. The material consisted of 13 smokers and 7 non-smokers. The mean bronchial 7-methylguanine levels of 11 smokers and 6 non-smokers were 17.3 and 4.7 adducts/107 nucleotides. In lymphocyte DNA, the respective mean levels were 11.5 and 2.3 adducts/107 nucleotides. The bronchial DNA adduct levels in smokers were statistically higher than those in non-smokers. Among 5 smokers, for whom both bronchial and lymphocyte DNA was available, 7-methylguanine levels correlated in the two ...
Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using a sampling system capable of sample ...
ILT CODE: ILT-U-1897. Description: Sulfonamides (Sulfachloropyridazine, Sulfadiazine, Sulfadimethoxine, Sulfadoxine, Sulfamerazine, Sulfametazine, Sulfamethoxypyridazine, Sulfaquinolaxin, and Sulfathiazole); Chloramphenicol; Tetracyclines (Chlortetracycline, Doxycycline, Oxytetracycline, and Tetracycline); Oxolinic; Enrofloxacin; Ciprofloxacin; Flumechin; Sarafloxacin; Organochlorine Pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, HCH (ALFA / BETA / RANGE / DELTA), Dieldrin, Endosulfan I and II, Endosulfan sulfate, Endrin, Gamma Clordane, HCB, Heptachlor, Heptachloropoxide, Methoxychlor, ppDDD, ppDDE, ppDDT, Mirex); and PHA polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (Naphtalene - Acenaphtene - Fluorene - Phenantrene - Anthracene - Fluoranthene - Pyrene - Benzo (a) anthracene - Chrysene - Benzo (e) pyrene - Benzo (b) fluoranthene - Benzo (k) fluoranthene - Benzo (a) pyrene - Dibenzo (a, h) anthracene - Benzo (gi) perylene - Ideno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene). Method: ...
The effect of exposure of Aedes aegypti larvae for 72 h to sub-lethal concentrations of the herbicide glyphosate and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene on their subsequent tolerance to the chemical insecticides imidacloprid, permethrin and propoxur, detoxification enzyme activities and transcription of detoxification genes was investigated. Bioassays revealed a significant increase in larval tolerance to imidacloprid and permethrin following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and glyphosate. Larval tolerance to propoxur increased moderately after exposure to benzo[a]pyrene while a minor increased tolerance was observed after exposure to glyphosate. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases activities were strongly induced in larvae exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and moderately induced in larvae exposed to imidacloprid and glyphosate. Larval glutathione S-transferases activities were strongly induced after exposure to propoxur and moderately induced after exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and glyphosate. Larval ...
2-Hexenal is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound which is mutagenic, genotoxic and forms cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts like similar propenals for which carcinogenicity was shown, e.g. acrolein or crotonaldehyde. Since humans have a permanent intake of 2-hexenal via vegetarian food this genotoxic compound is considered to play a role in human carcinogenicity. The data base is, however, presently not sufficient for a cancer risk assessment. To date no long term carcinogenicity study on 2-hexenal has been published. Detection of respective DNA adducts of this substance in animals or humans could allow cancer risk assessment. Therefore, we have developed a 32P-post-labeling technique based on nuclease P1 enrichment and TLC separation of the labeled adducts. The respective adducts are stable over a wide pH range from pH 4 to pH 11 and relatively stable against nuclease P1. The detection limit was 0.03 adducts per 106 nucleotides and the recovery was 10%. With this method we have shown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. AU - Coldwell, Kate E.. AU - Cutts, Suzanne M.. AU - Ognibene, Ted J.. AU - Henderson, Paul. AU - Phillips, Don R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/104 bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [14C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
This is the first attempt for the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in human placental DNA samples by solid-matrix phosphorescence (SMP). Six samples were investigated, and SMP emission spectra and the corresponding second derivative SMP spectra were obtained for all the samples. Numerous excitation and emission wavelengths were studied for detecting PAH-DNA add
With oil pollution recognized as a major threat to British Columbia's recovering sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population, it is important to distinguish acute from chronic exposures to oil constituent groups in this marine mammal. Concentrations and patterns of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in blood samples from 29 live-captured sea otters in two coastal areas of British Columbia, as well as in representative samples of their invertebrate prey. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sea otters were similar between areas and among age and sex classes, suggesting that metabolism dominates the fate of these compounds in sea otters. Biomagnification factors derived from PAH ratios in otter:prey supported this notion. Although some higher alkylated three- and four-ring PAHs appeared to biomagnify, the majority of PAHs did not. The apparent retention of alkyl PAHs was reflected in the composition of estimated sea otter body burdens, which provided an alternative way of evaluating
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimized extraction of phospholipids and lysophospholipids for nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Byeon, Seul Kee. AU - Lee, Ju Yong. AU - Moon, Myeong Hee. PY - 2012/1/21. Y1 - 2012/1/21. N2 - The efficiencies of four different methods for the extraction of phospholipids (PLs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs) from human plasma samples were examined by comparing extraction recovery values using nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS). For recovery measurements, six PL and six LPL standards of different head groups were spiked into a human plasma sample, and the peak areas of each individual species after extraction were measured from the chromatograms of the nLC-ESI-MS runs. Recovery was calculated by comparing the peak area of an extracted standard species with that of the same species' spike after extraction of the same plasma sample. For lipid extraction, four different extraction ...
Title: Biomedical Applications of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Emily L.-C. Cheah and Hwee-Ling Koh. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacy,National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore.. Keywords:Accelerator mass spectrometry, Radioisotope, Biomedical, Drug development, Microdosing. Abstract: Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has emerged as an important analytical tool in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Its sensitivity (up to attomole, 10-18 levels), precision, low sample requirements and the ability to trace a biomarker over a prolonged period of time are valuable attributes. Metabolomic, kinetic, toxicokinetic and dosimetric studies of various chemical molecules, at environmental exposure levels and physiologically relevant doses, using radioisotopes (e.g. 14C, 3H, 26Al and 41Ca) are possible. AMS has contributed significantly to the understanding of DNA-adduct formation in carcinogenesis and is finding new uses in the ...
Many studies using mammalian cellular and subcellular systems have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In order to evaluate the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of BaP and its pharmacokinetics, we used the hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, the unique electron donor to CYPs, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125 mg/kg body wt BaP daily for up to 5 days. Clearance of BaP from blood was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. DNA adduct levels were measured by 32P-post-labelling analysis with structural confirmation of the formation of 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene by liquid chromatography-tandem ...
Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied ...
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Anthropogenic oil spills such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill present a number of unique challenges in environmental remediation, detection, and monitoring of a wide range of toxicants in complex environments. We have previously reported the use of cyclodextrin derivatives to accomplish the selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and facilitate their detection via proximity-induced energy transfer. Reported herein is the ability of these cyclodextrins to operate in a real-world scenario: extracting PAHs from oil collected from an oil spill site and from tar ball extracts into crude seawater from the Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island. The ability of this system to operate in this complex environment highlights the practical significance of cyclodextrin-based systems, and a direct comparison of the results obtained in seawater with those obtained using a variety of aqueous solvent systems provides significant insights into the factors responsible for efficient performance.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the black crusts of Sicilian stone monuments: distribution and sources. AU - Gianguzza, Antonio. AU - Orecchio, Santino. AU - Piazzese, Daniela. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds with known carcinogenic potential; their properties of lipophilicity, low water solubility and adsorption to particles and sediments make them a potentially dangerous group of chemicals and a threat to the environment and its bio-resources. The concentrations of total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 19 individual compounds in 8 black crusts sampled from historical building of Palermo (Italy) were analyzed, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PAH concentrations ranged from 78 to 9798 g/Kg of dry matrix. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific compounds have been discussed in terms of sample location and ...
Two diol-epoxide metabolites of benzo[c]phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons which occur in the environment, were tested for carcinogenicity by direct injection into the mammary fat pads of female CD rats. The compounds anti-3,4-dihydroxy-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthrene (BcPDE), a fjord region diol-epoxide, and anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, a bay region diol-epoxide, were applied at total doses of 12.2 µmol. 6-Nitrochrysene was applied at the same dose as a positive control (K. El-Bayoumy, A. Rivenson, P. Upadhyaya, Y-H. Chae, and S. S. Hecht, Cancer Res. 53: 3719-3722, 1993). The sterically hindered fjord region diol-epoxide BcPDE was a powerful mammary tumorigen and carcinogen, rapidly inducing significantly more fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma than either of the other compounds. Anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene was a weaker mammary tumorigen than BcPDE and 6-nitrochrysene. The ...
Description of disease Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Treatment Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Symptoms and causes Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency Prophylaxis Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry methods for analysis of DNA adducts of formaldehyde and their application to rats treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine or 4-(methylnitrosamino) -1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. AU - Wang, Mingyao. AU - Cheng, Guang. AU - Villalta, Peter W. AU - Hecht, Stephen S. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Reaction of formaldehyde with DNA in vitro produces a variety of adducts among which are observed the cross-link di-(N6-deoxyadenosyl)methane (dAdo-CH2-dAdo, 1) and the hydroxymethyl adduct N6- hydroxymethyl-dAdo (N6-HOCH2-dAdo, 2). While the structures of these adducts have been known for decades, there have been no reports of their formation in vivo. Formaldehyde is released during intracellular metabolism of carcinogenic N-nitrosomethyl compounds such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), but DNA adducts formed by this pathway have not been previously ...
2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]furan-7-carboxylic acid, 97%, Maybridge Amber Glass Bottle; 250mg 2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]furan-7-carboxylic acid, 97%, Maybridge Dihep to Dihydrow...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mass transfer of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from complex DNAPL mixtures. AU - Mukherji, Suparna. AU - Peters, Catherine Anne. AU - Weber, Walter J.. PY - 1997/2/1. Y1 - 1997/2/1. N2 - Parameters governing the rates of mass transfer of the individual components of four synthetic dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) mixtures into the aqueous phase were evaluated. The DNAPL mixtures, composed of toluene and eight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were designed to serve as models for coal tars and creosotes. The reactor employed provided a relatively stable interface between internally mixed but segregated aqueous and DNAPL phases. Two parameters, the aqueous phase concentration at equilibrium and the overall film mass transfer coefficient, were quantified by simulating aqueous concentration profiles with a mass-transfer-limited rate model using a statistical parameter search and data fitting routine. DNAPL phase activity coefficient values for the various compounds ...
δ-Aminolevulinic acid was incorporated in vivo into C-phycocyanin and B-phycoerythrin in two species of the Rhodophyta (Cyanidium caldarium, Porphyridium cruentum) and three species of the Cyanophyta (Anacystis nidulans, Plectonema boryanum, Phormidium luridum). Amino acid analysis of phycocyanin-14C from C. caldarium cells which had been incubated with δ-aminolevulinate-4-14C showed that 84% of the radioactivity incorporated was present in the phycocyanobilin chromophore and less than 16% of the radioactivity cochromatographed with amino acids. These results indicate that δ-aminolevulinate is utilized predominantly via the porphyrin pathway in C. caldarium. Conversely, analysis of phycocyanin-14C prepared from cells of A. nidulans, P. boryanum, and P. luridum which had been incubated with radiolabeled δ-aminolevulinate demonstrated that 85%, 81%, and 93%, respectively, of the radioactivity incorporated cochromatographed with amino acids. The ratio of incorporated radioactivity in amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic activation of aromatic hydrocarbons in purified rat liver nuclei. T2 - induction of enzyme activities and binding to DNA with and without monooxygenase catalyzed formation of active oxygen. AU - Rogan, Eleanor G. AU - Mailander, P.. AU - Cavalieri, Ercole. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. N2 - Purified rat liver nuclei covalently bound low levels of seven aromatic [14C]hydrocarbons to nuclear DNA. Iduction with 3 methylcholanthrene increased the binding of six carcinogenic hydrocarbons, but did not raise the level of binding of noncarcinogenic anthracene. Removal of the nuclear envelope by Triton N 101 eliminated binding and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities and cytochrome P 450 from the nuclei. Binding of two strong carcinogens, benzo[α]pyrene and 7,12 dimethylbenz[α]anthracene, to nuclear DNA was compared to the levels of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and cytochrome P 450 in nuclei from uninduced and benz[α]anthracene, 3 methylcholanthrene, and phenobarbital ...
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Screening of Threading Bis-Intercalators Binding to Duplex DNA by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. AU - Mazzitelli, Carolyn L.. AU - Chu, Yongjun. AU - Reczek, Joseph J.. AU - Iverson, Brent L.. AU - Brodbelt, Jennifer S.. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - The DNA binding of novel threading bis-intercalators V1, trans-D1, and cis-C1, which contain two naphthalene diimide (NDI) intercalation units connected by a scaffold, was evaluated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and DNAse footprinting techniques. ESI-MS experiments confirmed that V1, the ligand containing the -Gly3-Lys- peptide scaffold, binds to a DNA duplex containing the 5′-GGTACC-3′ specific binding site identified in previous NMR-based studies. The ligand formed complexes with a ligand/DNA binding stoichiometry of 1:1, even when there was excess ligand in solution. Trans-D1 and cis-C1 are new ligands containing a rigid spiro-tricyclic scaffold in the trans- and cis- ...
A rapid, simple and sensitive synchronous specrtofluorimetric method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixture of metoprolol (MTP) and felodipine (FDP). The method is based upon measurement of the synchronous fluorescence intensity of the two drugs at Δλ of 70 nm in aqueous solution. The different experimental parameters affecting the synchronous fluorescence intensities of the two drugs were carefully studied and optimized. The fluorescence intensity-concentration plots were rectilinear over the ranges of 0.5-10 μg/mL and 0.2-2 μg/mL for MTP and FDP, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.11 and 0.02 μg/mL and quantification limits were 0.32 and 0.06 μg/mL for MTP and FDP, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the two compounds in their commercial tablets and the results obtained were favorably compared to those obtained with a comparison method.
A University of Toronto study of the concentrations of PCBs and other chemicals in the rivers running into Lake Ontario reveals significantly higher concentrations in areas closest to the centre of Toronto, an indication of the profound effects the city has on water quality.... The team looked specifically at concentrations of chemicals that have been strongly associated with human health problems: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a banned industrial chemical from the 1970s; polycyclic musks, a common fragrance compound used in a range of personal care products; polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a recently banned flame retardant; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a toxic byproduct of fossil fuel combustion in the rivers. They also measured the concentration of these chemicals in air, soil and rain. 'In the Humber River watershed we saw an almost 100-fold increase in concentrations of polycyclic musks in the river water in the downtown area around Old Mill compared with parts of the river ...
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic contaminants present in environments. In China, with increasing environmental pollution and anthropological disturbances to the coastal environment, developing effective methods for remediating organic pollutants has become an important issue for coastal management and ecosystem restoration. However, little information is available on PAHs uptake and degradation by algae, especially from coastal water.In this study, we investigated the uptake and degradation of two PAHs ( phenanthrene and pyrene), under a range of concentrations from 0.1mg/l to 2.0mg/l, by brown seaweed Laminaria joapnica, and examined the catabolic pathway of PAHs during degradation by seaweed. The uptake and degradation of the two PAHs are concentration and toxicant dependent.In laboratory studies, under a certain range of PAHs concentrations (,0.2mg/l), Laminaria joapnica showed a great capacity to take up and metabolize phenanthrene and pyrene. In ...
October 31, 2012. There's good news for fans of black raspberries: A U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientist and his commercial colleague have found black raspberries that have resistance to a disease-spreading aphid.. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) horticulturist Chad Finn with the agency's Horticultural Crops Research Unit in Corvallis, Ore., and colleague Michael Dossett of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are the first to find and report black raspberry resistance to the large raspberry aphid. ARS is USDA's chief intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA priority of promoting international food security.. The researchers screened seedlings from 132 wild black raspberry populations for aphid resistance. According to Finn, strong resistance was found in three of these populations-one each from Ontario, Maine, and Michigan. Aphid resistance in the Ontario and Maine populations seems to be controlled by multiple genes, while resistance in the ...
AZEVEDO, Débora de A.; GERCHON, Elaine and REIS, Ederson O. dos. Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.2, pp.292-299. ISSN 0103-5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532004000200021.. The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard ...
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CAS NO:192-97-2; Chemical name:benzo[e]pyrene ; physical and chemical property of 192-97-2, benzo[e]pyrene is provided by ChemNet.com
A series of 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]selenophene-5-ol antioxidants was prepared by subjecting suitably substituted allyl 4-methoxyphenyl selenides to microwave-induced seleno-Claisen rearrangement/intramolecular Markovnikov hydroselenation followed by boron tribromide-induced O-demethylation. The novel antioxidants were assayed for their capacity to inhibit azo-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid in a water/chlorobenzene two-phase system containing N-acetylcysteine as a thiol reducing agent in the aqueous phase. Antioxidant efficiency as determined by the inhibited rate of peroxidation, Rinh, increased with increasing methyl substitution (Rinh = 46−26 μM/h), but none of the compounds could match α-tocopherol (Rinh = 22 μM/h). Regenerability as determined by the inhibition time, Tinh, in the presence of the thiol regenerating agent decreased with increasing methyl substitution. Thus, under conditions where the unsubstituted compound 5a inhibited peroxidation for more than 320 min, ...
6-methoxy-1,5-dihydrobenzo[cd]indol-4(3H)-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Genistein, daidzein, glycitein and quercetin are flavonoids present in soybean and other vegetables in high amounts. These flavonoids can be metabolically converted to more active forms, which may react with guanine in the DNA to form complexes and can lead to DNA depurination. We assumed two ultimate carcinogen forms of each of these flavonoids, diol epoxide form and diketone form. Density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods were used to study the reaction thermodynamics between active forms of flavonoids and DNA guanine. Solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevin dipoles method of Florian and Warshel were used to calculate the hydration free energies. Activation free energy for each reaction was estimated using the linear free energy relation. Our calculations show that diol epoxide forms of flavonoids are more reactive than the corresponding diketone forms and are hence more likely flavonoid ultimate carcinogens. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein show
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