This review exposes the current poor understanding of the internal segmental chain dynamics of dendrimers in solution probed by monitoring the process of excimer formation between pyrene labels covalently attached to the chain ends of dendrimers. The review begins by covering the bases of fluorescence and the kinetics of pyrene excimer formation before describing a procedure based on the Model Free (MF) analysis that is used to analyze quantitatively the fluorescence decays acquired for dendrimers, the ends of which have been fully and covalently labeled with pyrene. Comparison of the various trends obtained by different research groups describing the efficiency of pyrene excimer formation with the generation number of dendrimers illustrates the lack of consensus between the few studies devoted to the topic. One possible reason for this disagreement might reside in the presence of minute amounts of unattached pyrene labels which act as potent fluorescent impurities and affect the analysis of the
Looking for online definition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the Medical Dictionary? polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon explanation free. What is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon? Meaning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon medical term. What does polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mean?
To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, {sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange)in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts ({sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the ...
Stereoselective metabolism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (2-Cl-DB[a,l]P) and 10-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (10-Cl-DB[a,l]P) by rat liver microsomes was studied and effects of the chloro substituent on the metabolism were determined. All three compounds produced trans-8,9-dihydrodiol, trans-11,12-dihydrodiol, and the 7-hydroxyl derivative as major metabolic products and several other phenolic derivatives as minor metabolites. The trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols of DB[a,l]P and 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P preferentially adopted a quasidiequatorial conformation, whereas 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols preferentially adopted a quasidiaxial conformation. The yields of the trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites are: DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol | 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol || 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis indicates that the trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites from DB[a,l]P, 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding of isomers of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide to chromatin. AU - Kootstra, A.. AU - Slaga, T. J.. PY - 1980/4/14. Y1 - 1980/4/14. N2 - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. AB - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. UR - ...
Background: This study attempted to clarify the household and mothers lifestyle factors that contribute to the greater fetal vulnerability of African-American individuals to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).. Methods: Non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcome were monitored for their personal exposure to airborne PAH. Birth outcomes were collected from the hospital medical record. Modification of the airborne PAH effects was statistically examined. In linear regression analyses, modification of PAH effect by demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral traits on birth weight and fetal growth ratio were respectively tested, adjusting for the gestational age, gender, parity, delivery season, maternal body mass index and weight gained during the present pregnancy.. Results: Maternal obesity exacerbated the airborne PAH risk by −491 g per 25th to 80th percentile unit exposure (95% CI −197 to −786 g; p,0.01) among African Americans. In addition, ...
Consumption of charbroiled red meat and meat-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels have been demonstrated to increase in response to charbroiled red meat intake but to date there have been no studies that have investigated the relationship between leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct levels and risk of colorectal adenoma. We investigated the relation of leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct formation and colorectal adenoma in a clinic-based case-control study of colorectal adenomas. The study comprised 82 cases of colorectal adenoma and 111 polyp-free controls, none of whom were current smokers. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adducts were measured by a sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay using an antiserum elicited against DNA modified with (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene that recognizes several PAHs bound to human DNA. Leukocyte PAH-DNA adduct ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulations of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adduct, cyclin D1 and PCNA in oral tissue by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate. AU - Chen, Kun Ming. AU - Sacks, Peter G.. AU - Spratt, Thomas E.. AU - Lin, Jyh Ming. AU - Boyiri, Telih. AU - Schwartz, Joel. AU - Richie, John P.. AU - Calcagnotto, Ana. AU - Das, Arunangshu. AU - Bortner, James. AU - Zhao, Zonglin. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Guttenplan, Joseph. AU - El-Bayoumy, Karam. PY - 2009/5/22. Y1 - 2009/5/22. N2 - Tobacco smoking is an important cause of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco smoke contains multiple carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Surgery is the conventional treatment approach for SCC, but it remains imperfect. However, chemoprevention is a plausible strategy and we had previously demonstrated that 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) significantly inhibited tongue tumors-induced by the synthetic 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (not present ...
Pyrene derivatives can be carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic, thus having the potential to cause malignant diseases. In this work, the interactions of two selected pyrene derivatives (1-OHP and 1-PBO) and human tumor-related DNA (p53 DNA and C-myc DNA) are investigated by spectroscopic and non-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Using fluorescence spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD), DNA interactions of pyrene derivatives are confirmed to occur mainly via the groove binding mode supported by the intercalation into the base pairs of DNA. There is an obvious binding order of pyrene derivatives to the targeted DNA, 1-OHP | 1-PBO. The binding constants of 1-OHP are 1.16 × 106 L×mol−1 and 4.04 × 105 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively, while that of 1-PBO are only 2.04 × 103 L×mol−1 and 1.39 × 103 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively. Besides, the binding of pyrene derivatives to p53 DNA is stronger than that for C-myc DNA. CD and PAGE
... ,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens,Disposable paper cups or hidden potential carcinogens
0192]The compounds of the present invention include: [0193]S-2-(3-carbamoyl-6-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylam- ino)-2-oxo ethyl 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanethioate; [0194]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophe- ne-3-carboxamide; [0195]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thioph- ene-3-carboxamide; [0196]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiop- hene-3-carboxamide; [0197]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thio- phene-3-carboxamide; [0198]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xo ethoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0199]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xoethylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0200]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- xopropan-2-yloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0201]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Dye No. A B C D E X Y b c C-1 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino 2-hydroxyethylamino 2 1 pyrido C-2 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6-sulfo-1- 2-sulfoethylamino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-3 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- amino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-4 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,6-disulfo-1- 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino ethoxyamino C-5 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido ethoxyamino C-6 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- morpholino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-7 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6,8-disulfo-2- morpholino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-8 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 6-sulfo-1- 2-sulfoethylamino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-9 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,8-disulfo-1- amino 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino C-10 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 3,6-disulfo-1- 2-hydroxyethyl-2- 2 1 pyrido naphthylamino ethoxyamino C-11 2,3- benzo benzo benzo ethylene 4-sulfoanilino ...
Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied ...
The Koggala lagoon is a coastal wetland affected by a major oil spill and other anthropogenic pollution sources. In this study, gill and liver histological alterations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure indicative bile fluorescence patterns of the fish species inhabiting the lagoon were examined in order to explore the potential biological impacts. Fixed wavelength fluorescence patterns in the bile of Mugil cephalus, Lutjanus russellii and Etroplus suratensis showed bioavailability of naphthalene type-, phenanthrene type-, pyrene type- and benzo(a)pyrene type- metabolites indicating recent exposure of the fishes to petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. Histological analysis revealed the occurrence of prominent gill and liver lesions, especially in the tissues of M. cephalus and L. russellii. Of the fish species examined, which included 43 individual fishes, the liver tissues of M. cephalus (two fish) and L. russellii (one fish) displayed foci of hepatocellular alterations with nodular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smoking-related dna adducts. T2 - P-postlabeling analysis of 7-methylguanine in human bronchial and lymphocyte dna. AU - Mustonen, Rütta. AU - Schoket, Bernadette. AU - Hemminki, Kari. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - 7-methylguanine DNA adducts were determined in macroscopically normal bronchial specimens and peripheral blood lymphocytes of 20 patients undergoing pulmonary surgery. A recently developed 32P-postlabeling assay was applied with anion exchange chromatography as an adduct enrichment method. The material consisted of 13 smokers and 7 non-smokers. The mean bronchial 7-methylguanine levels of 11 smokers and 6 non-smokers were 17.3 and 4.7 adducts/107 nucleotides. In lymphocyte DNA, the respective mean levels were 11.5 and 2.3 adducts/107 nucleotides. The bronchial DNA adduct levels in smokers were statistically higher than those in non-smokers. Among 5 smokers, for whom both bronchial and lymphocyte DNA was available, 7-methylguanine levels correlated in the two ...
Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using a sampling system capable of sample ...
2-Hexenal is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound which is mutagenic, genotoxic and forms cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts like similar propenals for which carcinogenicity was shown, e.g. acrolein or crotonaldehyde. Since humans have a permanent intake of 2-hexenal via vegetarian food this genotoxic compound is considered to play a role in human carcinogenicity. The data base is, however, presently not sufficient for a cancer risk assessment. To date no long term carcinogenicity study on 2-hexenal has been published. Detection of respective DNA adducts of this substance in animals or humans could allow cancer risk assessment. Therefore, we have developed a 32P-post-labeling technique based on nuclease P1 enrichment and TLC separation of the labeled adducts. The respective adducts are stable over a wide pH range from pH 4 to pH 11 and relatively stable against nuclease P1. The detection limit was 0.03 adducts per 106 nucleotides and the recovery was 10%. With this method we have shown ...
Several solution fluorescence parameters were acquired for the four tetrol hydrolysis products of benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts, tetrols complexed with DNA, and BPDE-DNA adducts in several methanol/water solvents. The relative polarity of the environment for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts was determined by using a modified definition of the ,i,R,/i, value that is commonly employed for pyrene. The ,i,R,/i, values for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts were calculated by obtaining the ratios of the intensities of the two major fluorescence emission bands at 380 and 400 nm (,i,I,/i,,sub,380,/sub,/,i,I,/i,,sub,400,/sub,). The positions of the hydroxyl groups on the hydroaromatic ring of the tetrols were compared in reference to the ,i,R,/i, values and the changes in the ,i,R,/i, values as a function of methanol/water composition. This approach resulted in a method for determining whether the hydroxyl groups in the 9 and 10 positions were on the same side or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations. AU - Coldwell, Kate E.. AU - Cutts, Suzanne M.. AU - Ognibene, Ted J.. AU - Henderson, Paul. AU - Phillips, Don R.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/104 bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [14C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
... ... ... The atmospheric pressure photoionization source PhotoSp... Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydroc...,The,Analysis,of,Polycyclic,Aromatic,Hydrocarbons,(PAHs),by,LC/MS/MS,Using,,,,,,,,,,,,an,Atmospheric,Pressure,Photoionization,Source,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
With oil pollution recognized as a major threat to British Columbias recovering sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population, it is important to distinguish acute from chronic exposures to oil constituent groups in this marine mammal. Concentrations and patterns of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in blood samples from 29 live-captured sea otters in two coastal areas of British Columbia, as well as in representative samples of their invertebrate prey. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sea otters were similar between areas and among age and sex classes, suggesting that metabolism dominates the fate of these compounds in sea otters. Biomagnification factors derived from PAH ratios in otter:prey supported this notion. Although some higher alkylated three- and four-ring PAHs appeared to biomagnify, the majority of PAHs did not. The apparent retention of alkyl PAHs was reflected in the composition of estimated sea otter body burdens, which provided an alternative way of evaluating
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimized extraction of phospholipids and lysophospholipids for nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Byeon, Seul Kee. AU - Lee, Ju Yong. AU - Moon, Myeong Hee. PY - 2012/1/21. Y1 - 2012/1/21. N2 - The efficiencies of four different methods for the extraction of phospholipids (PLs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs) from human plasma samples were examined by comparing extraction recovery values using nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS). For recovery measurements, six PL and six LPL standards of different head groups were spiked into a human plasma sample, and the peak areas of each individual species after extraction were measured from the chromatograms of the nLC-ESI-MS runs. Recovery was calculated by comparing the peak area of an extracted standard species with that of the same species spike after extraction of the same plasma sample. For lipid extraction, four different extraction ...
Background Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its own greatest metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. BPDE-DNA adducts. In addition, we found that the combined small alleles of rs3212986 and rs238406 were associated with a reduced DNA restoration capacity. Conclusions Our results claim that the version genotypes of rs3212986 and rs238406 are connected with reduced fix performance of BPDE induced DNA GDC-0973 harm, and may end up being predictive for somebodys DNA fix capability in response to environmental carcinogens. Launch Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) is a vintage DNA harming carcinogen which is normally one of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) typically found in cigarette smoke cigarettes and in the ambient environment [1], [2]. Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), the best metabolite of B[a]P, forms covalent BPDE-DNA adducts within a cell that problems the framework and function of natural macromolecules such as for example ...
Many studies using mammalian cellular and subcellular systems have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In order to evaluate the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of BaP and its pharmacokinetics, we used the hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, the unique electron donor to CYPs, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125 mg/kg body wt BaP daily for up to 5 days. Clearance of BaP from blood was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. DNA adduct levels were measured by 32P-post-labelling analysis with structural confirmation of the formation of 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene by liquid chromatography-tandem ...
The invention provides methods for substituting polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds with perfluoroalkyl groups. The methods can include heating a polyaromatic hydrocarbon substrate or a polyheterocyclic compound substrate in the presence of a perfluoroalkyl iodide, typically in a closed system, wherein the heating is sufficient to bring both the polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compound, and the perfluoroalkyl iodide, into the gas phase, thereby allowing the substrate to react with the perfluoroalkyl iodide in the gas phase to form polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds having one or more perfluoroalkyl substituents. The methods allow for the creation of versatile libraries of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing derivatives that can serve as important building blocks and active components in biomedical, electronic, and materials applications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the black crusts of Sicilian stone monuments: distribution and sources. AU - Gianguzza, Antonio. AU - Orecchio, Santino. AU - Piazzese, Daniela. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds with known carcinogenic potential; their properties of lipophilicity, low water solubility and adsorption to particles and sediments make them a potentially dangerous group of chemicals and a threat to the environment and its bio-resources. The concentrations of total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 19 individual compounds in 8 black crusts sampled from historical building of Palermo (Italy) were analyzed, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PAH concentrations ranged from 78 to 9798 g/Kg of dry matrix. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific compounds have been discussed in terms of sample location and ...
Two diol-epoxide metabolites of benzo[c]phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons which occur in the environment, were tested for carcinogenicity by direct injection into the mammary fat pads of female CD rats. The compounds anti-3,4-dihydroxy-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthrene (BcPDE), a fjord region diol-epoxide, and anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, a bay region diol-epoxide, were applied at total doses of 12.2 µmol. 6-Nitrochrysene was applied at the same dose as a positive control (K. El-Bayoumy, A. Rivenson, P. Upadhyaya, Y-H. Chae, and S. S. Hecht, Cancer Res. 53: 3719-3722, 1993). The sterically hindered fjord region diol-epoxide BcPDE was a powerful mammary tumorigen and carcinogen, rapidly inducing significantly more fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma than either of the other compounds. Anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene was a weaker mammary tumorigen than BcPDE and 6-nitrochrysene. The ...
Description of disease Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Treatment Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Symptoms and causes Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency Prophylaxis Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a solventless extraction technique that combines sample preparation and sample introduction into a gas chromatograph into a single step. For the past 20 years, solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) has been used in numerous fields such as: food analysis, including juices, alcohols fruits and vegetables for volatiles, aroma, caffeine, fatty esters, environmental applications including volatile organic contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phenols, pesticides, steroids, herbicides, acid/neutral/base compounds, and organometallic compounds from water, air, soil, sludge, and sediment samples and in biomedical analysis. This work demonstrates the extension of the limitations of SPME with respect to extraction and analysis of a) extension of headspace SPME to larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fish oil b) less volatility analytes, combination of SPME-Gas Chromatograph -Mass Spectrometer -Mass Spectrometer (SPME-GC-MS-MS) to
2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]furan-7-carboxylic acid, 97%, Maybridge Amber Glass Bottle; 250mg 2,3-Dihydrobenzo[b]furan-7-carboxylic acid, 97%, Maybridge Dihep to Dihydrow...
Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of ...
δ-Aminolevulinic acid was incorporated in vivo into C-phycocyanin and B-phycoerythrin in two species of the Rhodophyta (Cyanidium caldarium, Porphyridium cruentum) and three species of the Cyanophyta (Anacystis nidulans, Plectonema boryanum, Phormidium luridum). Amino acid analysis of phycocyanin-14C from C. caldarium cells which had been incubated with δ-aminolevulinate-4-14C showed that 84% of the radioactivity incorporated was present in the phycocyanobilin chromophore and less than 16% of the radioactivity cochromatographed with amino acids. These results indicate that δ-aminolevulinate is utilized predominantly via the porphyrin pathway in C. caldarium. Conversely, analysis of phycocyanin-14C prepared from cells of A. nidulans, P. boryanum, and P. luridum which had been incubated with radiolabeled δ-aminolevulinate demonstrated that 85%, 81%, and 93%, respectively, of the radioactivity incorporated cochromatographed with amino acids. The ratio of incorporated radioactivity in amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic activation of aromatic hydrocarbons in purified rat liver nuclei. T2 - induction of enzyme activities and binding to DNA with and without monooxygenase catalyzed formation of active oxygen. AU - Rogan, Eleanor G. AU - Mailander, P.. AU - Cavalieri, Ercole. PY - 1976/1/1. Y1 - 1976/1/1. N2 - Purified rat liver nuclei covalently bound low levels of seven aromatic [14C]hydrocarbons to nuclear DNA. Iduction with 3 methylcholanthrene increased the binding of six carcinogenic hydrocarbons, but did not raise the level of binding of noncarcinogenic anthracene. Removal of the nuclear envelope by Triton N 101 eliminated binding and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities and cytochrome P 450 from the nuclei. Binding of two strong carcinogens, benzo[α]pyrene and 7,12 dimethylbenz[α]anthracene, to nuclear DNA was compared to the levels of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and cytochrome P 450 in nuclei from uninduced and benz[α]anthracene, 3 methylcholanthrene, and phenobarbital ...
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Screening of Threading Bis-Intercalators Binding to Duplex DNA by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. AU - Mazzitelli, Carolyn L.. AU - Chu, Yongjun. AU - Reczek, Joseph J.. AU - Iverson, Brent L.. AU - Brodbelt, Jennifer S.. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - The DNA binding of novel threading bis-intercalators V1, trans-D1, and cis-C1, which contain two naphthalene diimide (NDI) intercalation units connected by a scaffold, was evaluated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and DNAse footprinting techniques. ESI-MS experiments confirmed that V1, the ligand containing the -Gly3-Lys- peptide scaffold, binds to a DNA duplex containing the 5′-GGTACC-3′ specific binding site identified in previous NMR-based studies. The ligand formed complexes with a ligand/DNA binding stoichiometry of 1:1, even when there was excess ligand in solution. Trans-D1 and cis-C1 are new ligands containing a rigid spiro-tricyclic scaffold in the trans- and cis- ...
In this study, we examined 31 samples of varying chemical composition, including samples of soils from gasworks, coke production sites, and sites where wood preservatives were heavily used; ash and soot from municipal solid waste incinerators; antiskid sand; and dust from areas with heavy road traffic. The samples were comprehensively chemically characterized, especially their polycyclic aromatic compound contents, using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas their biological effects were assessed using dehydrogenase activity, root growth (Hordeum vulgare), reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida), algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus), germinability (Sinapis alba), Vibrio fischeri, DR-CALUX, and Ames Salmonella assays. The number of compounds detected in the samples ranged from 123 to 527. Using the multivariate regression technique of partial-least-squares projections to latent structures, it was possible to find individual compounds that exhibited strong ...
A University of Toronto study of the concentrations of PCBs and other chemicals in the rivers running into Lake Ontario reveals significantly higher concentrations in areas closest to the centre of Toronto, an indication of the profound effects the city has on water quality.... The team looked specifically at concentrations of chemicals that have been strongly associated with human health problems: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a banned industrial chemical from the 1970s; polycyclic musks, a common fragrance compound used in a range of personal care products; polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a recently banned flame retardant; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a toxic byproduct of fossil fuel combustion in the rivers. They also measured the concentration of these chemicals in air, soil and rain. In the Humber River watershed we saw an almost 100-fold increase in concentrations of polycyclic musks in the river water in the downtown area around Old Mill compared with parts of the river ...
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic contaminants present in environments. In China, with increasing environmental pollution and anthropological disturbances to the coastal environment, developing effective methods for remediating organic pollutants has become an important issue for coastal management and ecosystem restoration. However, little information is available on PAHs uptake and degradation by algae, especially from coastal water.In this study, we investigated the uptake and degradation of two PAHs ( phenanthrene and pyrene), under a range of concentrations from 0.1mg/l to 2.0mg/l, by brown seaweed Laminaria joapnica, and examined the catabolic pathway of PAHs during degradation by seaweed. The uptake and degradation of the two PAHs are concentration and toxicant dependent.In laboratory studies, under a certain range of PAHs concentrations (,0.2mg/l), Laminaria joapnica showed a great capacity to take up and metabolize phenanthrene and pyrene. In ...
October 31, 2012. Theres good news for fans of black raspberries: A U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientist and his commercial colleague have found black raspberries that have resistance to a disease-spreading aphid.. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) horticulturist Chad Finn with the agencys Horticultural Crops Research Unit in Corvallis, Ore., and colleague Michael Dossett of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are the first to find and report black raspberry resistance to the large raspberry aphid. ARS is USDAs chief intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA priority of promoting international food security.. The researchers screened seedlings from 132 wild black raspberry populations for aphid resistance. According to Finn, strong resistance was found in three of these populations-one each from Ontario, Maine, and Michigan. Aphid resistance in the Ontario and Maine populations seems to be controlled by multiple genes, while resistance in the ...
AZEVEDO, Débora de A.; GERCHON, Elaine and REIS, Ederson O. dos. Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.2, pp.292-299. ISSN 0103-5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532004000200021.. The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard ...
korean black raspberry Manufacturers Directory ☆ 3 million global importers and exporters ☆ korean black raspberry suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, korean black raspberry sellers, traders, exporters and distributors from China and around the world at EC21.com
CAS NO:192-97-2; Chemical name:benzo[e]pyrene ; physical and chemical property of 192-97-2, benzo[e]pyrene is provided by ChemNet.com
Eleven new tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives were synthesized via a three component reaction of different aromatic aldehydes, methyl cyanoacetate and 1,3-cyclohexadione, with water as solvent under catalyst-free microwave irradiation. The structures of all the new molecules were well analysed and their structures established by using various spectral techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and HRMS). Various advantages of reported protocol are the ease of preparation, short reaction times (10 min), aqueous solvent and excellent yields (89-98%). Additionally, this method provides a clean access to the desired products by simple workup.
A series of 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]selenophene-5-ol antioxidants was prepared by subjecting suitably substituted allyl 4-methoxyphenyl selenides to microwave-induced seleno-Claisen rearrangement/intramolecular Markovnikov hydroselenation followed by boron tribromide-induced O-demethylation. The novel antioxidants were assayed for their capacity to inhibit azo-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid in a water/chlorobenzene two-phase system containing N-acetylcysteine as a thiol reducing agent in the aqueous phase. Antioxidant efficiency as determined by the inhibited rate of peroxidation, Rinh, increased with increasing methyl substitution (Rinh = 46−26 μM/h), but none of the compounds could match α-tocopherol (Rinh = 22 μM/h). Regenerability as determined by the inhibition time, Tinh, in the presence of the thiol regenerating agent decreased with increasing methyl substitution. Thus, under conditions where the unsubstituted compound 5a inhibited peroxidation for more than 320 min, ...
6-methoxy-1,5-dihydrobenzo[cd]indol-4(3H)-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Background. The capital city of Prague becomes one of the most polluted localities of the Czech Republic. The effect of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) adsorbed onto respirable air particles (PM2.5, ,2.5 \#956;m) on DNA adducts and chromosomal aberrations was repeatedly studied in the groups of policemen working in the downtown area as well as in bus drivers. Methods. Ambient air particles (PM10, PM2.5) and (c-PAHs) were monitored using VAPS sampler, personal exposure to c-PAHs was evaluated using personal samplers during working shift. DNA adducts were analysed in lymphocytes by 32P-postlabeling assay, chromosomal aberrations by conventional cytogenetic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), cotinine in urine, plasma levels of vitamins A, E and C by HPLC, , cholesterol and triglycerids using commercial kits. Polymorphisms of metabolic genotypes (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair genotypes (XRCC1 and XPD) were determined by ...
Genistein, daidzein, glycitein and quercetin are flavonoids present in soybean and other vegetables in high amounts. These flavonoids can be metabolically converted to more active forms, which may react with guanine in the DNA to form complexes and can lead to DNA depurination. We assumed two ultimate carcinogen forms of each of these flavonoids, diol epoxide form and diketone form. Density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods were used to study the reaction thermodynamics between active forms of flavonoids and DNA guanine. Solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevin dipoles method of Florian and Warshel were used to calculate the hydration free energies. Activation free energy for each reaction was estimated using the linear free energy relation. Our calculations show that diol epoxide forms of flavonoids are more reactive than the corresponding diketone forms and are hence more likely flavonoid ultimate carcinogens. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein show
Black Raspberry Seed Oil, Virgin (Rubus occidentalis) is a valuable addition to personal care products due to it. Black Raspberry Seed Oil Virgin wholesale.
3p deletion, a common chromosome defect in lung cancer, occurs more frequently in the lung tumor tissues of smoking patients than it does in those of nonsmoking patients. This pilot study evaluated whether 3p aberrations induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), the metabolic product of benzo[a]pyrene, a constituent of tobacco smoke, were more common in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 40 lung cancer patients than they were in those of 54 matched controls. Our hypothesis was that 3p sensitivity to BPDE reflects the susceptibility of a specific locus to damage from carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BPDE-induced chromosome 3p21.3 aberrations were significantly more frequent in cases (34.1 per 1000) than they were in controls (22.1 per 1000; P , 0.0001). However, no such difference was observed for 6q27, a control locus. Using the median value in the controls (20 per 1000) as a cutoff point to classify BPDE-induced sensitivity at 3p21.3 and after adjustment by age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking ...