An extremely well-conducted meta-analysis by researchers from the Netherlands has clearly shown that occupational benzene exposure is associated with lymphoid cancers.. The researchers performed meta-analyses of occupational cohort studies for five different lymphoma categories: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). They assessed three study quality dimensions to evaluate the impact of study quality variations on meta-relative risks (mRR): year-of-start of follow-up, strength of the reported AML association, and quality of benzene exposure assessment. Data synthesis mRRs for MM, ALL, and CLL increased with increasing study quality, regardless of the study quality dimension. mRRs for NHL also increased with increasing study quality, although less pronounced. The investigators concluded that their meta-analysis provides support for an association between occupational benzene exposure and ...
The research is to evaluate benzene metabolism after exposure at levels that can be found in the environment, such as the higher end concentrations in the air inside cars and buses while being driven in heavy traffic and inside private and public parking garages. To do so breath, urine, and blood samples prior to, during and after being exposed to benzene as well as benzene levels and benzene metabolites present are measured. The exposures take place in the Controlled Environmental Facility operated by the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). This allows us to control the exact benzene air level and to use benzene containing 13C, a stable (non-radioactive) form of carbon, one of the atoms that make up benzene. Isotopes are different forms of the same atom. Using 13C will allow us to tell the difference between the benzene and the compounds it changes to in the body that come from our experiment compared to what is present in your body from other sources. In addition ...
Evaluation of benzene-induced hematotoxicity following exposure to low concentration is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity and determining the dose response at benzene levels close to the current occupational exposure limit (1 ppm). Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 1, 10, 100, or 200 ppm benzene by inhalation for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks. At each sampling time, we evaluated primitive and committed progenitor cells, differentiating and maturing lineage-specific cells, and stromal cells in the bone marrow; T and B lymphocytes of the spleen and thymus; micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes; and standard blood parameters. At 100 and 200 ppm benzene, there were rapid and significant reductions in number of reticulocytes in the blood, B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen, and an increased frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the bone marrow. At 10 ppm, the only parameter affected was a transient reduction in the number of splenic B ...
Meta-analysis on benzene exposure and non Hodgkin lymphoma June 30 2009 Gerard M H Swaen1 Shan P. Tsai2 Carol Burns1 1 Department of Epidemiology, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan USA. 2 Shell Health, Shell Oil Company, Houston Texas, USA. Corresponding Author: Gerard M H Swaen, The Dow Chemical Company, P.O. Box 444, 4530 AK Terneuzen, The Netherlands 31-(0)43-3626042. E- mail: [email protected] Key words: benzene, non Hodgkin lymphoma, epidemiology, meta- analysis, occupation, risk Sir, A recent meta-analysis on benzene exposure and non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) concluded that the reviewed epidemiological studies provide "new evidence that benzene causes NHL." 1 The meta-analysis conducted by Steinmaus et al differed from the others in several aspects. Firstly, it selected subgroups with the highest putative exposure to avoid dilution. Secondly, cohort studies were adjusted for the Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) by considering the NHL deaths as cases and all other deaths as controls. A HWE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pressure-induced oligomerization of benzene at room temperature as a precursory reaction of amorphization. AU - Shinozaki, Ayako. AU - Mimura, Koichi. AU - Kagi, Hiroyuki. AU - Komatu, Kazuki. AU - Noguchi, Naoki. AU - Gotou, Hirotada. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Oligomerization of benzene at high pressures up to 16 GPa was investigated at room temperature using an opposed-anvil type pressure apparatus. The recovered samples were analyzed using GC-MS to identify and quantify the products after the high-pressure experiments. Some structural isomers of benzene dimer as well as biphenyl, naphthalene, and terphenyl isomers were detected at pressures higher than 13 GPa. The molar yield of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased concomitantly with increasing pressure, although benzene still remained. The oligomerization is likely to occur when the neighbor distance of the benzene molecules exceeds the threshold of the reaction distance. The oligomerization is regarded as a ...
Benzene is a known leukemogen and may cause lymphoma as well, but its ability to , cause these conditions below 10 parts per million (ppm) in air are unclear. It is currently regulated in the United States at 1 ppm as an 8-hour time-weighted average and at a 5 ppm short-term exposure level for 15 minutes. There is a critical need to assess risks related to benzene exposure under 10 ppm because it is widely used industrially and a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment.. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM), whose name was recently changed to the China Center for Disease Control (CDC) previously established a cohort of 75,000 workers exposed to benzene in 12 cities in China and 35,000 unexposed comparison workers, to investigate the relationship between benzene exposure and cancer risk, from 1972 to 1987. We followed up each worker using factory records and reported results suggesting that benzene exposure under 10 ppm may be associated with ...
Gas phase photocatalysis is an effective way for decomposing toxic organics, but the studies on benzene decomposition are relatively little. Our objective was to assess the capability of TiO 2 to decompose benzene and establish reaction mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene. The photocatalytic oxidation of benzene in gas phase was performed in a recirculation photoreactor including a UV lamp emitting around 254 nm and TiO 2 coated glass plate. When the initial mass concentration of benzene was 50 mg/m 3, it was almost decomposed completely after 460 min on 0 1 g of TiO 2 and 0 013 m 2 area of catalyst layer activated by ultraviolet. The reaction time was reduced from 460 to 240 min when the irradiated area was 0 026 m 2. At ambient temperature, the adsorption of benzene on TiO 2 surface was not obvious, but the intermediate reaction product had very good adsorptivity, occupied the active sites and deactivated the catalyst. The IR results showed that the intermediate product
The Benzene attorneys at Nadrich & Cohen LLP have long been committed to defending individuals and the families of individuals who have suffered or died as a result of benzene exposure. Benzene is a highly dangerous chemical which has been known for decades to contain carcinogens, and millions of people every year come into contact with dangerous levels of benzene. Mary Johnson was one such victim, who tragically died after excessive benzene exposure.. Now we have reports that Johnsons children have brought a wrongful death suit against Total Petrochemicals & Refining USA, one of the worlds leading petrochemical companies. The suit alleges that Total Petrochemicals exposed Johnson to benzene, ultimately contributing to her untimely death.. The suit was filed on November 9, 2012, in Jefferson County District Court. The plaintiffs, James, Robert and Richard Johnson, seek justice for their mother, a former employee of Finas Port Arthur Refinery. It was there that she allegedly come into contact ...
Urine samples were collected from 64 men and 88 women in shoe factories and printing plants at the end of a seven hour day shift in the latter half of a week in spring. Urine samples were also taken from 43 men and 88 women in the same factories but who were not exposed to solvents. Exposure to benzene during the shift was monitored by passive dosimeters. Both phenol in urine and benzene in activated carbon were analysed with FID gas chromatographs. The urinary concentrations of phenol were linearly related to the time weighted average concentrations of benzene in the breathzone air; the variation was so small that those exposed to 10 ppm benzene could be separated from the non-exposed at least on a group basis when the phenol concentration was corrected either for creatinine concentration or for specific gravity. The urinary phenol concentrations corresponding to 10 ppm benzene were 47.5 mg/l (as observed), 57.9 mg/g creatinine, or 46.6 mg/l (specific gravity 1.016).. ...
Resonance in benzene - Resonance form of a compound is nothing but another way of representing Lewis dot structure of that compound. Benzene shows resonance as it has more than one way to place double bonds in the ring. Benzene shows 2 resonating structures. Resonance forms or resonating structures only differ in arrangement of electrons. So, resonance structure of benzene differs only in arrangement of electrons, number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms in benzene remain same. Double bonds present in benzene rotates in resonating structures of benzene and provide stability to benzene. Resonance structure shows possible structures of a compound. Resonance structures of benzene ring or benzene ring resonance structure - ...
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamps were used to enhance photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene. A series of transition metal modified TiO2 were developed to improve benzene removal efficiency and eliminate ozone byproduct. Among the prepared catalysts, Mn/TiO2 obtained the best catalytic activity toward benzene oxidation due to its superior capacity for ozone decomposition. The catalysts with better capacity for ozone decomposition have higher benzene removal efficiency. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of benzene under VUV irradiation reached 58%, which is over 20 times higher than that under 254nm UV irradiation. In addition, ozone can be completely eliminated by Mn/TiO2. Benzene degradation was greatly enhanced by ozone via catalytic ozonation. Water vapor played a dual role in benzene oxidation in the VUV-PCO process. Catalytic ozonation is mainly responsible for benzene abatement at low humidity while 185nm photooxidation is the dominant pathway at high humidity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V ...
Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following ... read more exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (,31 ppm) was 1.26±0.17, 1.25±0.16, and 1.37±0.23, respectively. Mean TL was ...
A pending lawsuit alleges that Texaco and Chevron are responsible for the death of a former employee who was exposed to dangerous levels of the chemical compound benzene while on the job. The dangerous, carcinogenic properties of benzene have been observed for nearly a century, and the California Benzene lawyers at Nadrich & Cohen have dedicated years to tirelessly defending the victims of benzene exposure. If you or someone you love has been affected by benzene, give us a call today at 1-800-722-0765.. The case involving Chevron and Texaco was filed by four plaintiffs: Keith Gebauer, Ronnie Gebauer, Lajunda Williams and Gaytha Guillot. The plaintiffs filed their suit on August 31, 2011, in Jefferson County District Court, claiming that their father-Fred Gebauer-died from lymphoma which he developed after a long career that involved working in close proximity to benzene and benzene-containing products.. The plaintiffs allege that the oil giants are legally responsible for their fathers death, ...
Author(s): Smith, Martyn T.; Yager, J; Steinmetz, K; Eastmond, D | Abstract: The metabolism of two of benzenes phenolic metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, by peroxidase enzymes has been studied in detail. Studies employing horseradish peroxidase and human myeloperoxidase have shown that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide phenol is converted to 4,4-diphenoquinone and other covalent binding metabolites, whereas hydroquinone is converted solely to 1,4-benzoquinone. Surprisingly, phenol stimulates the latter conversion rather than inhibiting it, an effect that may play a role in the in vivo myelotoxicity of benzene. Indeed, repeated coadministration of phenol and hydroquinone to B6C3F1 mice results in a dramatic and significant decrease in bone marrow cellularity similar to that observed following benzene exposure. A mechanism of benzene-induced myelotoxicity is therefore proposed in which the accumulation and interaction of phenol and hydroquinone in the bone marrow and the peroxidase-dependent
Benzene is an organic chemical compoond wi the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is componed o sax caurbon atoms jynt in a ring wi ane hydrogen atom attached tae ilk. As it conteens anerly caurbon an hydrogen atoms, benzene is clessed as a hydrocaurbon. Benzene is a naitural constituent o crude ile an is ane o the elementar petrochemicals. Due tae the cyclic conteenous pi bond atween the caurbon atoms, benzene is clessed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the seicont [n]-annulene ([6]-annulene). It is whiles abbreviatit PhH. Benzene is a colourless an heichly flammable liquid wi a sweet smell, an is responsible for the aroma aroond petrol stations. It is uised primarily as a precursor tae the manufacture o chemicals wi mair complex structur, uic as ethylbenzene an cumene, o that billions o kilogrammes are produced annually. As benzene haes a heich octane nummer, aromatic derivatives lik toluene an xylene teepically comprise up tae 25% o petrol. Benzene itsel haes been leemitit tae less than ...
Learn about industries that increase the risk of benzene exposure. Contact a lawyer at (866) 588-0600 to see if you have a benzene exposure lawsuit.
Benzene exposure has serious health effects. Breathing high levels of the substance can result in death, while low levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. Eating or drinking foods containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, stomach irritation, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid heart rate, and death.. The major effect of benzene from chronic (long-term) exposure is on the blood. Benzene damages the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in the production of red blood cells, leading to anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and may depress the immune system, increasing the chances of infection.. It has been reported that some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men.. Animal studies have shown low birth ...
Work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.5 percent or less of benzene by volume, or the vapors released from such liquids until September 12, 1988; work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.3 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids from September 12, 1988, to September 12, 1989; and work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids after September 12, 1989; except that tire building machine operators using solvents with more than 0.1 percent benzene are covered by paragraph (i) of this section ...
Segment 13, 14 and 15, Benzene and Its Derivatives deals channel, wholesalers, merchants, traders, Exploration Discoveries and End, appendix and data source.. Browse Full Global Benzene and Its Derivatives Market Report : www.intenseresearch.com/report/162993. Additionally, the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market is segmented on the basis of the region as well. It employs some practical tools to assess the expansion of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market in the upcoming time. The global Benzene and Its Derivatives market report also offers a synopsis of the market on a global level that helps users in the decision-making processes, which in turn helps to boost their businesses. This synopsis incorporates the index growth as well as the competitive framework of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market over the projected period.. The highlight of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market research report is the in-depth market segmentation {Chlorobenzene, Toluene, ...
1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, also known as methylchavicol or estragol, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anisoles. These are organic compounds containing a methoxybenzene or a derivative thereof. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is a sweet, alcohol, and anise tasting compound. Outside of the human body, 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as anises, fennels, and sweet basils and in a lower concentration in cumins, tarragons, and parsley. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as citrus, chinese cinnamons, caraway, fats and oils, and cloves. This could make 1-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, with regard to humans, has been linked to ...
Abstract : Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2H/1H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic ...
Manufacturing Science and Technology, AEMT2011: Synthesis, Properties and Application in Optical Memory of a Photochromic Diarylethene Based on Benzene Ring
Information about benzene and industries that use asphalt. Contact a lawyer for lawsuit info to see if you have a Benzene Exposure Lawsuit.
Benzene naturally occurs in crude oil and is used to make plastics, resins, synthetic fibers, dyes, detergents, additives and coatings, and pesticides. It is a widely used aromatic hydrocarbon which constitutes 1-2% of gasoline and other fuels. While benzene is a very useful hydrocarbon that offers diverse applications, it is also a known human carcinogen. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lists the PEL-TWA at 1 ppm, and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have the TLV-TWA at 0.5 ppm. Industry requires a means to measure low concentrations of benzene (typically below 1 ppm) in the presence of various hydrocarbons, often 100 to 1000X the concentration of benzene.. Uniphos Envirotronic Inc., a recognized leader in colorimetric detection tubes, has developed a PID pre-filter tube for selective determination of benzene in air containing a mixture of volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene, ethyl benzene, octane, etc.). The measuring range ...
Summary: Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities.. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. ...
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Benzene law firm provides side effects of Benzene exposure information including, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma, and other leukemia and blood related diseases. Benzene exposure attorneys and lawyers at The Schmidt Firm, PLLC are handling Benzene lawsuits in all 50 states.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure in catalytic activity for benzene oxidation. AU - Hou, J.T.. AU - Li, Y.Z.. AU - Mao, M.Y.. AU - Zhao, X.J.. AU - Yue, Yuanzheng. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. U2 - 10.1039/c4nr04142a. DO - 10.1039/c4nr04142a. M3 - Journal article. VL - 6. SP - 15048. EP - 15058. JO - Nanoscale. JF - Nanoscale. SN - 2040-3364. IS - 24. ER - ...
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Benzene. Computer model of a molecule of benzene. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour- coded: carbon (blue) and hydrogen (gold). Benzene is a highly flammable colourless liquid with a characteristic smell. It is obtained commercially from petroleum. Benzene is used as an additive in petrol, to manufacture other chemicals, and as a solvent for many simple organic compounds. Benzene is a carcinogen, with long-term exposure causing leukaemias (cancers of blood cells). - Stock Image A705/0072
Benzene concentrations in Hamilton, 2003-16 - Ministry for the Environment | | GIS Map Data - Download GIS data as Shapefile (SHP), DWG, MapInfo, CSV, Google Earth (KML).
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Cyclic polyene with six carbon atoms (benzene) is very stable, whereas cyclic polyene with four carbon atoms (cyclobutadiene) is extremely unstable. The electron-withdrawing pentafluorophenyl group of a substituted cyclobutadiene lowers the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, greatly increasing its reactivity as a diene in Diels-Alder reactions with acetylene, ethylene and even benzene. Here we show that the reaction with benzene occurs cleanly at the relatively low temperature of 120 °C and results in the formal fragmentation of benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units, via a unique Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction. This is a new example of the rare case where breaking the C-C bond of benzene is possible with no activation by a transition metal.
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Benzene has been associated with acute leukemia since 1928. If you were occupationally exposed to benzene, make sure your doctor is aware of your work history because initial symptoms of leukemia may be vague and hard to diagnose. Contact us if you have been diagnosed leukemia and were exposed to benzene in New York.
HOUSTON (AP) - National Guard troops have been called in and residents are being told to say inside after elevated levels of benzene were detected near a Houston-area petrochemicals storage facility that caught fire this week.
Air pollution, containing high-level of ultrafine particles (UFP) and benzene, is a prominent environmental health problem in many cities of the World. We investigated the level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) by the comet assay as DNA strand breaks (SB) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites in residents from three urban locations in Cotonou, Benin (taxi-moto drivers, subjects living near roads with intense traffic and suburban residents) and rural residents. Exposure was characterized by urinary excretion of S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), a biomarker of benzene exposure, and by ambient UFP. There were clear stepwise gradients with respect to ambient UFP, S-PMA excretion and oxidative DNA damage with rural subjects , suburban subjects , residents living near highly trafficed roads,taxi-moto drivers. Polymorphisms in glutathione peroxidase (GPX), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were assessed for ...
Long-term benzene exposure is linked to leukemia and other blood disorders. Learn about the risk factors to prevent exposure to this harmful substance.
Would you like to know more about Benzene exposure and what causes it? Click here to read more about benezene exposure and what to do if exposed.
If you have been diagnosed with a disease that may have been caused by benzene exposure, turn to Rosenbaum & Rosenbaum, P.C. 212-514-5007.
Article Economic Evaluation of Air Quality Targets for CO and Benzene. The study is to identify and estimate the costs and benefits of meeting ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide (CO) and benzene in the EU. The study should take the ran...
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Benzene, or benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. It is sometimes abbreviated Ph-H. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell and a relatively high melting point. Because it is a known carcinogen, its use as an additive in gasoline is now limited, but it is an important industrial solvent and precursor in the production of drugs, plastics, synthetic rubber, and dyes. Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, and may be synthesized from other compounds present in petroleum. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon and the second annulene, a cyclic hydrocarbon with a continuous pi bond.. ...
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Benzene enters cells and damages DNA material. As well, benzene is known to cause harmful effects on bone marrow and it can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. Women exposed to the chemical can suffer irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. The FDA has regulated these solvents for decades, but workers, populations living near industrial sources of benzene and butadiene emissions, and the general public continue to be exposed these deadly chemicals. Benzene is still present in a number of products, from petroleum solvents to soft drinks ...
Field Validation of Technologies for Anaerobic Benzene and Alkylbenzene Bioremediation," is funded through the Genome Canada Genomic Applied Partnership Program (GAPP). This project builds upon earlier research that successfully developed commercial volumes of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bioaugmentation culture and associated genomics-based monitoring tools for tracking benzene bioremediation. The goal of this project is the commercialization of an expanded range of anaerobic bioaugmentation cultures for the treatment of BTEX at contaminated sites across Canada.. Additional funding partners include the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade, SiREM, Imperial Oil Limited, Federated Co-operatives Limited, Alberta Innovates, and Mitacs.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Campionamento per diffusione di benzene presente nelle urine.. AU - Ghittori, S.. AU - Cocheo, V.. AU - Imbriani, M.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Benzene is a widely diffuse solvent; in the industrial environment benzene is currently present at concentrations of ppm. A valid method of biological monitoring that is easy to perform is need for assessing occupational and non-occupational exposures. A new method has been developed to evaluate low concentrations of benzene in urine samples by means of a diffusion sampling. The solvent is absorbed from the urine surface and concentrated on an absorbent substrate (Tenax) that is placed inside the vial. The solvent is thermically desorbed from Tenax and injected into a column (Thermal Tube Desorber-Supelco; 250 degrees C thermal flash; borosilicate capillary glass-column SPB-I 60 m length, 0.75 mm I.D., 1 micron film thickness; GC Dani 8580-FID). The method, which had not been previously employed for the determination of volatile organic ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Modeling of benzene with ethylene alkylation. AU - Khlebnikova, Elena. AU - Dolganova, Irena. AU - Ivashkina, Elena. AU - Koshkin, Stanislav. PY - 2016/4/19. Y1 - 2016/4/19. N2 - The paper considers the benzene alkylation with ethylene model development with the use of zeolite catalyst. A list of reactions occurring in the alkylation reactor was made and the thermodynamic possibility of determination of these reactions by the change of Gibbs energy was defined. The paper presents the hydrocarbons transformation scheme, which includes the grouping of components on the basis of their reactivity and the degrees of compensation values of the corresponding reactions. Drawing on the obtained data the authors developed the kinetic model of the alkylation of benzene with ethylene.. AB - The paper considers the benzene alkylation with ethylene model development with the use of zeolite catalyst. A list of reactions occurring in the alkylation reactor was made and the thermodynamic ...
A cunningly modified ring of boron and nitrogen atoms is the closest inorganic analog of benzene yet created, its creators say (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2020, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201915790). The first inorganic version of benzene was reported almost a century ago. Borazine (B3N3H6) contains a flat six-membered ring and a delocalized cloud of six π electrons but is only moderately aromatic. Since borazines discovery, a handful of other inorganic benzenes have been created, none of which seem to have much aromaticity. Rei Kinjo and Kei Ota at Nanyang Technological University have now created a 1,4,2,3,5,6-diazatetraborinine derivative that is much more benzene-like than its predecessors. The blue solid is a valence isomer of benzene, with each ring atom bearing only one substituent. Unlike borazines alternating pattern of elements, diazatetraborinines ring includes four boron atoms that sit in pairs and bond to either chlorine or trimethylphosphine. X-ray crystallography shows that the molecule is ...
Asia Pacific was the largest consumer of benzene & its derivatives and this trend is anticipated to remain same in the next few years. Consumption patterns in Asia Pacific are showing upward trend owing to shift of manufacturing facilities to China and India due to availability of cheap labour and raw material. China and Japan were largest consumer of benzene in this region while, South Korea and India are expected to grow at a higher pace. Rising demand from automobile, coatings, textiles and other industries is expected to drive the benzene & its derivatives market in Asia Pacific. In addition, increasing production capacities in specialty chemicals are expected to fuel the market growth. Consumption for benzene & its derivatives in rest of the world was low but it is expected to grow at a moderate pace followed by Asia Pacific. North America is expected to grow at a substantial rate owing to demand from construction and textiles industry. Demand from Europe was low comparatively and is ...
This reads in the structures of P3HT (thiophene_R_hexane) with five repeat units and replicates it randomly in space 10 times. Similarly for C60 is replicated randomly in space 10 times to make a 1:1 mixed phase. Benzene is treated as a solvent and is replicated on a grid for faster replicatation. For each benzene added the distance between the benzene and the already added P3HT and C60 molecules is calculated, and if benzene is within the cutoff it is not added to the grid point. The new mixed phase LAMMPS input file:. ...
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Last week, despite bearish upstream energy values, benzene prices climbed higher in Asia. The price rise was supported by tight regional product availability and stronger downstream SM rates.Gains recorded in benzene values in the U.S., further pushed price higher in the region. On Friday, benzene prices were assessed at the USD 625/mt FOB Korea levels, a week on week gain of USD 15/mt. Downstream SM prices were assessed higher at the USD 805/mt FOB Korea levels, a sharp rise of USD 25/mt from the previous week.In the USA, benzene prices on Thursday were at the 243.90 cents/gallon FOB US Gulf mark, a week on week increase of 4.95 cents/gallon.
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Average benzene home and personal levels in six monitoring campaigns varied between 6.0-13.4 and 13.1-24.6 μg/m3, respectively. Urban levels varied between 15.4 and 27.9 μg/m3 with an annual mean of 20.4 μg/m3. Wind speed seems to determine largely home levels and personal exposure. Proximity to busy road holds also an important influence on indoor benzene levels. Adjusted for seasonal or climate variation, other significant prognostic factors of personal exposure were home levels, total time spent outdoors and transportation mean. Time spent outdoors explains the strong relationship between occupation and personal levels of exposure. Wind had similar effect in clearing indoor and urban pollution in Athens; lessen personal exposure and home levels about 2-2.5 μg/m3 per 1 m/s increase in speed.. ...
We have carried out a pilot case-control study of childhood leukaemia and exposure to benzene assessed by repeated individual measurements made on average 2 years after diagnosis. The pilot study included side-investigations aimed at evaluating the performance of two biological indicators of benzene exposure in children, at estimating amount and direction of a possible participation bias and at assessing the relation between estimated exposures to benzene and ELF magnetic fields.. Owing to the relatively low incidence of childhood cancers (10-15 for 100 000 person-years in the 0-14 year range in most industrialised countries), the case-control approach is the design of choice for analytical epidemiological studies about potential risk factors for these diseases. Such a study design, however, is inherently prone to measurement errors stemming from the retrospective reconstruction of the exposures of interest, and to differential participation leading to control samples not being representative of ...
Families in Nisisioken Ogale, near a Nigerian National Petroleum Company pipeline, are drinking water from wells contaminated with benzene, a known carcinogen, at levels over 900 times above UN World Health Organization guidelines.
The proposed project comprises mechanistic research to assess the biogeochemical interactions that affect bioavailability of chlorinated benzenes (CBs) during i...
ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE VOLUME 6 NUMBER 5 MAY 1 9 6 7 P A G E S 385-476 Benzene Oxide-Oxepin Valence Tautomerism BY E. VOGEL AND H. G m T H E R [*I Dedicated to Prof. R. Criegee on the occasion of his 65th birthday Benzene oxide and the potential 8x-electron system oxepin exist in valence-tautomeric equilibrium with each other, to which both components contribute to approximately the same extent. N M R spectroscopic measurements show that the equilibrium is rapidly established (activation energies of the forward and reverse reactions 9.1 and 7.2 kcal mole-1, respectively). The present knowledge of the properties of oxepinjustifies its classification as a "heterotropilidene". Benzene oxide-oxepin represents a system having fluctuating bonds, the equilibrium of which can be displaced from one extreme fo the other by means of suitable substituents. The oxide component determines the reactions of the system with most agents. With 1,6-oxido[ IO]annulene, which is formally a 2,7-bridged oxepin, the oxepin ...
For continuous monitoring of benzene at refinery fenceline locations using EPA Method 325 May be used also for other VOCs of concern including HAPs See Technical Note: Validated Uptake Rates for Benzene and Other VOCs Using the SKC Passive TD Tube (PDF)
Benzene first reacts with the reagents $\ce{CH3Cl/AlCl3}$, to attach a methyl ($\ce{CH3}$) group to the benzene ring.. Then I suggested reacting with $\ce{OH-}$. Because the methyl group is an activator, it will cause the $\ce{OH-}$ electrophile to attack either in the para or ortho positions. In this case I suggest it will attack the ortho position. Now we have two activators, hydroxyl and methyl, but because hydroxyl is a stronger activator, the position where the next molecule attacks will be controlled by the hydroxyl group.. The next electrophile that attacks is the $\ce{NO2+}$, through the reaction $\ce{HNO3/H2SO4}$, the nitro group will attack the para position of the benzene and we get our final product 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol.. However, I am not 100% sure if the methyl group should be introduced first to form toluene or the hydroxyl group to form a phenol.. ...
Directing Groups. The rate of substitution on a benzene ring is affected by what groups are already on the benzene ring. Those groups which lower the rate of electrophilic substitution is calld an activating group. Any substituent that lowers the rate (from benzene) of substitution is called a deactivating group. An important thing to know about substitution reactions on benzene is that you will NEVER get exactly what you want. You always get a mixture of what you want (a mixture of ortho/para/meta groups), and you must then use methods to separate the stuff you dont want. For instance, you may want to substitute a nitro group para from the the methyl group in the toluene. Once you have finished with the substitution reaction, only 37% of the final product will have the nitros in the para position. About 59% will have the nitro in the ortho position, while 4% will have the nitro in the para group. So when you plan out your substitutions, note what is on the benzene ring and remember that these ...
Both occupational exposure to the leukemogen benzene and in vitro exposure to its metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) lead to the induction of numerical and structural chromosome changes. Several studies have shown that HQ can form DNA adducts, disrupt microtubule assembly and inhibit DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) activity. As these are potential mechanisms underlying endoreduplication (END), a phenomenon that involves DNA amplification without corresponding cell division, we hypothesized that HQ could cause END. We measured END in the human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6, treated with HQ (0-20 µM) and etoposide (0-0.2 µM) for 48 h. Etoposide was used as a positive control as it is a topo II poison and established human leukemogen that has previously been shown to induce END in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both HQ and etoposide significantly induced END in a dose-dependent manner (Ptrend , 0.0001 and Ptrend = 0.0003, respectively). Since END may underlie the acquisition of high chromosome numbers by ...
Its melting point is -44 °C, which is lower than that of benzene, as a result of the reduced symmetry of the molecule compared to benzene. In contrast, the boiling points of PhF and benzene are very similar, differing by only 4 °C. It is considerably more polar than benzene, with a dielectric constant of 5.42 compared to 2.28 for benzene at 298 K.[1] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ordered nanostructure of PS-b-PEO copolymer by solvent annealing with mixture of benzene/water vapor and its micropattern fabrication. AU - Kim, Tae Hee. AU - Hwang, Jiyoung. AU - Acharya, Himadri. AU - Park, Cheolmin. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - We investigate the effect of water/benzene co-solvent vapor on the ordering of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) copolymer thin film on silicon substrate upon solvent annealing. In-plane cylindrical PEO microdomains were observed after exposure of benzene vapor. The addition of water vapor dominantly produced the cylindrical PEO domains aligned perpendicular to the substrate. The best ordering of the cylinders was obtained at the water fraction of approximately 0.05. The degree of ordering decreases while the periodicity of haxagonally packed PEO cylinders increases with the amount of water in the vapor mixture. The average center-to-center distance of hexagonally packed cylindrical PEO microdomains increases with the ...
A new <"http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/benzene">benzene lawsuit, a class action, alleges that a 1986 Shell Oil Company benzene spill damaged property values and ground water in Roxana, Illinois, said The Telegraph. Both BP and Shell operate refineries in the area that processed and used benzene and benzene-containing pollutants.. Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor that evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. Several organizations, including the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recognize benzene as a cancer-causing chemical.. While benzene’s tolls on the body are well known and documented, this lawsuit claims that the spill caused property values to fall and blames benzene for Roxana residents being unable to sell their houses, said The Telegraph. The suit includes nine counts; no dollar amount has been specified. Shell, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pore size control through benzene vapor deposition on activated carbon. AU - Kang, Hyun Uk. AU - Kim, Wun gwi. AU - Kim, Sung Hyun. PY - 2008/10/15. Y1 - 2008/10/15. N2 - Carbon adsorbents are considered as prime material to separate oxygen and nitrogen in PSA process. It is known that selectivity of carbon adsorbents can be added by adjusting pore size on the adsorbents. Among many treatment methods, chemical vapor deposition method was selected and benzene was used as a chemical agent. Activated carbons were heated at 5 °C/min and 10 °C/min in inert condition. The peak temperature at 700 °C and 800 °C was maintained while activated carbons were treated with benzene vapor. Inert condition was given as laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Pore size distribution results investigated by adsorption of various gases including CO2 (3.3 Å), n-butane (4.3 Å) and iso-butane (5.0 Å), assured of the pore constriction or heightened energy barrier on the pore opening. The nitrogen ...
But there was no accountability in place to punish Cadbury like there was for Perrier over the serious nature of this violation and it is a problem that very likely still exists today, concerned industry observers contend. For the record, the Diet Orange Crush contained 36 and 52 parts per billion (ppb) benzene in two samples taken by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late 1990 when the product was pulled and another preliminary sample showed as high as 180 ppb benzene. Compare this to the 11-18 ppb benzene found in Perrier water and you can see why some are concerned Cadbury got off too easy 16 years ago ...
The report including six parts, the first part maainly introduced the product basic information; the second parts mainly analyzed the Asia Pure Benzene industry; the third part mainly analyzed the North American Pure Benzene industry; the fourth part mainly analyzed the Europe Pure Benzene industry; the fifth part mainly analyzed the market entry and investment feasibility; the sixth part was the report conclusion chapter ...
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Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2-methylmalate, and two products, 2-methylfumarate and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-2-methylmalate hydro-lyase (2-methylfumarate-forming). Other names in common use include mesaconate hydratase, (+)-citramalate hydro-lyase, L-citramalate hydrolase, citramalate dehydratase, (+)-citramalic hydro-lyase, mesaconate mesaconase, mesaconase, and (S)-2-methylmalate hydro-lyase. This enzyme participates in c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism. In addition, the family of lyases which is also an enzyme catalyzes the breaking the elimination reaction of the variety of amounts of chemical bonds from hydrolysis (a substitution reaction ) and oxidation, which forms a new double bond or a new ring structure.[1] ...
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The plaintiff, who was born and raised within a half-mile radius of the facility, was diagnosed at age four with a specific type of childhood leukemia associated with benzene exposure. Unbeknownst to the childs family, the defendants had engaged in documented and illegal disposal methods of toxic chemicals, including benzene, for years. The improper and hazardous activities included dumping toxic waste on the ground near the childs house and contamination of a drinking water well which the childs family used.. The lawsuit, filed in the Superior Court of Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, names some of the worlds largest oil companies, including BP, Chevron, Unocal, Transmontaigne Product Services, Gulf Oil, Louis Dreyfus Highbridge Energy, LLC, Colonial Pipeline, and Plantation Pipe Line.. The family is represented by Chris Nidel of Nidel Law, PLLC in Washington, D.C., and Matt Harman of Harman Law LLC in Atlanta, Georgia.. ...
Exposure to benzene, a known human carcinogen, has been linked to serious blood diseases such as AML, MDS, lymphomas and aplastic anemia.
An environmental nonprofit has released an analysis of first-of-its-kind air monitoring data that shows benzene levels at 10 U.S. petroleum refineries exceeded limits established in an Obama-era environmental regulation. Six are in Texas.
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Benzene is a chemical widely used in a number of industries and products. Exposure to the chemical has been linked to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), lymphomas and aplastic anemia. Many of these cases involving benzene exposure link back to the workplace. Ringler Radio host Larry Cohen and co-host, Keith Christie talk with attorney John Tomlinson, from the Beasley Allen law firm, about benzene exposure, litigation, and how exposure to benzene can be controlled, reduced or prevented.. Visit Ringler to contact a consultant in your area about structured settlements.. ...
Diagnosed with AML or MDS? Are you an Auto Mechanic or Printer? Did you work with Benzene or Solvents? Benzene causes Leukemia. Read on to learn more.
Benzene is absorbed rapidly and extensively after inhalation and ingestion. It is absorbed less extensively through intact skin; however, percutaneous absorption may...
Courtney and Jim Vostry filed a benzene lawsuit Jan. 2 in Madison County Circuit Court -- the first civil lawsuit seeking damages in excess of $50,000 this year.
This week, ShaleTest released a new study that claims shale development is polluting the air near playgrounds, but the same scientifically dubious techniques that plagued the groups previous studies once again form the core of the reports conclusions. The effort was funded by a grant from California-based clothing outfitter Patagonia, which opposes hydraulic fracturing, despite the fact that its stores are filled with items that are made from petroleum products.. Just as a bit of background, ShaleTest - which is "proudly affiliated" with the anti-fracking group Earthworks - is headed up by Calvin Tillman, a former mayor of DISH, Tex., and one of the big stars of Josh Foxs Gasland films. On several occasions, ShaleTest has teamed up with other well-known anti-fracking activists to produce "studies" just like the one released this week - and each one has been criticized for its lack of scientific integrity.. Tillmans first "report" was actually contracted out to Wolf Eagle Environmental, the ...
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The progress made in developing the molecular theory of matter in the liquid state has been retarded by the circumstance that the experimental data, available for the purpose of testing theoretical conclusions, are scanty. For such a purpose the latent heat of the vapour of a suitable liquid would be particularly useful. Numerous formulae expressing the latent heat of vapours at high temperatures as a function of two or more of the physical constants of the vapour and liquid have been proposed. Some of the references to the best known of these are- Bakker (ʻZ. f. Physik. Chem., vol. 18, p. 519, 1895); Crompton (ʻProc. Chem. Soc., vol. 17, p. 61, 1901); Mills (J. Phys. Chem., vol. 6, p. 209, 1902); Dieterici (Ann. d. Physik, vol. 35, p. 220,1911; vol. 62, p. 75, 1920); Lewis (ʻPhil. Mag., vol. 25, p. 61, 1913); Appleby and Chapman (ʻJ. Chem. Soc., p. 734, 1914); Partington (ʻZ. f. Physik. Chem., vol. 88, p. 29, 1914); Albertosi (ʻJ. Chem. Phys., vol. 13, p. 379, 1915); Hammick ...
Ab initio calculations, using restricted Hartree-Fock, density-functional (DFT) and Moeller-Plesset perturbation theories, have been performed to study the cation-pi interactions between alkali cations and [7]-helicene as well as the interaction between [7]-helicene and benzene. The helical molecules two terminal benzene rings give the profile of crocodiles jaws which open up to receive the cations, exhibiting the stability of the complexes increasing in the order Na+, K+, Cs+. The binding energies in these cation-pi complexes comprise mainly electrostatic, polarization (including dispersion) and charge transfer contributions. According to DFT, the electrostatic contribution alone is 43% for Na+, 60% for K+ and 75% for Cs+. However, even DFT shows very little stabilization for the helicene-benzene complex so that this interaction between a helical and a neutral molecule cannot serve as a model for DNA-drug interactions due to very little overlap between the pi clouds of the two ...
RIKEN researchers break carbon-carbon bonds and rearrange the structure of benzene at low temperatures with a trinuclear titanium hydride complex.
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