An extremely well-conducted meta-analysis by researchers from the Netherlands has clearly shown that occupational benzene exposure is associated with lymphoid cancers.. The researchers performed meta-analyses of occupational cohort studies for five different lymphoma categories: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). They assessed three study quality dimensions to evaluate the impact of study quality variations on meta-relative risks (mRR): year-of-start of follow-up, strength of the reported AML association, and quality of benzene exposure assessment. Data synthesis mRRs for MM, ALL, and CLL increased with increasing study quality, regardless of the study quality dimension. mRRs for NHL also increased with increasing study quality, although less pronounced. The investigators concluded that their meta-analysis provides support for an association between occupational benzene exposure and ...
The research is to evaluate benzene metabolism after exposure at levels that can be found in the environment, such as the higher end concentrations in the air inside cars and buses while being driven in heavy traffic and inside private and public parking garages. To do so breath, urine, and blood samples prior to, during and after being exposed to benzene as well as benzene levels and benzene metabolites present are measured. The exposures take place in the Controlled Environmental Facility operated by the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). This allows us to control the exact benzene air level and to use benzene containing 13C, a stable (non-radioactive) form of carbon, one of the atoms that make up benzene. Isotopes are different forms of the same atom. Using 13C will allow us to tell the difference between the benzene and the compounds it changes to in the body that come from our experiment compared to what is present in your body from other sources. In addition ...
Evaluation of benzene-induced hematotoxicity following exposure to low concentration is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity and determining the dose response at benzene levels close to the current occupational exposure limit (1 ppm). Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 1, 10, 100, or 200 ppm benzene by inhalation for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks. At each sampling time, we evaluated primitive and committed progenitor cells, differentiating and maturing lineage-specific cells, and stromal cells in the bone marrow; T and B lymphocytes of the spleen and thymus; micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes; and standard blood parameters. At 100 and 200 ppm benzene, there were rapid and significant reductions in number of reticulocytes in the blood, B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen, and an increased frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the bone marrow. At 10 ppm, the only parameter affected was a transient reduction in the number of splenic B ...
Environmental benzene levels were measured in 26 petrol stations using both active and passive stationary and personal samplers. Simultaneously, benzene levels were measured in the petrol station operators on blood samples collected at the end of the work shift and the following morning before starting work. The petrol stations belonged to various different oil companies and were studied both during the winter (9 stations) and in the summer (17 stations). The environmental levels measured with active samplers in the 26 stations were on average 256 ng/l, were significantly lower (98 ng/l) in winter and higher (326 ng/l) in summer. The blood levels of benzene in 77 workers at the end of the work shift were on average 548 ng/l, were significantly lower (306 ng/l) in winter and higher (651 ng/l) in summer. The following morning, blood levels of benzene were lower than those found at the end of the work shift, on average 249 ng/l in winter and 427 ng/l in summer. Smokers had higher benzene levels ...
Meta-analysis on benzene exposure and non Hodgkin lymphoma June 30 2009 Gerard M H Swaen1 Shan P. Tsai2 Carol Burns1 1 Department of Epidemiology, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan USA. 2 Shell Health, Shell Oil Company, Houston Texas, USA. Corresponding Author: Gerard M H Swaen, The Dow Chemical Company, P.O. Box 444, 4530 AK Terneuzen, The Netherlands 31-(0)43-3626042. E- mail: [email protected] Key words: benzene, non Hodgkin lymphoma, epidemiology, meta- analysis, occupation, risk Sir, A recent meta-analysis on benzene exposure and non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) concluded that the reviewed epidemiological studies provide new evidence that benzene causes NHL. 1 The meta-analysis conducted by Steinmaus et al differed from the others in several aspects. Firstly, it selected subgroups with the highest putative exposure to avoid dilution. Secondly, cohort studies were adjusted for the Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) by considering the NHL deaths as cases and all other deaths as controls. A HWE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pressure-induced oligomerization of benzene at room temperature as a precursory reaction of amorphization. AU - Shinozaki, Ayako. AU - Mimura, Koichi. AU - Kagi, Hiroyuki. AU - Komatu, Kazuki. AU - Noguchi, Naoki. AU - Gotou, Hirotada. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Oligomerization of benzene at high pressures up to 16 GPa was investigated at room temperature using an opposed-anvil type pressure apparatus. The recovered samples were analyzed using GC-MS to identify and quantify the products after the high-pressure experiments. Some structural isomers of benzene dimer as well as biphenyl, naphthalene, and terphenyl isomers were detected at pressures higher than 13 GPa. The molar yield of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased concomitantly with increasing pressure, although benzene still remained. The oligomerization is likely to occur when the neighbor distance of the benzene molecules exceeds the threshold of the reaction distance. The oligomerization is regarded as a ...
Benzene is a known leukemogen and may cause lymphoma as well, but its ability to , cause these conditions below 10 parts per million (ppm) in air are unclear. It is currently regulated in the United States at 1 ppm as an 8-hour time-weighted average and at a 5 ppm short-term exposure level for 15 minutes. There is a critical need to assess risks related to benzene exposure under 10 ppm because it is widely used industrially and a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment.. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM), whose name was recently changed to the China Center for Disease Control (CDC) previously established a cohort of 75,000 workers exposed to benzene in 12 cities in China and 35,000 unexposed comparison workers, to investigate the relationship between benzene exposure and cancer risk, from 1972 to 1987. We followed up each worker using factory records and reported results suggesting that benzene exposure under 10 ppm may be associated with ...
Gas phase photocatalysis is an effective way for decomposing toxic organics, but the studies on benzene decomposition are relatively little. Our objective was to assess the capability of TiO 2 to decompose benzene and establish reaction mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene. The photocatalytic oxidation of benzene in gas phase was performed in a recirculation photoreactor including a UV lamp emitting around 254 nm and TiO 2 coated glass plate. When the initial mass concentration of benzene was 50 mg/m 3, it was almost decomposed completely after 460 min on 0 1 g of TiO 2 and 0 013 m 2 area of catalyst layer activated by ultraviolet. The reaction time was reduced from 460 to 240 min when the irradiated area was 0 026 m 2. At ambient temperature, the adsorption of benzene on TiO 2 surface was not obvious, but the intermediate reaction product had very good adsorptivity, occupied the active sites and deactivated the catalyst. The IR results showed that the intermediate product
The Benzene attorneys at Nadrich & Cohen LLP have long been committed to defending individuals and the families of individuals who have suffered or died as a result of benzene exposure. Benzene is a highly dangerous chemical which has been known for decades to contain carcinogens, and millions of people every year come into contact with dangerous levels of benzene. Mary Johnson was one such victim, who tragically died after excessive benzene exposure.. Now we have reports that Johnsons children have brought a wrongful death suit against Total Petrochemicals & Refining USA, one of the worlds leading petrochemical companies. The suit alleges that Total Petrochemicals exposed Johnson to benzene, ultimately contributing to her untimely death.. The suit was filed on November 9, 2012, in Jefferson County District Court. The plaintiffs, James, Robert and Richard Johnson, seek justice for their mother, a former employee of Finas Port Arthur Refinery. It was there that she allegedly come into contact ...
Urine samples were collected from 64 men and 88 women in shoe factories and printing plants at the end of a seven hour day shift in the latter half of a week in spring. Urine samples were also taken from 43 men and 88 women in the same factories but who were not exposed to solvents. Exposure to benzene during the shift was monitored by passive dosimeters. Both phenol in urine and benzene in activated carbon were analysed with FID gas chromatographs. The urinary concentrations of phenol were linearly related to the time weighted average concentrations of benzene in the breathzone air; the variation was so small that those exposed to 10 ppm benzene could be separated from the non-exposed at least on a group basis when the phenol concentration was corrected either for creatinine concentration or for specific gravity. The urinary phenol concentrations corresponding to 10 ppm benzene were 47.5 mg/l (as observed), 57.9 mg/g creatinine, or 46.6 mg/l (specific gravity 1.016).. ...
Resonance in benzene - Resonance form of a compound is nothing but another way of representing Lewis dot structure of that compound. Benzene shows resonance as it has more than one way to place double bonds in the ring. Benzene shows 2 resonating structures. Resonance forms or resonating structures only differ in arrangement of electrons. So, resonance structure of benzene differs only in arrangement of electrons, number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms in benzene remain same. Double bonds present in benzene rotates in resonating structures of benzene and provide stability to benzene. Resonance structure shows possible structures of a compound. Resonance structures of benzene ring or benzene ring resonance structure - ...
Benzene is widely used in major industries throughout the world, including the United States. It ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production levels. Benzene is used in the production of plastics, resins, nylon, lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents and pesticides. Certain industries use benzene to make other chemicals that are used to produce plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make products such as lubricants, rubbers, glues, furniture wax, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Research has shown that in certain outdoor areas, ambient air may contain measurable levels of benzene from industrial emissions, service stations, exhaust from motorized vehicles and wood smoke. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), a major source of Benzene exposure is from tobacco smoke or tobacco exposure. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has classified benzene as a carcinogen. Benzene targets the liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain and has been ...
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamps were used to enhance photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene. A series of transition metal modified TiO2 were developed to improve benzene removal efficiency and eliminate ozone byproduct. Among the prepared catalysts, Mn/TiO2 obtained the best catalytic activity toward benzene oxidation due to its superior capacity for ozone decomposition. The catalysts with better capacity for ozone decomposition have higher benzene removal efficiency. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of benzene under VUV irradiation reached 58%, which is over 20 times higher than that under 254nm UV irradiation. In addition, ozone can be completely eliminated by Mn/TiO2. Benzene degradation was greatly enhanced by ozone via catalytic ozonation. Water vapor played a dual role in benzene oxidation in the VUV-PCO process. Catalytic ozonation is mainly responsible for benzene abatement at low humidity while 185nm photooxidation is the dominant pathway at high humidity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V ...
Benzene exposure, whether through inhalation or skin absorption, can cause life-threatening diseases including Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), lymphomas and aplastic Anemia. If youve been diagnosed and suffered Benzene exposure contact one of our expert Benzene exposure attorneys today!
What would be the order of electron density in the benzene ring in the following compounds? Methyl Benzene. Ethyl Benzene. t-butyl benzene. I would say that t-butyl benzene would have the highest electron density as the alkyl group attached to it is bulkier than methyl and ethyl thus it will exert a greater +I effect pushing the electrons into the ring making it electron rich. Using same analogy ethyl benzene would have a greater electron density in the ring compared to methyl benzene.. However that is not the case. Something counter intuitive seems to be happening here. The order is methyl benzene >ethyl benzene >t-butyl benzene.. I think this phenomenon can somehow be explained using hyper conjugation, but i dont get it how?. ...
The kinetics of macromolecular binding of a 5 μg/kg body wt dose of [14C]benzene was studied over 48 h in B6C3F1, DBA/2, and C57BL/6 mice and Fischer rats to determine if adduct levels reflect known differences in metabolic capacity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenic potency. Previous studies have suggested that differences in benzene toxicity among strains result from differences in metabolism. Rats and mice were administered [14C]benzene (i.p.), followed by removal of liver and bone marrow at time intervals up to 48 h postexposure. Protein and DNA were isolated and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry. Area under the curves for protein and DNA adducts in bone marrow were greatest in B6C3F1 mouse , DBA/2 mouse , C57BL/6 mouse , Fischer rat. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that metabolic capacity contributes to the difference in benzenes carcinogenicity among species. Additionally, these data suggest that target organ adduct levels correlate with tumorigenicity and thus may be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benzene Dynamics and Biodegradation in Alluvial Aquifers Affected by River Fluctuations. AU - Batlle Aguilar, Jordi. AU - Morasch, Barbara. AU - Hunkeler, Daniel. AU - Brouyère, Serge. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of a benzene plume in an alluvial aquifer strongly affected by river fluctuations was studied. Benzene concentrations, aquifer geochemistry datasets, past river morphology, and benzene degradation rates estimated in situ using stable carbon isotope enrichment were analyzed in concert with aquifer heterogeneity and river fluctuations. Geochemistry data demonstrated that benzene biodegradation was on-going under sulfate reducing conditions. Long-term monitoring of hydraulic heads and characterization of the alluvial aquifer formed the basis of a detailed modeled image of aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic conductivity was found to strongly correlate with benzene degradation, indicating that low hydraulic conductivity areas are ...
Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following ... read more exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (,31 ppm) was 1.26±0.17, 1.25±0.16, and 1.37±0.23, respectively. Mean TL was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of urinary biomarkers of exposure to benzene. T2 - Correlation with blood benzene and influence of confounding factors. AU - Hoet, Perrine. AU - Lison, Dominique. AU - Haufroid, Vincent. AU - De Smedt, Erika. AU - De Wilde, Peter. AU - Ferrari, Massimo. AU - Imbriani, Marcello. AU - Maestri, Luciano. AU - Negri, Sara. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Purpose: trans,trans-Muconic acid (t,t- MA) is generally considered as a useful biomarker of exposure to benzene. However, because of its lack of specificity, concerns about its value at low level of exposure have recently been raised. The aim of this study was (a) to compare t,t-MA, S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and benzene (B-U) as urinary biomarkers of exposure to low levels of benzene in petrochemical workers and, (b) to evaluate the influence of sorbic acid (SA) and genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes on the excretion of these biomarkers. Method: A total of 110 workers (including 24 smokers; 2-10 ...
A pending lawsuit alleges that Texaco and Chevron are responsible for the death of a former employee who was exposed to dangerous levels of the chemical compound benzene while on the job. The dangerous, carcinogenic properties of benzene have been observed for nearly a century, and the California Benzene lawyers at Nadrich & Cohen have dedicated years to tirelessly defending the victims of benzene exposure. If you or someone you love has been affected by benzene, give us a call today at 1-800-722-0765.. The case involving Chevron and Texaco was filed by four plaintiffs: Keith Gebauer, Ronnie Gebauer, Lajunda Williams and Gaytha Guillot. The plaintiffs filed their suit on August 31, 2011, in Jefferson County District Court, claiming that their father-Fred Gebauer-died from lymphoma which he developed after a long career that involved working in close proximity to benzene and benzene-containing products.. The plaintiffs allege that the oil giants are legally responsible for their fathers death, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MODIFICATION OF BENZENE AND CARBON MONOXIDE ADSORPTION ON Pt(111) BY THE COADSORPTION OF POTASSIUM OR SULFUR.. AU - Garfunkel, Eric. AU - Farias, M. H.. AU - Somorjai, G. A.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. Sulfur, on the other hand, causes a decrease in the desorption peak temperatures for both benzene and CO. The authors interpret the effects of potassium on CO and benzene adsorption as electronic, while for sulfur, structural effects may dominate.. AB - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. ...
We present results of a combined vacuum ultravioloet (VUV) and infrared (IR) photoabsorption study of amorphous benzene:water mixtures and layers to investigate the benzene-water interaction in the solid phase. UV spectra of 1:1, 1:10 and 1:100 benzene:water mixtures at 24 K reveal a concentration dependent shift in the energies of the 1B2u, 1B1u and 1E1u electronic states of benzene. All the electronic bands blueshift from pure amorphous benzene towards gas phase energies with increasing water concentration. IR results reveal a strong dOH-π benzene-water interaction via the dangling OH stretch of water with the delocalised π system of the benzene molecule. Although this interaction influences the electronic states of benzene with the benzenewater interaction causing a redshift in the electronic states from that of the free benzene molecule, the benzene-benzene interaction has a more significant effect on the electronic states of benzene. VUV spectra of benzene and water layers show evidence ...
Scope of the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market Report:. Due to heavy alkyl benzenes is a byproduct in the process of LAB and BAB production, there are some problems, such as the quality and production of heavy alkyl benzenes, the manufacturers of linear alkyl benzene (LAB) should solve. Scope of the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market Report :. The worldwide Market for Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) is valued at 382 million USD in 2020 is expected to reach 458.2 million USD by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of 2.6% during 2021-2026.. This report focuses on the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.. Get a Sample Copy of the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market Report 2020. Report further studies the market development status and future Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Heavy ...
Author(s): Smith, Martyn T.; Yager, J; Steinmetz, K; Eastmond, D | Abstract: The metabolism of two of benzenes phenolic metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, by peroxidase enzymes has been studied in detail. Studies employing horseradish peroxidase and human myeloperoxidase have shown that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide phenol is converted to 4,4-diphenoquinone and other covalent binding metabolites, whereas hydroquinone is converted solely to 1,4-benzoquinone. Surprisingly, phenol stimulates the latter conversion rather than inhibiting it, an effect that may play a role in the in vivo myelotoxicity of benzene. Indeed, repeated coadministration of phenol and hydroquinone to B6C3F1 mice results in a dramatic and significant decrease in bone marrow cellularity similar to that observed following benzene exposure. A mechanism of benzene-induced myelotoxicity is therefore proposed in which the accumulation and interaction of phenol and hydroquinone in the bone marrow and the peroxidase-dependent
Benzene is an organic chemical compoond wi the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is componed o sax caurbon atoms jynt in a ring wi ane hydrogen atom attached tae ilk. As it conteens anerly caurbon an hydrogen atoms, benzene is clessed as a hydrocaurbon. Benzene is a naitural constituent o crude ile an is ane o the elementar petrochemicals. Due tae the cyclic conteenous pi bond atween the caurbon atoms, benzene is clessed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the seicont [n]-annulene ([6]-annulene). It is whiles abbreviatit PhH. Benzene is a colourless an heichly flammable liquid wi a sweet smell, an is responsible for the aroma aroond petrol stations. It is uised primarily as a precursor tae the manufacture o chemicals wi mair complex structur, uic as ethylbenzene an cumene, o that billions o kilogrammes are produced annually. As benzene haes a heich octane nummer, aromatic derivatives lik toluene an xylene teepically comprise up tae 25% o petrol. Benzene itsel haes been leemitit tae less than ...
In this process Benzene sulphonic acid is exposed to superheated steam leading to the formation of benzene. Get … The electrophilic partner is a carbocation; it will arrange to the most stable ion: allylic>3o>2o>1o. In this process, Ethyne is passed through a red-hot iron tube at 873 K. The ethyne molecule then undergoes cyclic polymerization to form benzene. This section is on the general mechanism of how an electrophilic atom becomes a part of a benzene ring through the substitution of a hydrogen. Ha ha ha. Benzene is among the 20 … Stir well and allow the mixtureto cool to room temperature in a cold water bath. Li W(1), Xie D, Frost JW. points Choose the best option for the immediate precursor to … It is an important industrial product as a pioneer to various materials and useful compounds. Discovery of benzene. Benzene is among the 20 … Contents. 1. reagent 1 2. reagent 2 its nice! Synthesis of nitrobenzene from benzene >>> CLICK HERE TO CONTINUE Mla citation research paper Back to ...
Summary of price adjustment of Sinopecs pure benzene in 2021 (unit: yuan / ton). Date, adjusted price, adjusted amount. May 7, 7700, + 300. May 10, 8000, + 300. May 12, 8200, + 200. May 24, 7900, - 300. May 28, 7600, - 300. June 4, 7900, + 300. On June 4, 2021, Sinopecs registered price of pure benzene was increased by 300 yuan / ton. At present, it implements 7900 yuan / ton, of which Qilu Petrochemical implements 7850 yuan / ton.. The crude benzene market was under pressure at the beginning of the week and rose at the end of the week. At the beginning of the week, the price trend of hydrogenated benzene was dragged down by the downward trend of pure benzene market price, and the crude benzene market which started bidding on Tuesday was affected by the downward trend of most prices. Since Wednesday, the international crude oil price continued to rise, the styrene market took the lead in boosting the price rise, the hydrogenation benzene market followed the trend of pure benzene, and the price ...
Learn about industries that increase the risk of benzene exposure. Contact a lawyer at (866) 588-0600 to see if you have a benzene exposure lawsuit.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomarkers of internal dose for the assessment of environmental exposure to benzene. AU - Lovreglio, Piero. AU - DErrico, Maria Nicolà. AU - Fustinoni, Silvia. AU - Drago, Ignazio. AU - Barbieri, Anna. AU - Sabatini, Laura. AU - Carrieri, Mariella. AU - Apostoli, Pietro. AU - Soleo, Leonardo. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - The urinary excretion of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and urinary benzene and the influence of a smoking habit and of exposure to urban traffic on the urinary excretion of these biomarkers were investigated in 137 male adults from the general population. All subjects were not occupationally exposed to benzene and resident in two cities in Puglia (Southern-Italy). Environmental exposure to benzene was measured using passive personal samplers. The biomarkers t,t-MA, SPMA and urinary benzene were determined in urine samples collected from each subject at the end of the environmental sampling. The percentage of cases above the ...
Benzene exposure has serious health effects. Breathing high levels of the substance can result in death, while low levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. Eating or drinking foods containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, stomach irritation, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid heart rate, and death.. The major effect of benzene from chronic (long-term) exposure is on the blood. Benzene damages the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in the production of red blood cells, leading to anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and may depress the immune system, increasing the chances of infection.. It has been reported that some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men.. Animal studies have shown low birth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in S0 benzene at low vibrational energies. AU - Whetton, Narrelle T.. AU - Lawrance, Warren D.. PY - 1992/1/3. Y1 - 1992/1/3. N2 - Rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescene spectra from the 61 level of benzene have been used to probe intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in the ground electronic state. The level 12 (Evib=1986 cm-1) and 13 (Evib=2979 cm-1) are observed to be each coupled to a single close-lying level. We propose that the pertubing levels are 52 in the case of 12 and 5211 in the case of 13. The coupling constant k1155 has been determined to be 1.4 cm-1.. AB - Rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescene spectra from the 61 level of benzene have been used to probe intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in the ground electronic state. The level 12 (Evib=1986 cm-1) and 13 (Evib=2979 cm-1) are observed to be each coupled to a single close-lying level. We propose that the pertubing levels are 52 in ...
Work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.5 percent or less of benzene by volume, or the vapors released from such liquids until September 12, 1988; work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.3 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids from September 12, 1988, to September 12, 1989; and work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids after September 12, 1989; except that tire building machine operators using solvents with more than 0.1 percent benzene are covered by paragraph (i) of this section ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probing the dynamics and structure of confined benzene in MCM-41 based catalysts. AU - Dervin, Daniel. AU - OMalley, Alexander. AU - Falkowska, Marta. AU - Chansai, Sarayute. AU - Silverwood, Ian. AU - Hardacre, Christopher. AU - Catlow, C. Richard A. PY - 2020/5/11. Y1 - 2020/5/11. N2 - A combination of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Quasielastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments has been used to investigate the dynamics and structure of benzene in MCM-41 based catalysts. QENS experiments of benzene as both an unconfined liquid and confined in the catalyst Pt/MCM-41 find that the mobility of benzene decreases upon confinement as shown by the decreased diffusion coefficients. Complementary MD simulations on benzene in MCM-41 show agreement with the QENS experiments when using a novel fully flexible model of MCM-41. Structural information from the MD simulations show that benzene in MCM-41 has a significantly different structure from that of the bulk liquid; with ...
Segment 13, 14 and 15, Benzene and Its Derivatives deals channel, wholesalers, merchants, traders, Exploration Discoveries and End, appendix and data source.. Browse Full Global Benzene and Its Derivatives Market Report : www.intenseresearch.com/report/162993. Additionally, the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market is segmented on the basis of the region as well. It employs some practical tools to assess the expansion of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market in the upcoming time. The global Benzene and Its Derivatives market report also offers a synopsis of the market on a global level that helps users in the decision-making processes, which in turn helps to boost their businesses. This synopsis incorporates the index growth as well as the competitive framework of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market over the projected period.. The highlight of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market research report is the in-depth market segmentation {Chlorobenzene, Toluene, ...
Biomass tar mainly consists of stable aromatic compounds such as benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene being the biggest tar component in real biomass gasification gas. For the analysis of individual tar compounds, the solid-phase adsorption method was chosen. According to this method, tar samples are collected on a column with an amino-phase sorbent. With a high benzene concentration in biomass tar, some of the benzene will not be collected on the amino-phase sorbent. To get over this situation, we have installed another column with activated charcoal which is intended for collection of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, after the column with the amino-phase sorbent. The study of maximal adsorption amounts of various compounds on both adsorbents while testing different sampling volumes led to the conclusion that benzene is a limiting compound. The research proved that the use of two sorbents (500 mg + 100 mg) connected in series allows for assessment of tar in synthesis gas ...
1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, also known as methylchavicol or estragol, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anisoles. These are organic compounds containing a methoxybenzene or a derivative thereof. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is a sweet, alcohol, and anise tasting compound. Outside of the human body, 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as anises, fennels, and sweet basils and in a lower concentration in cumins, tarragons, and parsley. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as citrus, chinese cinnamons, caraway, fats and oils, and cloves. This could make 1-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, with regard to humans, has been linked to ...
It is highly flammable and is present abundantly in nature. NQ01 and GSH shift metabolism away from toxicity. [94] About 50% of the entire nationwide (United States) exposure to benzene results from smoking tobacco or from exposure to tobacco smoke. Next, the diol is newly reduced by NADH to catechol. [44] In 1870, the German chemist Viktor Meyer first applied Gräbes nomenclature to benzene.[45]. The High Stability of Benzene In the absence of the catalyst, benzene is impervious to hydrogen. Each carbon atom has a hydrogen attached to it. Benzene. For other uses, see, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Biological oxidation and carcinogenic activity, Critics pointed out a problem with Kekulés original (1865) structure for benzene: Whenever benzene underwent substitution at the ortho position, two distinguishable isomers should have resulted, depending on whether a double bond or a single bond existed between the carbon atoms to which the substituents were ...
Abstract : Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2H/1H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic ...
Manufacturing Science and Technology, AEMT2011: Synthesis, Properties and Application in Optical Memory of a Photochromic Diarylethene Based on Benzene Ring
Information about benzene and industries that use asphalt. Contact a lawyer for lawsuit info to see if you have a Benzene Exposure Lawsuit.
Benzene naturally occurs in crude oil and is used to make plastics, resins, synthetic fibers, dyes, detergents, additives and coatings, and pesticides. It is a widely used aromatic hydrocarbon which constitutes 1-2% of gasoline and other fuels. While benzene is a very useful hydrocarbon that offers diverse applications, it is also a known human carcinogen. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lists the PEL-TWA at 1 ppm, and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have the TLV-TWA at 0.5 ppm. Industry requires a means to measure low concentrations of benzene (typically below 1 ppm) in the presence of various hydrocarbons, often 100 to 1000X the concentration of benzene.. Uniphos Envirotronic Inc., a recognized leader in colorimetric detection tubes, has developed a PID pre-filter tube for selective determination of benzene in air containing a mixture of volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene, ethyl benzene, octane, etc.). The measuring range ...
Benzene is found in crude oils and as a by-product of oil-refining processes. In industries, Benzene is primarily used as a chemical raw material in the synthesis of plastics, rubber, phenols, nylon, resins, detergents and other products used in the production of drugs, dyes, insecticides and plastics. As benzene has a high octane number, aromatic derivatives like toluene and xylene typically comprise up to 25% of gasoline (petrol).. It has a chemical formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.. Specifications of Benzene:. ...
Benzene is an environmental toxicant found in many consumer products. It is an established human carcinogen and is known to cause acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Epidemiological evidence has since shown that benzene can cross the placenta and affect the fetal liver. Animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to benzene can increase tumor incidence in offspring. Although there have been risk factors established for acute myeloid leukemia, they still do not account for many of the cases. Clearly then, current efforts to elucidate the mechanism by which benzene exerts its carcinogenic properties have been superficial. Owing to the critical role of cell signaling pathways in the development of an organism and its various organ systems, it seems plausible to suspect that these pathways may have a role in leukemogenesis. This review article assesses current evidence of the effects of benzene on critical hematopoietic signaling pathways. Pathways discussed included Hedgehog, Notch/Delta, ...
IUPAC Name: Benzene. MCL: 0.005 ppm. Source: Produced in large quantities for organic synthesis, benzene is also used to produce rubber, dyes, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. There are many applications of synthetically-produced benzene, and it also occurs naturally in crude oil.. Water Treatment: https://tdb.epa.gov/tdb/contaminant?id=10140. Summary: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is produced in large volumes in the United States. It occurs naturally in crude oil and is used in petroleum purification and refinery processes. It is synthetically produced to be used in the production of rubber, dyes, pharmaceuticals, detergents, and various pesticides. Benzene is widely used as a building block in organic synthesis and is also used as a solvent. It exists as a colorless liquid at room temperature and has a density of 0.8756 g/mL at 20 C. It is soluble in water up to 1,790 mg/L at 25 C. The compound has a measured biological half-life of 6.00 days. Benzene is classified by the EPA as a ...
Summary: Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities.. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. ...
This Benzene Awareness Program has been created to inform your workers that may come in contact with about the hazards of Benzene and the controls required to work safely. This program defines work practices, administrative procedures and engineering controls to protect employees exposed to benzene concentrations above the legislated safe level.. This Benzene Awareness Program/Safe Work Practice is designed to pass Industry Standards, OHS, COR, SECOR, ComplyWorks, Avetta and ISNetworld ® RAVS ® requirements for Benzene Awareness - Canada - Best Practices 100% Guaranteed!. NOTE: The material in this document does not take precedence over applicable government legislation which all employees must follow.. ...
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Article Evaluation of benzene exposure in adults and urinary s-phenylmercapturic acid in children living in Adelaide, South Australia. Abstract: Benzene Exposure was evaluated in adults and children living in Adelaide, South Australia by measuring be...
US refiners are in the process of planning and executing capital projects to comply with the new MSAT (Mobile Source Air Toxics) II regulations that become effective January 1, 2011. These new rules will restrict the annual average benzene level in the gasoline sold in U.S. except California to 0.62 vol%. California has similar restrictions on gasoline benzene content. Of the various refinery streams that are blended into gasoline 70 ? 85% of the benzene is contributed by reformate from catalytic reforming and 10-25% by FCC gasoline. Most MSAT II compliance strategies focus on reducing benzene in reformate. The benzene content in reformate can be changed by either removing compounds in the reformer feed that form benzene in the reforming reaction or by removing benzene from reformate by hydrotreating or solvent extraction. Removal of benzene from FCC gasoline is less straight forward. The relationship of feed properties and reaction process conditions to the production of various compounds in a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mass spectra and photoelectron spectroscopy of negatively charged benzene clusters, (benzene)n- (n=53-124). AU - Mitsui, Masaaki. AU - Nakajima, Atsushi. AU - Kaya, Koji. AU - Even, Uzi. PY - 2001/10/1. Y1 - 2001/10/1. N2 - The threshold size and photoelectron study of neat negatively charged benzene clusters was carried out using a high-temperature and high-pressure valve to generate cold, large, negatively charged benzene clusters. It was found that there is an abrupt onset of formation of the (benzene)n- clusters occurring at size n=53, and the cluster distribution extended to above n,160. Benzene clusters smaller than the threshold size were also observed. Photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the VDES of (benzene)n- with n = 53-124 fell within 0.4-0.6 eV.. AB - The threshold size and photoelectron study of neat negatively charged benzene clusters was carried out using a high-temperature and high-pressure valve to generate cold, large, negatively charged benzene clusters. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of cyclohexane and benzene on ordered Sn/Pt(111) surface alloys. AU - Xu, C.. AU - Tsai, Y. L.. AU - Koel, B. E.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Cyclohexane conversion to benzene over bimetallic Pt catalysts is an important prototypical reaction for fundamental studies of selective catalytic dehydrogenation catalysis. We have studied the adsorption and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and benzene on Pt(111) and two ordered Sn/Pt(111) surface alloys using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and sticking coefficient measurements. Vapor-depositing Sn on the Pt(111) surface and annealing gives a (2 × 2) or (√ 3 × √ 3)R30° LEED pattern, producing well-defined surfaces identified as the (111) face of Pt3Sn and a substitutional alloy of composition Pt2Sn. Cyclohexane adsorbed onto all three surfaces at 100-155 K with an initial sticking coefficient of unity. Precursor mediated ...
Results: A total of 79 (47.88%) workers agreed to participate in the study. Seventeen atmospheric samples were usable and 79 urinary assays at the end of the shift were carried out. The average benzene concentration for all sites was 10 times lower than the regulatory average exposure value (1 ppm=3.25 mg/m3):average: 0.122pp, median: 0.053ppm and range: 0.019-1.448 ppm. All 79 urinary assays of trans, trans-muconic acid were below the biological exposure index (,500 µg/g creatinine) with an average of 37.34 µg/g creatinine, a median of 30 µg/g creatinine, and an extent from 10 to 150 µg/g creatinine. ...
Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences
Title:No Correlation between Blood Benzene Levels and Luteinizing Hormone Plasma Values in Outdoor Workers. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Francesco Tomei, Maria V. Rosati, Giovanna Lorusso, Lidia Ricci, Felice M. Damato, Tiziana Caciari, Roberto Giubilati, Teodorico Casale, Bendetta Pimpinella, Stefania Marchione, Nadia Nardone, Natale Mario di Luca, Francesco Massoni, Vincenza Anzelmo, Roberto Massimi, Gianfranco Tomei, Pasquale Ricci, Carmina Sacco and Serafino Ricci*. Affiliation:Spin off Sipro, Via Stimigliano 5, 00199 Rome, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Medical-Legal and the Orthopedics, Specialty Scool of Occupational Medicine, Unit of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Medical-Legal and the Orthopedics, Specialty Scool of Occupational Medicine, Unit of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Legal Medicine and ...
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The mechanism of benzene C−H bond activation by [Ir(μ-acac-O,O,C^3)(acac-O,O)(OAc)]_2 (4) and [Ir(μ-acac-O,O,C^3)(acac-O,O)(TFA)]_2 (5) complexes (acac = acetylacetonato, OAc = acetate, and TFA = trifluoroacetate) was studied experimentally and theoretically. Hydrogen−deuterium (H/D) exchange between benzene and CD_(3)COOD solvent catalyzed by 4 (ΔH^‡ = 28.3 ± 1.1 kcal/mol, ΔS^‡ = 3.9 ± 3.0 cal K^(−1) mol^(−1)) results in a monotonic increase of all benzene isotopologues, suggesting that once benzene coordinates to the iridium center, there are multiple H/D exchange events prior to benzene dissociation. B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that this benzene isotopologue pattern is due to a rate-determining step that involves acetate ligand dissociation and benzene coordination, which is then followed by heterolytic C−H bond cleavage to generate an iridium-phenyl intermediate. A synthesized iridium-phenyl intermediate was also shown to be competent for H/D ...
Benzene is a widely used chemical produced mainly from petroleum and coal tar (13). It is one of the top 20 chemicals in the United States in terms of production volume, is listed in at least 57% of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts3.html ), and is considered a priority pollutant by the Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.envirobrowser.com/pollute_q.jsp ). Long-term benzene exposure affects bone marrow and can cause anemia and leukemia (16, 30); therefore, benzene should be removed from contaminated sites. Monooxygenases may be used to hydroxylate and remove benzene, but since phenol, the monohydroxylated product, is also listed as a priority pollutant, double hydroxylation of benzene to catechol is more efficient for combining bioremediation and biocatalysis.. Catechols are important intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, polymerization inhibitors, and antioxidants (10, 11). Currently, catechol is ...
Benzene (also known as benzol) is an organic chemical compound used to make a variety of other materials. Benzene can be found in plastic, rubber, lubricant, drugs, and pesticides.. Because it is a carcinogen, benzene can be quite toxic. It’s difficult to avoid exposure, since we can come in contact with benzene through cigarette smoke, gasoline, or automobile exhaust. Once a person is exposed, it can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, brain, and even DNA. It’s also known to cause cancer and affect fertility.. The maximum permissible level of benzene for water set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency is 0.005mg per liter. While the EPA requires that all accidental spills into the environment over 10lbs be reported, they can’t prevent them.. Refrigerator water filters that can remove benzene include:. ...
Define Benzene derivatives. Benzene derivatives synonyms, Benzene derivatives pronunciation, Benzene derivatives translation, English dictionary definition of Benzene derivatives. n. A colorless, flammable, toxic, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon, C6H6, derived from petroleum and used in or to manufacture a wide variety of chemical...
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Selbyville, Delaware. The report Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market Analysis and forecast 2025 maintains enhanced dynamics and is overshadowed by a top player across the globe. The research report provides Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market analysis and information corresponding to market segments such as geographies, product type, application, and end-use industry. Experts use the most recent Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market research techniques and tools to assemble widespread and precise marketing research reports. A detailed outline about Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid market size and share were combined in this report which gives a comprehensive analysis of different verticals of businesses.. The ratio of shares and breakdowns are defined using verified primary sources. The Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market forecast report could be a collection of first-hand info, qualitative and quantitative assessment by Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid industry ...
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However, it is already too late for many, and because benzene exposure related diseases can have a long latency period of several decades in some cases some people may be unaware that they have been affected.. It is important to seek both medical and legal assistance in the event that you think you may have been affected by exposure to this chemical.. An experienced Benzene lawyer can provide the necessary tools and support to put together a strong case and get as much compensation as possible for Benzene related injury.. Both those affected and the family of those that may have passed away due to the effects of exposure may be eligible to claim, and this can be determined by contacting a suitably qualified and experienced lawyer.. An experienced Benzene lawyer will have established links with groups and organizations that will enable you to get support and assistance as well as claim compensation for your injuries.. By going through a trained Benzene lawyer you can avoid many of the pitfalls ...
The United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have all recognized that Benzene is a carcinogen and have set permissible exposure limits in various workplace and environmental settings. Your employer has an obligation to protect you from both dermal (skin) and inhalation exposure to Benzene. The law imposes an obligation on your employer to provide you with a safe place to work. If your employer failed to provide you with the proper safety equipment when working around Benzene, then you may have a claim against your employer for failing to provide you with a safe place to work.. In addition, depending upon when your exposure took place, the manufacturers of the Benzene may be liable for damages. Investigation into your work history and exposure history to Benzene is a critical component in determining whether you have a claim ...
Enviro-Mich message from Pam Ortner ,[email protected], ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Please see attached flyer. I will be traveling to Sarnia to meet at an occupational health clinic for a presentation on Benzene. There was a recent large spill of Benzene at the plant there, and the managers have threatened workers not to talk about what happened, not even to the occupational health clinic. Workers are fearful of the effects of Benzene and afraid of losing their jobs. They are in contract negotiations with plant and are getting ready to strike. Dr. Peter Infante is with OSHA. At the presentation will be workers, members of a breast cancer coaltion, occupational health nurses, industrial hygienists and docs. If you are interested in hearing the presentation, I can drive several folks with me; Al Cholger with P.A.C.E. International is planning on attending and could drive as well. We could meet at SEMCOSH if you like. If you are interested in a ...
Dec 18, 1989 · Looking at Table 1 one notes that the maximum 8-hour TWA airborne benzene concentration in which a full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridges may be used is 50 ppm. Since the 8-hour TWA PEL for benzene is 1 ppm, the protection factor for that respirator is 50, i.e., 50 ppm divided by 1 ppm. Benzene also has a 15-minute STEL of 5 ppm ...
Benzene and toluene mixing ratios were measured in the indoor air of homes with attached garages for several seasons using a thermal desorption GC-FID sampling and analysis protocol (EPA T0-17). Benzene in the living area of these homes ranged from 1--72 ppbv and toluene ranged 3--111 ppbv. The garage levels of benzene ranged from 8--304 pbbv and the toluene levels ranged from 14--591 ppbv. Numerous experiments and a model support the hypothesis of a single source of toluene and benzene. Source strength estimate calculations supported the hypothesis that gasoline in the attached garage is the primary source of these compounds in living area air. They also showed that the home with the air-to-air heat exchangers and forced ventilation had less transport of aromatics than an unventilated home. Perturbation experiments showed that a metal gas can filled with gasoline in the garage and an indoor window open were important factors for benzene and toluene levels in the living areas of the homes. For ...
The FDA currently recommends a limit of two ppm (part per million) for liquid hand sanitizer, but does not have recommendations for others such as sprays.. For its analysis, Valisure sampled 260 bottles from 168 brands sold at various big box stores, supermarkets pharmacies and online retailers across the country.. Of the liquid and non-liquid products tested, 44 batches or 17 percent, had detectable levels of benzene.. A total of 21 bottles, or eight percent of the supply, contained levels of benzene above two parts per million. An eight-ounce bottle of hand sanitizer made by company artnaturals had the highest level of benzene at 16 parts per million.. Test results by the online pharmacy were verified by Yale Universitys Chemical and Biophysical Instrumentation Center and Boston Analytics, a private laboratory.. All of the products with the highest levels of benzene began selling their products in either April or May 2020, according to FDA records, when mainstays were disappearing off of ...
benzene nucleus n : a closed chain of 6 carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached [syn: {benzene formula}, {benzene ring}, {Kekule formula}] dictd_www.dict.org_gcide Benzene nucleus Benzene \Benzene\, n. [From {Benzoin}.] (Chem.) A volatile, very inflammable liquid, {C6H6}, contained in the naphtha produced by the destructive distillation of coal, from which it is separated by fractional distillation. The name is so
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Los Angeles, United State - The report is a brilliant presentation of critical dynamics, regional growth, competition, and other important aspects of the global Ethyl Benzene Market. It provides accurate market figures and statistics including CAGR, revenue, volume, consumption, production, market shares, price, and gross margin. Each regional market studied in the report is carefully analyzed to explore key opportunities and business prospects they are expected to offer in the near future. The authors of the report profile some of the leading names of the global Ethyl Benzene market on the basis of various factors. This equips players with crucial information and data to improve their business tactics and ensure a strong foothold in the global Ethyl Benzene market.. All of the segments shed light upon in the report are examined for their future growth in the global Ethyl Benzene market. The report also shows their current growth in the global Ethyl Benzene market so that players could cash in ...
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Phil Dennis and Sandra Dworatzek of SiREM will present a platform presentation Advances in Anaerobic Bioremediation of Benzene at Smart Remediation 2019 Toronto and Ottawa events, respectively. The presentation covers advances in our ability to implement anaerobic bioremediation for benzene and other BTEX compounds. These processes have great potential for cost-effective bioremediation of gasoline contamination and at other BTEX sites. The research has been performed under a Genomic Applications Partnership Program grant (Genome Canada) in collaboration with University of Toronto and Federated Cooperatives.. SiREM is a Bronze Sponsor at the Toronto and Ottawa events. The Toronto event will be held January 24th at Lionhead Golf Club and Conference Centre in Brampton and the Ottawa event on February 7th at the Ottawa Conference and Event Centre.. Contact Smart Remediation to Register. ...
Air testing over one of the nations biggest natural gas fields revealed two sites with extremely high levels of cancer-causing benzene and 19 more with
Certain trades put workers at particularly high risk for developing certain benzene-related diseases. Painters, mechanics and workers in the printing industry are at high risk for significant, chronic benzene exposure. But workers have also been exposed in many other industries as well, such as workers in the rubber and plastics industries, machinists, railroad workers, ship & shipyard workers, and refinery workers. Any job that puts workers in regular contact with materials that contain benzene puts those workers at risk for exposure to benzene-particularly because of the chemicals high rate of evaporation. Materials containing benzene may include lubricants, pesticides, detergents, and dyes. If benzene exposure is a risk in your workplace, please take precautions to protect yourself from the effects of this toxic chemical. Even if you dont feel those effects now, you could suffer a devastating disease later in life because of these exposures. ...
Large-scale separation of substances present at low concentrations is readily performed by adsorption in packed beds that requires recurring energy-intensive regeneration of the adsorbent. The present work uses numerical simulations previously developed for industrial-scale packed-bed benzene sorption on activated carbon with temperature-swing regeneration by steam to investigate the influence of steam properties and regeneration strategy on total energy performance and breakthrough behaviour. It is shown that using saturated steam lowers both the steam mass and energy consumption during regeneration of a fixed amount of benzene, whereas using superheated steam returns the bed to a more fresh-like state after each regeneration stage. The most promising variation tried implies a 19% reduction in the energy consumption. Furthermore, the importance of accounting for the real industrial cycling conditions in the optimization of packed-bed adsorbers is highlighted. It is shown that the participation of
Description: Benzene occurs naturally in crude oil. Benzene is a component of petroleum products including diesel fuel and gasoline. Benzene cases have resulted in a wide range of verdicts and settlements. For your information, contact Benzene Lawyers today ...
Ni catalysts supported on Nano porous catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method and tested for vapor phase hydrogenation of benzene. The textural and physico-chemical properties of Ni catalysts were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The catalytic evaluation revealed that the best selectivity to benzene (| 84%) and high stability with the low coke deposition (| 1.1%) are related to Ni/Folded Sheets Mesoporous Materials-No. 16. The kinetics of benzene hydrogenation has been examined as a function of benzene and hydrogen pressures at various temperatures. Two kinetic models based on power law and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms were developed for the reaction and compared with the obtained experimental data. The apparent kinetic parameters were estimated using the multiple regression analysis. Both these models present the good results.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative investigation of benzene steam reforming over spinel supported Rh and Ir catalysts. AU - Mei, Donghai. AU - Lebarbier, Vanessa M.. AU - Rousseau, Roger. AU - Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra. AU - Albrecht, Karl O.. AU - Kovarik, Libor. AU - Flake, Matt. AU - Dagle, Robert A.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O 4-supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the spinel (e.g., MgAl2O4) support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850 C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O 4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At steam conditions with the molar steam-to-carbon ratio ,12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial ...
The word benzene derives historically from gum benzoin, sometimes called benjamin (i.e., benzoin resin), an aromatic resin known to European pharmacists and perfumers since the fifteenth century as a product of southeast Asia. Benzoin is itself a corruption of the Arabic expression luban jawi, or frankincense of Java. An acidic material was derived from benzoin by sublimation, and named flowers of benzoin, or benzoic acid. The hydrocarbon derived from benzoic acid thus acquired the name benzin, benzol, or benzene.[1] Benzene has been the subject of many studies by scientists ranging from Michael Faraday to Linus Pauling. Faraday first isolated benzene in 1825 from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas, giving it the name bicarburet of hydrogen.[2][3] In 1833, Eilhard Mitscherlich produced it via the distillation of benzoic acid (from gum benzoin) and lime. Mitscherlich gave the compound the name benzin.[4] In 1836 the French chemist Auguste Laurent named ...
Incorporated as Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) in 2016 Benzene Media LLP kicks off its business in primarily government and Corporate Sector later expand its business for everyone. Located in North West Delhi, Benzene Media LLP is providing world class printing service and digital marketing solution to all its customer since its inception. Providing a range of printing solution such as Flex Printing, Vinyl Printing, Sunboard Printing, Oneway Vision Printing, Banner Printing, Hoarding Printing, Poster printing, Pamphlets printing, Visiting Card printing, T-Shirt Printing, Cap Printing, Key Chain Printing, Bag and carry bag printing, Benzene Media LLP always keep its clients satisfied by providing them best quality printing at most cost effective prices. In indoor and outdoor signage, Benzene Media LLP provides Glow Sign Board Printing, Light Board Printing, Letter Cutting Printing, Cut outs printing, Selfie Cutout Printing, ACP Board printing, PVC Stickers Printing, LED Board Printing, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A simple, rapid and mild one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine under solvent-free conditions. AU - Begum, Sabira. AU - Ali, Syed Nawazish. AU - Farhat, AU - Hassan, Syed Imran. AU - Siddiqui, Bina S.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total) were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.. AB - A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring ...
REGULATION 9 TOXIC AIR CONTAMINANTS CONTENTS PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 PURPOSE 1.2 APPLICABILITY 1.3 THROUGHPUT DETERMINATION 1.4 EXEMPTIONS PART 2.0 DEFINITIONS 2.1 ARB CERTIFIED VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.2 PHASE I VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.3 PHASE II VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.4 GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.5 EXISTING GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.6 MODIFIED GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.7 NEW GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.8 GASOLINE 2.9 THROUGHPUT 2.10 LEAK FREE 2.11 VAPOR TIGHT PART 3.0 STANDARDS 3.1 TRANSFER REQUIREMENTS 3.2 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 3.3 PROHIBITION OF USE 3.4 POSTING OF OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PART 4.0 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS 4.1 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Purpose To comply with Health and Safety Code Section 93101, by reducing benzene emissions from gasoline dispensing facilities. 1.2 Applicability 1.2.1 This rule shall apply to any new or modified gasoline dispensing facility, or to any existing gasoline dispensing facility with an annual throughput of 480,000 ...
A series of silica supported Mn-Ce composite oxides with different Mn/Ce molar ratios were obtained by a simple and environment-friendly oxalate route. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by TG, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and TPR analysis. All catalysts showed excellent activity towards deep oxidation of benzene. The effects of Mn/Ce ratio, calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic activity of catalysts were investigated. Catalyst from nitrate precursor was also characterized to compare the influence of different precursors. The 6Mn4Ce sample from oxalate route sintered at 400 A degrees C showed the maximum reaction rate of 0.50 mmol gcat(-1)h(-1); T90 of the catalyst is 216 A degrees C. The catalytic activity is related to surface area, pore size distribution, surface elemental species, particle size distribution and low temperature reducibility which may derived from synergistic effect between manganese and cerium oxide. Compared with nitrate precursors, catalyst from ...
MnOx nanoparticles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis, with and without citric acid assistance. The prepared MnOx particles were calcined between 600 and 1000°C and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and temperature-programmed reduction. The use of citric acid made it possible to reduce the particle size and increase the surface area of the MnOx particles. The highest surface area and reduction activity were achieved with citric acid. As a result, the MnOx nanoparticles prepared with citric acid and calcined at 600°C showed the highest catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzene using ozone ...
BATON ROUGE, La. -- A Louisiana benzene plaintiff whose lawsuit was dismissed has filed an appeal with the 5th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals, in which he will contest the lower courts finding that the plaintiffs reliance on an MSDS report on benzene and an informational paper on vinyl chloride was insufficient to meet the burden of either general or specific causation. The appeal was filed with the 5th Circuit in January; on Feb. 14, the electronic record on appeal was requested from the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana, according to the appellate courts online docket. ...
Firm Shareholders James L. Ware and Wes Sprague won a summary judgment in a benzene case in a traditionally difficult venue for defendants, Beaumont, Jefferson County, Texas. The plaintiff was a long time welder who worked for a leading contractor in several refineries and rubber manufacturing facilities in Jefferson County, Harris County, and Galveston County. The allegations were that the welder helped wash tools in benzene on a daily basis leading to his development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) leaving him unable to work and in need of lifetime medical care. The plaintiffs deposition as to the firm client varied from the initial testimony of exposure which were identical as to each premise. At most the testimony supported there being a residue of liquid inside pipes on occasion which the plaintiff asked his helper to dry with rags before he welded them. In addition to the contradictions in liability evidence, the plaintiffs condition of MDS was refuted and his symptoms may have been ...
The availability and low cost of shale gas has boosted its use as fuel and as a raw material to produce value-added compounds. Benzene is one of the chemicals that can be obtained from methane, and represents one of the most important compounds in the petrochemical industry. It can be synthesized via direct methane aromatization (DMA) or via indirect aromatization (using oxidative coupling of methane). DMA is a direct-conversion process, while indirect aromatization involves several stages. In this work, an economic, energy-saving, and environmental assessment for the production of benzene from shale gas using DMA as a reaction path is presented. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to observe the effect of the operating conditions on the profitability of the process. The results show that production of benzene using shale gas as feedstock can be accomplished with a high return on investment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic transformation of methyl benzenes over zeolite catalysts. AU - Al-Khattaf, S.. AU - Akhtar, M. N.. AU - Odedairo, T.. AU - Aitani, A.. AU - Tukur, N. M.. AU - Kubů, M.. AU - Musilová-Pavlačková, Z.. AU - Čejka, J.. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): K-C1-019-12 Acknowledgements: This publication was supported by Award No. K-C1-019-12 made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The support of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) is also highly appreciated. The work of M.K. was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (203/08/H032). This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Catalytic transformation of three methyl benzenes (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene) has been investigated over ZSM-5, TNU-9, mordenite and SSZ-33 catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion of methane to benzene over Mo2C and Mo2C/ZSM-5 catalysts. AU - Solymosi, F.. AU - Szöke, A.. AU - Cserényi, J.. PY - 1996/6. Y1 - 1996/6. N2 - The activation and dehydrogenation of CH4 on Mo2C and Mo2C/ZSM-5 have been investigated under non-oxidizing conditions. Unsupported Mo2C exhibited very little activity towards methane decomposition at 973 K. The main reaction pathway was the decomposition of methane to give hydrogen and carbon with a trace amount of ethane. Mixing Mo2C with ZSM-5 support somewhat enhanced its catalytic activity, but did not change the products of the reaction. A dramatic change in the product formation occurred on partially oxidized Mo2C/ZSM-5 catalyst; besides some hydrocarbons benzene was produced with a selectivity of 70-80% at a conversion of 5-7%. Carburization of highly dispersed MoO3 on ZSM-5 also led to a very active catalyst: the conversion of methane at the steady state was 5-6% and the selectivity of benzene formation was 85% ...
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The question is addressed of whether the triruthenium cluster cation [Ru-3(mu(2)-H)(3)(eta(6)C(6)H(6))(eta(6)-C6Me6)(2)(mu(3)-O)](+), 1, is a supramolecular, outer-sphere benzene hydrogenation catalyst or is 1 a precatalyst to well-known Ru(0)(n) catalysis of benzene hydrogenation. This question of "is it homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis?" is especially important in the present case since if 1 is a supramolecular, homogeneous catalyst as postulated in the literature that is, if 1 can in fact accomplish catalysis of reactions as difficult as benzene reduction with no inner-sphere, d-orbital-mediated ligand dissociation, oxidative addition, migratory insertion, or reductive elimination-then that finding holds promise of rewriting the rules of organometallic-based catalysis. The identity of the true catalyst derived from 1 is, therefore, addressed by a collaborative effort between research groups at the Universite de Neuchatel and Colorado State University. The methodology employed is that
View Notes - Mehta-Ashay-244-Project2 from MGMT 121 at NJIT. Ashay Mehta Organic Chemistry II April 30, 2010 Part I: Benzene or 1,3,5-Cyclohexatriene? Structure Benzene 1,3,5-Cyclohexatriene