Dibenz[a,h]anthracene has been shown to be carcinogenic to experimental animals.. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene is embryotoxic to rats when given at high doses. The available data on teratogenicity were inadequate for evaluation. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was positive in differential survival assays using DNA-repair-proficient/-deficient strains of bacteria and was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. In cultured mammalian cells, dibenz[a,h]anthracene was mutagenic and induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. It was positive in assays for morphological transformation. In the one available study, it induced sister chromatid exchange but not chromosomal aberrations in vivo.. There is sufficient evidence that dibenz[a,h]anthracene is active in short-term tests. ...
9,10-Dihydro-4,5-diacetoxy-9,10-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data.
Looking for online definition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the Medical Dictionary? polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon explanation free. What is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon? Meaning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon medical term. What does polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mean?
Pyrene derivatives can be carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic, thus having the potential to cause malignant diseases. In this work, the interactions of two selected pyrene derivatives (1-OHP and 1-PBO) and human tumor-related DNA (p53 DNA and C-myc DNA) are investigated by spectroscopic and non-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. Using fluorescence spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD), DNA interactions of pyrene derivatives are confirmed to occur mainly via the groove binding mode supported by the intercalation into the base pairs of DNA. There is an obvious binding order of pyrene derivatives to the targeted DNA, 1-OHP | 1-PBO. The binding constants of 1-OHP are 1.16 × 106 L×mol−1 and 4.04 × 105 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively, while that of 1-PBO are only 2.04 × 103 L×mol−1 and 1.39 × 103 L×mol−1 for p53 DNA and C-myc DNA, respectively. Besides, the binding of pyrene derivatives to p53 DNA is stronger than that for C-myc DNA. CD and PAGE
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The invention provides methods for substituting polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds with perfluoroalkyl groups. The methods can include heating a polyaromatic hydrocarbon substrate or a polyheterocyclic compound substrate in the presence of a perfluoroalkyl iodide, typically in a closed system, wherein the heating is sufficient to bring both the polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compound, and the perfluoroalkyl iodide, into the gas phase, thereby allowing the substrate to react with the perfluoroalkyl iodide in the gas phase to form polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polyheterocyclic compounds having one or more perfluoroalkyl substituents. The methods allow for the creation of versatile libraries of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing derivatives that can serve as important building blocks and active components in biomedical, electronic, and materials applications.
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was induced 15-fold in Ambystoma tigrinum by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene in corn oil, or 10-fold by addition of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons to the aqueous environment of the neotene animal. The cytochrome P-450-associated microsomal enzyme is similar to the inducible, one-gene, autosomal-dominant system typical in the laboratory mouse and man. Differences in optimal temperature for enzyme induction and activity were noted in organ culture of human and Ambystoma tissues, and ratios of benzpyrene metabolites differed between Ambystoma and Mus. The half life of enzyme activity induced in vivo was related to the excretion of hydrocarbon metabolites.
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An increase in zoxazolamine (2-amino-5-chlorobenzoxazole) metabolism, as determined either by paralysis time or by an enzyme assay in vitro, is associated with aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase induction among inbred strains of aromatic hydrocarbon-treated, genetically "responsive" mice, does not occur in inbred, genetically "nonresponsive," aromatic hydrocarbon-treated mice, and segregates (p , 0.01) with the Ah locus in the appropriate genetic crosses between "responsive" and "nonresponsive" mice. Hexobarbital metabolism, as determined by sleeping time, is not associated with the Ah locus in either inbred or hybrid mice. The inbred strains used for zoxazolamine and hexobarbital studies were C57BL/6N, BALB/cAnN, C3G/HeN, DBA/2N, and AKR/N. A rise in 5,5-diphenylhydantoin metabolism, as determined by the increased formation of p-hydroxy and 3,4-dihydrodiol derivatives in vitro, is associated with the presence of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction among aromatic ...
The administration of 2.5 mg retinyl acetate daily in the diet to female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning 7 days after the intragastric instillation of either 2.5, 5, or 15 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (CMBA) resulted in a reduction in the incidence of benign mammary tumors of 37, 30, and 31%, respectively. An equally significant reduction in the number of tumors was also evident. Although no difference was noted in the percentage incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas between the placebo and 2.5 mg retinyl acetate-treated groups at the 2.5-mg DMBA level, the percentage incidence was reduced by 52 and 39% in these groups at the 5- and 15-mg DMBA dose. Furthermore, the number of adenocarcinomas was also significantly reduced. Although both the percentage incidence and number of tumors were reduced by treatment with 1 mg retinyl acetate, these differences were not statistically significant. Liver histology and liver function tests of rats of the retinyl acetate groups did not differ from that of the
To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, {sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange)in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts ({sup}32{end}P postlabeling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorus-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. AU - Szűcs, Rózsa. AU - Bouit, Pierre Antoine. AU - Nyulászi, L.. AU - Hissler, Muriel. PY - 2017/10/6. Y1 - 2017/10/6. N2 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing functional materials in the field of molecular electronics. In particular, molecular engineering of these derivatives by using organic chemistry is a powerful method to tune their properties from the point of view of the band gap and supramolecular assemblies. Another way to achieve such control is to take advantage of the specific reactivity of heteroatoms placed within the sp2-carbon framework. This strategy has been successfully applied to nitrogen, sulfur and boron. In this review, examples of phosphorus-containing PAHs and the effect of the phosphorus environment on the electronic properties from both experimental and theoretical points of view are discussed.. AB - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing ...
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Stereoselective metabolism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), 2-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (2-Cl-DB[a,l]P) and 10-chlorodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (10-Cl-DB[a,l]P) by rat liver microsomes was studied and effects of the chloro substituent on the metabolism were determined. All three compounds produced trans-8,9-dihydrodiol, trans-11,12-dihydrodiol, and the 7-hydroxyl derivative as major metabolic products and several other phenolic derivatives as minor metabolites. The trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols of DB[a,l]P and 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P preferentially adopted a quasidiequatorial conformation, whereas 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-8,9- and 11,12-dihydrodiols preferentially adopted a quasidiaxial conformation. The yields of the trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites are: DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol | 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol || 10-Cl-DB[a,l]P trans-11,12-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis indicates that the trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans-11,12-dihydrodiol metabolites from DB[a,l]P, 2-Cl-DB[a,l]P
Electron transfer reactions have been studied between 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid co-adsorbed with perylene on silica gel surfaces employing azulene as a molecular shuttle in order to facilitate hole transfer. In this paper we present for the first time a ternary system that unambiguously demonstrates an appreciable mobility of radical cations on the silica gel surface. Rates of hole transfer from the 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid radical cation to perylene via azulene have been studied using diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis spectroscopy. Azulene has been shown to enhance the rate of electron transfer in the ternary system, proving significant mobility of the azulene and its radical cation species on silica gel surfaces. The data shows that the azulene radical cation can diffuse at an appreciable rate on the silica gel surface ...
Cometabolic biodegradation processes are potentially useful for the bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as "priming biocatalysts" was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. We observed that a phenol-oxidizing Pseudomonas strain cometabolically degrades a range of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to overcome the competitive effects between two substrates and the SBR was evaluated as a alternative technology to treat mixed contaminants including phenol and PAHs. We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. Our results indicated that all the compounds are transformed by N. ...
The influence of peptide sequence and Leu chirality in linear and cyclic peptides containing 3-[2-(9-anthryl)benzoxazol-5-yl]alanine on interaction with β-cyclodextrin were studied using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. The analysis of enthalpy-entropy compensation effect (α=1.05±0.02 and TΔS00=15.1±0.5 kJ mol−1) indicates that the entropic contribution connected with the solvent reorganization is the major factor governing the peptides-β-cyclodextrin complexation. Moreover, spatial orientation of guest-host molecule depends more than association constant on Leu residue configuration. However, the cyclization of the peptide chain substantially decrease the association constant with β-CD. An analysis of 2D NMR spectra reveals that inclusion complex is formed by penetration of cyclodextrin cavity from wider and narrow rims by anthryl group in the case of Box(Ant)-SPKL or anthryl and Leu residues for Box(Ant)-SPK(D)L analogue ...
A study was conducted to determine the protective effects of two common dietary proteins, soy protein isolate (soy) and bovine whey, against chemically induced mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets having casein, soy, or whey as the sole protein source. Rats within the same dietary groups were mated to obtain the F1 and F2 generations. At age 50 days, F1 (experiment A) or F2 (experiment B) female offspring (≥19 rats/group) were p.o. gavaged with 80 mg/kg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, and mammary glands were evaluated when 100% of the casein-fed group developed at least one palpatable tumor. Rats grew well on all three diets, but casein-fed rats gained slightly more body weight than soy- or whey-fed rats (P , 0.05). Vaginal opening occurred 1 day earlier in soy-fed rats than in casein- or whey-fed rats, but no other differences in reproductive and developmental parameters were observed between groups. When 50% of the casein-fed rats had at least one mammary ...
Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or 75 nM; high-concentration). After four or eight additional days of culture, DMBA-induced follicle depletion was evaluated via follicle enumeration. Relative to control, DMBA did not affect follicle numbers after 4 days of exposure, but induced large primary follicle loss at both concentrations after 8 days; while, the low-concentration DMBA also caused ...
Air sampled from the breathing zone of chimney sweeps during "dirty work" and soot samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 20 PAH were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 115 air samples and 18 soot samples. These included benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, all of which are animal carcinogens. The summed atmospheric concentration of these compounds depended on the type of fuel used and averaged 2.27 micrograms/m3 for oil fuel. If a mixture of oil and solid fuel was used the concentration was 5.06 micrograms/m3; pure solid fuel heating yielded 5.08 micrograms/m3. The air concentrations of BaP were 0.36, 0.83, and 0.82 micrograms/m3 respectively. The soot samples recovered after using the three different fuel types were 10.50, 109.10, and 51.25 mg BaP/kg. The maximum total concentrations of the five carcinogenic PAH were 243.70, 691.06, and 213.94 mg/kg respectively. The ...
Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancers induced by common environmental chemicals. Much of the biologic activity of one such class of pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/transcription factor (AhR). For example, the AhR regulates PAH immunotoxicity that manifests as pre-B cell apoptosis in models of B cell development. Because bioflavonoids block PAH-induced cell transformation and are structurally similar to AhR ligands, it was postulated that some of them would suppress PAH-induced, AhR-dependent immunotoxicity, possibly through a direct AhR blockade. This hypothesis was tested using a model of B cell development in which pre-B cells are cultured with and are dependent on bone marrow stromal or hepatic parenchymal cell monolayers. Of seven bioflavonoids screened, galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) blocked PAH-induced but not C(2)-ceramide- or H(2)O(2)-induced ...
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic contaminants present in environments. In China, with increasing environmental pollution and anthropological disturbances to the coastal environment, developing effective methods for remediating organic pollutants has become an important issue for coastal management and ecosystem restoration. However, little information is available on PAHs uptake and degradation by algae, especially from coastal water.In this study, we investigated the uptake and degradation of two PAHs ( phenanthrene and pyrene), under a range of concentrations from 0.1mg/l to 2.0mg/l, by brown seaweed Laminaria joapnica, and examined the catabolic pathway of PAHs during degradation by seaweed. The uptake and degradation of the two PAHs are concentration and toxicant dependent.In laboratory studies, under a certain range of PAHs concentrations (,0.2mg/l), Laminaria joapnica showed a great capacity to take up and metabolize phenanthrene and pyrene. In ...
0192]The compounds of the present invention include: [0193]S-2-(3-carbamoyl-6-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylam- ino)-2-oxo ethyl 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanethioate; [0194]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophe- ne-3-carboxamide; [0195]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)acetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thioph- ene-3-carboxamide; [0196]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-yloxy)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiop- hene-3-carboxamide; [0197]2-(2-(1H-indol-3-ylthio)propanamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thio- phene-3-carboxamide; [0198]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xo ethoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0199]4-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-2-o- xoethylthio)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0200]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- xopropan-2-yloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid; [0201]4-(1-(3-carbamoyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-ylamino)-1-o- ...
0261]Blue-green to green light emission can be obtained, for example, by using a coumarin dye such as coumarin 30 or coumarin 6, bis[2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridinato]picolinatokidium (abbreviation: FIrpic), bis(2-phenylpyridinato)acetylacetonatoiridium (abbreviation: Ir(ppy)2(acac)), or the like as a guest material and dispersing the guest material in a suitable host material. Further, blue-green to green light emission can be obtained by dispersing perylene or TBP, which are mentioned above, in a suitable host material at a high concentration of 5 wt % or more. Further alternatively, blue-green to green light emission can be obtained from a metal complex such as BAlq, Zn(BTZ)2, or bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinolato)chlorogallium (Ga(mq)2Cl). Further, a polymer such as poly(p-phenylenevinylene) may be used. Further, an anthracene derivative is preferable as a guest material of a blue-green to green light-emitting layer, as high light-emitting efficiency can be obtained when an anthracene derivative is ...
The present study has investigated the modulating effect of carnosic acid on the expression pattern of cell proliferative (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) cyclin D1 and a transcription factor c-fos), apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2, Bax caspase -3 and 9), inflammatory (Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX- 2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) markers during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were developed in the hamsters buccal pouches by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Hundred per cent tumour formation (well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) accompanied by deregulation in the above mentioned molecular markers was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone (tumour bearing hamsters). Oral administration of carnosic acid at dose of 10mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA not only completely prevented the tumour formation, but also corrected ...
Title:Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer: Effect of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) Leaf Powder and its Pigment Artifact, Lawsone in the Epstein- Barr Virus Early Antigen Activation Assay and in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis Models. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Govind J. Kapadia, G. Subba Rao, Rajagopalan Sridhar, Eiichiro Ichiishi, Midori Takasaki, Nobutaka Suzuki, Takao Konoshima, Akira Iida and Harukuni Tokuda. Affiliation:College of Pharmacy, Howard University, 2300 4th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20059, USA.. Keywords:Chemoprevention, epstein-Barr virus antigen assay, henna leaf powder, lawsone, mouse skin cancer models.. Abstract:In continuation of our studies with chemoprevention potential of plant-derived naphthoquinone derivatives, leaf powder of the medicinal plant Lawsonia inermis L, commonly known as henna, was evaluated by its inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji ...
Deregulated estrogen signaling is evidently linked to breast cancer pathophysiology, although the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)5a, integral to normal mammary gland development, is less clear. A mouse model of mammary epithelial cell-targeted deregulated estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression [conditional ERα in mammary epithelium (CERM)] was crossed with mice carrying a germ line deletion of Stat5a [Stat5a−/−] to investigate interactions between ERα and Stat5a in mammary tissue. CERM, CERM/Stat5a+/−, CERM/Stat5a−/−, Stat5a+/−, Stat5a−/− and wild-type (WT) mice were generated to test the roles of ERα and Stat5a on pubertal differentiation and cancer progression with and without exposure to the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Only CERM/Stat5a−/− mice demonstrated delayed pubertal terminal end bud differentiation. Without DMBA exposure, Stat5a loss abrogated ERα-initiated hyperplastic alveolar nodule (HAN) ...
δ-Aminolevulinic acid was incorporated in vivo into C-phycocyanin and B-phycoerythrin in two species of the Rhodophyta (Cyanidium caldarium, Porphyridium cruentum) and three species of the Cyanophyta (Anacystis nidulans, Plectonema boryanum, Phormidium luridum). Amino acid analysis of phycocyanin-14C from C. caldarium cells which had been incubated with δ-aminolevulinate-4-14C showed that 84% of the radioactivity incorporated was present in the phycocyanobilin chromophore and less than 16% of the radioactivity cochromatographed with amino acids. These results indicate that δ-aminolevulinate is utilized predominantly via the porphyrin pathway in C. caldarium. Conversely, analysis of phycocyanin-14C prepared from cells of A. nidulans, P. boryanum, and P. luridum which had been incubated with radiolabeled δ-aminolevulinate demonstrated that 85%, 81%, and 93%, respectively, of the radioactivity incorporated cochromatographed with amino acids. The ratio of incorporated radioactivity in amino ...
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Binding of isomers of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide to chromatin. AU - Kootstra, A.. AU - Slaga, T. J.. PY - 1980/4/14. Y1 - 1980/4/14. N2 - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. AB - Both the carcinogenic B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) and its relatively noncarcinogenic isomer, B[a]P diol-epoxide (syn), when reacted with chromatin in vitro, bind more extensively to the internucleosomal region of chromatin than to nucleosomes. These results suggest that the increased binding of B[a]P diol-epoxide (anti) to the internucleosomal region may have little relevance to the process of carcinogenesis.. UR - ...
Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of ...
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Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO) is known for its immunostimulatory capacities and has been successfully used to generate vector vaccines effective especially in non-permissive host species. Murine conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (cDC and pDC) are able to recognize PPVO. The PPVO-sensing receptor on pDC is hitherto unknown. In this study we aimed to define the pattern recognition receptor responsible for the activation of murine pDC by inactivated and replication-competent PPVO. We show that PPVO-induced expression of type I and type III interferons, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and co-stimulatory CD86 by bone marrow-derived pDC but not cDC is blocked by chloroquine, an inhibitor of endosomal maturation. The activation of pDC is independent of viral replication and depends mainly on TLR9. Moreover, the use of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin or C-Jun-N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125 results in significant reduction of PPVO-induced pDC activation. Taken together, our data
Five types of nanofibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (P(LA/CL)), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (MPEG-PLGA), respectively. These electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENFMs) were used to adsorb anthracene (ANT), benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from aqueous solution, and the sorption kinetics and isotherms of these PAHs on the five ENFMs were investigated. The pseudo-second-order model (PSOM) can well describe the sorption kinetics of the three PAHs on five ENFMs, and the partition-adsorption model (PAM) can interpret the sorption processes of PAHs on the ENFMs. PCL ENFMs, which had the largest surface areas (8.57 m(2)g(-1)), exhibited excellent sorption capacity for ANT at over 4112.3 ± 35.5 μg g(-1). Moreover, the hydrophobicity and pore volume of ENFMs significantly affected the sorption kinetics and sorption capacity
A synthesis of the spirocyclopente-dione anthracene adduct, a precursor of the cyclopentenone prostaglandins has been reported. The synthesis involved a Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and dimethyl fumarate to afford 3 followed by reduction, oxidation and esterification reactions to provide methyl ester anthracene adduct 8, which further converted to the the allylic alcohol (12). Then, Ring-Closing Metathesis (RCM) reaction afforded the cyclopentenol anthracene adduct, which after oxidation provided the spirocyclopente-dione anthracene adduct in good yields.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulations of benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA adduct, cyclin D1 and PCNA in oral tissue by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate. AU - Chen, Kun Ming. AU - Sacks, Peter G.. AU - Spratt, Thomas E.. AU - Lin, Jyh Ming. AU - Boyiri, Telih. AU - Schwartz, Joel. AU - Richie, John P.. AU - Calcagnotto, Ana. AU - Das, Arunangshu. AU - Bortner, James. AU - Zhao, Zonglin. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Guttenplan, Joseph. AU - El-Bayoumy, Karam. PY - 2009/5/22. Y1 - 2009/5/22. N2 - Tobacco smoking is an important cause of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tobacco smoke contains multiple carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons typified by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Surgery is the conventional treatment approach for SCC, but it remains imperfect. However, chemoprevention is a plausible strategy and we had previously demonstrated that 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) significantly inhibited tongue tumors-induced by the synthetic 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (not present ...
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene has produced tumours by different routes of administration in mice, rats, guinea pigs, frogs, pigeons and chickens. It has both local and systemic carcinogenic effects.. On oral administration, it produced tumours of the forestomach in the mouse; intratracheal administration to rats produced lung tumours. In repeated skin painting experiments in mice, dibenz(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene appeared to be equally effective. In a dose-response study on s.c. carcinogenicity with dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene was shown to be effective at a lower dose than that effective for benzo(a)pyrene or for 3-methylcholanthrene; its latent period, however, was longer. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene induced local sarcomas and increased the incidence of lung adenomas following a single s.c. injection in newborn mice at dose levels which were ineffective with 3-methylcholanthrene. It has not been adequately tested in other species. ...
An investigation for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulates using thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. Samples are obtained from ambient air using fibreglass filters and the volatile material from the filter is thermally desorbed to gas chromatograph. A 30 meter capillary column is used to separate the hydrocarbons and eight polyaromatic hydrocarbons are used to test the method and recovery is >95%. The eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, pyrene, benzo (a) anthracene, chrysene, benzo (a) pyrene and benzo (e) pyrene were the most abundant PAHs found in the samples of ambient air with current method at Uxbridge-London. Application of the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air samples shows that the hydrocarbons trapped in the particle phase to a lesser degree at higher ambient temperature. In conclusion a method has been developed to transfer the PAHs in ...
215869-18-4 - 9,10-Anthracenedione, 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, spent catalyst, from hydrogen peroxide manuf. - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The construction of transgenic FVB/N mice targeting the PMLRARA fusion gene under the control of a human MRP8 promoter recapitulated the phenotype of acute promyelocytic leukemia but had the unexpected result of multiple squamous papillomas of the skin (Brown et al., PROC: Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94:2551-2556, 1997). In addition, transgenic MRP8-PMLRARA mice exhibited a skin phenotype characteristic of vitamin A deficiency. The severity of the skin phenotype and spontaneous papilloma development correlated with the level of transgene expression. Papilloma formation was preceded by follicular hyperplasia and the expression of epidermal differentiation markers in the follicular epithelium. Mutations in the Ha or Ki alleles of ras were not detected in papillomas that developed on transgenic skin, and papilloma formation was accentuated on the C57/Bl6 background, unlike the usual resistance of this strain to skin tumor induction. Analysis of liver extracts from transgenic mice indicated a deficiency in the
Eleven new tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives were synthesized via a three component reaction of different aromatic aldehydes, methyl cyanoacetate and 1,3-cyclohexadione, with water as solvent under catalyst-free microwave irradiation. The structures of all the new molecules were well analysed and their structures established by using various spectral techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 15N NMR and HRMS). Various advantages of reported protocol are the ease of preparation, short reaction times (10 min), aqueous solvent and excellent yields (89-98%). Additionally, this method provides a clean access to the desired products by simple workup.
The dimer, called dianthracene (or sometimes paranthracene), is connected by a pair of new carbon-carbon bonds, the result of the [4+4] cycloaddition. It reverts to anthracene thermally or with UV irradiation below 300 nm. The reversible dimerization and the photochromic properties of anthracenes are the basis of potential applications.[11] Substituted anthracene derivatives behave similarly. The reaction is affected by the presence of oxygen. In general, reduction of anthracene yields 9,10-dihydroanthracene (destroying the aromaticity of the center ring) rather than 1,4-dihydroanthracene (which would destroy the aromaticity of one of the terminal rings). This preference for reduction at the 9 and 10 positions is explained by the fact that aromatic stabilization energy is directly correlated with the number of conjugated pi bonds in an aromatic system. Since 9,10-dihydroanthracene in essence preserves two "benzene" rings (a total of 6 conjugated pi bonds), whereas the 1,4-isomer preserves only ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body 2008. T2 - 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine in urine of the Korean population. AU - Sul, Dong Geun. AU - Ahn, Ryoungme. AU - Im, Hosub. AU - Oh, Eunha. AU - Kim, Jae Hyoun. AU - Kim, Jin Gyoung. AU - Kim, PanGyi. AU - Kim, Hyoung Ah. AU - Park, Won Yeul. AU - Son, Bu Soon. AU - Shin, Daeyewn. AU - Shim, Ae Sug. AU - Yang, Wonho. AU - Yu, Seung Do. AU - Lee, Kyoung Ho. AU - Lee, Kee Jae. AU - Lee, Sun dong. AU - Lee, Jong Wha. AU - Lee, Chae Kwan. AU - Jang, Bong Ki. AU - Choi, Kyungho. AU - Han, Don Hee. AU - Hwang, Moon Young. AU - Lee, Jin Heon. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - The Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body conducts representative Korean population studies, which were first initiated in 2005 in Korea. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2009 to determine the exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general ...
The effects of hypophysectomy and prolactin-suppressing drugs on the growth of mammary tumors induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by N-nitrosomethylurea and dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were compared. The influence of ovine prolactin and growth hormone administration on N-nitrosomethylurea-induced tumors was also studied in hypophysectomized animals. After hypophysectomy, all 13 tumors induced in 13 rats by N-nitrosomethylurea underwent regression, as did ten of 12 induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. There were no new tumors. Pergolide mesylate, a long-acting ergoline derivative, was given in a dose of 80 μg twice daily by s.c. injection for 28 days. Only three of 12 N-nitrosomethylurea-induced tumors regressed, while four became static. However, only two new tumors developed in the 12 pergolide-treated rats, compared to 11 in the 12 untreated controls. Bromocriptine mesylate, at ten times the pergolide dose, was even less effective; one of 16 tumors regressed, two became static, and eight new tumors ...
Many studies using mammalian cellular and subcellular systems have demonstrated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are metabolically activated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In order to evaluate the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of BaP and its pharmacokinetics, we used the hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, the unique electron donor to CYPs, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125 mg/kg body wt BaP daily for up to 5 days. Clearance of BaP from blood was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. DNA adduct levels were measured by 32P-post-labelling analysis with structural confirmation of the formation of 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene by liquid chromatography-tandem ...
Maprotiline (Ludiomil) is a tetracyclic antidepressant introduced in the early 1980s. It is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, which is believed to be its primary mechanism of antidepressant action. It had a particularly high incidence of seizures, which the manufacturer initially minimized. Today maprotiline is seldom prescribed.. Initial advertising for maprotiline featured the headline, "When Mechanism Matters." Perhaps the people who wrote the ad copy were banking on the Emperors-New-Clothes phenomenon: doctors would be too embarrassed to admit we didnt know when mechanism mattered in selecting an antidepressant for a depressed patient. We still dont.. We make assumptions. SSRIs work by enhancing serotonin. SNRIs work via both serotonin and norepinephrine. MAOIs work by inhibiting MAO. Perhaps these theories are valid; perhaps not. In theory, a patient who fails to respond to one SSRI should do better with a drug with a different mechanism of action, rather than a different SSRI. But ...
We examined the effects of several agents, including dietary flavonoids, on CYP1A1 expression utilizing a recently developed high-throughput screening system for assessing human cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction. HepG2 cells, stably integrated with regulatory regions of human CYP1A1, were treated with resveratrol, apigenin, curcumin, kaempferol, green tea extract (GTE), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and naringenin. Of these flavonoids, resveratrol produced the greatest increase in CYP1A1-mediated luciferase activity (10-fold), whereas GTE, apigenin, curcumin, and kaempferol produced 2- to 3-fold increases in activity. Compared with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), omeprazole, or benzanthracene, where increases in luciferase activity ranged from 12- to 35-fold, these flavonoids exhibited weak agonist activity. The remaining compounds, EGCG, quercetin, and naringenin, produced negligible effects. Cotreatment of cells with TCDD and GTE, naringenin, and apigenin resulted ...
A comparison was drawn between the action of Cibacron Blue F3GA on the enzymic activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from different sources, e.g. Escherichia coli, calf thymus and wheat germ (polymerase II). Sensitivity towards this inhibitor was determined for polymer formation and primed abortive synthesis of trinucleotide UpApU. In case of E. coli polymerase and wheat germ polymerase II the dye inhibits both polymer formation and abortive synthesis. Calf thymus polymerase II is inhibited only in the polymerisation step. The primed initiation reaction was found to be resistant towards the dye. In case of E. coli polymerase and wheat germ polymerase II the sensitive step is the formation of internucleotide bond whereas in case of calf thymus polymerase II the translocation of the enzyme is influenced. An analysis of kinetic data indicates more than one binding site for the dye on RNA polymerase II from calf thymus and wheat germ. Cibacron blue does not inhibit specific transcription ...
Cheek pouches are pockets on both sides of the head of some mammals between the jaw and the cheek. They can be found on mammals including the platypus, some rodents, and most monkeys, as well as the marsupial koala. The cheek pouches of chipmunks can reach the size of their body when full. Cheek pouches are located in the thickness of the flange on both sides of the mouth of some mammals. Monkeys have open cheek pouches within the oral cavity, but they open out in some rodents of America. Hence the name "diplostomes" is associated with them, which means "two mouths." In some rodents, such as hamsters, the cheek pouches are remarkably developed; they form two bags ranging from the mouth to the front of the shoulders. Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described that some bats of the genus Nycteris have an amazing form of cheek pouches, as they have a narrow opening, through which the bat can introduce air, closing the nasal canal through a special mechanism and pushing air under the skin, so they ...
Boyi Liu, Xuan Zhang, Chuan Wang, Guohong Zhang, Hailin Zhang. Neuropharmacology, 2008 Mar , 54, 629-39. The first-generation antihistamines are widely prescribed medications that relieve allergic reactions and urticaria by blocking the peripheral histamine H(1) receptor. Overdose of these drugs often results in serious neuronal toxic effects, including seizures, convulsions and worsening of epileptic symptoms. The KCNQ/M K(+) channel plays a crucial role in controlling neuron excitability. Here, we demonstrate that mepyramine and diphenhydramine, two structurally related first-generation antihistamines, can act as potent KCNQ/M channel blockers. Extracellular application of these drugs quickly and reversibly reduced KCNQ2/Q3 currents heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. The current inhibition was concentration and voltage dependent. The estimated IC(50) (12.5 and 48.1 microM, respectively) is within the range of drug concentrations detected in poisoned patients (30-300 microM). Both drugs ...