The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is of global importance as a pollinator. Over the past 30 years an increase in colonies lost during winter has occurred, particularly in the northern hemisphere. These losses are attributed to the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor that acts as a vector of RNA viruses, most notably Deformed wing virus (DWV). Three master variants of the DWV have been discovered; Type-A, B, and C. The increase in overwinter colony losses are closely linked to DWV. At the same time DWV may also offer protection to colonies via superinfection exclusion (SIE), which may be linked to Varroa-tolerant colonies. However, the role of each DWV variant in colony survivorship and mite-tolerance is limited, so the main thrust of the thesis is to address this issue ...
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most important insect for pollination of crops and wildflowers [1-3], but they have experienced increasing colony die-offs during the past two decades [4-6]. Varroa destructor is widely considered the most serious risk factor for honey bee colony mortality worldwide [7-10]. These large ectoparasitic mites are associated with a condition known as parasitic mite syndrome (PMS), or "Varroosis". In colonies exhibiting PMS or "Varroosis", pathogens, including brood diseases and viruses, are present at unusually high levels [11-13]. Varroa mites feed on the hemolymph of the larva, pupa and adults, and the open wounds caused by mite feeding can allow microorganisms to enter and weaken the host [14]; Mites themselves are vectors for viruses and perhaps other bee pathogens [13]. The Varroa mites life cycle consists of two phases, the phoretic phase, during which the adult female mite lives, feeds, and disperses on the adult bee, and the reproductive phase in which ...
... uality Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has
Everyone needs to keep an eye out for exotic bees. Many exotic bees are hard to tell from European honey bees and they may also be carrying pests such as internal and external mites, so any evidence of bees entering Australia should be treated as a biosecurity risk.. Bees can arrive in imported goods, including vehicles and machinery, and the conveyances and containers they come in. There may be evidence of individual bees, whole swarms, or hives.. Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) originated in Indonesia, and are now established in northern Queensland around Cairns. They are smaller and less hairy than European honey bees, and their black and yellow stripes are more pronounced. They are a natural host for varroa mites, which may destroy European honey bee colonies. They are also a vector for other bee diseases and could compete with European honey bees for resources, threatening their populations. Asian honey bees are hard to manage for both honey production and pollination, and are not effective ...
A sublethal concentration of imidacloprid can cause chronic toxicity in bees and can impact the behavior of honey bees. The nectar- and water-collecting, and climbing abilities of bees are crucial to the survival of the bees and the execution of responsibilities in bee colonies. Besides behavioral impact, data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of imidacloprid, especially by the way of RNA-seq at the transcriptomic level, are limited. We treated Apis mellifera L. with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid (0.1, 1 and 10 ppb) and determined the effect on behaviors and the transcriptomic changes. The sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid had a limited impact on the survival and syrup consumption of bees, but caused a significant increase in water consumption. Moreover, the climbing ability was significantly impaired by 10 ppb imidacloprid at 8 d. In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide analysis of genes related to ovary activation in worker honey bees. AU - Thompson, G. J.. AU - Kucharski, R.. AU - Maleszka, R.. AU - Oldroyd, B. P.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - A defining characteristic of eusocial animals is their division of labour into reproductive and nonreproductive specialists. Here, we used a microarray study to identify genes associated with functional sterility in the worker honey bee Apis mellifera. We contrasted gene expression in workers from a functionally sterile wild‐type strain with that in a mutant (anarchist) strain selected for high rates of ovary activation. We identified a small set of genes from the brain (n = 7) and from the abdomen (n = 5) that are correlated in their expression with early stages of ovary activation. Sterile wild‐type workers up‐regulated two unknown genes and a homologue of Drosophila CG6004. By contrast, reproductive anarchist workers up‐regulated genes for the yolk protein vitellogenin, venom ...
In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees. However, we found no greater bilateral asymmetry in wing morphology due to DWV titres or parasitisation. As expected, using RT-qPCR, deformed bees were found to contain the highest viral loads. In a separate study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to compare the entire DWV genomes from paired symptomatic and asymptomatic bees from three colonies on two different Hawaiian islands. This revealed no ...
A laying worker bee is a worker bee that lays unfertilized eggs usually in the absence of a queen bee (cf gamergates in ants). Only drones develop from the eggs of laying worker bees (with some exceptions, see thelytoky). A beehive cannot survive with only a laying worker bee. Even in a normal hive, about 1% of workers have ovaries developed enough to lay eggs. However the usual number of the laid eggs is very small. Only eight eggs (seven moderately and one fully developed) were found after examining of 10,634 worker bees (strong colony contains about 100,000). Workers eventually lay significant numbers of eggs only in queenless colonies. Laying workers develop in the absence of open brood as produced by a healthy adult queen. Normally, pheromones from the brood - known as brood recognition pheromones - prevent development of the workers ovaries. Laying workers can develop after the colonys queen has been lost to swarming, or in the presence of a failing queen which has yet to be superseded. ...
The mite Varroa destructor is one of the most dangerous parasites of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) causing enormous colony losses worldwide. Various chemical treatments for the control of the Varroa mite are currently in use, which, however, lead to residues in bee products and often to resistance in mites. This facilitated the exploration of alternative treatment methods and breeding for mite resistant honeybees has been in focus for breeders in many parts of the world with variable results. Another approach has been applied to a honeybee population on Gotland (Sweden) that was exposed to natural selection and survived Varroa-infestation for more than 10 years without treatment. Eventually this population became resistant to the parasite by suppressing the reproduction of the mite. A previous QTL mapping study had identified a region on chromosome 7 with major loci contributing to the mite resistance. Here, a microsatellite scan of the significant candidate QTL regions was used to ...
The honey bee Apis mellifera plays an important role for the pollination of fruit and vegetable plants, besides its significance for the production of honey and wax. Losses of entire bee colonies during winter have economic and - in particular - ecological consequences as pollinators are missing in spring during blossom. Apiculture in North America and Europe is especially affected by partly massive losses. Only during the winter months of 2014/2015, up to fifty per cent of all bee colonies in some Austrian regions collapsed.. The main trigger of this bee mortality does not seem to be the use of pesticides in modern agriculture. Many studies have shown that the survival of bee colonies strongly depends on the infestation with Varroa mites, widespread blood-sucking parasites, and the transmission of deformed wing virus by these mites. A research group from the Institute of Virology at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna has developed a new laboratory system, which enabled them to make ...
The European honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been the object of considerable scientific curiosity and has served as the classical model organism in diverse fields such as behaviour, navigation, sensory biology, ecology and pollination biology for almost a century (Frisch, 1914; Frisch, 1927). Apis mellifera has eight congeners, all of which are Asian, and about which much less is known. Of the Asian honeybees, the cavity-nesting Apis cerana and the less well known species Apis koshevnikovi, Apis nigrocincta and Apis nuluensis are closely related to A. mellifera whereas the giant honeybees (Apis dorsata, Apis dorsata binghami and Apis laboriosa) and the dwarf honeybees (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) form separate groups (Arias and Sheppard, 2005; Raffiudin and Crozier, 2007). Although A. mellifera is found in Africa, the Urals and Central Asia, it is allopatric to the south and south-east Asian species, many of which are sympatric in several tropical areas of Asia. For instance, in the ...
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Honey bee head (Apis mellifera). Wikipedia reference: The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. It has a defined social caste system and complex communication behaviours, such as intricate dance routines to indicate food availability. It is frequently maintained by beekeepers for its honey product. This species is widely distributed and an important pollinator for agriculture, though it is currently threatened by colony collapse disorder. It is also an important organism for scientific studies on social insects, especially as it now has a fully sequenced genome. Magnification: x5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3783
Apis mellifera, the European honey bee, has many subspecies. Apis mellifera adami, classified by Ruttner, 1975 - Crete Apis mellifera carnica, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - Carniola region of Slovenia, the Eastern Alps, and northern Balkans - better known as the Carniolan honey bee - popular with beekeepers due to its extreme gentleness. The Carniolan tends to be quite dark in color, and the colonies are known to shrink to small populations over winter, and build very quickly in spring. It is a mountain bee in its native range, and is a good bee for colder climates. Apis mellifera cecropia, classified by Kiesenwetter, 1860 - Southern Greece Apis mellifera cypria, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - The island of Cyprus - This sub-species has the reputation of being very fierce compared to the Italian sub-species, from which it is isolated by the Mediterranean Sea Apis mellifera iberiensis (often misspelled as iberica), classified by Engel, 1999 - the bee from the Iberian peninsula (Spain and ...
Citation: Schmid, M.R., Brockmann, A., Perk, C.W., Stanley, D.W., Tautz, J. 2008. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) abandon hemocytic, but not phenoloxidase-based immunity. Journal of Insect Physiology. 54:215-221. Interpretive Summary: Honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder is exerting tremendous impact on honey bee colonies. This is a devastating, yet poorly understood, crisis for commercial beekeepers and crop growers who depend on honey bees to pollinate their crops. The problem, however, may be related to an unknown disease or perhaps to impaired honey bee immunity to diseases. One approach to understanding the problem is to more thoroughly research honey bee immunology. With this goal, we are investigating the capacity for immunity in adult honey bees. In this paper we report on changes in honey bee blood cells, the cells that protect honey bees from infection. We show for the first time that adult queens, workers and drones naturally lose their hemocytes. This work with entirely healthy ...
This paper proposes a global multi-level thresholding method for image segmentation. As a criterion for this, the traditional method uses the Shannon entropy, originated from information theory, considering the gray level image histogram as a probability distribution, while we applied the Tsallis entropy as a general information theory entropy formalism. For the algorithm, we used the artificial bee colony approach since execution of an exhaustive algorithm would be too time-consuming. The experiments demonstrate that: 1) the Tsallis entropy is superior to traditional maximum entropy thresholding, maximum between class variance thresholding, and minimum cross entropy thresholding; 2) the artificial bee colony is more rapid than either genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization. Therefore, our approach is effective and rapid.
When it becomes warm again in spring and the first blossoms and bushes begin to bloom, the bees also begin to swarm. There is a lot to tell about bees that is worth knowing and is exciting and interesting.. Like ants and wasps, bees belong to the order of hymenoptera ("membrane-winged"). The bee family is divided into honeybees and bumblebees. It is especially interesting that bees live together in a large colony. There is a queen bee, and she is the only bee that lays eggs, from which the offspring are hatched. Besides a few males (the so-called drones), a bee colony consists primarily of female worker bees that have different tasks. During her life, a worker bee repeatedly takes on new tasks, depending on her age. At the beginning of her life, a bee looks after the honeycomb cells and prepares them for the queens eggs. She then becomes a nurse bee and feeds the larvae (= bee babies) with nectar. Later she can then produce wax with the glands on her posterior and build honeycombs. There are ...
Unless we take decisive action to protect our bees, we could be faced with massive bee deaths, a horticultural industry in crisis, food shortages and escalating food prices.. The honey bee is indispensable to our horticulture, our ecology and our economy. Yet the honey bee is in crisis all around the world, with bee populations being decimated by a phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder, where entire colonies of bees disappear.. In the US beekeepers have been experiencing annual losses ranging from 30 to 90% of their commercially managed hives for the past five years. And tens of thousands of bee colonies have been wiped out in Europe, Asia and the Middle East.. Similar losses in New Zealand would be disastrous for our horticultural industries that depend on bees for pollination, and so we need to take steps to protect our bees before it is too late. We cannot wait until bees are dying en masse before we act.. Colony Collapse Disorder hasnt been detected in New Zealand yet, but there have ...
So, how long do honey bees live? Do beekeepers need to buy new bees every few months? Answer: Absolutely not! This is one of the great things about honey bees. Unlike other animals (cows, goats, sheep, etc.) which eventually die, the honey bee colony really never dies! Well almost never - in the winter, about 5% of colonies may expire. In the spring, the beekeeper simply catches swarms that leave the good, strong hives that survived the winter - free of charge! Good beekeepers can keep their bees alive for many years by simply catching those wayward swarms or splitting good hives to replace any losses. Effectively, a beekeeper may never spend money on bees or queens - once the bee business is established. You have to think of the honey bees colony - with its queen, drones, and workers - as a single living creature. On its own, a single bee (even a cluster of a hundred bees) is useless for producing honey or pollinating flowers. It takes the team work of the entire hive to make honey. This means ...
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes
A honey bee that is away from the hive foraging for nectar or pollen will rarely sting, except when stepped on or roughly handled. Honey bees will actively seek out and sting when they perceive the hive to be threatened, often being alerted to this by the release of attack pheromones (below). Although it is widely believed that a worker honey bee can sting only once, this is a partial misconception: although the stinger is in fact barbed so that it lodges in the victims skin, tearing loose from the bees abdomen and leading to its death in minutes, this only happens if the skin of the victim is sufficiently thick, such as a mammals.[3] Honey bees are the only hymenoptera with a strongly barbed sting, though yellow jackets and some other wasps have small barbs. Bees with barbed stingers can often sting other insects without harming themselves. Queen honeybees and bees of many other species, including bumblebees and many solitary bees, have smoother stingers with smaller barbs, and can sting ...
Citation: Chen, Y., Smith, Jr., I.B., Collins, A.M., Pettis, J.S., Feldlaufer, M.F. 2004. Detection of deformed wing virus infection in honey bees Apis mellifera L. in the United States. American Bee Journal. 144(7):557-559. Interpretive Summary: The honey bee is an important beneficial insect assisting in the pollination of a wide variety of crops with an annual added market value exceeding 14 billion dollars. Honey bees, however, are threatened by a myriad of parasites and diseases and the occurrence of honey bee viruses and their effect on bees is not particularly well understood. We now report the detection of a honey bee virus not previously known to exist in the U. S., and demonstrate the utility of using molecular techniques for this area of research. The results of this research will be used by other scientists investigating honey bee viruses and by federal regulatory personnel involved in the worldwide trade in honey bees. Ultimately, this research will benefit beekeepers by improving ...
Causes of bee. Commonly many types of insect are useful to people but some insects are harmful. One of that harmful insect is bees. Bee provides honey and also it causes some diseases. It is the flying stinging insects. Various type of bees are available, they are honey bees, hornets, wasps and yellow jackets. These different types of bees are differed in shape, structure and their characters. The most common properties of bees are bite. If anybody disturbed, the bees will bite them. If bees bite your skin, then skin changes in reddish color. The swelling of bees causes infection. Sometimes you feel itching in entire body. Many harmful bees are in this world, if it bites it causes breathing problem and shock also. The fire ant sting is one of the common bees. It swollen immediately causes pain on that location and changes dark red color. In case of swollen which is easily disappears within 45 minutes, does not required any treatment. But in some cases it will take long time to cure. View the bee ...
When we think of pollination we imagine a honey bee foraging on a flower, collecting nectar or pollen, and inadvertently transferring some of the pollen to the next flower she visits.. Ive always thought that solitary bees might be more efficient pollinators for several reasons. For example, solitary bees seem to fly faster between flowers, collect pollen more quickly, and take little nectar compared to honey bees. In addition, solitary bees carry their pollen in its natural fluffy state that is readily usable by flowers.. On the other hand, honey bees and bumble bees glue their pollen loads together with nectar, making a tightly-packed pellet that is useless for pollination. In fact, most of the pollen that honey bees transfer from flower to flower is stuck to their bodies in random places. When foraging on the next flower, some of this pollen rubs onto the stigma and pollinates the flower, but the pollen in the pellets doesnt budge.. Other habits of honey bees make them excellent ...
Summary Arkansas bee virus, bee virus X and slow paralysis virus, isolated from adult honey bees, have isometric particles, contain RNA and are serologically unrelated to each other or to the other known bee viruses. Arkansas bee virus particles are 30 nm in diam. sediment at 128S, have a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.37 g/ml and kill bees injected with them in about 3 weeks. Bee virus X particles are 35 nm in diam., sediment at 187S, have a buoyant density of 1.36 g/ml, multiply when fed to young bees kept at 30 °C but not at 35 °C nor when injected, and have not by themselves been associated with symptoms or mortality, although they killed bees when injected in combination with sacbrood virus. Slow paralysis virus particles are 30 nm in diam., sediment at about 176S, have a buoyant density of 1.35 g/ml and kill bees injected with them in about 12 days.
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. A new study suggests that the reason worker bees are such a highly skilled and specialized workforce is that the genes controlling their behavior are re-shuffled frequently, helping evolution build a better bee.. The new research from York University, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), sheds light on how sterile worker bees evolved charismatic and cooperative behaviors. These behaviors include nursing young bees, collecting food for the colony, defending it against intruders, and dancing to communicate the location of profitable flowers to nest mates.. By examining the honey bee genome, the team noticed that the genes associated with worker behavior were found in the area of the genome known to have the highest rate of recombination, which is basically a shuffling of the genetic deck. Biology Professor Amro Zayed says that because of such shuffling, the bees can be strongly varied. For example the ...
... Honey Bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) Beekeeping activities, especially queen trading, have shaped the distribution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies in Europe, and have resulted in extensive introductions of two eastern European C-lineage subspecies (A. m. ligustica and A. m. carnica) into the native range of the M-lineage A. m. mellifera subspecies in Western Europe. As a consequence, replacement and
The demand for honey and other beehive products has necessitated different methods of hunting ranging from wild to modern beekeeping methods. The influence of two different nesting habitats on the gut enzyme activities and heavy metal content of honey-bee workers was investigated in this study. Worker bees of Apis mellifera L. were randomly collected from the wild and Kenya top bar hives were analysed for the presence of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn and Cu). Gut enzymes (cellulase, amylase, α-glucosidase, proteinase and lipase) assay was also determined in worker bees from the two habitats. Worker bees from the Kenya top bar hives recorded significantly higher heavy metals in their body than worker bees from the wild. Similarly, no Cd and Pb were detected in the body of worker bees from the wild. The gut enzymes assay of worker bees from Kenya top bar hives revealed the presence of cellulase, amylase, glucosidase, proteinase and lipase with a significantly higher enzymes activities (1.10, 1.65, 0.89, 0
The bees are important pollinators of night-blooming plants and the female bees can nest alone or live in small colonies. A colony is typically made up of two to four individuals - a queen and her offspring.. Behavioral observations showed that non-reproductive foragers and guards are significantly smaller than the queen bee in a nest, although the relative size of individual bees varied from nest to nest. Heres where the flies apparently fit in and are affecting the bees behavior. The bees nest in hollowed twigs and sticks hanging in the tropical understory and the flies flick their eggs into the entrance to the bee nests. Some of these eggs randomly fall into cells, or chambers, prepared by the bees, each to hold a larva and pollen that the larva eats. The cells are then sealed, so if a cell does contain fly eggs the young flies are competing with the bee larva for a limited amount of food.. "There is a natural size variation in bees and this is based in part on the amount of food available ...
Alan Harman. Honey bees have much better vision than was previously known, researchers at the University of Adelaide discover.. The findings come from "eye tests" given to European honey bees, Apis mellifera, by postdoctoral researcher Dr Elisa Rigosi and published in the journal Scientific Reports.. Bee vision has been studied since researcher Karl von Frisch in 1914 reported bees ability to see colors and Rigosi says honey bees remain a fascinating model among scientists, in particular neuroscientists.. "Among other things, honey bees help to answer questions such as: how can a tiny brain of less than a million neurons achieve complex processes, and what are its utmost limits?" she says. "In the last few decades it has been shown that bees can see and categorize objects and learn concepts through vision, such as the concept of symmetric and above and below.. "But one basic question that has only been partially addressed is: what actually is the visual acuity of the honey bee eye? Just how ...
Vanderborght, T.; Rasmont, P., 1987: Use of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and of Xylocopa bariwal for pollination of Phaseolus coccineus in cages
Are Western Honey Bees Apis mellifera really the worlds most important pollinator? This is the claim made in a recently published paper in the proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 10th January 2018. The authors claims are based upon existing published datasets consisting of observations of bees on flowering plants in natural environments around the globe and based upon the abundance of Honey bees recorded during the study have come to the conclusion that they are therefore the most important pollinator in the world.. The claim that a single species can be solely relied upon or referred to as the most important pollinator in the world has been widely criticised by academics who have been quick to point out that many other recent studies show that wild bees are responsible for a greater proportion of the pollination service previously attributed to domesticated honey bees and that in addition there are many crop plants that can only be pollinated by a restricted number of ...
Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced
Eleven new species of bees, including four from New York City and its suburbs, have been discovered with the help of the vast digital and physical bee collections at the American Museum of Natural History. The newly described sweat bees - small-to-medium-sized bees named for their attraction to the salt in human sweat - are presented by Cornell University postdoctoral researcher Jason Gibbs in a paper in the journal Zootaxa. One of the new species found in New York City - in the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx and in the Brooklyn Botanic Garden - was given an especially fitting name: Lasioglossum gotham.. Declines in honey bees and other bees have received a lot of attention in recent years, but it is not generally appreciated that bee species entirely new to science are still being discovered even within our largest cities. New York City has a surprising diversity of bees, with more than 250 described species recorded, said John Ascher, a research scientist in the Museums Division of ...
Background In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), queen and workers have different behavior and reproductive capacity despite possessing the same genome. The primary substance that leads to this differentiation is royal jelly (RJ), which contains a range of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and nucleic acids. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes and cell biology. In this study, we characterized the miRNAs in RJ from two honey bee sister species and determined their possible effect on transcriptome in one species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the miRNAs in RJ either from A. mellifera (RJM) or A. cerana (RJC). We then determined the global transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera developed from larvae fed either with RJM (mRJM) or RJC (mRJC). Finally we analyzed the target genes of those miRNA that are species specific or differentially expressed in the two honey bee species. We show that there were differences in miRNA
Di, N., K. R. Hladun, K. Zhang, T.-X. Liu, and J. T. Trumble. 2016. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers. Chemosphere 152: 530-538.. Prager, S. M., G. Kund and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Low input, low cost IPM program helps manage potato psyllid. California Agriculture 70 (2): 89-95.. Pennington, M.J., S.M. Prager, W.E. Walton, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. (Culex quinquefasciatus) larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants. Nature Scientific Reports 6:21969 , DOI: 10.1038/srep21969.. Burden, C. M., C. Elmore, K. R. Hladun, J. T. Trumble, and B. H. Smith. 2016. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 127: 71-79.. Hladun, K.R., N. Di, T.-X. Liu, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: consequences for whole ...
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flowers (42) MOP (39) The Starling Cloud Choir (33) teaching (31) UBC Farm (29) seasonal eating (25) VanDusen Gardens (23) Moberly Arts and Cultural Centre (22) August bee plant (21) MOPARRC (21) Environmental Youth Alliance (20) mason bees (20) bumble bees (19) July bee plants (18) bee garden (18) recipe (17) performance art (16) hummingbirds (14) ArtStarts (13) West Point Grey Community Centre (13) bees (13) native bees (12) Madame Beespeaker (11) honeybees (11) queen bee (11) citizen science (10) family (10) seeds (10) Brian Campbell (9) Moberly Cultural Herb Garden (9) Montreal (9) moon (9) travel (9) Aberthau Mansion (8) Moberly Community Arts Centre (8) Victory Gardens for Bees: A DIY Guide to Saving the Bees (8) bee gardens (8) herbs (8) hummingbird flowers (8) Colony Farm (7) Dr. Sun Yat Sen Classical Chinese Garden (7) Seedy Saturday (7) Valentines Day (7) art (7) bee safari (7) beekeeping (7) birding resources (7) cuckoo bee (7) eating local (7) phenology (7) pollen (7) signs of ...
While honey hunting for wild bees nests was probably common throughout the ancient world, the Egyptians were among the first to attempt keeping bees in artificial hives. Barges loaded with colonies of Apis mellifera lamarkii would travel up and down the Nile River, following the seasonal abundance of flora. As beekeeping methods spread, most ancient cultures are known to have kept the bees that were endemic to their regions. As Europeans explored and colonized other parts of the globe, they have transported and established the western honey bee on every continent except Antarctica. These bees adapted and thrived in many places while in others, they succumbed to parasites and diseases originally adapted to other bee host species. In the early 1600s, English colonists brought hives of Apis mellifera mellifera to the Jamestown settlement. These bees thrived in the old growth forests of the New World, and spread west in advance of the pioneers. These bees were said to be easily excitable, "runny" ...
It has been well established that the use of toxic pesticides and disease outbreaks are the main driver of the declining bee population. However, a new study from North Carolina State University revealed that the increasing urban temperatures can also contribute to the decreasing bee population.. The study, published in the journal Biology Letters, showed that almost all of the 15 most common wild bee species in the southeastern cities can be negatively affected by the increasing temperatures in urban heat islands.. "This is certainly relevant for urban heat islands, but it may also help us understand potential effects of global climate change on bee species," said Elsa Youngsteadt, a research associate at NC State and co-lead author of the study, in a press release. "If species that have a lower CTmax are most sensitive to urban warming, they may also be most sensitive to warming in other environments.". For the study, the researchers first determined the so-called CTmax, or the critical ...
Carpenter bees have taken up residence in my shed and stables. What is the best way to get rid of the bees without harming my horse if he comes into contact with the insecticide used? A. Carpenter bees are important pollinators and do not aggressively defend their galleries, but the large bees are intimidating and, when abundant, can cause extensive structural damage. This can be compounded by woodpeckers that drill holes in the wood in search of carpenter bee larvae.. The weathered, slightly roughened surfaces of soft woods in barns and sheds provide ideal nesting sites for carpenter bees. Every spring, carpenter bees that have spent the winter in their tunnels emerge to expand established tunnels or begin to chew new ones, often nearby. These bees stock their tunnels with pollen as food for their developing larvae. Large aggregations of carpenter bees can accumulate in a structure over time.. Structures with exposed soft wood always attract carpenter bees, so management will be a continuous ...
Those bees that sometimes buzz around the pool area or outside apartment windows may appear to be an inconvenience to residents, but property owners need to think twice before getting out the swatter or planning a pesticide assault.. Its believed that bees pollinate around a third of the food we eat, and that they are crucial to sustaining the world food chain. Bees are excellent pollinators for many of the plants that bear fruits, nuts and vegetables that humans consume daily. Thank a bee when you take a bite of that cucumber salad at your next apartment conference.. But honey bees are vanishing from hives. There is no clear conclusion on the cause of the disappearance but a 2012 report from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) suggests factors may include "disease, arthropod pests (parasitic mites), pesticides, poor nutrition and beekeeping practices." They identified the varroa mite as "the single most detrimental pest of honey bees and can ...
Keep The Bee In Business and Washington in Bloom. You can Help! Honey bees make it possible for fruit, vegetable and seed crops to add billions of dollars in harvest value to Washingtons economy, nearly $3 billion from tree fruit and berries alone. The bees themselves add nearly $4 billion from honey sales, but their chief value is as pollinators.. Recently, the Honey Bee Work Group set many priorities to the Washington State Legislature to help bees, including:. Provide Adequate Forage - Honey bees are flower feeders. They get protein from pollen and carbohydrates from nectar. They need plants for forage from early spring to late fall to have enough food to live on and store for winter. Healthy well fed honey bees are needed to pollinate many crops in Washington, and this requires natural forage. Current State land management practices remove much of this valuable bee forage. Read More…. Expand Local Research - More information is needed to monitor and improve health of honey bees in ...
Numerous studies have recently reported on the discovery of bee viruses in different arthropod species and their possible transmission routes, vastly increasing our understanding of these viruses and their distribution. Here, we review the current literature on the recent advances in understanding the transmission of viruses, both on the presence of bee viruses in Apis and non-Apis bee species and on the discovery of previously unknown bee viruses. The natural transmission of bee viruses will be discussed among different bee species and other insects. Finally, the research potential of in vivo (host organisms) and in vitro (cell lines) serial passages of bee viruses is discussed, from the perspective of the host-virus landscape changes and potential transmission routes for emerging bee virus infections.
Stingless beekeeping (meliponiculture) is a unique eco-friendly agro-practice with the potential for environmental amelioration, employment and income generation. Meliponiculture would be ideal for generation of supplementary income to resource-poor farmers around forests, in addition to conservation of stingless bees. Assessment of the knowledge of stingless bees by community around Kakamega forest indicated that most people know stingless bees but they do not undertake any active conservation measures. Results obtained from this study indicated that two genera of stingless bees, Meliponula and Hypotrigona occur in Kakamega forest. The community around Kakamega forest identifies stingless bees by their morphological features, nesting architecture and taste, smell and colour of their honey. Trials on queen rearing process of H. gribodoi indicated that this species rears queens in two ways: (i) using a special queen cell which is bigger than other brood cells (ii) through emergency queen rearing ...
In a study that shows the importance of climate change on critical pollinators, North Carolina State University researchers found that earlier and longer flowering seasons can have poor effects on the bumble bees that rely on these flowers to live and thrive.. "We wanted to understand how climate change is affecting bee populations - specifically three species of bumble bees that live at higher altitudes and are important pollinators," said Rebecca Irwin, an NC State professor of applied ecology and co-principal investigator on the study, which is published in the journal Ecology Letters. "We asked whether variation in snowmelt timing and summer precipitation directly affected bumble bee colonies and their survival, or if the snowmelt and precipitation effects on flowers were more important. It turns out that the effects on flowers played a more critical role in affecting bee populations.". Irwin and colleagues examined bee, flower and climate data collected at the Rocky Mountain Biological ...
i svenska Our Aim: A SUSTAINABLE, bee conservation zone. A disease-free, insecticide-free, herbicide-free, bee sanctuary. Deep in the sparsely populated forest of "the wild outback" of Sweden.. We are developing a Honey Bee Conservation Zone.. We keep our bees in the lovely areas of north Värmland and south Dalarna, in Sweden. At present we have about 80 bee societies that are disease-free and living in an amazing forest area that is free from chemicals, dense traffic and the side effects of mono-agriculture. The only farming that occurs locally is sustainable forestry.. Our basic idea is to make this a protected area where bees can do what they do best: pollinate and make high quality honey that is great for them and for people, without fear of incursion from any of the variables that we know can prevent bees from flourishing. We are more than just certified organic bee-keepers, for we wish for our bees to stay protected, and to extend that protection to others. We are seeking a way forward to ...
Explosives detection using bees. Researchers working with security guards at an airport, using honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect chemical explosives. Honey bees are sensitive to the smell of flower nectar and pollen, but here have been trained to detect the smells from chemical explosives. Sniffer tubes are exposing the bees (in the blue box) to chemicals on the baggage, and their response is observed on a computer monitor (lower right). This work is being carried out by the UK research company Insense. Photographed at Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris, France. - Stock Image C002/6645