Batroxobin, also known as reptilase, is a snake venom produced by Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni, venomous species of pit viper found east of the Andes in South America. It is a hemotoxin which acts as a serine protease closely related to thrombin, and has been the subject of many medical studies as a replacement of thrombin. Different enzymes, isolated from different species of Bothrops, have been called batroxobin, but unless stated otherwise, this article covers the batroxobin produced by B. moojeni, as this is the most studied variety. Bothrops atrox was described by Carl Linnaeus as early as 1758, but batroxobin, the active compound in its venom, was first described only in 1954 by H. Bruck and G. Salem. In the years following, this first description of batroxobin was shown to have several uses in surgery. Because of the increasing interest in the properties of batroxobin, several studies on its hemostatic effect and coagulation have been published. More recently, in 1979, a German ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of single intravenous administration of batroxobin on erythrocyte aggregability in patients with acute-stage cerebral infarction. AU - Tanahashi, N.. AU - Fukuuchi, Y.. AU - Tomita, M.. AU - Kobari, M.. AU - Takeda, H.. AU - Yokoyama, M.. AU - Itoh, D.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - We examined the effect of defibrinogenation with batroxobin on the erythrocyte aggregability (RBC-A) in 16 patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase (less than 72 hours after onset). Eight patients received a single intravenous administration of 10 units of batroxobin (BU), while the other 8 patients received 5 BU. The RBC-A was examined using the whole-blood erythrocyte aggregometer developed by us (Am. J. Physiol. 251, H1205-H1210, 1986) with concomitant measurement of the hematocrit, albumin:globulin ratio and concentration of fibrinogen. The RBC-A values before, and at 1,2, and 7 days after 10 BU administration were 0.154±0.017/s, 0.117±0.029/s (76% of the value before ...
Its interesting that you can take something so deadly and turn it into something that has the potential to save lives, said Rice chemist Jeffrey Hartgerink.. Batroxobin is a haemotoxin that has similar properties to thrombin, a naturally occurring enzyme in humans that plays an important role in clotting. First recognised in 1936 for its coagulant capabilities, batroxobin is particularly useful for treating patients who have taken the anti-coagulant drug heparin.. Theres a lot of different things that can trigger blood coagulation, but when youre on heparin, most of them dont work, or they work slowly or poorly, Hartgerink said in a statement.. This is important because surgical bleeding in patients taking heparin can be a serious problem. The use of batroxobin allows us to get around this problem because it can immediately start the clotting process, regardless of whether heparin is there or not.. ...
Introduction: Snake venom is adapted saliva that is formed by distinct glands of only certain species of snakes. The gland which secretes ...
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 134, S81-S81 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published ...
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The thrombin time (TT), also known as the thrombin clotting time (TCT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for a clot to form in the plasma of a blood sample containing anticoagulant, after an excess of thrombin has been added. It is used to diagnose blood coagulation disorders and to assess the effectiveness of fibrinolytic therapy. This test is repeated with pooled plasma from normal patients. The difference in time between the test and the normal indicates an abnormality in the conversion of fibrinogen (a soluble protein) to fibrin, an insoluble protein. The thrombin time compares the rate of clot formation to that of a sample of normal pooled plasma. Thrombin is added to the samples of plasma. If the time it takes for the plasma to clot is prolonged, a quantitative (fibrinogen deficiency) or qualitative (dysfunctional fibrinogen) defect is present. In blood samples containing heparin, a substance derived from snake venom called batroxobin (formerly reptilase) is used instead of ...
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Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. These changes can be ascribed to the presence of enzymes, primarily serine proteinases some of which are structurally similar to thrombin and specifically cleave fibrinogen releasing fibrinopeptides. A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to routinely purify serine proteinases from the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni. The serine proteinase from B. alternatus displays an apparent molecular mass of similar to 32 kDa whereas the two closely related serine proteinases from B. moojeni display apparent molecular masses of similar to 32 kDa and similar to 35 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. The partial sequences indicated that these enzymes share high identity with serine proteinases from the venoms of other Bothrops species. These proteins coagulate plasma and possess fibrinogenolytic activity but lack fibrinolytic activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
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Fibrin formation and turnover are intimately associated with inflammation and wound healing. To explore whether fibrin(ogen)-derived peptides exert direct effects upon cells involved in inflammation and tissue repair we examined the capacity of human fibrinopeptide B (hFpB), a thrombin-derived proteolytic cleavage product of the fibrinogen B beta-chain, to stimulate neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and fibroblasts. hFpB caused directed cell migration of PMN and fibroblasts that was optimal at approximately 10(-8) M. This chemotactic activity was blocked by preincubating hFpB with antiserum to hFpB. hFpB was not chemotactic for monocytes. The chemotactic potency of hFpB for PMN was equivalent to that of anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of human complement (C5a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and for fibroblasts its chemotactic activity was comparable to that of platelet-derived growth factor. hFpB did not interact with PMN receptors for C5a, LTB4, or ...
Fibrin formation and turnover are intimately associated with inflammation and wound healing. To explore whether fibrin(ogen)-derived peptides exert direct effects upon cells involved in inflammation and tissue repair we examined the capacity of human fibrinopeptide B (hFpB), a thrombin-derived proteolytic cleavage product of the fibrinogen B beta-chain, to stimulate neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and fibroblasts. hFpB caused directed cell migration of PMN and fibroblasts that was optimal at approximately 10(-8) M. This chemotactic activity was blocked by preincubating hFpB with antiserum to hFpB. hFpB was not chemotactic for monocytes. The chemotactic potency of hFpB for PMN was equivalent to that of anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of human complement (C5a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and for fibroblasts its chemotactic activity was comparable to that of platelet-derived growth factor. hFpB did not interact with PMN receptors for C5a, LTB4, or ...
Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic supersaturated solution of calcium gluconate for intravenous use only.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mortality in Acute Cerebral Infarction in Young Adults-A Ten-Year Experience. AU - Biller, José. AU - Adams, Harold P.. AU - Bruno, Askiel. AU - Love, Betsy B.. AU - Marsh, E. Eugene. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - We reviewed the one-month mortality among 213 patients aged fifteen to forty-five years (mean thirty-five) with acute cerebral infarction (CI) evaluated during the period July 1, 1977, to February 1, 1988. Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) was diagnosed in 59 (27.7%) patients, 53 (24.9%) had non- atherosclerotic vasculopathies (NAV); 46 (21.6%) had cardioembolic infarcts (CEI). Hematologically related disorders were diagnosed in 30 (14.1%) patients; the cause of CI could not be established in 25 (11.7%) patients. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women, mean age 34.8 years), (6.6%) died within thirty days of their CI: 7 had CEI (7/46, 15.2%); 4 had ACI (4/59, 6.7%); and 3 had NAV (3/53, 5.6%). Our data suggest that young patients with acute CI have a thirty-day ...
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HF is acid that quickly penetrates the skin and proceeds to take calcium from tissues including bone. Calcium Gluconate gel works by stopping HF from taking calcium from tissues by providing alternative calcium so that HF takes calcium from the gluconate rather than the bones.. ...
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Calcium Gluconate is a white crystalline granule or powder that functions as a firming agent, formulation aid, sequestrant, and stabilizer. It is used a...
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This applet helps determine the appropriate amount of Calcium Gluconate (10% sln) to add to an IV to give the desired amount of calcium in mEq/kg/day. The user determines the dose, size of the IV bag, the rate, The applet gives the mEq, mg and cc of Calcium Gluconate to add to that bag. ...
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RATIONALE: Calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate may prevent or lessen neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin. It is not yet known whether calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate are more effective than a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate to see how well they work compared to a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy for stage II, stage III, or stage IV colorectal cancer that has been completely removed by surgery. ...
RATIONALE: Calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate may prevent or lessen neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin. It is not yet known whether calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate are more effective than a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate to see how well they work compared to a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy for stage II, stage III, or stage IV colorectal cancer that has been completely removed by surgery. ...
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Bee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in ...
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Hyperkalemia is a serious condition that is caused by excess amounts of the mineral potassium in the bloodstream. Left untreated, hyperkalemia can lead to...
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The snake venom gland is a specialized organ, which synthesizes and secretes the complex and abundant toxin proteins. Though gene expression in the snake venom gland has been extensively studied, the focus has been on the components of the venom. As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. Therefore, a fundamental question being arisen is what genes are expressed in the snake venom glands besides many toxin components? To examine extensively the transcripts expressed in the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus and unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 8696 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized cDNA library. All ESTs were clustered into 3416 clusters, of which 40.16% of total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences; 39.85% are similar to cellular transcripts; and 20.00% have no significant similarity to any known sequences. By analyzing cellular functional
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A membrane protease possessing thrombin-like activity was purified to homogeneity from mitochondria of rat submaxillary gland. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The enzyme is a glycoprotein and has an isoelectric point of 3.25. Maximum activity was observed at pH 10.5. Inhibition by di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, benzamidine, aprotinin and antipain suggested the enzyme to be a serine protease. Other inhibitors such as EDTA, soya-bean trypsin inhibitor, lima-bean trypsin inhibitor, TosLysCH2Cl and chymostatin did not alter the activity. The enzyme showed affinity towards different synthetic substrates (p-nitroanilide derivatives) containing arginine at the P1 position. Kinetic studies revealed that kcat./Km was highest with the substrate N-Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme exhibits significant plasma-coagulating activity. The coagulation initiated by the enzyme was not altered ...
A congenital dysfibrinogenemia was found in a 32-year-old asymptomatic female and her immediate family. The propositus, apparently a heterozygote for the abnormality, characteristically showed defective release of fibrinopeptide A from half of her fi
Description: Subject matter wherein the peptide composition is related to fibrinopeptides, blood-coagulation factors or derivative ...
Blood clots perform an essential mechanical task, yet the mechanical behavior of fibrin fibers, which form the structural framework of a clot, is largely unknown. By using combined atomic force‐fluorescence microscopy, we determined the elastic limit and extensibility of individual fibers. Fibrin fibers can be strained 180% (2.8-fold extension) without sustaining permanent lengthening, and they can be strained up to 525% (average 330%) before rupturing. This is the largest extensibility observed for protein fibers. The data imply that fibrin monomers must be able to undergo sizeable, reversible structural changes and that deformations in clots can be accommodated by individual fiber stretching.. ...
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KUR-112 is a parathyroid hormone-fibrin-based product. It is intended to be applied as a single percutaneous injection into solitary bone cysts and could therefore become a simpler, minimally invasive treatment for this rare condition.. KUR-112 has received Orphan Drug Designation in the US and Europe, which entitles the sponsor to receive assistance in the development process, exemption from application fees and several years of marketing exclusivity following approval. In October 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration granted Rare Pediatric Disease Designation.. The program has completed non-clinical testing. Kuros is currently evaluating the development options for KUR-112.. ...
Vilca-Quispe, A.; Ponce-Soto, L. A.; Winck, F. V.; Marangoni, S.: Isolation and characterization of a new serine protease with thrombin-like activity (TLBm) from the venom of the snake Bothrops marajoensis. Toxicon 55 (4), S. 745 - 753 (2010 ...
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