TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide analysis of basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in rice and Arabidopsis. AU - Li, Xiaoxing. AU - Duan, Xuepeng. AU - Jiang, Haixiong. AU - Sun, Yujin. AU - Tang, Yuanping. AU - Yuan, Zheng. AU - Guo, Jingkang. AU - Liang, Wanqi. AU - Chen, Liang. AU - Yin, Jingyuan. AU - Ma, Hong. AU - Wang, Jian. AU - Zhang, Dabing. PY - 2006/8. Y1 - 2006/8. N2 - The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes. They are known to play important roles in the specification of tissue types in animals. On the other hand, few plant bHLH proteins have been studied functionally. Recent completion of whole genome sequences of model plants Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) allows genome-wide analysis and comparison of the bHLH family in flowering plants. We have identified 167 bHLH genes in the rice genome, and their phylogenetic analysis indicates that they form well-supported ...
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Author(s): Reeves, Nick Lee | Abstract: In 1975 Antonio García-Bellido proposed that selector genes such as the homeotic transcription factors do not themselves participate in the differentiation of the body segments they specify but instead activate (or select) a set of downstream realisator genes that encode the proteins that carry out cell differentiation (Garcia- Bellido, 1975). Since then numerous genetic and molecular studies of development have borne out this view. The proneural transcription factors act as selector genes to specify neural cell types in the ectoderm. I have taken a systematic genomics approach to discover the set of realisator genes activated by the proneural transcription factors (proneural genetic program) in the developing peripheral nervous system. This approach has led to the discovery of 30 new genes expressed specifically in the sensory organ anlagen (proneural clusters and sensory organ precursors). These new genes encode a diverse array of implied protein functions
Hand2 has no effect on the initial stages of sympathetic neuron development, including the expression of the proneural gene ascl1 and the pan-autonomic regulatory genes phox2b and phox2a, nor on generic neuronal differentiation as assessed by the expression of elavl3. Therefore, hand2 seems to be required selectively for initial noradrenergic but not pan-neuronal differentiation.. Hand2 has been considered an important member of the transcriptional network controlling sympathetic neuron development due to its ability to induce the generation of noradrenergic/catecholaminergic neurons in gain-of-function experiments (Howard et al., 1999; Howard et al., 2000). Overexpression is an important tool to identify candidate target genes, but in the sympathetic lineage different effects were observed upon transcription factor overexpression compared with in vivo loss-of-function approaches. Gata2/3, for instance, is essential for Th expression during normal development of sympathetic neurons but has ...
Background: Neuronal differentiation is largely under the control of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors that play key roles during development of the embryonic nervous system. In addition to well-characterised regulation of their expression, increasing evidence is emerging for additional post-translational regul... read moreation of proneural protein activity. Of particular interest is the bHLH proneural factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which orchestrates progression from neural progenitor to differentiated neuron in several regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated a key role for cell cycle-dependent multi-site phosphorylation of Ngn2 protein at Serine-Proline (SP) sites for regulation of its neuronal differentiation activity, although the potential structural and functional consequences of phosphorylation at different regions of the protein are unclear. read less. ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play diverse roles in controlling many developmental events. Although a great deal is understood about how bHLH factors activate gene transcription via E-box DNA consensus sequences, studies of bHLH factor function in higher eukaryotes often have b …
Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells.Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells. ...
Neurogenin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEUROG3 gene.[5]. Neurogenin-3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and is required for endocrine cell development in the pancreas and intestine.[6] It belongs to a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors involved in the determination of neural precursor cells in the neuroectoderm.[7]. Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is expressed by 2-10% of acinar and duct cells in the histologically normal adult human pancreas. NGN3+ cells isolated from cultured exocrine tissue by coexpressed cell surface glycoprotein CD133 have a transcriptome consistent with exocrine dedifferentiation, a phenotype that resembles endocrine progenitor cells during development, and a capacity for endocrine differentiation in vitro.[8] Human[9] and rodent[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] exocrine cells have been reprogrammed into cells with an islet cell-like phenotype following direct expression of NGN3 or manipulation that leads to its ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are required for proper formation of the vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems (Bertrand et al., 2002). The vertebrate neural bHLH transcription factors have been classified into subgroups based on their temporal pattern of expression (Lee, 1997) and on their homology to Drosophila proneural genes (Bertrand et al., 2002). The factors Mash1, a homolog of the Drosophila Achaete-scute genes (Johnson et al., 1990), and Math1, a homolog of the Drosophila atonal gene (Akazawa et al., 1995), both belong to the early expressed sub-group of bHLH factors because of their expression in progenitor cells of the developing neural tube, but they reside in distinct sub-classes based on sequence homology (Bertrand et al., 2002). Gene knockout studies have demonstrated essential roles for these factors in the formation of specific populations of neurons (Ben-Arie et al., 1997; Bermingham et al., 1999; Bermingham et al., 2001; Fode et al., 2000; Gowan et ...
endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1: a Per-Arnt/AhR-Sim basic helix-loop-helix factor similar to hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha; RefSeq NM_010137 (mouse); do not confuse with hepatic leukemia factor
Proneural bHLH genes have been shown to play important roles in specifying neural fates/diversities in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The developing vertebrate retina expresses several such genes, such as achaete-scute homologue 1 (ash1), atonal homologue 3 (ath3), ath5, neuroD, neurogenin1 (ngn1), ngn2, ngn3, NSCL1, and NSCL2. Proneural bHLH genes known to be expressed in retinal progenitor cells include ash1, ath3, ngn1, ngn2, and ngn3. 16-21 Analysis of retinal explants derived from ash1-null mice indicated that ash1 participates in the production of late-born neurons, including rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells. 22 In the chick retina, ash1 was proposed to promote amacrine cells, 23 and this was later confirmed experimentally. 24 Studies have indicated ath3 in the production of bipolar and amacrine cells. 25-27 Ngn2 is expressed in the proliferating zone, 25,28 including cells still in the cell cycle. 29,30 In the mouse retina, regions lacking ngn2 ...
Westerman BA, Breuer RH, Poutsma A, Chhatta A, Noorduyn LA, Koolen MG, Postmus PE, Blankenstein MA, Oudejans CB (2007). Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor profiling of lung tumors shows aberrant expression of the proneural gene atonal homolog 1 (ATOH1, HATH1, MATH1) in neuroendocrine tumors. The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (2): 114-23. PMID 17549667 ...
Vertebrate neurogenesis involves sequential actions of transcription factors. neurogenins, encoding Atonal-related bHLH transcription factors, function as neuronal determination genes in Xenopus. neurogenins and antother bHLH factor gene, Mash1, are expressed in distinct subsets or areas of cells giving rise to neurons, suggesting that these genes play important roles to generate distinct populations of neurons. A mammalian homologue of BarH (MBH1) is expressed in a complementary pattern to Mash1 expression in the developing nervous system like neurogenins. Forced expression of MBH1 down-regulates expression of Mash1 and up-regulates neurogenin2/Math4A, a member of neurogenins, in P19 cells during neuronal differentiation. This suggests that MBH1 is a potential regulator of mammalian neural bHLH genes, thereby establishing distinct pathways of neuronal differentiation ...
Introduction: Neuronal PAS4 (nPAS4) -formerly known as LE-PAS- is a helix-loop-helix-PAS (HLH-PAS) transcription factor that has recently been cloned as the vertebrate homologue of the drosophila protein dysfusion (dys). In drosophila, the lack of dys is characterized by impaired midline fusion of tracheal tubes. Forced expression of dys results in aberrant sprouting of tracheal tubes in drosophila. In neurons, nPAS4 plays a role in the formation of GABA-releasing synapses. Based on the morphological similarity between tracheal tube formation and angiogenesis, we aimed to investigate the role of nPAS4 in angiogenesis in vertebrates.. Methods and Results: RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that nPAS4 is expressed at low levels in various endothelial cell lines. The expression of nPAS4 is not upregulated by angiogenic growth factors but is induced by hypoxia. Moreover, membrane depolarization using potassium chloride results in a calcium-dependent upregulation of nPAS4. When nPAS4 ...
Image via Wikipedia The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, neurogenin-1 is known to regulate neural development and neurite outgrowth. As such, it makes for a particularly interesting point to begin to understand mental illness and its complex developmental origins. The recent paper by Ho et al., Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NEUROG1 and schizophrenia: Effects on illness…
Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. Proneural genes have multiple functions in neural development. They integrate positional information and contribute to the specification of progenitor-cell identity. From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. Neurogenic genes are so called because loss of function mutants show an increase number of developed neural precursors. On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial ...
Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
dHAND and eHAND are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play critical roles in cardiac development. The HAND genes have a complementary left-right cardiac asymmetry of expression with dHAND predominantly on the right side and eHAND on the left side of the looped heart tube. Here we sho …
HEA798Hu, High Sensitive ELISA Kit for Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF1a), 低氧诱导因子1α(HIF1a)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法,高敏型), HIF1-A; MOP1; PASD8; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor; ARNT-interacting protein; Basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP1; Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 78 | 仅供体外研究使用，不用于临床诊断！请索取进口关税税单及报关单！
On the other hand, E‐boxes are absent from an unexpectedly high proportion of TAL1 peaks (14% in Jurkat and 24% in erythroid cells) (Figure 6C). Consistent with this, the de novo motif search did not identify E‐boxes as the top overrepresented motif in erythroid or Jurkat cells (Figure 6A, left and middle panels). Instead, in erythroid cells, a Gata motif ranks first within overrepresented sites, and two variants of this motif are also among the top 7 overrepresented motifs (Figure 6A, middle panel). Furthermore, virtually all TAL1 peaks (96%) contain a Gata motif while only 76% contain an E‐box within a 100‐bp radius of the peak summit (Figure 6C). In erythroid cells, Gata motifs are also on average closer to TAL1 peak summits than E‐boxes, with 80% of TAL1 peaks containing a Gata site within 35 bp of the peak summit versus only 50% containing an E‐box within this distance (Figure 6C). This is consistent with previous studies showing cooccupation of TAL1 and GATA1 at many genomic ...
The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis but how its developmental activity is regulated is largely unknown. We recently showed that Hand1 is sequestered in the nucleoli of rodent trophoblast stem (TS) cells by the I-mfa domain-containing protein HICp40 and that this is associated with their proliferation and continuing self-renewal. However when these cells commit to differentiate into trophoblast giant (TG) cells, Hand1 is phosphorylated by the polo-like kinase Plk4 (Sak) and released into the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the molecular switch that promotes mitotic cell cycle exit and the onset of endoreduplication. In this brief discussion we examine the wider implications of these findings and address some of the unanswered questions that remain.
Neurogenin 3 and its downstream target NeuroD are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which promote endocrine differentiation in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mice lacking Ngn3 still produce several hormones in the stomach. Lineage tracing mouse models demonstrated that a majority of hormone cells in the corpus region of the stomach did not express Ngn3 or NeuroD during differentiation. Serotonin and histamine cells were entirely NeuroD-independently derived, and serotonin cells were additionally entirely Ngn3-independently derived. In this study, we isolated serotonin and histamine cells from the gastric corpus of transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent marker CFP. Serotonin cells expressed multiple mast cell markers by RT-PCR, and were found to be nearly absent in a mast cell-deficient mouse model. Labeled bone marrow transplant mice showed all serotonin cells derived from bone marrow. Histamine-expressing ECL cells, while lacking NeuroD, did not appear to express granulocyte or
The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 (Ascl1), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/Brn2), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human eHAND, but not dHAND, is down-regulated in cardiomyopathies. AU - Natarajan, Aruna. AU - Yamagishi, Hiroyuki. AU - Ahmad, Ferhaan. AU - Li, Duanxiang. AU - Roberts, Robert. AU - Matsuoka, Rumiko. AU - Hill, Sandra. AU - Srivastava, Deepak. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The progression of cardiomyopathy to congestive heart failure is often associated with the expression of fetal cardiac-specific genes. In mice, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, dHAND and eHAND, are expressed in a cardiac chamber-specific fashion and are essential for fetal cardiac development, but are down-regulated in the adult. Their expression in specific chambers of healthy and diseased human hearts has not been studied previously. Human dHAND and eHAND were mapped to human chromosomes 4q33 and 5q33, respectively, by fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA from the four chambers of healthy human adult hearts, and from hearts of patients with several forms of cardiomyopathy, was obtained and ...
The passage from proliferation to terminal differentiation is critical for normal development and is often perturbed in malignancies. To define the molecular mechanisms that govern this process during erythropoiesis, we have used tagging/proteomics approaches and characterized protein complexes nucleated by TAL-1/SCL, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies the erythrocytic lineage. In addition to known TAL-1 partners, GATA-1, E2A, HEB, LMO2 and Ldbl, we identify the ETO2 repressor as a novel component recruited to TAL-1 complexes through interaction with E2A/HEB. Ectopic expression and siRNA knockdown experiments in hematopoietic progenitor cells show that ETO2 actively represses erythroid TAL-1 target genes and governs the expansion of erythroid progenitors. At the onset of erythroid differentiation, a change in the stoichiometry of ETO2 within the TAL-1 complex activates the expression of known erythroid-specific TAL-1 target genes and of Gfi-1b and p21 Cip, encoding two ...
J:89474 Morikawa Y, Cserjesi P, Extra-embryonic vasculature development is regulated by the transcription factor HAND1. Development. 2004 May;131(9):2195-204 ...
TCF4 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against TCF4. This gene encodes transcription factor 4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The encoded protein recognizes an Ephrussi-box (E-box) binding site (CANNTG) - a motif first identifie
5291 Evasion from oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis has recently emerged as being crucial for promoting tumorigenesis in vivo. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Twist1 and Twist2 have been found to abrogate oncogene-induced apoptosis and Twist1 overexpression has been reported in a large variety of human solid cancers including carcinomas, sarcomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. We show that both Twist proteins also override Ras- and ErbB2-induced senescence in murine and human cells, by simultaneously shutting-down p53- and RB-dependent pathways. In addition, like Twist1, Twist2 has an altered expression in a set of primary tumours and tumour cell lines, indicating that both genes might similarly contribute to tumour progression. Our results suggest the existence of a novel class of proteins whose oncogenic potential specifically derives from their ability to antagonize gatekeepers and which we propose to name gate-jumpers. ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor stem cell leukaemia (SCL) is a master regulator of haematopoiesis, where SCL is pivotal in cell fate determination and differentiation. SCL has also been detected in CNS, where other members of the bHLH-family have been shown to be indispensable for neuronal development; however, no detailed expression pattern of SCL has so far been described. We have generated a map of SCL expression in the embryonic and adult mouse brain based on histochemical analysis of LacZ reporter gene expression in sequential sections of brain tissue derived from SCL-LacZ knockin mice. The expression of LacZ was confirmed to reflect SCL expression by in situ hybridisation. LacZ expression was found in a range of different diencephalic, mesencephalic and metencephalic brain nuclei in adult CNS. Co-localisation of LacZ with the neuronal marker NeuN indicated expression in post-mitotic neurons in adulthood. LacZ expression by neurons was confirmed in tissue culture analysis.
This gene encodes a nuclear protein belonging to the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcriptional repressors. Expression of this gene is induced by the Notch and c-Jun signal transduction pathways. Two similar and redundant genes in mouse are required for embryonic cardiovascular development, and are also implicated in neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Buy HEY1 elisa kit, Dog hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 1 ELISA Kit-NP_001002953.1 (MBS9329067) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
J:165754 Watanabe T, Koibuchi N, Chin MT, Transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 regulates coronary vascular maturation. Mech Dev. 2010 Sep-Dec;127(9-12):418-27 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-HIF-2 alpha/EPAS1 Antibody (ep190b) [HRP]. Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
ATOH8 antibody (atonal homolog 8 (Drosophila)) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ATOH8 pAb (GTX85296) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Just as in Solution ,math,2,/math, and ,math,3,,/math, we rewrite ,math,\dfrac{1}{20^{20}},/math, as ,math,\dfrac{5^{20}}{10^{40}}.,/math, We can then look at the number of digits in powers of ,math,5,/math,. ,math,5^1=5,/math,, ,math,5^2=25,/math,, %5^3=125,math,, ,/math,5^4=625,math,, ,/math,5^5=3125,math,, ,/math,5^6=15625,math,, %5^7=78125,/math, and so on. We notice after a few iterations that every power of five with an exponent of ,math,1 (\mod 3),/math,, the number of digits doesnt increase. This means ,math,5^20,/math, should have ,math,20,/math, digits minus ,math,6,/math, since there are ,math,6,/math, numbers which are ,math,1 (\mod 3),/math, from ,math,0,/math, to ,math,20,/math,, or ,math,14,/math, digits total. This means our expression can be written as ,math,\dfrac{k\cdot10^{14}}{10^{40}},/math,, where ,math,k,/math, is in the range ,math,[1,10),/math,. Canceling gives ,math,\dfrac{k}{10^{26}},/math,, or 26 zeroes before the ,math,k,/math, since the number ,math,k,/math, should ...
Problem == A three-dimensional rectangular box with dimensions ,math>X,/math>, ,math>Y,/math>, and ,math>Z,/math> has faces whose surface areas are ,math>24,/math>, ,math>24,/math>, ,math>48,/math>, ,math>48,/math>, ,math>72,/math>, and ,math>72,/math> square units. What is ,math>X,/math> + ,math>Y,/math> + ,math>Z,/math>? ,math> \textbf{(A) }18 \qquad \textbf{(B) }22 \qquad \textbf{(C) }24 \qquad \textbf{(D) }30 \qquad \textbf{(E) }36 \qquad ,/math> ==Solution 1== Let ,math>X,/math> be the length of the shortest dimension and ,math>Z,/math> be the length of the longest dimension. Thus, ,math>XY = 24,/math>, ,math>YZ = 72,/math>, and ,math>XZ = 48,/math>. Divide the first two equations to get ,math>\frac{Z}{X} = 3,/math>. Then, multiply by the last equation to get ,math>Z^2 = 144,/math>, giving ,math>Z = 12,/math>. Following, ,math>X = 4,/math> and ,math>Y = 6,/math>. The final answer is ,math>4 + 6 + 12 = 22,/math>. ,math>\boxed{B},/math> ==Solution 2== If you find the GCD of ,math>24,/math>, ...
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix and PAS domain-containing family of transcription factors. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and may regulate genes involved in neurogenesis. Chromosomal abnormalities that affect the coding potential of this gene are associated with schizophrenia and mental retardation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009 ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Atoh8 atonal bHLH transcription factor 8 available at GenScript, starting from \$99.00.
Stem cells derived from dental tissues—dental stem cells—are favored due to their easy acquisition. Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) extracted from the dental pulp have many advantages, such as high proliferation and a highly purified population. Although their ability for neurogenic differentiation has been highlighted and neurogenic differentiation using electrospun nanofibers (NFs) has been performed, graphene-incorporated NFs have never been applied for DPSC neurogenic differentiation. Here, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid electrospun NFs were developed and applied for enhanced neurogenesis of DPSCs. First, RGO-PCL NFs were fabricated by electrospinning with incorporation of RGO and alignments, and their chemical and morphological characteristics were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro NF properties, such as influence on the cellular alignments and cell viability of DPSCs, were also analyzed. The influences of NFs on DPSCs neurogenesis were also
Dive into the research topics of Neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) controls neuronal homeostasis in pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy through the induction of Homer1a. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
[38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E...
Dive into the research topics of Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and negatively regulates basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor BMAL1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (|i|Gallus gallus|/i|) genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as orphans. A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Members of this family contain two highly conserved and functionally distinct domains: the basic domain targets sequence-specific DNA binding, while the helix-loop-helix domain facilitates protein interaction. Studies of a related gene in mouse suggest that the encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor in the pancreas and brain, and that it is required for normal retinal function. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
Regulatory proteins have been identified in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. It is unknown whether these factors can also play a role in the formation of pancreatic endocrine cells from postnatal nonendocrine cells. The present study demonstrates that adult human pancreatic duct cells can be converted into insulin-expressing cells after ectopic, adenovirus-mediated expression of the class B basic helix-loop-helix factor neurogenin 3 (ngn3), which is a critical factor in embryogenesis of the mouse endocrine pancreas. Infection with adenovirus ngn3 (Adngn3) induced gene and/or protein expression of NeuroD/beta2, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Pax6, and Nkx6.1, all known to be essential for beta-cell differentiation in mouse embryos. Expression of ngn3 in adult human duct cells induced Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4 and neuroendocrine- and beta-cell-specific markers: it increased the percentage of synaptophysin- and insulin-positive cells 15-fold in ngn3-infected versus control cells. Infection with NeuroD
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small molecules enable neurogenin 2 to efficiently convert human fibroblasts into cholinergic neurons. AU - Liu, Meng Lu. AU - Zang, Tong. AU - Zou, Yuhua. AU - Chang, Joshua C.. AU - Gibson, Jay R.. AU - Huber, Kimberly M.. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the members of the Zhang lab for discussions and reagents. We also thank Eric Olson, Jane Johnson and Derek Smith for critical reading of the manuscript. C.-L.Z. is a W. W. Caruth Jr. Scholar in Biomedical Research. This work was supported by the Whitehall Foundation Award (2009-12-05), the Welch Foundation Award (I-1724), The Ellison Medical Foundation Award (AG-NS-0753-11) and NIH Grants (1DP2OD006484 and R01NS070981; to C.-L.Z.). Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Cell fate can be reprogrammed by modifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Here we show that two small molecules (forskolin and dorsomorphin) enable the transcription factor Neurogenin 2 ...
in Developmental Biology (2005), 285(1), 211-23. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the ... [more ▼]. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) family, is required for proper endocrine cell differentiation. We found that two genes orthologous to mammalian Sox4 are present in zebrafish and that only one of them, sox4b, is strongly expressed in the pancreatic anlage. Transcripts of sox4b were detected in mid-trunk endoderm from the 5-somite stage, well before the onset of expression of the early pancreatic gene pdx-1. Furthermore, by fluorescent double in situ hybridization, we found that expression of sox4b is mostly restricted to precursors of the ...
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins function as inhibitors of members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating lymphopoiesis. However, the role of these proteins in regulation of myelopoiesis is currently unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of Id1 and Id2 in the regulation of granulopoiesis. Id1 expression was initially up-regulated during early granulopoiesis, which was then followed by a decrease in expression during final maturation. In contrast, Id2 expression was up-regulated in terminally differentiated granulocytes. In order to determine whether Id expression plays a critical role in regulating granulopoiesis, Id1 and Id2 were ectopically expressed in CD34(+) cells by retroviral transduction. Our experiments demonstrate that constitutive expression of Id1 inhibits eosinophil development, whereas in contrast neutrophil differentiation was modestly enhanced. Constitutive Id2 expression
Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease. It is becoming increasingly apparent that in many breast cancers, a minority of neoplastic cells comprising the tumor are drivers of the malignant, metastatic seeding ability and inherent chemoresistance of a tumor. We term these cells Tumor Propagating Cells (TPCs), referring only to their functional activity and not to their cell of origin. The characterization of TPCs has been largely hindered by the lack of reliable methods for the isolation and purification of these cells including the current best practice of using cell surface markers. Our strategy to isolate TPCs is to develop molecular probes that report on the activity of pathways controlling the TPC phenotype. We have identified a transcription factor, Id1 (Inhibitor of Differentiation 1) which is expressed by a rare cell in ~ 50% of Hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancers. The Id family (Id1-4) are basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH) proteins which hetero-dimerize with other bHLH ...
Adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have received considerable attention due to their easy access, expansion potential, and differentiation ca...
Two signals - an external one from retinoic acid and an internal one from the transcription factor Neurogenin2 - cooperate to activate chromatin (the basic material of chromosomes) and help determine that certain nerve progenitor cells become motor neurons, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report in the current issue of the journal Neuron.
Somatic muscle is derived from a subset of embryonic mesoderm. In Drosophila, Twist (Twi), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a candidate regulator of mesodermal differentiation and myogenesis. Altering amounts of Twist after gastrulation revealed that high levels of Twist are required for somatic myogenesis and block the formation of other mesodermal derivatives. Expression of twist in the ectoderm drives these cells into myogenesis. Thus, after an initial role in gastrulation, twist regulates mesodermal differentiation and propels a specific subset of mesodermal cells into somatic myogenesis. Vertebrate homologs of twist may also participate in the subdivision of mesoderm.. ...
The intestinal epithelium is largely maintained by self-renewing stem cells but with apparently committed progenitors also contributing, particularly following tissue damage. However, the mechanism of, and requirement for, progenitor plasticity in mediating pathological response remain unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the transcription factor Atoh1 is required for both the contribution of secretory progenitors to the stem cell pool and for a robust regenerative response. As confirmed by lineage tracing, Atoh1+ cells (Atoh1(WT)CreERT2 mice) give rise to multilineage intestinal clones both in the steady state and after tissue damage. In a phosphomutant Atoh1(9S/T-A)CreERT2 line, preventing phosphorylation of ATOH1 protein acts to promote secretory differentiation and inhibit the contribution of progenitors to self-renewal. Following chemical colitis, Atoh1+ cells of Atoh1(9S/T-A)CreERT2 mice have reduced clonogenicity that affects overall regeneration. Progenitor plasticity maintains robust
As in the previous problem, supposed ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, be a coherent sheaf on a locally noetherian scheme ,math,X,/math,. The fiber of ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, at a point ,math,x\in X,/math, is the ,math,k(x),/math,-vector space ,math,i^*{\mathcal{F}},/math, for the natural map ,math,i:{\mathop{Spec}}(k(x))\to X,/math, (where ,math,k(x),/math, is the residue field of ,math,x\in X,/math,). Denote by ,math,\phi(x),/math, the dimension ,math,\dim_{k(x)} i^*{\mathcal{F}},/math,.,p,(a) Show that the function ,math,\phi(x),/math, is upper semi-continuous: for every ,math,n,/math,, the set ,math,\{x\in X:\phi(x)\ge n\},/math, is closed.,/p,,p,(b) Suppose ,math,X,/math, is reduced. Show that ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, is locally free if and only if ,math,\phi(x),/math, is constant on each connected component of ,math,X,/math,. (Do you see why we impose the assumption that ,math,X,/math, is reduced here?),/p ...
Twist1 and Twist2 are highly conserved people of the Twist subfamily of bHLH proteins responsible for the transcriptional regulation of the developmental programs in mesenchymal cell lineages. regulatory elements made up of the consensus sequence 5′-NCANNTGN-3′ (termed E-box). E-boxes are found in the regulatory regions of many lineage specific genes which account for the numerous pathways regulated by these transcription factors (1-3). The bHLH transcription factors are classified into three major classes: the ubiquitous Class A bHLH factors that include E2-2 HEB and the two isoforms of the E2A gene E12/E47 (also known as E proteins); the tissue-restricted Class B bHLH factors; and the inhibitory HLH proteins constituted by the Id proteins which lack the basic region used Mouse monoclonal to KSHV ORF45 to contact DNA. The Twist proteins form a subfamily of the Class B bHLH factors. These include Paraxis (1) Scleraxis (4) Hand1 (5) Hand2 (6) Twist1 and BTZ044 Twist2. In this family of ...
TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The TCF21 product is mesoderm specific, and expressed in embryonic epicardium, mesenchyme-derived tissues of lung, gut, gonad, and both mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the kidney. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
ID2 (Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, Dominant Negative Helix-Loop-Helix Protein), Authors: Menno C van Zelm. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Anti-NSCL1 (HEN1; Helix-loop-helix protein 1) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from CHEMICON,Recognizes NSCL1. The molecular weight of the protein is 14,616 Daltons.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Heyl - Heyl (untagged) - Mouse hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like (Heyl), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The inhibitor of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are dominant negative regulators of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family and play a key role during development as well as in vascular disorders and cancer. In fact, impairing the Id-protein activity in cancer cells reduces cell growth and even chemoresistance. Recently, we have shown that a synthetic Id-protein ligand (1Y) consisting of a cyclic nonapeptide can reduce the viability of the two breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D and of the bladder cancer cells T24 to about 50% at concentrations ≥100μM ...
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTLs transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-746?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel ] Gilles updated MATH-746: ------------------------ Description: This issue is meant to contain a list of tasks to be completed before the release. * Remarks to be added to the *release notes*: ** Experimental code: {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (cf. MATH-621) *** Many code paths untested *** Looking for volunteers to improve the code readability, robustness and performance *** Looking for volunteers to extend the test suite ** {{FastMath}} is not always faster than {{Math}} (issue MATH-740) ** List of new features * Create a release branch * Disable CheckStyle scanning of {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (/) ({{r1244855}}) * Comment out print statements in {{BOBYQAOptimizerTest}} (/) ({{r1244975}}) * Remove unit test class {{BatteryNISTTest}} * Remove class {{PivotingQRDecomposition}} * Comment out print statement in {{SymmLQTest}} (/) ({{r1244992}}) (removed in {{r1244996}}) * Findbugs: ** ...
Anti-BHLHE40 antibody | Application: WB, ELISA | Predicted species reactivity: Human, Mouse | Product type: Polyclonal Antibody | Alias: BHLHE40,Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40,BHLHB2; DEC1; SHARP2; STRA13
Wong J, Funes-Duran M, Ahlberg J, Round J, OConnell R, Miller R, Chen E, Richmond PA, Vierra CA (2001). Characterization of a basic helix-loop-helix protein, ABF-1: nuclear localization, transcriptional properties, and interaction with Id-2. DNA Cell Biol. 20 (8): 465-71. doi:10.1089/104454901316976091. PMID 11560778 ...
Rabbit anti MAX (pSer11) antibody recognizes MAX, also known as protein max, class D basic helix-loop-helix protein 4, bHLHd4 or Myc-assoc
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas are either destroyed or defective, resulting in insufficient insulin production. To study β-cells in development and disease, Shimajiri et al. generated a mouse in which expression of green fluorescent protein and secreted alkaline phosphatase is driven using the regulatory regions of the β-cell-specific neurogenin-3 gene. Pancreatic organ cultures derived from these mice allow developing β-cells to be visualised. In addition, this model system enables tracking the fate of developing β-cells in response to various stimuli.. Page 268. ...
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HEY1 antibody, C-term (hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-HEY1 pAb (GTX42614) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Looks like this issue is not completely cleared... After some time using LDPE, the Merge/split-,Set X,Y,Z window refuses to open on a multiple selection again. I guess that I do something that modifies LDPE state, and from then on, Merge/split-,Set X,Y,Z stops working. Close/reopen file does not cure the issue, the only way I found is to completely shut down LDPE. Unfortunately, though it happened 3 times, I was not able to determine the trigger for this behaviour ...
The Spin-Brauer diagram algebra Schur-Weyl duality is an important result in representation theory which states that the actions of $\mathfrak{S}_n$ and $\mathbf{GL}(N)$ on $\mathbf{V}^{\otimes n}$ generate each others commutants. Here $\mathfrak{S}_n$ is the symmetric group and $\mathbf{V}$ is the standard complex representation. In this talk, we investigate the Spin-Brauer diagram algebra, which arises from studying an analogous form of Schur-Weyl duality for the action of the spinor group on $\mathbf{V}^{\otimes n} \otimes \Delta$. Here $\mathbf{V}$ is again the standard $N$-dimensional complex representation of ${\rm Pin}(N)$ and $\Delta$ is the spin representation. We will give a general construction of the Spin-Brauer diagram algebra, discuss its connection to ${\rm End}_{{\rm Pin}(N)}(V^{\otimes n} \otimes \Delta)$ and time permitting we will mention some interesting ...
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Mutagenesis of the mouse Bhlhb4 gene. A: Gene targeting strategy showing partial restriction map of WT Bhlhb4 allele, the targeting vector, the targeted ES cell