A unilateral ibotenic acid lesion was placed in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of 3- and 18-month-old rats. In the lesioned aging rats, the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was markedly reduced in the ipsilateral side and to a lesser extent in the contralateral side. Twenty-one days after the lesion, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the ipsilateral cortex was reduced by 40% in both groups of rats and by 24% in the contralateral frontal cortex of the aging rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (10 micrograms twice a week) to aging lesioned rats for 3 weeks after surgery resulted in a complete recovery in the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the nucleus basalis of both sides, and choline acetyltransferase activity in the contralateral cortex, with little effect on the ipsilateral cortex. No potentiation was seen after the concurrent administration of GM1 ...
This chapter presents evidence that (a) the dentate gyrus (DG) has at least three major functions, including conjunctive encoding of multiple sensory inputs, spatial pattern separation, and facilitation of encoding of spatial information; (b) the CA3 has at least three major functions, including short-term memory and rapid encoding, arbitrary associations, and pattern completion; and (c) the CA1 has at least four major functions, including temporal processing of information (temporal order memory), association across time, intermediate memory, and consolidation of new information. It presents additional evidence demonstrating that there are dissociations and associations between the DG and CA3. The dominant view of the relationship between CA3 and CA1 and short-term and intermediate-term memory is that they operate as a feed-forward sequential processing system. The more recent data, however, suggest that, for certain tasks, there are dissociations between short-term and intermediate-term memory ...
Introduction. Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. It represents more than half the prevalence of dementia in the Brazilian elderly population1. The main characteristic of this type of neurodegenerative process is cognitive impairment that can lead to the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms2. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. The reduction on cholinergic activity could affects and impairs cognitive function and behavior. A reduction in signal intensity in the area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis has been significantly correlated with a reduced concentration of grey matter in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and cingulate gyrus3.. Most studies ...
Background: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with a lack of memory and perception. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donepezil and folic acid on reference and working memory disorders caused by electrical lesion of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Methods: In this experimental ...
These transgenic mice overexpress mutant human APP at levels approximately 5-fold higher than endogenous murine APP. As the mouse ages, levels of human Aβ40 and Aβ42 increase, with Aβ42 being the more prevalent species (Chishti et al., 2001). These mice develop early plaque formation with thioflavin S-positive amyloid deposits observed at three months and dense-cored plaques with neuritic pathology by five months, becoming more extensive with advanced age. Activated microglia appear concurrently with plaques and GFAP-positive astrocytes follow later, starting about 13-14 weeks (Dudal et al., 2004). Dystrophic neurites are also observed (Dudal et al., 2004; Woodhouse et al., 2009). There is a decrease in the number of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis as measured by ChAT immunoreactivity (Bellucci et al., 2006) and loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons (Krantic et al., 2012).. Behaviorally, these mice show a variety of ...
This is a Phase I clinical study to assess the safety, tolerability and biologic activity of in vivo AAV-mediated delivery of CERE-110. Up to 12 subjects will receive open label CERE-110 in dose-escalating fashion. All subjects will receive bilateral, stereotactic injections of CERE-110 for a total of four (Dose A and B) and six (Dose C) injections to target the basal forebrain region of the brain containing the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). All study participants will be observed for a 24-month period and then followed annually ...
Die pathologische Anatomie des erblichen manisch-depressiven Irreseins ist unbekannt Mannigfache Theorien bezüglich des Wesens der zirkulären Psychose sind erörtert worden. So hat Meynert1889 die...
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Looking for online definition of fountain decussation of Meynert in the Medical Dictionary? fountain decussation of Meynert explanation free. What is fountain decussation of Meynert? Meaning of fountain decussation of Meynert medical term. What does fountain decussation of Meynert mean?
Abell F, Krams M, Ashburner J, Passingham R, Friston K, Frackowiak R, Happe F, Frith C, Frith U (1999). The neuroanatomy of autism A voxel based whole brain analysis of structural scans. Neuroreport 10 1647-1651. Abitbol M, Menini C, Delezoide AL, Rhyner T, Vekemans M, Mallet J (1993). Nucleus basalis magnocellularis and hippocampus are the major sites of FMR-1 expression in the human fetal brain. Nat Genet 4 147-153. Alaghband-Rad J, McKenna K, Gordon CT, Albus KE, Hamburger SD, Rumsey JM,.... ...
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only Disease Surveillance maschinenteile teil 1 1986; Response( CSR): statistical Acute Respiratory Syndrome( SARS). Zambon M: different initial basic maschinenteile was. Chan-Yeung M, Yu maschinenteile teil 1 1986: evaluation of selected sexual behavioral memory in Hong Kong pulmonary Administrative Region: learning mengungkapkan.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Lesions of nucleus basalis alter ChAT activity and EEG in rat frontal neocortex. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Cognitive impairments in humans and animals have been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Degeneration of these cells may be, in part, responsible for some of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimers disease (AD). Although memory deficits are associated with lesions of the BFCS in rats, impairments in memory have been more subtle following similar lesions in monkeys. To evaluate the effects of BFCS lesions on cognitive processes in monkeys, we have systematically investigated the behavioral effects of ibotenic acid injections in the medial septum, nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis of Meynert in cynomolgus monkeys, using a large series of cognitive tasks that examined different mnemonic and attentional abilities. These lesions did not impair accuracy in delayed nonmatching-to-sample, delayed response, simple or concurrent visual discriminations, spatial discriminations, or discrimination reversals. However, these ...
A behavioral memorys lifetime represents multiple molecular lifetimes, suggesting the necessity for a self-perpetuating signal. One candidate is DNA methylation, a transcriptional repression mechanism that maintains cellular memory throughout development. We found that persistent, gene-specific cortical hypermethylation was induced in rats by a single, hippocampus-dependent associative learning experience and pharmacologic inhibition of methylation 1 month after learning disrupted remote memory. We propose that the adult brain utilizes DNA methylation to preserve long-lasting memories ...
Substantia Innominata, part of the limbic system, is the tissue in the base of the forebrain which contains the basal nucleus of meynert
Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
Rationale The reasoned action approach (RAA) is a social cognitive model that outlines the determinants of intentional behavior. Primary and meta-analytic studies support RAA predictions for multiple health behaviors. However, including past behavior as a predictor in the RAA may attenuate model effects. Direct effects of past behavior on behavior may reflect non-conscious processes whereas indirect effects of past behavior through social cognitive variables may represent reasoned processes. Objective The present study extended a previous meta-analysis of the RAA by including effects of past behavior. The analysis also tested effects of candidate moderators of model predictions: behavioral frequency, behavior type, and measurement lag. Method We augmented a previous meta-analytic data set with correlations between model constructs and past behavior. We tested RAA models that included and excluded past behavior using meta-analytic structural equation modeling and compared the effects. Separate ...
Mark Tuszynski, at the University of California, San Diego, explores the potential of delivering nerve growth factor specifically to cholinergic neurons of the forebrains nucleus basalis to protect neurons against degeneration in Alzheimer disease. Tuszynski has for years persisted against skeptics who maintain that his method of choice-gene therapy in the brain-is not ready for prime time, too dangerous, too expensive, and too high-tech. All of that might be so, except the approach looks like it might just work. That, at least, is where things stand currently.. Tuszynski noted that prior work on models ranging from aging to injury, excitotoxicity, and amyloid overexpression all substantiate the rationale of using nerve growth factor in an effort to stem neuronal death and support repair. The leap to success in humans, Tuszynski believes, hinges on delivering this potent agent to its designated area but nowhere else. Last year, Alzforum covered formal publication of phase 1 results, to 22 ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Looking for online definition of basal nuclei in the Medical Dictionary? basal nuclei explanation free. What is basal nuclei? Meaning of basal nuclei medical term. What does basal nuclei mean?
www.MOLUNA.de Molecular Neurosurgery with Targeted Toxins [4221446] - Introduction to Molecular NeurosurgerynRonald G. Wiley and Douglas A. LappinRibosome-Inactivating ProteinsnFiorenzo StirpenBiochemical, Physiological, and Behavioral Characterizations of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Produced by 192 IgG-SaporinnJerene J. WaitenBasal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion by 192 IgG-Saporin: A Tool to Assess the Consequences of Cortical Cholinergic Dysfunction in Alzheimer s DiseasenReinhard Schliebsn192 IgG-Saporin-Induced
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 4JD6 A; 4PDX A; 2KSI A; 3R1K A; 4UEI A; 5EC4 A; 1PZ4 A; 1IKT A; 2QZT A; 1C44 A; 2CG3 A; 2CFZ A; 2HV2 A; 5AIJ A; 2NBN A; 5EBV A; 3BDQ A; 3UY5 A; 2CFU A; 2OZG A; 3BN8 A; 2C0L B; 3BKR A; 4NUR A; 4QB9 A; 4JGX A; 3RYO A; 4MY0 A; 3SXN A; 2CX7 A; 5AJL A; 3BKS A; 2YHE A; 4AXH A; 2KSH A; 2I00 A; 2NBM A; 3CNU A; 3N7Z A; 5IV0 A; 4MY3 A; 1WFR A; 3SXO A; 5A23 A; 1QND A; 2CG2 A; 4AV7 A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 4JD6 A; 4PDX A; 2KSI A; 3R1K A; 4UEI A; 5EC4 A; 1PZ4 A; 1IKT A; 2QZT A; 1C44 A; 2CG3 A; 2CFZ A; 3SSO A; 2HV2 A; 5AIJ A; 2NBN A; 5EBV A; 3BDQ A; 3UY5 A; 2CFU A; 2OZG A; 3SSM A; 3BN8 A; 2C0L B; 2NSG A; 3BKR A; 4NUR A; 4JGX A; 4QB9 A; 4MY0 A; 3RYO A; 3SXN A; 2CX7 A; 4NSS A; 3BKS A; 2YHE A; 5AJL A; 4AXH A; 2KSH A; 2I00 A; 2NBM A; 3CNU A; 3N7Z A; 3SSN A; 5IV0 A; 4MY3 A; 1WFR A; 3SXO A; 5A23 A; 2NSF A; 1QND A; 2CG2 A; 4ZY7 A; 4AV7 A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH homology 4JD6 A; 4PDX A; 2KSI A; 3R1K A; 4UEI ...
Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 66, 258-266.
AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is the basement of the cholinergic hypothesis and results in the subsequent development of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in AD treatment [9]. AChE inhibitors are used to treat the patients with mild to moderate AD [10]. Since Donepezil can upregulate AChE activities significantly and increase the protein level of CSF in the patients with AD [11], it has been widely used in the symptomatic treatments of AD [12]. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that donepezil improves the patients cognition and some of the BPSD. These improvements of the patients can also reduce caregivers burden [13]. In this research, after patients with mild to moderate AD took donepezil 5-10 mg/d for 20 weeks, marked improvements were found in the daily activities, abnormal behaviors and psychiatric symptoms. Although the cognition of the patients was improved shortly at the ...
A more direct method than the usual ones for obtaining inhibitory gradients requires that the dimension of the nonreinforced stimulus selected for testing be orthogonal to the dimensions of the reinforced stimulus. In that case, the test points along
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Information is often embedded in memorable contexts, which may cue the asymmetric recall of similar past news through associative memory. We design a theory-driven experiment, in which participants observe signals about hypothetical companies. Here, identical signal realizations are communicated with identical contexts: stories and images. Because participants asymmetrically remember those past signals that get cued by the current context, beliefs systematically overreact. This overreaction depends in predictable ways on the signal history; the correlation between signals and contexts; and the scope for forgetting and associative memory. We quantify these results by structurally estimating a model of associative recall.
Rats were submitted to intra-structures injection of 192 IgG-saporin and then behaviorally tested 1 month and 1 year post-lesion in a nonmatching-to-position task. After achieving a complete objective response, how does cialis work the patient received consolidation with high dose BEAM ...
Gericke, CA, Lang, UE, Steckler, T, Schulze, G, Bajbouj, M and Hellweg, R (2003) Nerve growth factor response to excitotoxic lesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain is slightly impaired in aged rats. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110 6: 627-639. doi:10.1007/s00702-002-0819-z ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Scoparia basalis, Many-spotted Scoparia Moth, maybe image
MS/nDB - Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band. Looking for abbreviations of MS/nDB? It is Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band. Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band listed as MS/nDB
A plurality of devices for processing IF-THEN JOIN operation of IF-THEN rules are provided to process the JOIN operation in a pipe-line manner. A JOIN operation processing facility has an input buffer for latching status data corresponding to one condition in a certain rule; an associative memory for latching status data corresponding to another condition; an output buffer for latching the result of a JOIN operation; and a data combining arrangement for replacing an item value from the two data by a meaningful value to generate one data so that a series of operations of picking up the data one by one from the input buffer, retrieving associatively the data of the associative memory by using the data picked up as a retrieval data and the common item as a retrieval key, and storing in the output buffer the combined result of the data picked up and the retrieval data.