Author SummaryCampylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide. Predation of C. jejuni by virulent bacteriophage offers the prospect of controlling bacterial populations at source in poultry. We report that in chickens, bacteriophage resistance is infrequent because the mutants that escape bacteriophage are not proficient in poultry colonisation but readily revert back to colonisation-proficient phage-sensitive types. Bacteriophage resistance is generated by reversible genomic scale inversions, leading to the activation of an unrelated bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial genome. These data not only suggest that bacteriophage therapy of C. jejuni would remain a sustainable measure to reduce poultry contamination but also demonstrate how bacterial genomes can evolve under the strong and widespread pressure of bacteriophage predation in the environment.
Read "TL, the new bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its application for the search of halo-producing bacteriophages, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
While the harmful effects of lactic acid bacterial bacteriophages in the dairy industry are well-established, the importance of Bacillus subtilis-infecting bacteriophages on soybean fermentation is poorly-studied. In this study, we isolated a B. subtilis-infecting bacteriophage BSP10 from Meju (a brick of dried fermented soybean) and further characterized it. This Myoviridae family bacteriophage exhibited a narrow host range against B. subtilis strains (17/52, 32.7%). The genome of bacteriophage BSP10 is 153,767 bp long with 236 open reading frames and 5 tRNAs. Comparative genomics (using dot plot, progressiveMauve alignment, heat-plot, and BLASTN) and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggest its incorporation as a new species in the Nit1virus genus. Furthermore, bacteriophage BSP10 was efficient in the growth inhibition of B. subtilis ATCC 15245 in liquid culture and in Cheonggukjang (a soybean fermented food) fermentation. Artificial contamination of as low as 102 PFU/g of bacteriophage BSP10 during
Bacteria and their viruses (phages) are abundant across diverse ecosystems and their interactions influence global biogeochemical cycles and incidence of disease. Problematically, both classical and metagenomic methods insufficiently assess the host specificity of phages and phage-host infection dynamics in nature. Here we review emerging methods to study phage-host interaction and infection dynamics with a focus on those that offer resolution at the single-cell level. These methods leverage ever-increasing sequence data to identify virus signals from single-cell amplified genome (SAG) datasets or to produce primers/probes to target particular phage- bacteria pairs (digital PCR and phageFISH), even in complex communities. All three methods enable study of phage infection of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples, while the latter also discriminates between phage-host interaction outcomes (e.g., lytic, chronic, lysogenic) in model systems. Together these techniques enable quantitative,
A major limitation with traditional phage preparations is the variability in titer, salts, and bacterial contaminants between successive propagations. Here we introduce the Phage On Tap (PoT) protocol for the quick and efficient preparation of homogenous bacteriophage (phage) stocks. This method produces homogenous, laboratory-scale, high titer (up to 1010-11 PFU·ml−1), endotoxin reduced phage banks that can be used to eliminate the variability between phage propagations and improve the molecular characterizations of phage. The method consists of five major parts, including phage propagation, phage clean up by 0.22 μm filtering and chloroform treatment, phage concentration by ultrafiltration, endotoxin removal, and the preparation and storage of phage banks for continuous laboratory use. From a starting liquid lysate of | 100 mL, the PoT protocol generated a clean, homogenous, laboratory phage bank with a phage recovery efficiency of 85% within just two days. In contrast, the traditional method took
In our country Diarrheal epidemics occur seasonally. Two peaks of outbreaks agreeably coincide with dry season and monsoon rain. Several factors control the outbreaks to occur and collapse. Bacteriophages are one of them which have been reported to trigger the collapse of the outbreaks. The concentration of the Vibrio cholerae specific bacteriophages is inversely correlated with the concentration of Vibrio cholerae in the environment. Therefore bacteriophages probably play an essential role in controlling the epidemics to occur or collapse. It is still not clear what factors trigger the onset of Diarrheal outbreaks. This study was design to see the effect of E. coli bacteriophages on the epidemics of Diarrheal disease. Routine isolation, estimation and molecular characterization reveal the prevalence E. coli phage. We have tried to characterize the isolated phages by analyzing the DNA using the technique called restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP ...
The detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses is based on isolation of viral RNA from the sample followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). To control the whole process of analysis and in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of results, process control viruses (PCV) are used. The present article describes the process of preparation and use of such PCV- MS2 phage-like particles (MS2 PLP) - in RT-qPCR detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses. The MS2 PLP were derived from bacteriophage MS2 carrying a unique and specific de novo-constructed RNA target sequence originating from the DNA of two extinct species. The amount of prepared MS2 particles was quantified using four independent methods - UV spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a specifically developed duplex RT-qPCR. To evaluate the usefulness of MS2 PLP in routine diagnostics different matrices known to harbor enteric RNA viruses (swab
Bacteriophages escaping from a dying bacterial cell (Streptococcus sp.), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This bacteriophage was discovered in freshwater near a sewage outlet. A bacteriophage, also known as a phage, is a virus (virion) that infects a bacterium. It consists of a head (capsid), containing the genetic material (either RNA or DNA) and usually a tail and tail fibres (not seen), which the phage uses to attach to a specific receptor sites on the bacterium. This specific binding means that a bacteriophage can only infect certain bacteria bearing specific receptors. Once attached to the cell surface genetic material is injected into the bacterium, taking over the bacteriums own cellular machinery and forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When sufficient numbers have been produced the phages escape from the bacterium by cellular lysis, killing the bacterium in the process. Magnification: x21,335 when shortest - Stock Image C032/0258
Food treated with bacteriophage, as to reduce or prevent the growth of undesirable bacteria. The food treated comprises: a food product; a first, fatty or waxy coating layer on the food product; and a second coating layer comprising one or more bacteriophage strains, wherein the fatty or waxy coating layer is distinct from the coating layer comprising the one or more bacteriophage strains. The food may be coated with bacteriophage and rubbed to distribute the phage on the food surface. The food may be preferably a pet food. The food may be coated in two or more layers. A process for treating food with bacteriophage comprises contacting the food with the bacteriophage and rubbing the coated food surface. The coating and/or rubbing may be performed in vibratory conveyor.
Gómez P., Bennie J., Gaston K.J. & Buckling A. (2015) The Impact of Resource Availability on Bacterial Resistance to Phages in Soil. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0123752.. Resource availability can affect the coevolutionary dynamics between host and parasites, shaping communities and hence ecosystem function. A key finding from theoretical and in vitro studies is that host resistance evolves to greater levels with increased resources, but the relevance to natural communities is less clear. We took two complementary approaches to investigate the effect of resource availability on the evolution of bacterial resistance to phages in soil. First, we measured the resistance and infectivity of natural communities of soil bacteria and phage in the presence and absence of nutrient-providing plants. Second, we followed the real-time coevolution between defined bacteria and phage populations with resource availability manipulated by the addition or not of an artificial plant root exudate. Increased resource ...
This chapter focuses on the doublestranded DNA (dsDNA) phages, and especially on the temperate phages. While virulent phages certainly perform transduction and engage in evolutionary sparring with their hosts and so influence their evolution, the chapter focuses mainly on the complex interactions of temperate phages with their hosts. Bacteriophages may thus have contributed to the current compact nature of bacterial genomes. The approximately 100 currently published bacterial genome complete nucleotide sequences, and about 285 prophages are related to known bacteriophages. Of the more than 280 prophages in the currently sequenced bacterial genomes, only a few are known to be fully functional bacteriophages. There are two rather complex types of genetic entity in which this appears to have happened: the phage tail-like bacteriocins and the gene transfer agents. To date, protection from other phages and disease virulence factors are the lysogenic conversion genes that have been discovered and studied in
The Pseudomonas genus is a big problem mainly for the poultry food industry. The shelf life of chicken carcasses stored under refrigeration is limited by the appearance of undesirable odors and sliminess surface generated primarily by Gram negative bacteria. Due to the subsequent emergence of resistant bacteria, is necessary proving new alternatives as guaranty the microbiological quality of foods and human health. Bacteriophages or phages are viruses of bacteria that use resources of bacteria for their replication and killing bacteria "naturally", showing them as a potential tool for bacteria biocontrol in food industry. In this study, 11 bacteriophages were isolated from the exudate product of defrost of chicken carcasses using as host strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25619) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC 13525). This study also aimed at the purification, quantification and morphological and molecular characterization of phages (RFLP). Bacteriophage can be found in all types of ...
Since 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved several bacteriophage products. LMP-102 (Intralytix) was approved for treating ready-to-eat (RTE) poultry and meat products. In that same year, the FDA approved LISTEX (developed and produced by Micreos) using bacteriophages on cheese to kill Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, giving them generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.[23] In July 2007, the same bacteriophage were approved for use on all food products.[24] In 2011 USDA confirmed that LISTEX is a clean label processing-aid and is included in USDA.[25] Research in the field of food safety is continuing to see if lytic phages are a viable option to control other food-borne pathogens in various food products. In 2011 the FDA cleared the first bacteriophage-based product for in vitro diagnostic use.[26] The KeyPath MRSA/MSSA Blood Culture Test uses a cocktail of bacteriophage to detect Staphylococcus aureus in ...
In the article, Dr Mohammed and Dr Millard discuss the issue of antibiotic resistance and warned that we are on the cusp of a "post-antibiotic era". They outlined how viruses that infect and kill bacteria, known as bacteriophages (phages), may be a possible alternative to antibiotics. They wrote: "Bacteriophages can survive in many environments, including deep sea trenches and the human gut. While phages are efficient killers of bacteria, they dont infect human cells and are harmless to humans.". They added: "Lytic bacteriophages are preferred for treatment because they dont integrate into the bacterial hosts chromosome. But it is not always possible to develop lytic bacteriophages that can be used against all types of bacteria.". Dr Mohammed and Dr Millard indicated that for bacteriophages to become commonplace for curing infections, there needs to be more research into the area of how bacteriophages interact with bacteria.. Read the full article on The Conversations website.. ...
Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria--their name means bacteria eater in Latin. Here, you can see a bunch of bacteriophages on the surface of a bacterial cell. They look sort of like balloons tethered to the surface of the moon. They were discovered near the dawn of the twentieth century, and at first they enjoyed…
Bacteriophage T4 viruses. 3D computer illustration of multiple T4 bacteriophage viruses. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. Enterobacteria T4 infects E. coli bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail (cylindrical) and tail fibres (leg-like). The tail fibres attach to the surface of the bacterium and the tail injects a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand into the cell. The viral genetic material then hijacks the bacteriums own cellular machinery, forcing it to produce more copies of the bacteriophage. When a sufficient number have been produced, the phages burst out of the cell, killing it in the process. - Stock Image C024/7526
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Thomas Denes, Henk C den Bakker, Jeffrey I Tokman, Claudia Guldimann, Martin Wiedmann].
Given a recent increase in the number of bacteriophage genome sequenced- Nathan ( @NathanMB3) has updated the all-v-all comparison with more genomes (~5500 in total).Image at bottom of page. After reading the recent paper "MASH:fast genome and metagenome distance and estimation using MinHash" and meeting Nathan Brown at the University of Leicester, we discussed using MASH for identification of phage genomes and comparison thereof. The authors of the genome biology paper had included viruses in the microbial comparison in Figure 3 . Here we just focused on bacteriophage genomes.. For rapid identification of phage genomes we first constructed a database of phage genomes that were public. This included all phage genomes from the NCBI (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/Viruses/all.fna.tar.gz) , which were then filtered to remove eukaryotic viruses. In addition phage genomes were collected from the phagesdb.org website. A sketch was made for all of these phages and collated, the mash database of ...
Phage transduction is used to move selectable genetic markers from one "donor" strain to another "recipient" strain. Nat Sternberg, among others, pioneered the use of phage P1 to move genetic elements in E. coli and the use of the Cre/Lox system from P1 for controlled recombination. Today, phage P1 is commonly used as a transducing agent because it is a generalized tranducer (it can package random sections of the host chromosome instead of its own genome) giving rise to "transducing particles". P1vir is a mutant phage that enters the lytic cycle upon infection (ensuring replication and lysis). During the replication and lysis of the phage in a culture of bacteria, a small percentage of the phage particles will contain a genome segment that contains your gene of interest. P1 packages approximately 90 kb of DNA, so you can transduce genes that are linked to a selectable marker. Once a phage population has been generated from a donor host, the phage are used to infect a recipient host. Most of the ...
Hi all, I am looking for a way or a tool to map all the GC rich (of given percentage say, 60% or 70% GC) short stretches of nucleotides anywhere between 20-80 base pairs in Bacteriophage T4 and other Phage genomes.I could not find such a tool at NCBI website. I highly appreciate your help. Thank you so much Kiran ...
View Notes - phage normally infects cells to make more phage from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. P PP P : Infect bacteria with ~10 of each phage per cell to insure that every cell has both kinds
1307 patients with suppurative bacterial infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria of different species were treated with specific bacteriophages (BP). BP therapy was highly effective; full recovery was noted in 1123 cases (85.9%). In 134 cases (10.9%) transient improvement was observed and only in 50 cases (3.8%) BP treatment was found to be ineffective. The results confirm the high effectiveness of BP therapy in combating bacterial infections which do not respond to treatment with all available antibiotics ...
Bacteriophage is a live micro-organism, a natural enemy of bacteria. Canadian microbiologist Felix d Herelle proposed that bacteriophage might be applied to the control of bacterial diseases, however in the West this idea was not explored with the same enthusiasm as in the former Soviet Union and was eventually discarded with the arrival of antibiotics. Phage therapy is successfully used for the treatment of a wide spectrum of bacterial infections. Such experience has now become extremely important with the rapidly-increasing spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections which are almost impossible to overcome these days. Phage therapy has been considered as an alternative to antibiotic-therapy and it is now attracting global interest. Most of the scientific works in phage therapy were published in Russian and are thus not easily available in the West. This fact inspired the authors to write a book based on the historical publications found in the library of the Eliava Institute. (Imprint: ...
Increasing resistance to antibiotics and market demands for "clean label" processes has led to increased focus on new strategies to control pathogenic bacteria in foods and animal production. Bacteriophages are among the top predators of bacteria in nature - ubiquitous in the environment yet also highly specific - making them attractive as antimicrobials. This webinar will cover some of the basic biology of phages, how they work and some considerations on initial product development.. Presenter:. Dr. Jason Gill joined the faculty of the Department of Animal Science as an Assistant Professor in 2013. Dr. Gills major research focus is the biology and application of the viruses of bacteria, called bacteriophages or simply phages. As natural predators of bacteria, phages are attractive agents for the control of pathogenic bacteria in humans, animals, and foods. Research in Dr. Gills lab encompasses phage genomics, basic phage biology and the applications of phages in real-world settings against ...
View DNA Rearrangements from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter. AU - Melton, D. A.. AU - Krieg, Paul A. AU - Rebagliati, M. R.. AU - Maniatis, T.. AU - Zinn, K.. AU - Green, M. R.. PY - 1984/9/25. Y1 - 1984/9/25. N2 - A simple and efficient method for synthesizing pure single stranded RNAs of virtually any structure is described. This in vitro transcription system is based on the unusually specific RNA synthesis by bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase which initiates transcription exclusively at an SP6 promoter. We have constructed convenient cloning vectors that contain an SP6 promoter immediately upstream from a polylinker sequence. Using these SP6 vectors, optimal conditions have been established for in vitro RNA synthesis. The advantages and uses of SP6 derived RNAs as probes for nucleic acid blot and solution hybridizations are demonstrated. We show that single stranded RNA probes of a high specific ...
Middleton C.A., J.L. Pate. 1976. Isolation and partial characterization of some new bacteriophages active against Asticcacaulis strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26: 269-277. ...
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The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Most human microbiota studies focus on bacteria inhabiting body surfaces, but these surfaces also are home to large populations of viruses. Many are bacteriophages, and their role in driving bacterial diversity is difficult to decipher without the use of in vitro ecosystems that can reproduce human microbial communities. We used chemostat culture systems known to harbor diverse fecal bacteria to decipher whether these cultures also are home to phage communities. We found that there are vast viral communities inhabiting these ecosystems, with estimated concentrations similar to those found in human feces. The viral communities are composed entirely of bacteriophages and likely contain both temperate and lytic phages based on their similarities to other known phages. We examined the cultured phage communities at five separate time points over 24 days and found that they were highly individual-specific, suggesting that much of the subject-specificity found in human viromes also is captured by this culture
The world is in the midst of a global "superbug" crisis. Antibiotic resistance has been found in numerous common bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, gonorrhoea and salmonellosis, making them difficult - if not impossible - to treat. Were on the cusp of a "post-antibiotic era", where there are fewer treatment options for such antibiotic-resistant strains. Given estimates that antibiotic resistance will cause 10 million deaths a year by 2050, finding new methods for treating harmful infections is essential.. Strange as it might sound, viruses might be one possible alternative to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages (also known as phages) are viruses that infect bacteria.. Theyre estimated to be the most abundant organisms on Earth, with probably more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet. They can survive in many environments, including deep sea trenches and the human gut. While phages are efficient killers of bacteria, they dont infect human cells and are ...
For whoever is qualified to answer me: I would like to know what specific Bacteriophages will attack Salmonella enteriditis. I am working on the potential antibacterial affects of phages against human pathogens. Any responses will be greately appreciated Thank you George T ...
Sabella has two different morphologies: some of the plaques are 0.1 cm in diameter, while others are 0.15 cm in diameter. This notable difference was tested multiple times, so the phage population of this lytic phage is consistent and contains two morphologies. All the plaques are clear and round with smooth edges ...
A type of single-stranded DNA bacteriophage ( virus which infects bacteria ) that has a capsid which is long and thin, like a filament. Examples include the viruses F1 and M13 ...
http://www.ibioseminars.org/ Bacteriophage, viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are, by far, the majority of all biological entities in the biosphere....
There are many similarities in the replication mechanisms employed by bacteriophage λ and its host E. coli(for reviews, see Bramhill and Kornberg, 1988, Keppel et al., 1988, and McMacken et al.,...
While I can find a wealth of information on the theory of bacteriophages, I cant seem to find anything useful on their actual use(though I hear theyre used with frequency in Georgia[the country]). Ever since Ive known what they are, Ive thought that bacteriophages would be perfect to treat acne. When I saw this article, I was slightly hopeful that I might find a clinical trial(at clinicaltrials.gov), but I found exactly bupkis ...
While I can find a wealth of information on the theory of bacteriophages, I cant seem to find anything useful on their actual use(though I hear theyre used with frequency in Georgia[the country]). Ever since Ive known what they are, Ive thought that bacteriophages would be perfect to treat acne. When I saw this article, I was slightly hopeful that I might find a clinical trial(at clinicaltrials.gov), but I found exactly bupkis ...
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
This sequence contains a string of Gs starting at 32032 bp, consensus determined to contain 13 Gs. Some of the phage population may contain anywhere from 8-14 Gs at this location ...
Viruses are parasitic infectious agents with a nanoscale shell, known as the capsid, that encapsulates the genomic material. Most bacteriophage viruses invade bacteria by transferring their genome inside the host cell while leaving the capsid outside. Thus, the foremost event of bacteriophage infection is the ejection of genomic material into the host bacterium after the virus has recognized and bound to surface receptor sites. How ejection is triggered is yet unknown. We show, by manipulating individual mature T7 phage particles, that tapping the capsid wall with an oscillating atomic-force-microscope cantilever triggers rapid DNA ejection via the tail complex. Triggering rate increases exponentially as a function of force, hence follows transition-state theory, across an activation barrier of 23 kcal/mol at 1.2 nm along the reaction coordinate. The conformation of the ejected DNA molecule revealed that it had been exposed to a propulsive force. This force, arising from intra-capsid pressure, assists
Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposonencoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants are due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.. ...
Froman, S., W. Drake, E. Bogen. 1954. Bacteriophage active against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. I. Isolation and activity. Amer. J. Publ. Health. 44: 1326-1333. ...
Answer. Viruses are sub6microscopic infectious agents that can infect all living organisms. A virus consists of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. The genetic material may be present in the form of DNA or RNA.. Most of the viruses, infecting plants, have single stranded RNA as genetic material. On the other hand, the viruses infecting animals have single or double stranded RNA or double stranded DNA. Bacteriophages or viruses infecting bacteria mostly have double stranded DNA. Their protein coat called capsid is made up of capsomere subunits. These capsomeres are arranged in helical or polyhedral geometric forms. ...
Bacteriophages are non-living yet specialized viruses that hijack cells to clone more viruses. In this way, they help to maintain balanced bacterial populations. When a new "phage" is assembled within a host cell, it is faced with a difficulty-how to package its DNA, which is 1,000 times longer than the diameter of its capsid, the tiny vessel that holds it. Research in 2007 revealed that this is accomplished by a molecular motor.1. The amount of force this motor exerts is 6 x 10-11 Newtons, making it the most powerful of all known molecular motors and twice as powerful as a car engine, relative to its size. It guzzles fuel at the rate of 300 ATP (adenosine triphosphate) energy molecules per second.2 (Since it essentially steals all this ATP from its host, efficiency is not an issue.). The bacteriophage motor also has gears, a handy feature when DNA needs to be unraveled before packaging. Douglas Smith of the University of California in San Diego said in 2007, "It is the equivalent of reeling in ...
1AIH: Molecular organization in site-specific recombination: the catalytic domain of bacteriophage HP1 integrase at 2.7 A resolution.
Previously, we showed that adaptive substitutions in one of the three promoters of the bacteriophage ϕX174 improved fitness at high-temperature by decreasing transcript levels three- to four-fold. To understand how such an extreme change in gene expression might lead to an almost two-fold increase in fitness at the adaptive temperature, we focused on stages in the life cycle of the phage that occur before and after the initiation of transcription. For both the ancestral strain and two single-substitution strains with down-regulated transcription, we measured seven phenotypic components of fitness (attachment, ejection, eclipse, virion assembly, latent period, lysis rate and burst size) during a single cycle of infection at each of two temperatures. The lower temperature, 37°C, is the optimal temperature at which phages are cultivated in the lab; the higher temperature, 42°C, exerts strong selection and is the condition under which these substitutions arose in evolution experiments. We augmented this
A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest. Bacteriophages that selectively infect that species are selected, and fluorescently labeled virus probes (FLVPs) are prepared by staining these bacteriophages with a fluorescent dye. The FLVPs are immobilized on an optical substrate, which could be a window or a waveguide.
The bacteriophage vB_YecM-?R1-37 (?R1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that may propagate naturally in different species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. dU-containing genome in a ?KZ-like head. INTRODUCTION Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, are the most abundant organisms on Earth, and it is estimated that for each microbial isolate at least 10 different phages exist […]. ...
Titering of Bacterial Viruses Related protocols: Preparation of Phage Stocks Commonly Used Media for Phage Growth Agar Overlay Technique When an individual bacterial virus grows in a bacterial host suspended in a top agar lawn, its progeny infect and lyse the surrounding host cells. This causes the appearance of a hole or plaque in…