Glioblastomas are largely unresponsive to all available treatments and there is therefore an urgent need for novel therapeutics. Here we have probed the antineoplastic effects of a bacterial protein toxin, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), in the syngenic GL261 glioma cell model. CNF1 produces a long-lasting activation of Rho GTPases, with consequent blockade of cytodieresis in proliferating cells and promotion of neuron health and plasticity. We have tested the antiproliferative effects of CNF1 on GL261 cells and human glioma cells obtained from surgical specimens. For the in vivo experiments, we injected GL261 cells into the adult mouse visual cortex, and five days later we administered either a single intracerebral dose of CNF1 or vehicle. To compare CNF1 with a canonical antitumoral drug, we infused temozolomide (TMZ) via minipumps for 1 week in an additional animal group. In culture, CNF1 was very effective in blocking proliferation of GL261 cells, leading them to multinucleation,
[ Bacterial Protein Toxins ] - Home Etox18,4 Toxic Effects Of Fungi And Bacteria Damp Indoor Spaces And,Frontiers Bacterial Toxin Effector Membrane Targeting Outside
Get this from a library! Bacterial protein toxins. [J E Alouf; Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France); Federation of European Microbiological Societies.;]
In this paper, we observed the effects of mutating each of the six anionic residues lining the interior of the anthrax toxin channel to serines. Before discussing the effects of these mutations on cation selectivity, we must first address the possibility that streaming potentials and/or polarization effects (dilution potentials) may have skewed our results. By polarization effects, we mean that as a consequence of osmotic water flow across the membrane from the trans to the cis solution caused by the higher KCl concentration in the cis compartment, the KCl concentration at the cis membrane-solution interface is reduced, and at the trans membrane-solution interface it is elevated. Consequently, the actual acis/atrans across the membrane is less than the bulk acis/atrans, thereby artificially reducing the magnitude of Erev. To check for polarization effects, we performed cation selectivity experiments (not depicted) with valinomycin (which is ideally selective for potassium) at both [KCl]trans = ...
Mass spectrometry has recently become a powerful technique for bacterial identification. Mass spectrometry approaches generally rely upon introduction of the bacteria into a matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer with mass spectrometric recognition of proteins specific to that organism that form a reliable fingerprint. With some bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum, the health threat posed by these organisms is not the organism itself, but rather the protein toxins produced by the organisms. One such example is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a potent neurotoxin produced by C. botulinum. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, and many of the serotypes can be further differentiated into toxin variants, which are up to 99.9% identical in some cases. Mass spectrometric proteomic techniques have been established to differentiate the serotype or toxin variant of BoNT produced by varied strains of C. botulinum. Detection of potent ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Proceedings of a workshop conference held under the auspices of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Seillac, France from 26-30 June 1983 ...
Blood clots play an unexpected role in protecting the body from the deadly effects of bacteria by absorbing bacterial toxins, researchers at the University of California, Davis, have found. The research was published Dec. 2 in the journal PLoS ONE. Â Its a significant addition to the short list of defenses that animals use to protect themselves against toxin-induced sepsis, says Peter Armstrong, professor of molecular and cellular biology at UC Davis and senior author on the paper. Â Even with modern antibiotics, septic shock from bacterial infections afflicts about 300,000 people a year in the U.S., with a mortality rate of 30 to 50 percent. Septic shock is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which release a toxin called lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin. In small amounts, lipopolysaccharide triggers inflammation. When infections with these bacteria get out of hand, lipopolysaccharide courses through the bloodstream, causing catastrophic damage to organs and tissues. Â These toxins cause disease
Fannin Scientific specialise in the supply and support of the Pathogen Spoilage organisms, bacterial toxins, viruses. Get in touch today to find out more.
n: anatoxin, toxoid} a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin ...
You get an infection, you are given penicillin -- and then you could get hemorrhagic diarrhea. This rare but extremely unpleasant side reaction can be
Scientists shed light on the neurological consequences of exposure to low-levels of nerve agents and suggest a drug that could treat some of the toxins effects.
In chapter 3, "The Sense of Sensibility," author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
Newborns deprived of oxygen have their temperatures lowered to protect against brain damage, but its hard to decipher the babies immediate response to the intervention.. 0 Comments. ...
It has been well established that allergies foods and toxins cause muscle weekness The basic principle of muscle testing is muscle weak or muscle strong now you can test the foods you use and the toxins in your enviroment by using this muscle strength weakness principle .,
... is a term formerly accepted by the medical profession to mean the rapid multiplication of bacteria and the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, molecular model. This is one of several proteins produced by pathogenic E. coli bacteria in the intestines. Unlike the heat-stable enterotoxin, this one is inactivated at high temperatures. The toxin causes diarrhoea and can be fatal in severe cases. This protein consists of three subunits with a total of seven chains and a total of 329 amino acids. - Stock Image C025/1673
Clostridium difficile toxin B is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. C. difficile produces two major kinds of toxins that are very potent and lethal; an enterotoxin (Toxin A) and a cytotoxin (Toxin B, this protein). Toxin B (TcdB) is a cytotoxin that has a molecular weight of 270 kDa and an isoelectric point, pl, of 4.1. Toxin B has four different structural domains: catalytic, cysteine protease, translocation, and receptor binding. The N-terminal glucosyltransferase catalytic domain includes amino acid residues 1-544 while the cysteine protease domain includes residues 545-801. Additionally, the translocation region incorporates amino acid residues from 802 to 1664 while the receptor binding region is part of the C-terminal region and includes amino acid residues from 1665 to 2366. The glycosylation activity of toxin B occurs in the N-terminal catalytic region (residues 1-544). This region glycosylates substrates independent of any cytotoxic activity. However, a small ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): C. perfringens epsilon-toxin (ETX) is a potential biological weapon included in the list of category B priority agents. The overall goal of this proposal is to identify and perform in vivo testing of new inhibitors of E TX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins developed at Innovative Biologics, Inc. It is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. Results from our SBIR Phase I project d emonstrated that beta-cyclodextrin derivatives designed to block the transmembrane channel formed by epsilon-toxin can inhibit its cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Based on the successful completion of this feasibility study, we propose to de sign, synthesize and screen a library of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives for inhibitors of epsilon-toxins activity and test selected lead compounds in mice. The specific aims of this Phase II study are: (1) Optimize the assay for testing ...
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Clostridium difficile Toxin B antibody [5156] for ELISA. Anti-Clostridium difficile Toxin B mAb (GTX41669) is tested in Clostridium difficile samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Cellular adaptation to microbial stresses has been demonstrated in several cell types. Macrophages (MФ) are sentinel immune cells fending off invading microbes. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a key virulence factor released by Bacillus anthracis that causes rapid cell death, pyroptosis. A small number of RAW246.7 macrophages (~4%) exposed to a non-lethal dose of LeTx become resistant to LeTx-induced pyroptosis for ~ 4 weeks, termed
The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite. ...
Bacillus anthracis secretes the edema toxin (ET) that disrupts the cellular physiology of endothelial and immune cells, ultimately affecting the adherens
Cytolytic pore-forming toxins are important for the virulence of many disease-causing bacteria. How target cells molecularly respond to these toxins and whether or not they can mount a defense are poorly understood. By using microarrays, we demonstrate that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds robustly to Cry5B, a member of the pore-forming Crystal toxin family made by Bacillus thuringiensis. This genomic response is distinct from that seen with a different stressor, the heavy metal cadmium. A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and a c-Jun N-terminal-like MAPK are both transcriptionally up-regulated by Cry5B. Moreover, both MAPK pathways are functionally important because elimination of either leads to animals that are (i) hypersensitive to a low, chronic dose of toxin and (ii) hypersensitive to a high, brief dose of toxin such that the animal might naturally encounter in the wild. These results extend to mammalian cells because inhibition of p38 results in the hypersensitivity
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1hq0.1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE CATALYTIC DOMAIN OF E.COLI CYTOTOXIC NECROTIZING FACTOR TYPE 1
Interaction between bacterial toxins and cellular surface receptors is an important component of host-pathogen interaction. Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA...
Phenol-soluble modulins are secreted peptides with multiple functions in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and spreading. Recent studies by Otto and coworkers show that these hellhounds of the staphylococcal virulence-factor pandemonium are unleashed through an essential ABC transporter, which represents an exciting new target for stopping the spread of this important pathogen.. ...
Read "Influence of Cys-130 S. aureus Alpha-toxin on Planar Lipid Bilayer and Erythrocyte Membranes, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Identification of Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin as a Candidate Environmental Trigger for Nascent Lesion Formation in MS (Timothy Vartanian, MD, PhD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enteric bacterial toxins. T2 - Mechanisms of action and linkage to intestinal secretion. AU - Sears, Cynthia L.. AU - Kaper, James B.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - A wide range of bacteria have been implicated as potential etiologies of diarrheal disease. Many of these organisms have been reported to produce one or more toxins postulated as important in the pathogenesis of the diarrhea resulting from infection with the organism. The primary goal of this review is to critically assess the linkage between the mechanism of action of toxins produced by human enteric pathogens and the stimulation of intestinal secretion. To accomplish this goal, the range of criteria used to demonstrate pathogenicity of an enteric bacterial toxin and potential mechanisms stimulating net intestinal secretion are reviewed. A detailed description of each enteric toxin is presented, and revised criteria are proposed for classification of enteric bacterial toxins. Throughout this review, emphasis has ...
From a structural perspective, the most compelling conclusion emerging from our findings is that the channels entire β-barrel stem region participates in the gating process. Absent a high resolution structure of the pore form of the anthrax channel in both the closed and open states, we cannot draw a detailed picture of the gating motions from our data. Nevertheless, we can gain some insight into the magnitude of the conformational changes that might occur during gating by considering the x-ray crystal structure of α-hemolysin, which likely shares structural features with the stem domain of the anthrax channel (Song et al., 1996; Benson et al., 1998; Nassi et al., 2002; Krantz et al., 2004; Nguyen, 2004).. The luminal diameter (Cα-Cα) of α-hemolysins β-barrel is ∼26 Å (accounting for sidechain volume, which is relevant to LF or EF translocation, yields a diameter of ∼19 Å [Krantz et al., 2004]), with residues of adjacent subunits being an average distance (Cβ-Cβ) of ∼11 Å from ...
Some pathogenic species of Clostridium employ the classic enzymatic "AB" binary protein toxins for poisoning cells. Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile, C. spiroforme, and C. botulinum all use similar binary toxins (iota toxin (Ia and Ib), CDT (CDTa and CDTb), CST (CSTa and CSTb), and C2 toxin (C2I and C2II), respectively). They consist of the enzymatic A component, an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase and the B component that binds to the host cell and forms a membrane-spanning pore that functions as the translocation channel for each enzymatic component. The B component translocates the A component into the host cell via the membrane in the acidic endosome. In contrast, the Bacillus anthracis species uses a different binary toxin, which consists of two enzymatic proteins: the lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors, and a protein translocation channel, PA. The PA heptameric pore structure was revealed to have extremely narrow φ-clamp passageway and a long membrane-spanning channel. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Meridian Life Science \ MAb to C. difficile Toxin B \ C65424M for more molecular products just contact us
Clostridium difficile Toxin A小鼠单克隆抗体可与艰难梭菌样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Webb, Helen M. and Sixma, T.K. and Hol, W.G.J. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1994) Analysis by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Important Residues Invoved in the Assembly of Escherichia-Coli Heart-Labile NALYSIS BY SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS OF IMPORTANT RESIDUES Enterotoxin. In: 6th European Workshop on Bacterial Protein Toxins, Stirling, Scotland. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
Principal Investigator:TOMITA Toshio, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
A BLAST search with the HI0659 protein sequence turns up homologs in only the same species. Some of these are annotated as members of an Xre-family toxin-antitoxin system (I think HI0660 is homologous to the toxin component, and HI0659 to the antitoxin component). HI0660 is also tagged as a member of the Gp49 superfamily (also phage proteins I think). Xre family repressors are known to perform a variety of regulatory functions unrelated to toxin-antitoxin systems (ref). The same paper suggests that the Tad toxin components might be mRNA-cleaving ribonucleases. Maybe thats what HI0660 does, and HI0659 is a repressor that prevents it from acting. If so, and if sxy mRNA was HI0660s target, then the mutant phenotypes would make sense. ...
Study Flashcards On USMLE 2011 Bacterial Toxins/Virulence Factors at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and their colleagues have identified the structure of the most lethal toxin produced by certain strains of Clostridium difficile bacteria, a potentially deadly infection associated with the use of antibiotics. The
It is difficult to correlate in vitro toxin concentration with in vivo exposure, however, the concentration of toxin used in both models are similar as 2.3 mg DON/kg of feed corresponds to 7.7 μM ( Sergent et al., 2006; Pinton et al., 2009). It is interesting to observe that in both models, there is a good correlation in the increase of expression of phosphorylated MAPK. The extent of MAPK activation, lower in samples obtained from the in vivo experiment than in explants, could be explained by the mode of exposure to the toxin, in the culture medium. or in ingested feed. A significant increase was observed only for ERK and p38. Following the same signaling arrangement, each individual MAPK pathway responds PF-02341066 in vivo to specific stimuli and then regulates their specific substrates ( Cui et al., 2007), which can explain the selective activation of MAPK. JNK and ERK are involved in regulation of both cell survival and death depending on cell types and stimulus, whereas p38 can promote ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
1DJR: Structure of m-carboxyphenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside complexed to heat-labile enterotoxin at 1.3 A resolution: surprising variations in ligand-binding modes.
HLT 314V Week 2 Discussion 1 & Discussion 2HLT 314V Week 2 Discussion 1Select one area of health policy and describe the impact that policy formation places
Affiliation:兵庫県立大学,環境人間学部,教授, Research Field:食生活,食の安全, Keywords:プルプリン,ノロウイルス,緑茶,サルモネラ,マウス,Verotoxin,イムノクロマト法,Heat-labile toxin,ハムスター,クロロゲン酸, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:9
Your body is detoxing every minute of every day through your skin, lungs, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. These systems are efficient and effective. However, in our daily lives, we may overburden these processes with sugar and processed food, alcohol, pollution, medication use, stress, etc. Therefore, the main purpose of doing a detox program is to lighten the toxin load on your body for a period of time. Reducing excess toxin exposure will aid in re-balancing elimination systems, reduce inflammation in the body, and support the bodys detox systems to function optimally. ...
1: MRRMIPTSFS SKFQGVLSMN ALRCYVSEFI STFFFVLAAV GSVMSSRKLM AGDVSGPFGV 61: LIPAIANALA LSSSVYISWN VSGGHVNPAV TFAMAVAGRI SVPTAMFYWT SQMIASVMAC 121: LVLKVTVMEQ HVPIYKIAGE MTGFGASVLE GVLAFVLVYT VFTASDPRRG LPLAVGPIFI 181: GFVAGANVLA AGPFSGGSMN PACAFGSAMV YGSFKNQAVY WVGPLLGGAT AALVYDNVVV 241: PVEDDRGSST ...
1: MAFKYSLGAD ELKGKTGTSL YKAIFAEFFG IFILNFFGCA ACTHAKGDEV LIALAFGLSV 61: FMAAMTIGHV SGCHINPAVT FGLLAAGKIS LIRAIFYVLA QCVGSVAGTA SLAVLTNGTE 121: IAIGIGHTQL NPTVSVYQGL GFEFFLGFIL ILCVVGVCDE NKPDSRFIAP LAIGLTVTLG 181: HLGVVTYTGS SMNPARSFGT AFITGDWENH WVYWLGPIAG GIAASLLYSI FFSAPDIEVH 241: RSDKYRQVTQ NDDKELRTLS ...