Although the putative biological consequences of cross-seeding have not been investigated in detail, there are several studies suggesting a molecular cross-talk between misfolded proteins in vivo. Perhaps the most emblematic study of cross-seeding in animal models is the one involving Aβ and tau proteins. The simultaneous brain accumulation of these proteins is the main hallmark of AD. Studies in animal models using various transgenic mice revealed that Aβ is able to accelerate the aggregation of tau; however, it seems that tau aggregates do not have the same effect over Aβ [19], [20]. These findings suggest a possibly unidirectional cross-seeding. However, it is also possible that this outcome may be mediated by indirect processes, for example, Aβ aggregates may activate certain kinases responsible for tau phosphorylation, leading to higher misfolding and aggregation of this protein [21].. Another interaction that has been studied in some detail is between α-synuclein and the misfolded ...
In natural environments, bacteria are often found as sessile communities known as biofilms (8, 10). To date, the bacterial structures of adherence (25, 40-42, 56) and the physiological processes involved in bacterial surface colonization (15, 40, 41) are better understood than the genetic responses of bacteria adhering to a surface. By using a library oflacZ fusions and a reliable screen for identifying genes whose expression changes in biofilm versus planktonic cells, the transcription of 38% of the E. coli genes was shown to be modified during the colonization process. Several genes with altered expression in biofilms were identified. Different cellular functions were induced in attached bacteria: the OmpC porin, the high-affinity transport system of glycine betaine, colanic acid production (theE. coli class I exopolysaccharide), tripeptidase T, and synthesis of a nickel high-affinity transport system. On the other hand, the syntheses of flagella and of a putative protein of 92 amino acids ...
In natural environments, bacteria are often found as sessile communities known as biofilms (8, 10). To date, the bacterial structures of adherence (25, 40-42, 56) and the physiological processes involved in bacterial surface colonization (15, 40, 41) are better understood than the genetic responses of bacteria adhering to a surface. By using a library oflacZ fusions and a reliable screen for identifying genes whose expression changes in biofilm versus planktonic cells, the transcription of 38% of the E. coli genes was shown to be modified during the colonization process. Several genes with altered expression in biofilms were identified. Different cellular functions were induced in attached bacteria: the OmpC porin, the high-affinity transport system of glycine betaine, colanic acid production (theE. coli class I exopolysaccharide), tripeptidase T, and synthesis of a nickel high-affinity transport system. On the other hand, the syntheses of flagella and of a putative protein of 92 amino acids ...
This course comprises three main topics. Biopolymers - Covering aspects of the structures properties, and applications of major classes of biopolymeric material such as DNA, RNA and proteins, as well as a wide range of naturally occurring biopolymers derived from renewable resources, such as polyesters. Glycobiology - This section will introduce the role of carbohydrates in biological systems. Starting from basic concepts and terminology specific for carbohydrate chemistry, the following areas will be illuminated: properties and structures of common polysaccharides (e.g. amylose, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, peptidoglycans, pectins, dextrans, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans), chemical and enzymatic synthesis and degradation, complex carbohydrates (case studies: human and bacterial structures), glycoconjugates (case studies: glycoproteins, glycolipids), carbohydrates in medicine (case studies: lead structure, vaccine, inhibitor), carbohydrate recognition (case studies: lectins) in e.g. ...
Flagella are bacterial structures that allow directed movement, called motility. Motility enables bacteria to move towards favorable environments and away from unfavorable ones and is sometimes important in the characterization and identification of bacteria. Arrangement of flagella varies among species. A flagellum may occur singly at one end, or there may be more than one flagella at one or both ends (polar). Flagella may occur in tufts, or they can be arranged all around the cell (peritrichous). Not all motile bacteria have flagella and many bacteria are non-motile. There are different ways to examine motility or motility organelles. You should begin with the motility part of the SIMS test and if that is positive, do a wet mount to confirm motility and/or do a fagella stain to see if you can see flagella ...
Every cell in your body does this at a low level. But pressurised cancer cells do it at 100 times that level! So do the bacterial structures cluster around the coronary arteries and the kidneys that cause coronary heart disease. As do the viral structures in the pancreas causing diabetes ...
Subject: Lambda Lunch update To: [email protected] Lambda Lunch update, 1/29/08: 1/29/08, Noon, Building 32TII Conference Room: Emily Troemel (Fred Ausubel lab, MGH) "Host/pathogen interactions in C. elegans" 1/29/08, 2:15 PM, 37/2041: Heather W. Pinkett, (Caltech) "Structural Studies of an ABC Transporter from Haemophilus influenzae, HIF" 1/31/08*: Bob Schleif (Hopkins) "Pursuing a Proteins Innermost Secrets: AraC" (Sankar Adhya) 2/7/08*: Christophe Penno (Cashel lab) "Control of the virulence of Shigella flexneri by transcriptional slippage" 2/8/08, Noon, Building 32TII Conference Room: Jennifer Philips (Perrimon + Rubin labs, Harvard Med) "Genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila identifies host factors that modulate Mycobacterial infection" 2/8/08, 9 AM - 12 PM, Natcher (Building 45) Room E1/E2: Imaging Bacterial Structures: A Symposium in Honor of Martin Kessel. Register at http://www.csmicro.org/html/CSM_Winter08_Symposium.htm 3/7/08: 12:00 PM, 32TII/Conf. room: Petra Levin (Wash ...
A University of Queensland-led international study has discovered a new type of bacterial structure which has previously only been seen in more complex cells. Research team leader UQ School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences microbiologist Emeritus Professor John Fuerst said the study had found pore-like structures in a bacterium called Gemmata obscuriglobus.
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) are complex bacterial structures that provide gram-negative pathogens with a unique virulence mechanism whereby they grow a needle-like structure in order to inject bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of a host cell. Numerous experiments have been performed to understand the structural details of this nanomachine during the past decade. Despite the concerted efforts of molecular and structural biologists, several crucial aspects of the assembly of this structure, such as the regulation of the length of the needle itself, remain unclear. In this work, we used a combination of mathematical and computational techniques to better understand length control based on the timing of substrate switching, which is a possible mechanism for how bacteria ensure that the T3SS needles are neither too short nor too long. In particular, we predicted the form of the needle length distribution based on this mechanism, and found excellent agreement with available ...
Blumenthal A., Ehlers S., Lauber J., Buer J., Lange C., Goldmann T., Heine H., Brandt E., Reiling N.. Microarray--assisted gene--expression screens of human macrophages revealed WNT5A, a homolog of Wingless, a key regulator of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic segmentation and patterning, to be consistently up-regulated following stimulation with different mycobacterial species and conserved bacterial structures. The expression of WNT5A required Toll-like receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activation, which identifies a novel induction pathway for a Wingless homolog. We show that human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells express the WNT5A receptor Frizzled-5 (FZD5). Both WNT5A and FZD5 also were detected in granulomatous lesions in the lungs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected patients. Functional studies showed that WNT5A and FZD5 regulate the microbially induced interleukin-12 response of antigen-presenting cells and interferon-gamma production by mycobacterial antigen-stimulated T cells. Our ...
Todars Online Textbook of Bacteriology chapters on bacteriology, microbes in the environment, cycles of elements, bacterial structure, bacterial nutrition, bacterial growth, bacterial metabolism, bacteria and archaea, normal flora, bacterial pathogens, bacterial toxins, endotoxin, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, staphylococci and MRSA, streptococcus, pneumonia, anthrax, E. coli, cholera, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, gonorrhea, meningococcal meningitis, botulism and tetanus hib meningitis, Listeria, whooping cough, B. cereus food poisoning, tuberculosis, diphtheria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, Vibrio vulnificus, Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria.
This course covers basic microbiology and immunology and is primarily directed at pre-nursing, pre-allied health, and non-science majors. It provides an introduction to historical concepts of the nature of microorganisms, microbial diversity, the importance of microorganisms and acellular agents in the biosphere, and their roles in human and animal diseases. Major topics include bacterial structure as well as growth, physiology, genetics, and biochemistry of microorganisms. Emphasis is on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health.. This course covers basics of culture and identification of bacteria and microbial ecology. This course is primarily directed at pre-nursing and other pre-allied health majors and covers basics of microbiology. Emphasis is on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health.. Read More. ...
Civil Servant: So, yeah, trying to explain modelling and, you know, elasticities and all of that, I mean, I find it difficult to get my head around that, so, you know, not surprising that thats quite a difficult thing to explain to the public, media, you know, committee, especially when people dont necessarily want to believe it either, you know? […] but I guess its like all of these things that, you know, were not very good, were not very literate with uncertainties and, you know, like we always say about risk, you know, people find it really hard to get their head round … ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
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Iron bacteria: Gallionella ferruginea Leptothrix cholodnii Leptothrix discophora Leptothrix ochracea Leptothrix ochracea-type Leptothrix sp.A (intermediate between L. ochracea and L. cholodnii) Siderocapsa cf. treubii Siderocystis sp. Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoria sp. Spirulina sp. SEE wild bacteria and other micro-organisms up close on a guided slide show of the seemy underworld of the Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens ...