It is generally assumed that microorganisms synthesize, release, detect and respond to small signaling hormone-like molecules. These molecules are used for a process termed
Drugs that stop bacteria from talking might be new, powerful antibiotics - a much needed weapon in our never-ending struggle against bacterial infections. On the other hand, drugs that make bacteria chat more could boost the production of biofuels and other industrial goods that bacteria make for us. In 1990 a young Bonnie Bassler, mesmerized by glow-in-the-dark bacteria that could talk to their peers to coordinate light production, wondered whether other bacteria could talk too. The answer, she soon found out, was yes - including all the nasty bacteria that cause disease. Today, Bonnie Bassler is a professor in molecular biology at Princeton University and an authority in the field of bacterial communication. Her findings, that all bacteria can talk, revolutionized the way we think of bacteria and opened the doors to important medical and industrial applications. But the discovery of bacterial communication has given us much more than new drugs. It has shown us how bacteria live in the real
Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling phenomenon used by bacteria for coordination of population-wide phenotypes, such as expression of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Lately, disruption of bacterial communication has emerged as an anti-virulence strategy with enormous therapeutic potential given the increasing incidences of drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. The quorum quenching therapeutic approach promises a lower risk of resistance development, since interference with virulence generally does not affect the growth and fitness of the bacteria and, hence, does not exert an associated selection pressure for drug-resistant strains. With better understanding of bacterial communication networks and mechanisms, many quorum quenching methods have been developed against various clinically significant bacterial pathogens. In particular, Gram-negative bacteria are an important group of pathogens, because, collectively, they are responsible for the majority of
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Microtiter plate-based bacterial biofilm assay is frequently used to study bacterial biofilm development and growth. While this assay is simple and relatively high-throughput, it frequently shows difficulty in establishing robust biofilm attachment in the wells. We report that the consistency of bacterial biofilm a
Bacteria have ways of communicating with each other, and scientists have now identified a new signaling system that, when there is a critical mass of bacteria present, causes the bacteria to produce an appendage known as a flagellum that moves like a corkscrew and gives them the ability to swim away, inhibiting the formation of biofilm. "Anything we can discover about this bacterial communication could be really important in understanding how bacteria become pathogenic in humans or how they form film on teeth or internal medical devices," said study co-author Dr. Russell Hill, Director of the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology in Baltimore, Maryland. "Understanding that process may help in the future for controlling biofilms.". It is estimated that pound by pound there are more bacteria on the Earth than all other life forms combined. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell and can only be seen through a microscope. However, bacteria have evolved ways to gather into ...
In 1975 our laboratory reported that a methylated membrane protein is involved in bacterial chemotaxis (Kort et al., 1975). It is now known that the extent of methylation of this protein (called MCP...
Viruses are being redefined as more than just pathogens. They are also critical symbiotic partners in the health of their hosts. In some cases, viruses have fused with their hosts in symbiogenetic relationships. Mutualistic interactions are found in plant, insect, and mammalian viruses, as well as with eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes, and some interactions involve…
In a recent study a new role of cAMP was described (A synthetic Escherichia coli communication system mediated by extracellular cyclic AMP (publication in progress). This system is involved in bacterial communication. We used this module to allow communications within our bacteria ...
In a recent study a new role of cAMP was described (A synthetic Escherichia coli communication system mediated by extracellular cyclic AMP (publication in progress). This system is involved in bacterial communication. We used this module to allow communications within our bacteria ...
Bacterial Biofilms von Tony Romeo und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
This year-long proof of concept explores the interplay between bacterial communication circuits and the surface topology of the substrate they are on, to see if certain designed surface features can be made to trigger genetic development switches. Differentiation due to a diffusible chemical signal is central in the development of multicellular organisms. Success in replicating this strategy on a synthetic structure enables a spatially programmable consortium of bacterial cells. Our aims were to enable the self-assembly of multicellular microbial films on the surface of synthetic silicon and polymer forms to form hybrid constructs, generation of construct polarity in gene expression driven by the topology of the synthetic form, and size control of the assembled multicellular film. These achievements would enable our long term vision, which is to create a micro scale, programmable cellular-synthetic hybrid robot capable of autonomous motility, sensing and response in aqueous environments. These ...
keywords = {Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Cell Surface, Flagella, Flagellin, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Toll-Like Receptor 5, Toll-Like Receptors ...
Stoodley P, Wilson S, Cargo R, Piscitteli C, Rupp CJ, "Detachment and other dynamic processes in bacterial biofilms," in Surfaces in Biomaterials 2001 Symposium Proceedings, pp. 189-192, Surfaces in Biomaterials Foundation, Minneapolis ...
Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC ® 15444D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Hyphomonas neptunium strain 14-15 TypeStrain=True Application:
Tumbling and swimming motility of a flagellated rod are illustrated using 3D animation, one of many videos available for the classroom or broadcast.
De Mot, R., and Vanderleyden, J. (1994) The C-terminal sequence conservation between OmpA-related outer membrane proteins and MotB suggests a common function in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, possibly in the interaction of these domains with peptidoglycan. Mol Microbiol 12: 333-334 ...
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Bacterial cell-to-cell signalling has emerged as a new area in microbiology. Individual bacterial cells communicate with each other and co-ordinate group activities. Although a lot of detail is known about the mechanisms of a few well-characterized bacterial communication systems, other systems have …
Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells treated for up to 20 hours with 3,4-(di)hydroxy-heptyl-quinoline (PQS), a bacterial intercellular signaling molecule. Results provide insight into the role of PQS in the bacterial communication system termed quorum sensing. ...
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A team of researchers with members from the U.S., Germany and Sweden has discovered that the cellulose found in bacterial biofilms differs from the cellulose in plants. In their paper published in the journal Science, the ...
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
A community-based life style is the normal mode of growth and survival for many bacterial species. These cellular accretions or biofilms are initiated upon reco
Gliding Cyanobacterial filaments A thin slime sheath, external to the oscillin layer, encloses the cell or filament. Cyanobacteria may be immotile, or they move
In this video the concept of "irreducible complexity" is discussed as a obstacle to the theory of natural selection. In irreducible complexity, a system requires the existence of its unique parts in order to function. A non-biological example of this is the common mousetrap. Each component of the mousetrap is required in order for it to operate appropriately. The biological example of irreducible complexity is the bacterial flagellum. Natural selection, cannot explain the existence of the bacterial flagellum where the concept of "irreducible complexity" challenges its theory ...
This weeks post at Design Disquisitions is the first in a series of articles entitled Critics Corner where I focus on a critic of ID. The main purpose of these posts is to document their work relevant to ID and also to document the direct responses to the particular critic in question, by those sympathetic to […]. ...
Harmful bacteria are often associated with the toxins they use on their hosts. It is generally believed that the greater the toxicity the more severe is the
CamStent Ltd is an emerging medical materials company based in Cambridge, UK. We are focused on building revenues through the...
Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease pathogenesis, in-situ bioremediation and marine biogeochemistry. And therefore, studying bacterial chemotaxis is of significant importance to scientists and engineers alike. Microfluidics has revolutionized the way we study the motile behavior of cells by enabling observations at high spatial and temporal resolution in carefully controlled microenvironments. This thesis aims to explore the potential of microfluidic technology in studying bacterial behavior by investigating different aspects of bacterial chemotaxis on a microfluidic platform. We quantified population-scale transport parameters of bacteria using videomicroscopy and cell tracking in controlled chemoattractant gradients. Previously, transport parameters have been derived theoretically from single-cell swimming behavior ...
immune Uncategorized Bosutinib, LDHAL6A antibody Bacterial biofilm has been shown to play a role in delaying wound healing of chronic wounds, a major medical problem that results in significant healthcare burden. gradually cleared from your wounds while the presence of (part of the normal mouse pores and skin flora) improved. Scabs from all unhealed wounds contained 107 study of bacterial biofilm reactions to sponsor defenses and the effects of biofilms on sponsor wound healing pathways. It may also be used to test anti-biofilm strategies the treatment of chronic wounds. spp., and [5C7] have been isolated from chronic wounds, even though the wound may not display any medical indications of localized illness. Multiple bacterial varieties, usually two to five varieties, reside concurrently on a single ulcer [7C9]. The chronicity of unhealed wounds is definitely associated with higher proportion of colonization by anaerobic bacteria and greater variety of aerobic varieties [5]. More recent studies ...
RICHARDSON, Texas (March 29, 2006) - A research associate and a professor at The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) have been awarded a three-year, $240,000 grant to study how bacterial communication affects the formation of biofilms, the culprit in many human bacterial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded the grant to Dr. Audry Almengor, research associate, and Dr. Juan E. González, associate professor, in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. The grant supports Almengors postdoctoral work at UTD.. "This is a very important area of study, since most of the bacteria that interact with animals or plants attach to surfaces, where they form biofilms," González said. Biofilms are a collection of microorganisms that attach themselves to either an inert or living surface, and they exist wherever surfaces contact water. In addition to being implicated in a "significant number" of human bacterial infections, biofilms can also cause product contamination and even ...
Some bacteria boast a marvelous swimming device, the flagellum, which has no counterpart in more complex cells. In 1973 it was discovered that some bacteria swim by rotating their flagella. So the bacterial flagellum acts as a rotary propellor -- in contrast to the cilium, which acts more like an oar.. The structure of a flagellum is quite different from that of a cilium. The flagellum is a long, hairlike filament embedded in the cell membrane. The external filament consists of a single type of protein, called flagellin. The flagellin filament is the paddle surface that contacts the the liquid during swimming. At the end of the flagellin filament near the surface of the cell, there is a bulge in the thickness of the flagellum. It is here that the filament attaches to the rotor drive. The attachment material is comprised of something called hook protein. The filament of a bacterial flagellum, unlike a cilium, contains no motor protein; if it is broken off, the filament just floats stiffly in ...
Host-pathogen interactions are like an "arms race", in which the outcome of the encounter is determined by the dynamic interplay between the bodys (the host) responses, which aim to eliminate the pathogen, and the countermeasures that pathogens employ to avoid eradication. Thus, to understand host-pathogen interactions, both sides of this "war" should be studied simultaneously. In the laboratory we study both the bacterial and the host adaptation strategies engaged during the course of infection, focusing on: 1) How the host spies on bacterial communication systems and what are the sensors and mechanisms involved, with a major focus is on an important host receptor recently discovered to be able to sense bacterial infection, the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). 2) How the bacteria reacts and adapts to host derived responses. ...
Building natures extraordinary machines - new insights, new technologies Lawrence Lee and his team are building natures extraordinary molecular machines such as the bacterial flagellar motor − a rotary engine that can rotate five times faster than an F1 engine. They hope to uncover one of Natures best-kept secrets − how so many brainless molecules self-assemble into sophisticated nanoscopic machines. These machines often surpass man-made technologies with their function, efficiency, scale and robustness.
The flow cell biofilm system is an important and widely used tool for the in vitro cultivation and evaluation of bacterial biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions of flow. This paper provides an introduction to the background and use of such systems, accompanied by a detailed guide to the assembly of the apparatus including the description of new modifications which enhance its performance. As such, this is an essential guide for the novice biofilm researcher as well as providing valuable trouble-shooting techniques for even the most experienced laboratories. The adoption of a common and reliable methodology amongst researchers would enable findings to be shared and replicated amongst the biofilm research community, with the overall aim of advancing understanding and management of these complex and widespread bacterial communities.. ...
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Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Turnover of Endogenous SsrA-tagged Proteins Mediated by ATP-dependent Proteases in Escherichia coli*[S with combining enclosing square]: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2516991 ...
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Roberts, M.A.J. and August, E. and Hamadeh, A. and Maini, P. K. and McSharry, P. E. and Armitage, J. P. and Papachristodoulou, A. (2009) A model invalidation-based approach for elucidating biological signalling pathways, applied to the chemotaxis pathway inR. sphaeroides. BMC Systems Biology, 3 (3). pp. 1-14. ...
Motility is achieved in most bacterial species by the flagellar apparatus. It consists of dozens of different proteins with thousands of individual subunits. The published literature about bacterial chemotaxis and flagella ...
Little, Ainslie E. F., Murakami, Takahiro, Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, and Currie, Cameron Robert. 2006. ",a href="https%3A%2F%2Frepository.si.edu%2Fhandle%2F10088%2F8594",Defending Against Parasites: Fungus-Growing Ants Combine Specialized Behaviours and Microbial Symbionts to Protect Their Fungus Gardens,/a,." ,em,Biology Letters,/em,. 12–16. ,a href="https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2005.0371",https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2005.0371,/a ...
Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. Mutations that stimulate flhDC expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 197 No.19, 3087-3096 (2015).. Yuan, J., Fahrner, K.A., Turner, L., and Berg, H.C. Asymmetry in the clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 12846-12849 (2010).. Yuan, J., Fahrner, K. A. & Berg, H. C. Switching of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load. J. Mol. Biol. 390, 394-400 (2009). Bates, D., Epstein, J., Boyle, E., Fahrner, K., Berg, H. and Kleckner, N. The Escherichia coli baby cell column: a novel cell synchronization method provides new insight into the bacterial cell cycle. Molec. Microbiol. 57, 380-391 (2005). Fahrner, K.A., Ryu, W.S. and Berg, H.C. Bacterial flagellar switching under load. Nature 423, 938 (2003). Scharf, B.E., Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C. CheZ has no effect on flagellar motors activated by CheY13DK106YW. J. Bacteriol. 180, 5123-5128 (1998). Fahrner, K.A., Block, S.M., Krishnaswamy, S., ...
We show in this report that E. coli remodels its chemosensory physiology as a response to swarming. The altered physiology is likely the result of an elevation of the concentration of CheZ, which increases CheY∼P dephosphorylation bias and reduces the cells tumble bias. Reducing the tumble bias improves swarming performance, but a very low tumble bias negatively impacts expansion of the swarm, corroborating previous reports that tumbling is still necessary in the swarm (49). Therefore, there is an optimal tumble bias for swarming and E. coli is able to adapt its motility behavior to surface conditions that favor swarming.. The increased stability of CheZ in swarmer cells explains the increase in their CheZ levels (Fig. 6). However, the mechanism by which CheZ is specifically stabilized during swarming will require further investigation. In B. subtilis, contact with swarm agar increases synthesis of flagella by somehow sequestering a specific adaptor protein that otherwise (in liquid), in ...
Research groupsCell biology and Biotechnology Mechanisms of gene regulation and bacterial biofilm development Dr Fernando Govantes. ..
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rationalskepticism.org seeks to promote open and reasonable discussion to support free thinking and free people. The path to free thought is through questioning, learning from, and understanding ourselves, others, and our universe.
Note the contrasts to ID... Plate Tectonics explained things that were open questions in prior theories. It explained new data that was unknown when the older theories were propounded. It unified a great deal of disparate data in a coherent whole. *And* a few people kept the idea alive even though the proposal was out of favor generally. IDers on the other hand, just whine that they cant get a hearing.. ...
Scientists previously thought bacteria needed a host to travel the globe. However, new research suggests bacteria can travel thousands of miles through the air.
Biolfim formation is a complex and dinamic process, where bacteria collonies grow around a viscous material attached on a electrode surface.
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Thursday featured turkeys and thunderstorms. There have been several turkeys in the vicinity gobbling for mates. One gobbled several times when I went out to feed the outdoor furnace.
Princeton University. Biographical Sketch Not long ago, most biologists thought bacteria were asocial creatures. Now, it is clear that bacteria communicate within and between species using chemical languages that enable them to coordinately regulate gene expression and synchronize group behaviors. Bacterial communication, called quorum sensing, is a census-taking process that allows bacteria to wait until they have achieved a critical cell number before embarking on processes such as virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation and mating. Quorum sensing processes are typically ones that are not effective if undertaken by a single bacterium acting alone but become successful when a group of cells acts in concert.. Bonnie Bassler has been studying quorum sensing for nearly 20 years. She and her coworkers have shown that bacteria are multi-lingual: They have unique languages for communicating within their own species, and they also possess a common language for communication between species. Bassler ...
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The bacterial flagellum. (A) Electron micrograph of a Salmonella cell. (B) Electron micrograph of the Salmonella flagellum. (C) Schematic diagram of the flagellum. The flagellum consists of at least three part: the basal body as a bi-directional rotary motor, the hook as a universal joint and the filament as a helical screw.
Bacterial Biofilms and Their Control in Medicine and Industry, Julian.W.T. Wimpenny, Wright Nichols, David Sticker, Hilary Lappin-Scott books
Regulation of the direction of flagellar rotation is central to the mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis. The transitions between counterclockwise and clockwise rotation are controlled by a switch complex composed of three proteins (FliG, FliM, and FliN) and located at the base of the flagellar motor. The mechanism of function of the switch is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the diffusible clockwise-signal molecule, the CheY protein, binds to the switch, that the primary docking site is FliM, that the extent of CheY binding to FliM is dependent upon the phosphorylation level of CheY, and that it is unaffected by the other two switch proteins. This study provides a biochemical demonstration of binding of a signal molecule to the bacterial switch and demonstrates directly that phosphorylation regulates the activity of this molecule ...
I am professor in electron cryotomography and bacterial chemotaxis. I am interested in understanding how microbes sense and respond to their environment. In order to gain insight into the structure and function of the molecular complexes involved in these behaviors, my lab uses electron cryotomography (ECT). This technique allows us to directly study microbes in their native state at resolutions capable of visualizing individual proteins.
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Bacteria are exposed to constantly changing environments. An efficient way to navigate towards favourable conditions is flagella-mediated motility. Flagellar rotation is achieved by the bacterial flagellar motor, composed of the rotor and stator complexes which surround the rotor in a ring-like stru.... Ausführliche Beschreibung. ...
An apparatus for automatically transferring a desired one of bacterial colonies grown in a medium in a culture Petri dish onto a medium in a test Petri dish or a test tube by using a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the disposable type or a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the reuse type and by using various mechanisms controlled by a computer.
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the bacterial biofilm formation on the tonsil surface exposed N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and
Methods for treating patients in which damaged tissue or an indwelling prosthetic device or catheter has a bacterial biofilm growing thereon, to at least partially disrupt said biofilm, by administering at least one antibacterial enzyme that is lethal or damaging to the biofilm-forming bacteria in an amount that is effective to at least partially disrupt the biofilm upon contact therewith. Methods for prophylactically treating a patient, and methods for disinfecting or sterilizing a surface ex-vivo to remove a biofilm or prevent biofilm growth are also disclosed, as well as implantable articles susceptible to biofilm growth to which a prophylactic coating of an antibacterial enzyme has been applied.
Is it possible to know the live bacteria using PCR for a certain genus? - posted in General Biology Discussion: - I am doing starvation experiment for nitrifying bacteria and I want to show only the live bacteria for nitrobacter and nitrosospira for example. But the normal PCR will amplify the live and the dead bacteria DNA. Any suggestions?
View Notes - 12-ch16-microbes from BIO 2 at University of Texas. Chapter 16 continued: Chapter 16 continued: Microbes Microbes Early microbiologists
Every home has bacteria, and many types of bacteria can even be good for you and your family. However, some bacteria can be hazardous to your health.
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Bacteria may travel thousands of miles through the air worldwide instead of hitching rides with people and animals, according to Rutgers and other scientists. Their air bridge hypothesis could shed light on how harmful ...
... Introduction Most common bacteria are either Gram-positive or Gram-negative (based on cell wallstructure). Remember from lecture, Gram-positive ce
Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria found in the reproductive tissue of all major groups of arthropods. They are transmitted vertically from the female hosts to their offspring, in a pattern analogous to mitochondria inheritance. But Wolbachia phylogeny does not parallel that of the host, indicating that horizontal infectious transmission must also occur. Insect parasitoids are considered the most likely vectors, but the mechanism for horizontal transfer is largely unknown. Here we show that newly introduced Wolbachia cross several tissues and infect the germline of the adult Drosophila melanogaster female. Through investigation of bacterial migration patterns during the course of infection, we found that Wolbachia reach the germline through the somatic stem cell niche in the D. melanogaster germarium. In addition, our data suggest that Wolbachia are highly abundant in the somatic stem cell niche of long-term infected hosts, implying that this location may also contribute to efficient vertical ...
Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is ...
Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication involving the production and detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Recently, it has been proposed that autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester derived from the recycling of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine, serves as a universal signal for interspecies communication. In this study, 138 completed genomes were examined for the genes involved in the synthesis and detection of AI-2. Except for some symbionts and parasites, all organisms have a pathway to recycle SAH, either using a two-step enzymatic conversion by the Pfs and LuxS enzymes or a one-step conversion using SAH-hydrolase (SahH). 51 organisms including most Gamma-, Beta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, and Firmicutes possess the Pfs-LuxS pathway, while Archaea, Eukarya, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria prefer the SahH pathway. In all 138 organisms, only the three Vibrio strains had strong, bidirectional matches
AM: The presumption that we cannot communicate across species comes from the worldview that says there is this human world and then there is this animal world or the environment outside of us. All kinds of cultures throughout time have included myths and stories about people communicating across boundaries of species. It doesnt have to be like some woo-woo New Age thing. It is just part of being a living creature on this planet that species are interacting with each other across species boundaries in all kinds of ways.. It doesnt mean we are reading each others thoughts or completely understand what is going on in each others minds. The birds outside my window are not making noise because there is a huge construction truck making a whole lot of noise instead. That is interspecies communication or interruption of interspecies communication. We are all in this thing together. I am really interested in the scientists that are taking that to another level and saying beyond metaphor what is ...
Gene regulatory networks are one of the main cellular infrastructures that confer defined biological functions. Our research focuses on synthetic and systems biology - the analysis, construction, and exploitation of these regulatory networks for cellular functionality programming. This is an interdisciplinary research area that spans the boundary between biology, engineering, and physics. Specifically, we are interested in understanding the architecture and dynamics of naturally existing networks, primarily those in bacteria, and exploring their relationship to cellular function. One interesting example is bacterial communication networks and their roles in enabling cellular collective behaviors. In parallel, we are interested in engineering gene circuits for biomedical applications by assembling and editing genes and genomes inside living cells, very much like building integrated circuits with transistors and other elements for a computer. Along that line, microbiota reengineering is very ...
John McAfee, retired founder of McAfee Antivirus, has had his Belize laboratory raided and his dog shot during a dawn raid by thirty officers of the local police Gang Suppression Unit.. At 6am on Monday morning the officers with a warrant stormed McAfees laboratory, which researches ways to use bacterial communication to fight disease. In a statement to local station Channel Five, McAfee said police smashed open unlocked doors, handcuffed the 12 employees and "murdered my dog in cold blood.". "This is clearly a military dictatorship where people are allowed to go and harass citizens based on rumor alone and treat them as if they are guilty before any evidence whatsoever is obtained," he said. "It is astonishing, it is beyond belief and I intend not to let this stand. I will not stand idly by to let this happen to me.". The police claimed that the facility had unlicensed firearms, and McAfee claims the correct documents were all handed over, but after the raid a single firearms certificate was ...
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Microoganisms are distributed across every ecosystem, and microbial transformations are fundamental to the operation of the biosphere. Microbial ecology is the study of this interaction between microorganisms and their environment, and arguably…
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These days we are constantly bombarded by commercial messages urging us to fight germs and rid ourselves of bacteria. But in the right places and amounts, bacteria are actually very valuable to our he...
Biofilms. Microbial Biochemistry. Definition of a Biofilm. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms in a matrix that joins them together and to living or inert substrates Slideshow 6741296 by ursa-underwood
Many microbes grow in surface-associated, multicellular communities known as biofilms. These biofilms are the most abundant mode of microbial life outside the ocean.