Bacterial contamination of blood products is a major cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Due to their storage at 20 to 24°C, platelets are responsible for most of the cases of blood component-associated sepsis (1, 6, 11). Recently, Nadkarni et al. (12) have reported the use of universal primers and probes to estimate the total bacterial load in clinical samples. To detect bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates (PCs), the DNA must be extracted as efficiently as possible and the PCR mixture must not be contaminated by DNA present in the PCR reagents. Poor efficiency of DNA extraction may restrict the sensitivity of the assay, while DNA that is contaminating PCR reagents can serve as a template in PCRs, producing false-positive results. Attempts to reduce the amount of contaminating DNA from, e.g., Taq polymerases (3, 4, 5, 7) in real-time PCR have been described previously (9, 10, 13, 15). None of these methods, however, proved very effective on low copy numbers of ...
If either beta hemolytic streptococci (in any amount) or total bacterial load of ,1e6 CFU/gram of tissue is present in the screening biopsy sample at the ulcer site, the patient should be given a single 7-day course of topical antibiotics and then redebrided and biopsied for quantitative culture. A second biopsy exceeding the limits above will result in exclusion from the study due to the high risk of local infection than may adversely affect ulcer closure ...
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with bacterial pulmonary infections and neutrophil-dominated inflammation in the airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil-derived protein Heparin-binding protein (HBP) as a potential sputum marker of airway inflammation and bacterial load. Nineteen CF patients, aged 6-18 years, were prospectively followed for 6 months with sputum sampling at every visit to the CF clinic. A total of 41 sputum samples were collected. Sputum-HBP was analysed with ELISA, neutrophil elastase activity with a chromogenic assay, and total bacterial load with RT-PCR of the 16 s rDNA gene. Data were compared to lung function parameters and airway symptoms. HBP and elastase correlated to a decrease in FEV1%predicted compared to the patients´ individual baseline pulmonary function (∆FEV1), but not to bacterial load. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for the detection of | 10% decrease in ∆FEV1 were 0.80 for HBP, 0.78 for elastase, and 0.54 for
Diet has a significant effect on pathogen infections in animals and the consumption of secondary metabolites can either enhance or mitigate infection intensity. Secondary metabolites, which are common
Antibiotics are in our meats, our vegetables, our fruits and our milk, not just our medication. The function of antibiotics is to kill bacteria. However, antibiotics are indiscriminate and kill our beneficial flora also. In fact, decreased flora counts are being passed down from generation to generation with each subsequent age having less diversity, more allergies, autism and autoimmunity.. "The more the diversity the happier we will be. The less the diversity, the more weve killed off, the less the diversity the more trouble we will get from it," says Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride. (36:12). McBride is a medical doctor, neurologist and neurosurgeon but is most well known for her GAPS protocol which heals the intestinal tract rebuilding the pathogen load relieving the person from the symptoms of autism, bipolar disorder, autoimmunity and other diseases. Antibiotics kill our beneficial bacteria as well as our pathogenic bacteria. Rebuilding the flora due to antibiotic use is vital. However the ...
Several studies have shown that persistent infections and inflammation can favour carcinogenesis. At the same time, certain types of pathogens and anti-tumour immune responses can decrease the risk of tumourigenesis or lead to cancer regression. Infectious agents and their products can orchestrate a wide range of host immune responses, through which they may positively or negatively modulate cancer development and/or progression. The factors that direct this dichotomous influence of infection-mediated immunity on carcinogenesis are not well understood. Even though not universal, several previous reports have investigated the inverse link of pathogen-induced "benign" inflammation to carcinogenesis and various other pathologies, ranging from autoimmune diseases to allergy and cancer. Several models and ideas are discussed in this review, including the impact of decreased exposure to pathogens, as well as the influence of pathogen load, the timing of infection and the type of instigated immune ...
The lung in cystic fibrosis (CF) is home to numerous pathogens that shorten the lives of patients. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the lung bacteriome following antibiotic therapy targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with CF. The study included nine children (9-18 years) with CF who were treated for their chronic or intermittent positivity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteriomes were determined in 16 pairs of sputa collected at the beginning and at the end of a course of intravenous antibiotic therapy via deep sequencing of the variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene, and the total bacterial load and selected specific pathogens were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR ...
Marker pathogen analyses with micro-IDent®plus supply data on quality and quantity of 11 periodontopathogenic species and their affiliation to so-called "bacterial complexes". The result of this pooled sample provides information on the pathogen load independent from their localization and represents the optimum basis for an individual therapy which is normally a combination of mechanical forms of therapy and adjunctive systemic or local antibiotic administration. This allows you to significantly increase the success rate of the therapy while the relapse rate is dramatically reduced ...
Intentional bacterial infections can produce efficacious antitumor responses in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. However, low overall success rates and intense side effects prevent such approaches from being employed clinically. In this work, we titered bacteria and/or the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in a set of established murine models of cancer. To interpret the experiments conducted, we considered and calibrated a tumor-effector cell recruitment model under the influence of functional tumor-associated vasculature. In this model, bacterial infections and TNFα enhanced immune activity and altered vascularization in the tumor bed. Information to predict bacterial therapy outcomes was provided by pretreatment tumor size and the underlying immune recruitment dynamics. Notably, increasing bacterial loads did not necessarily produce better long-term tumor control, suggesting that tumor sizes affected optimal bacterial loads. Short-term treatment responses were favored by high concentrations of ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
Mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes died when they were force-fed. The pathogen load (bacterial numbers) and defensive/ response molecules secreted by the mouse were not different between the force-fed (test) mice and mice that were not force-fed (control). The authors of the study then used a model for bacterial infection to look at why the mice are dying. In this model, the mice were challenged with a component of the outer membrane of bacteria - this is known to result in a strong inflammatory reaction - and then looked at the effect on mice upon injection of glucose, casein and olive oil. Glucose was found to be the cause of death.. This however is only one part of the story. The researchers then looked at another infection model, of influenza-infected mice, which also display an anorexic response. Here they observed the opposite - that is, if the mice were stopped from using the glucose, they died. In fact, feeding mice made them better. Viruses invoke response pathways, which are ...
I was at the Frankfurt Motor Show last month, where REVA launched their new NXR electric city car and previewed their NXG electric sports car. I run the REVA Car Club and as a result, I also had a
If you want to shoot bigger loads and increase your load size than read this and youll learn how to up your volume by hundreds of times over.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Evaluation of the direct relationship between bacterial load on contaminated stainless steel surgical instruments and the holding time prior to disinfection and also to analyse the
We found that eating some of these compounds reduced pathogen load in the bumblebees gut, which not only may help the individual bees, but likely reduced pathogen Critidia spore load in their feces, which in turn lead to a lower likelihood of transmitting the disease to other bees," Lynn Adler said, one of the co-authors. "Because plants just sit there and cant run away from things that want to eat them, they have evolved to be to be amazing chemists. They make biological compounds called secondary metabolites, which are chemicals which are not involved in growth or reproduction, to protect themselves. They are amazing in the diversity of what they can produce for protecting themselves of for protecting pollinators.. "The results may have implications for growers who depends on pollinators, who may want to think about planting pollinator friendly hedgerows and gardens containing plants that produce natural herbal remedies for some of the most common parasites that ails bees and other ...
When the companys fully automated GreenLight® 930 is used, the vials can be batch loaded onto the 48-position carousel, or individually loaded at any time during the units "continuous" mode. As bacteria in the test sample multiply and respire, they consume oxygen. The change in oxygen is used to calculate the milks colony forming units per milliliter. (Bacterial load is calculated in the PC and stored to a secure data base ...
Molecular Diagnostics Why? Detection and Diagnosis uncultivable or difficult to culture need for rapid diagnosis inadequacy of phenotypic methods (biochemical) Prognosis and management need for quantitative information (bacterial load) susceptibility testing (drug resistance) without culture - Molecular resistance testing
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
Human breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for infants, providing essential nutrients and a broad range of bioactive compounds, as well as its own microbiota. However, the interaction among those components and the biological role of milk microorganisms is still uncovered. Thus, our aim was to identify the relationships between milk microbiota composition, bacterial load, macronutrients, and human cells during lactation. Bacterial load was estimated in milk samples from a total of 21 healthy mothers through lactation time by bacteria-specific qPCR targeted to the single-copy gene fusA. Milk microbiome composition and diversity was estimated by 16S-pyrosequencing and the structure of these bacteria in the fluid was studied by flow cytometry, qPCR, and microscopy. Fat, protein, lactose, and dry extract of milk as well as the number of somatic cells were also analyzed. We observed that milk bacterial communities were generally complex, and showed individual-specific profiles. Milk microbiota was
This experimental design allowed us to compare bacterial loads in the setting of higher parenchymal effector cell numbers versus higher in vivo IFN-γ production. Both groups of recipient mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the lungs compared with the unreconstituted mice (Fig. 4C). However, TCRα−/− mice injected with iv+ donor cells showed an ∼4-fold reduction in bacterial loads, whereas the recipients of iv− donor cells showed an ∼18-fold decrease in CFU compared with the unreconstituted controls (Fig. 4C). Therefore, CD4 T cell-mediated protection against M. tuberculosis infection was associated with a higher number of CD4 T cells in the lung parenchyma rather than a higher frequency of IFNγ+ cells in the vasculature.. In this study, we demonstrate that the pulmonary CD4 T cell response against M. tuberculosis is composed of two major subsets that either enter the lung parenchyma or reside within the vasculature. The parenchymal effectors express CXCR3 and are PD-1hi/CD69hi, ...
Calculation of pathogen growth rates is important in understanding the natural history of infection and effects of therapy. However, it is often difficult to estimate pathogen growth because patients are treated immediately upon the detection of infection, leaving only one nonzero untreated reading. Previous approaches have relied on the flawed assumption that pathogen loads just prior to detection are at the assay detection threshold. We have developed a novel method for estimating the pathogen growth rate from a single reading and investigated the initial growth of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. We applied this approach to CMV viral loads measured at least weekly in 122 patients in the 3 months posttransplant. Viral growth rates were estimated by using a modeling approach that accounts for the viral load and the time since the last negative reading. Viral growth rates decreased rapidly within the first week, from 0.72/day (doubling time, ...
In ecology, disease tolerance is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA
To monitor and predict future epidemics, competent aquatic veterinarians sample, test, analyze and interpret the host health, river health, intermediate host presence, along with the pathogen load in the river system. With this information, aquatic veterinarians can manage the health of the watershed, river, and fish to minimize the impact of infectious disease. All of this ahead of time. The aquatic veterinary goal is to prevent epidemics, or at least predict them, something beyond biologists ability at this time. Veterinarians have a long and effective history of successfully managing the health of animal populations threatened by infectious disease, be they wild or domestic. Veterinarians have the appropriate knowledge and experience to sustain fish and river health. The time has come to look to veterinarians to manage river health in Montana as rivers are managed in progressive fisheries throughout the world where the economy depends on fish health and prosperity. There is a lot to learn ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
PILONETTO, Marcelo et al. Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination in an intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp.206-210. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300003.. The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. ...
To the Editor:. The mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia, and especially the number deaths that occur soon after presentation, remains unacceptably high [1]. In 1964, Austrian and Gold [2] observed that 60% of deaths in patients with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (IPP) occurred within the first 5 days. Unfortunately, this does not appear to have changed over the subsequent five decades [3].. Different factors related to the mortality of pneumococcal disease have been described, including host factors such as age, comorbidities or immunosuppressive conditions [4], and organism-related factors such as serotype, bacterial load or viral co-infection [3, 5-7]. These factors have all been primarily identified to predict overall mortality, but information regarding the determinants of early mortality is scarce. It has been hypothesised that early deaths are more likely to be due to an inappropriate inflammatory response triggered by Streptococcus pneumoniae than to the micro-organism itself [8]. Thus, ...
MichaelXYs links at least indicate that the bacterial load in the air is relatively small. (And after all, why wouldnt it - most bacteria dont produce spores specifically meant for airborne spreading as far as I know) I thought fungal spores, on the other hand, wouldve been much more common in the air, but at least quick googling* gave me values ranging from 50 to 500 CFU/m3, which is quite close to the amount of bacteria ...
Antibiotics kill bacteria or cause them to be unable to reproduce. One of the effects of antibiotics on bacterial count is a decrease in the growth of the bacteria. Sample collection prior to beginning antibiotic treatment is essential, for accurate bacterial counts.
Jay Reatard, punk rocker, dies at 29; George Bissell, Newport Beach architect, dies at 82; Reva Mikles Graziadio, Pepperdine University benefactor, dies at 87; Jan C. Gabriel, radio announcer, dies at 69
The immune response in rainbow trout fry against Flavobacterium psychrophilum was elucidated using an immersion-based challenge with or without prior exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Samples were taken from the head kidney 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after immersion, and the regulation of several genes was examined. Bacterial load was assessed based on the presence of 16S rRNA and correlated with gene expression, and the levels of specific antibodies in the blood were measured 50 days post-infection. Separately, both H2O2 and F. psychrophilum influenced gene expression, and pre-treatment with H2O2 influenced the response to infection with F. psychrophilum. Pre-treatment with H2O2 also affected correlation between gene regulation and pathogen load for several genes. A delay in antibody production in H2O2-treated fish in the early phase of infection was indicated, but H2O2 exposure did not affect antibody levels 50 days post-infection. An increasing amount of F. psychrophilum 16S rRNA was found in ...
BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusions are used to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic. Despite improvements in donor screening and laboratory testing, a small risk of viral, bacterial, or protozoal contamination of platelets remains. There is also an ongoing risk from newly emerging blood transfusion-transmitted infections for which laboratory tests may not be available at the time of initial outbreak.One solution to reduce the risk of blood transfusion-transmitted infections from platelet transfusion is photochemical pathogen reduction, in which pathogens are either inactivated or significantly depleted in number, thereby reducing the chance of transmission. This process might offer additional benefits, including platelet shelf-life extension, and negate the requirement for gamma-irradiation of platelets. Although current pathogen-reduction technologies have been proven to reduce pathogen load in platelet concentrates, a number of published clinical studies have raised ...
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-MIRAP00525, MystiCq® microRNA qPCR Assay Primer for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-MIRAP00521, MystiCq® microRNA qPCR Assay Primer for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
This partially reverts commit 69a95fdec15c9e2db6e70fda32b5f5d0f7395ac4. Keep building it, but dont symlink it Change-Id: Iff9d545ddec91e360cbd11aa32ca422fd5b92608 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The sulphurous gases are produced by bacterial build up in the mouth and in particular on the tongue. During the night your production of saliva drops significantly and with less saliva bacterial numbers increase dramatically. Saliva has a number of jobs in the mouth related to bacterial load but its three main roles are to acts as a tidal wave to wash bacteria out of the mouth, to inhibit bacterial growth using various chemical components and participate in the killing of bacteria by carrying parts of the immune system into the mouth. But less saliva equals more bacteria and consequently, bad breath ...
The sulphurous gases are produced by bacterial build up in the mouth and in particular on the tongue. During the night your production of saliva drops significantly and with less saliva bacterial numbers increase dramatically. Saliva has a number of jobs in the mouth related to bacterial load but its three main roles are to acts as a tidal wave to wash bacteria out of the mouth, to inhibit bacterial growth using various chemical components and participate in the killing of bacteria by carrying parts of the immune system into the mouth. But less saliva equals more bacteria and consequently, bad breath ...
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새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 천연항균제(carvacrol, thymol)를 키토산 코팅과 병행 처리하였을 때 중온균수의 변화를 Table 1에 나타내었다. 중온균은 모든 처리구에서 초기 농도가 1.33 log CFU/g이었고 냉장 저장 1일째 1.0 log CFU/g까지 감소되었으나, 6일째부터 계속 증가하기 시작 하였다. 저장기간 중 가장 마지막 날인 12일째에, Control, Chi, Chi-Car 및 Chi-Thy의 중온균수는 각각 5.25, 3.59, 3.29, 1.97 log CFU/g로 모든 처리구가 대조구에 비해 유의 적으로(p , 0.05) 낮은 중온균 수를 나타내어 항균효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리나 12일째에도 모든 실험구의 총균수는 수용가능한 수준18)인 7 log CFU/g을 초과하지는 않았다. 6일째부터 처리구 간에 유의적 차이가 발생하였 으며, Chi-Thy, Chi-Car, Chi의 순서대로 강한 항균효과를 보였다.. 새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 ...
If the calculated bearing load F obtained when using the above information is found to fulfill the requirements for the basic dynamic load rating C, i.e. the load is constant in magnitude and direction and acts radially on a radial bearing or axially and centrically on a thrust bearing, then P = F and the load may be inserted directly in the life equations ...
I am designing a solution for load balancing. I have two routers to two separate ISPs. I have set up 2 static routes in EIGRP to 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 to the next hope addresses which are the routers...
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous microorganism widely distributed in aquatic environments and can cause Legionellosis in humans. A promising approach to detect viable cells in water samples involves the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in combination with photoactivatable DNA intercalator propidium monoazide (PMA). However, the PMA efficiency could be different depending on the experimental conditions used. The aim of this study was to compare two PMA exposure protocols: (A) directly on the membrane filter or (B) in liquid after filter washing. The overall PMA-induced qPCR means reductions in heat-killed L. pneumophila cells were 2.42 and 1.91 log units for exposure protocols A and B, respectively. A comparison between the results obtained reveals that filter exposure allows a higher PMA-qPCR signal reduction to be reached, mainly at low concentrations (p < 0.05). This confirms the potential use of this method to quantify L. pneumophila in water with low contamination.
Meet the Great Gerbil The Great Gerbil of Central Asia is not much like the little gerbils found in American pet stores. This bad boy can get as long as 13 inches head to tail, about the size of a prairie dog or large black rat. It holds a similar ecological niche as the prairie…
Triphala is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprised of three Indian superfruits, Haritaki, Amalaki & Bibhitaki. Triphala aids in digestion & assimilation of nutrients while establishing regular elimination & tonification of the colon. It supports ojas, or the immune system, through its high dose of vita
This section provides useful information about Triphala and research studies to improve our overall understanding of a disorder or a specific Triphala.
A study published in Food Microbiology has found that raw milk aged cheeses are relatively safe. The low pH, water content, and high salt levels make the cheese inhospitable to pathogenic bacteria.
Part 4 of a review of the different types of flavored cheeses. Here, cheeses with herbs, spice and flowers. THE NIBBLE, Great Food Finds, is an online gourmet food magazine and website with 1000+ product reviews including gourmet cheeses. Sign up for the Top Pick Of The Week best product recommendation.
Cheeses of Sweden Article -   Cheeses of Sweden Adelost Blue Adelost Blue is a variety of blue cheese that is produced much like the well known Bleu dAugverne cheese.