A page within the free MCAT Learning Program produced by Wisebridge Learning Systems. The topic under discussion here is Bacterial Capsule - The WikiPremed MCAT Course
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This capsule type medical device system includes: a position detection device 4 which detects the position within the living body of a capsule type medical device 2 which can be ingested to within the living body; an electrode 5 which is provided in the vicinity of the outer surface of the capsule type medical device 2 , and which applies an electrical stimulus to living body tissue; and a control device 6 which controls the electric current which flows to the electrode 5 ; and the control device 6 controls the electric current which flows to the electrode 5 based upon positional information which is detected by the position detection device 4.
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. Quellung is the German word for "swelling" and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. The pneumococcal Quellung reaction was first described in 1902 by the ...
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Over 100 million UTIs occur annually throughout the world, including more than 7 million cases in U.S. adolescents and adults. UTIs in younger children are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality than in older children and adults. During UTI, UPEC exists in both intracellular and extracellular spaces. Infection is initiated by adherence to the apical bladder epithelium and then invading this layer of cells. Within the bladder epithelium, UPEC typically reproduces in a biofilm-like state composed of intracellular bacterial communities (IBC). After maturation of IBCs, UPEC disperses away from the IBC and exits the infected cells. Extracellular UPEC must then re-adhere, initiating the invasion and intracellular propagation phases again. Bacterial-epithelial interactions incite a strong inflammatory response through which the UPEC must persist. One persistence factor is the K
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JURNAL.pdf Analisis Pencahayaan Ruang Kelas Seminar TF 4 Presentation METABOLISME LAPORAN AKHIR PRAKTIKUM PERKEMBANGAN TUMBUHAN LENGKAP - UNSYIAH Nature of Science Reflection dukun dan penyembuh tradisional lainnya sosoantrokes.docx St Week Lab alpro Kamus ID EN Assessment of Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule in Conjunctivitis and Keratitis in vivo Neuraminidase Activity Increases in Nonencapsulated Pneumococci following Conjunctival Infection Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae Keratitis by Passive Immunization with Pneumolysin Antiserum Moxifloxacin and Cholesterol Combined Treatment of Pneumococcal Keratitis The Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule Is Required for Full Virulence in Pneumococcal Endophthalmitis
Diversity of the polysaccharide capsule in Streptococcus pneumoniae-main surface antigen and the target of the currently used pneumococcal vaccines-constitutes a major obstacle in eliminating pneumococcal disease. Such diversity is genetically encoded by almost 100 variants of the capsule biosynthesis locus, cps. However, the evolutionary dynamics of the capsule remains not fully understood. Here, using genetic data from 4,519 bacterial isolates, we found cps to be an evolutionary hotspot with elevated substitution and recombination rates. These rates were a consequence of relaxed purifying selection and positive, diversifying selection acting at this locus, supporting the hypothesis that the capsule has an increased potential to generate novel diversity compared with the rest of the genome. Diversifying selection was particularly evident in the region of wzd/wze genes, which are known to regulate capsule expression and hence the bacteriums ability to cause disease. Using a novel, capsule-centered
Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many nosocomial and communityinfections with a diversity linked to the expression of many virulence factors. Their expression istemporally coordinated during infection by transcription factors, two- component systems but alsoregulatory RNAs called non coding RNAs (ncRNAs). A large number of potential ncRNAs waspredicted in the genome of S. aureus but their function remains unknown.The first aim of this thesis was to characterize the role of one ncRNA identified by our team,RsaA, in the regulation of bacterial virulence. Several in vitro approaches allowed todemonstrate that RsaA activates biofilm formation and inhibits the bacterial capsule synthesis,with an impact on the bacterial opsonophagocytosis and internalization into macrophages. RsaArepresses the translation of mgrA mRNA by an antisense mechanism. mgrA codes for atrancriptional regulator known to repress biofilm formation but to activate capsule synthesis. Inparallel, RsaA represses the ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a class of polysaccharides that includes hyaluronan, heparin and chondroitin, are essential macromolecules in mammals. GAGs have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis, tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the synthesis of defined, homogeneous, or customized GAGs has been quite restricted. Chemoenzymatic syntheses harnessing microbial glycosyltransferases (synthases that naturally produce the extracellular bacterial capsules) in reactions with artificial and natural substrates have been employed to create a variety of new carbohydrates in recent years. Work towards the generation of new polysaccharide species, specifically-tagged probes, chimeric polymers, sulfated oligosaccharides, scaffold- and liposome-coating derivatives will be presented. These ...
Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M3 truncation. (A) M3 GAS express more capsule than M1 (n = 5 strains/group); however, capsule levels in M
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The genomic organization of the chromosomal cps region that is responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2) was investigated. Deletion analyses and Southern hybridization studies suggested that the central region of the cloned 29-kb BamHI fragment is indispensable for K2 capsular polysaccharide synthesis. The 24,329-bp nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella cps region was determined and deposited in the EMBL and GenBank databases through DDBJ and assigned accession number D21242. Nineteen possible open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the sequenced area. Among them, 13 ORFs are very close to each other. Six of the 19 ORFs show considerable nucleotide sequence similarities to Salmonella typhimurium cpsG, cpsB, rfbP, and orf2.8, Escherichia coli gnd, and Haemophilus influenzae bexD, respectively. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF10 product demonstrated a highly hydrophobic profile and showed putative membrane topology ...
Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were ...
The role of the polysaccharide capsule is well established in UPEC virulence. The prototypical group 2 capsule provides protection against phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing (23, 24), contributes to immune evasion via molecular mimicry (33), and can also mask other surface-associated antigens (39). Group 2 capsule biosynthesis is controlled by a conserved export and assembly mechanism (16, 17, 19-22), suggesting that the expression of all group 2 capsules may be regulated by the same factors, hence providing an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents.. We first examined a collection of 126 complete E. coli genomes to gain a better understanding of the distribution of the group 2 capsule types. We found that the majority of phylogroup B2 (75%; 33/44) and D (75%; 3/4) strains possess intact region I and III capsular export and assembly genes but carry an array of region II genes that encode different capsular K types. All 10 of the ST95 strains in our 126-strain ...
Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni capsular loci reveals multiple mechanisms for the generation of structural diversity and the ability to form complex heptoses: Mol.Microbiol.
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Cell Wall and CapsuleCapsular and extracellular polysacchridesSerotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme Cap5K ...
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Group II K antigens such as the K5 are associated with Escherichia coli causing serious extraintestinal infections. Genes for the production of group II capsules (kps) are organised into three functional regions 1, 2 and 3. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis of type specific polysaccharide. Proteins encoded by the flanking regions 1 and 3 are involved in the export of polysaccharide across the bacterial membranes unto the cell surface. Translocation of polysaccharide across the inner membrane is mediated by two region 3 encoded proteins, KpsM and KpsT which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Region 1 encodes six proteins, KpsF-E-D-U-C-S. The KpsE protein was shown to localise in the inner membrane and mutants lacking the encoded protein were unable to export polysaccharide to the cell surface. To understand the export role of the KpsE, its membrane topology was determined using TnphoA mutagenesis and beta-lactamase fusions. The ...
Petri dish culture of a yeastlike organism (fungus), Rhodotorula sp, known as a red yeast to the production of a carotenoid pigment. This Fungus is a saprophytic organism, meaning that it acquires nutrition from dead or decaying tissue, either plant or animal. As a food spoilage organism it can contaminate domestic & industrial food. Rhodotorula sp appears in two forms, capsulated & noncapsulated. The noncapsulated variety is seen here. The capsulated version produces a slimy mucilage, the surface becoming smooth & shiny. Its function is uncertain, but in pathogenic species it is associated with increased virulence. - Stock Image B250/0197
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Enzyme immunoassay for the determination of IgG antibodies to Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide (PCP) in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
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is a back view thereof.. The broken lines form no part of the claimed design, and any shading is provided to illustrate contour only and is not an indication of texture, gloss, etc.. The broken lined showing portions of a dental capsule are included for illustrating environmental structure and form no part of the claimed design.. ...
MacLeod and Austrian demonstrated in this article a type-specific protein that was not limited to the control of the synthesis of capsular polysaccharides, further indicating that DNA was the carrier of genetic information ...
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