TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for and clinical implications of mixed Candida/bacterial bloodstream infections. AU - Kim, S. H.. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Min, Ja Kim. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Mixed Candida/bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) have been reported to occur in more than 23% of all episodes of candidaemia. However, the clinical implications of mixed Candida/bacterial BSIs are not well known. We performed a retrospective case-control study of all consecutive patients with candidaemia over a 5-year period to determine the risk factors for and clinical outcomes of mixed Candida/bacterial BSIs (cases) compared with monomicrobial candidaemia (controls). Thirty-seven (29%) out of 126 patients with candidaemia met the criteria for cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria (23%) in cases. In multivariate analysis, duration of previous hospital stay ≥7weeks (odds ratio (OR), 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-7.53), ...
Report Publication; Hospital Performance: Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in 2015-16, In Focus ; Released 2017; Golden Staph
... is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream that are alive and capable of reproducing. It is a type of bloodstream infection.[9] Bacteremia is defined as either a primary or secondary process. In primary bacteremia, bacteria have been directly introduced into the bloodstream.[10] Injection drug use may lead to primary bacteremia. In the hospital setting, use of blood vessel catheters contaminated with bacteria may also lead to primary bacteremia.[11] Secondary bacteremia occurs when bacteria have entered the body at another site, such as the cuts in the skin, or the mucous membranes of the lungs (respiratory tract), mouth or intestines (gastrointestinal tract), bladder (urinary tract), or genitals.[12] Bacteria that have infected the body at these sites may then spread into the lymphatic system and gain access to the bloodstream, where further spread can occur.[13]. Bacteremia may also be defined by the timing of bacteria presence in the bloodstream: transient, intermittent, or ...
BACKGROUND Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia (PAB) is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, but the outcome for patients with PAB has not been recently well evaluated. METHODS Between 1997 and 1999, all episodes of PAB at the Hôtel-Dieu de France University Hospital, Lebanon, were analyzed to evaluate the outcome for patients with PAB. RESULTS Fifty-five episodes of PAB in 53 patients (26 episodes in men and 29 in women) were analyzed. The mean age of the patients in the cohort was 60.7 years (range: 18-89 years). The mean time between the onset of hospitalization and the first episode of PAB was 21 days (range: 0-77 days). Most of the tested isolates showed favorable in vitro susceptibility to ceftazidime (85%), amikacin (77%) and imipenem (67%). The overall in-hospital cumulative survival was 89% at one week and 49% at 2 months. Among the variables analyzed, four were statistically associated with a higher mortality rate: prior use of antimicrobials (85% vs 54%), use of systemic
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection, and these infections still have a high mortality. In certain clinical situations and for the planning of future prophylactic precautions, it is important to identify patients at risk of S. aureus bloodstream infection. Nearly all patients with S. aureus bloodstream...
The incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) has remained stable over the last few decades.1-3 Although it is still primarily a nososcomial infection, the number of cases of community-acquired bacteraemia caused by this organism has increased, notably affecting patients with AIDS4,5 and neutropenic patients treated for neoplastic disease who received outpatient management.6 Predisposing conditions for PAB include compromised immunity, neutropenia, intensive care, surgical procedures, central venous and urinary catheters and previous cephalosporin therapy.1,3-5,6 Common factors predictive of a fatal outcome reported in the literature are septic shock, neutropenia, immunocompromised state, severe underlying disease, and in the elderly pneumonia, septic metastases, previous therapy and inappropriate choice of antimicrobial drugs for definitive treatment.1,6,7. P. aeruginosa has also emerged as an important bacteraemic pathogen in immunocompromised children,6,8,9 including ...
The incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia (PAB) has remained stable over the last few decades.1-3 Although it is still primarily a nososcomial infection, the number of cases of community-acquired bacteraemia caused by this organism has increased, notably affecting patients with AIDS4,5 and neutropenic patients treated for neoplastic disease who received outpatient management.6 Predisposing conditions for PAB include compromised immunity, neutropenia, intensive care, surgical procedures, central venous and urinary catheters and previous cephalosporin therapy.1,3-5,6 Common factors predictive of a fatal outcome reported in the literature are septic shock, neutropenia, immunocompromised state, severe underlying disease, and in the elderly pneumonia, septic metastases, previous therapy and inappropriate choice of antimicrobial drugs for definitive treatment.1,6,7. P. aeruginosa has also emerged as an important bacteraemic pathogen in immunocompromised children,6,8,9 including ...
To assess whether methicillin resistance is a microbial characteristic associated with deleterious clinical outcome, we performed a cohort study on 908 consecutive episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and a case-control study involving 163 pairs of patients matched for preexisting comorbidities, prognosis of the underlying disease, length of hospitalization, and age. Of 908 bacteremic episodes, 225 (24.8%) were due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Multivariate analysis did not reveal that methicillin resistance was an independent predictor for mortality when shock, source of bacteremia, presence of an ultimately or rapidly fatal underlying disease, acquisition of the infection in an intensive care unit (ICU), inappropriate empirical therapy, female sex, and age were taken into account. Nonetheless, methicillin resistance was an independent predictor for shock. The case-control study could not confirm that shock was linked to MRSA when prior antimicrobial therapy, inappropriate ...
All bacteraemic cases, from August 2006 to September 2007 were identified by reviewing all positive blood culture results from the microbiology department of our hospital. One thousand three hundred and sixty six cases were detected in 1336 patients. The rate of true bacteremia which was 13.1 and 10.7% of cultures were contaminated. Of the 1366 episodes of bloodstream infection, 55.3% were community-acquired and 44.7% were health-care associated. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed (58.5%), followed by gram negative bacilli (38.5%). Polymicrobial bacteremia was detected in 2.2% of cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the leading cause (550/1366 = 40.3%), whilst enterococci,Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococci represented 8, 6.4 and 3.8% respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest gram-negative isolate (155/1366 = 11.3%), followed by Escherichia coli (8.2%) and Acinetobactersp. (7.3%). Fungi were isolated in
The factors related to the occurrence of bacteraemia following urinary tract manipulation were studied in a large community hospital. During a 3-year period, forty-six of 326 episodes of hospital-acquired bacteraemia were associated with urinary tract manipulation. All thirty of forty-six cases felt to be definitely related to urinary tract manipulation (other obvious sources of bacteraemia being absent) had pre-existing urinary tract disease, especially of an obstructive type; only one in this group died from sepsis. The remaining sixteen patients had other possible sources of bacteraemia besides urinary tract manipulation and had disorders associated with defects in host defences; twelve (75%) in this group died from overwhelming sepsis. Thus, if bacteraemia occurs in a patient having had urinary tract manipulation but without any underlying urinary tract abnormality or impairment in host defences, its source should be searched for in other areas of the body.. ...
There were 1632 admissions with 45 nosocomial Gram-negative bacteremias in 44 patients. Infection rates of 28.2/1000 admissions and 12.1/10 000 patient-days remained stable over 5 years. The mean patient age was 55.3 years (range 17-86 years); 27.3% of patients were female, and 72.8% were male. The majority (95.6%) of bloodstream infections were monomicrobial, with only one episode of polymicrobial bacteremia. Common admitting diagnoses included respiratory failure, solid organ transplant, post-surgery, and multi-trauma. Seven bacterial species were identified; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. were most common. Sources of bacteremia included pneumonia (48.9%), followed by central venous catheterization (22.2%). The mean time from admission to hospital to development of bacteremia was 32.9 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-100.9), and time from admission to the ICU was slightly less at 26.0 days (95% CI 0-90.1). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were highest for imipenem, gentamicin, ...
Evaluate the safety of ceftaroline fosamil in adult Subjects (≥ 18 years of age) with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia or with MRSA Bacteremia persisting after at least 72 hours of vancomycin and/or daptomycin treatment [ Time Frame: 60 days following completion of antibacterial therapy and discharge from the hospital, anticipated between 74 to 119 days ...
By Stan Deresinski, MD, FACP, FIDSA Clinical Professor of Medicine, Stanford University Dr. Deresinski reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. SYNOPSIS: The addition of rifampin to standard therapy failed to provide significant benefit to patients with bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus. SOURCE: Thwaites GE, Scarborough M, Szubert A, et al; United Kingdom Clinical Infection Research Group (UKCIRG). Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2017 Dec 14. pii: S0140-6736(17)32456-X. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32456-X. [Epub ahead of . . .
S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current methods used to diagnose SAB take at least a day, and often longer. Patients with suspected bacteremia must therefore be empirically treated, often unnecessarily, while assay results are pending. In this proof-of-concept study, we describe an inexpensive assay that detects SAB via the detection of micrococcal nuclease (an enzyme secreted by S. aureus) in patient plasma samples in less than three hours. In total, 17 patient plasma samples from culture-confirmed S. aureus bacteremic individuals were tested. 16 of these yielded greater nuclease assay signals than samples from uninfected controls or individuals with non-S. aureus bacteremia. These results suggest that a nuclease-detecting assay may enable the rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of SAB, which is expected to substantially reduce the mortality and morbidity that result from this condition.
Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999-2000 (n = 57) and 2004 (n = 116). Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00-2.48), injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88-33.49), community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02-1.92), and symptom duration ,/=48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22-3.61). Uncomplicated disease was associated with the ...
In 2014-15, 1,490 cases of hospital-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) were reported in Australian public hospitals. The national rate of SAB in public hospitals was 0.77 cases per 10,000 days of patient care, and all states and territories had rates below the national benchmark of 2.0 cases per 10,000 days of patient care. Between 2010-11 and 2014-15, rates of SAB decreased from 1.10 cases to 0.77 cases per 10,000 days of patient care.. ...
Clinical questions: What are the trends in patient outcome for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB)? Does the use of evidence-based care processes decrease mo
Additional file 3: of Distinct T-helper cell responses to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia reflect immunologic comorbidities and correlate with mortality
What drug can cause Streptococcal Bacteraemia as their side effect? Check drug and medication side effect reports associated with Streptococcal Bacteraemia
It is generally well established that dental cares cause bacteremia, and that most are due to streptococcal strains [1,2]. It is, consequently, reasonable to think that prescribing antibiotics before dental cares decreases the incidence of such bacteremia. Globally, the discordant results between the different kinds of studies analyzed in the paper by Cahill et al. [1] are clearly insufficient to conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents bacteremia due to streptococci. In our view, this observation can be explained by the fact that dental care is not the only cause of streptococcal bacteremia. Indeed, such bacteremia are extremely common, and it has been demonstrated that they can occur after chewing and after brushing in patients with periodontitis (cumulatively in 25% and 20% of cases, respectively) [2]. It is, therefore, fairly unlikely that bacteremias due to dental cares are more responsible for endocarditis than other kinds of bacteremias. In practice, this implies that the only ...
An improvement resource to help health and social care economies reduce the number of Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs) with an initial focus on Escherichia coli (E.coli).
article{1887963, author = {Reunes, Sofie and Rombaut, Vicky and Vogelaers, Dirk and Brusselaers, Nele and Lizy, Christelle and Cankurtaran, Mustafa and Labeau, Sonia and Petrovic, Mirko and Blot, Stijn}, issn = {0953-6205}, journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE}, keyword = {ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY,HOSPITAL MORTALITY,MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE,OLD PATIENTS,ATTRIBUTABLE MORTALITY,Bloodstream infection,Elderly,Risk factors,Geriatric patient,Mortality,CRITICALLY-ILL PATIENTS,CARE-UNIT PATIENTS,INTENSIVE-CARE,PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA,BACTEREMIA}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {e39--e44}, title = {Risk factors and mortality for nosocomial bloodstream infections in elderly patients}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2011.02.004}, volume = {22}, year = {2011 ...
The outcome of patients with bacteraemia is influenced by the initial selection of adequate antimicrobial therapy. The objective of our study was to clarify the influence of different crude data correction methods on a) microbial spectrum and ranking of pathogens, and b) cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of blood culture isolates obtained from patients from intensive care units (ICUs) using a computer based tool, MONI. Analysis of 13 ICUs over a period of 7 years yielded 1427 microorganisms from positive results. Three different data correction methods were applied. Raw data method (RDM): Data without further correction, including all positive blood culture results. Duplicate-free method (DFM): Correction of raw data for consecutive patients results yielding same microorganism with similar antibiogram within a two-week period. Contaminant-free method (CFM): Bacteraemia caused by possible contaminants was only assumed as true bloodstream infection, if an organism of the same species was
In Australia, MRSA bacteraemias cause up to 40 per cent of all healthcare-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteraemia [9]. MRSA bacteraemias are associated with increased risk of mortality [10] and contribute a considerable cost to the healthcare system due to the need for prolonged hospital stays, re-admissions and additional diagnostic tests and treatment [11]. National reporting of healthcare acquired S. aureus bacteraemias, including those caused by MRSA, was introduced in Australia in 2008. MRSA bacteraemia incidences and rates also are a key performance indicator for jurisdictions under the National Healthcare Agreement [12]. This section reports inpatient and non-inpatient healthcare-acquired MRSA bacteraemias data. ...
Early administration of appropriate antimicrobials has been correlated with a better prognosis in patients with bacteremia, but the optimum timing of early antibiotic administration as one of the resuscitation strategies for severe bacterial infections remains unclear. In a retrospective cohort study, adults with community-onset bacteremia at the emergency department (ED) were analyzed. Effects of different cutoffs of time to appropriate antibiotic (TtAa) administration after arrival at the ED on 28-day mortality were examined, after adjustment for independent predictors of mortality identified by multivariate regression analysis. Among 2349 patients, the mean (interquartile range) TtAa was 2.0 (|1 to 12) hours. All selected cutoffs of TtAa, ranging from 1 to 96 hours, were significantly associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.54-0.65, all P | 0.001), after adjustment of the following prognostic factors: fatal comorbidities (McCabe classification), critical illness (Pitt
The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of catheter-drawn and peripheral blood cultures. Paired blood culture samples collected over a 44-month period from a 280 bed Brisbane metropolitan hospital were analysed, using standard clinical and microbiological criteria, to determine whether blood culture isolates represented true bacteraemias or contamination. Catheter-collected cultures had a specificity of 85% compared with 97% for peripheral cultures. In only two instances (0.2%) was the diagnosis of clinically significant bacteraemia made on the basis of catheter culture alone. This study concluded that cathetercollected samples are not a good test for true bacteraemia, and that peripheral cultures are more reliable when the results of the paired cultures are discordant.. ...
1) The presence of bacteria in the blood. Bacteremia is diagnosed by growing organisms from a blood sample and treatment is with antibiotics. See: Infections Associated with Lymphedema (2) The presence of live bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia is analogous to viremia (the presence of a virus in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood). Bacteremia, viremia and parasitemia are all forms of sepsis (bloodstream infection). The term "bacteremia" was compounded from "bacteria" and "-emia" (in the blood). Also called bacillemia. ...
Background: Improvements in central line placement practices have decreased the rates of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Further progress in reducing infection may rest on processes related to line maintenance and care. Methods: We evaluated the effect of an alcohol disinfection cap on rates of nosocomial bacteremia. The plastic caps fit on the exposed ends of IV needless access devices and contain a pad saturated with 70% isopropyl alcohol for disinfection: we alternated between similar products by two different manufacturers. The caps were placed on all ports of peripheral and central lines when not in use. Four hospital units with higher central line use were chosen for this yearlong intervention (an intensive care unit, a step down unit, and two medical surgical units). Nosocomial bloodstream infections and CLABSI were monitored for these units, along with four units not part of this intervention (to control for changes over time). The year prior to implementation ...
Staphylococcus aureusis a leading cause of both community- and healthcare-associated bacteremia.S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even with appropriate therapy.The epidemiology and clinical features of SA
The non-hematologic malignancies included esophageal cancer (2) and bladder cancer (1). Seven patients (54%) were neutropenic (defined as Absolute Neutrophil Count , 1500 cells/uL) with an average duration of 14 days. The median age was 60 years. There was no gender predilection. Seven patients had mucositis at the time of diagnosis either due to chemotherapy or graft versus host disease. One patient had gingivitis with a dental abscess. None of the patients developed infective endocarditis. Most patients were on empiric antimicrobial therapy with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or piperacillin/tazobactam at the time of breakthrough bacteremia. Almost all patients received vancomycin as definitive treatment. All the patients had transient bacteremia with an average duration of positive blood cultures of 1 day. The 30-day mortality rate was 16.67%. Mortality was not attributable to NVS bacteremia ...
To describe the rate of response to an antibiotic-lock technique (ALT) in the treatment of venous access port (VAP)-related bacteremia and to analyze the role of the reservoir in the persistence of infection, we reported the data from 12 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 8 oncologic patients with VAP-related bacteremia. The ALT consisted of intracatheter delivery of antibiotics and was associated with a systemic antibiotic infusion. We monitored clinical manifestations and performed qualitative and quantitative blood cultures during and at the end of the treatment. Four patients had catheters removed before antibiotic treatment. Of the 16 patients who were treated with the ALT, 5 (31%) were cured, as determined by negative cultures of blood and of samples from the catheter; 2 (12.5%) were cured but had recurrent infection with another microorganism; and 9 (56%) had persistent positive cultures of blood and of samples from the tip, reservoir, or both of the VAP. Limited efficacy of the ...
|p style=text-align: left;||em|New study published in |/em|Mayo Clinic Proceedings|em| shows that statin use was associated with decreased risk of blood infection with |/em|Staphylococcus aureus|em| acquired outside of a hospital.|/em||/p|
Staphylococcus aureusis a leading cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia. The annual incidence ofS. aureusbacteremia (SAB) in the United States is 38.2 to 45.7 per 100,000 person-years; elsewhere in the industrialized world,
This study shows a sharp upswing in some potentially lethal hospital infections in the summer months. Hospitals must be on the alert for spread of infections in warm weather.
Background: The Verigene® Gram-Negative Blood Culture Test (BC-GN) detects 4 Gram-negative genera, 4 species, and 6 resistance genes within 2 hours of blood culture positivity, shortening the time from Gram stain to pathogen and resistance gene identification. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of BC-GN testing paired with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antimicrobial and clinical outcomes.. Methods: This retrospective pre-post study compared patients admitted with a blood culture positive for a Gram-negative organism detectable by the BC-GN before (January 1, 2015 - July 1, 2015) and after (July 15, 2015 - January 15, 2016) this microarray test was implemented. The primary objective was to compare time from Gram stain to antimicrobial switch pre and post implementation. Secondary objectives included time from Gram stain to active treatment, in-hospital mortality, and hospital length of stay.. Results: 877 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia were included, 456 ...
Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) isolates are susceptible to only one or two classes of antibiotics. In 2011-2012, we investigated an outbreak of XDR-PA affecting children with onco-hematological diseases. Outbreak investigation included ascertainment of cases, tracing of intestinal carriers and environmental surveillance. Contact precautions were adopted for patients with infection or colonization. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production was performed, and carbapenemase genes were tested by multiplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). Genotypes were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). XDR-PA was isolated from 27 patients; 12 had bacteremia, 6 other infections and 9 were colonized. Severe neutropenia was significantly associated with bacteremia. Bloodstream-infection mortality rate was 67%. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins and penicillins + β-lactamase inhibitors.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacteraemia caused by Enterobacteriaceae (EB) producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL+) has been associated with higher mortality compared with non-ESBL-producing (ESBL-) EB bacteraemia in observational studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies to assess how adjusting for confounding in multivariate analyses affects the pooled estimate, and whether multivariate analyses that include intermediates in the causal pathway of outcome (sepsis severity and inadequate empirical therapy) have lower estimates of attributable mortality. DATA SOURCES: PubMed search on 23 November 2010 followed by manually searching reference lists of included studies. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Cohort studies published in English with separate mortality rates for ESBL+ and ESBL- EB bacteraemia. SYNTHESIS METHODS: Random-effects pooling of unadjusted and adjusted ORs followed by subgroup analyses to explore effects of adjustment procedures on adjusted ORs. ...
Reportstack has announced a new market research publication on Bacteremia Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2013 which provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on Bacteremia. It includes an overview of the trial numbers and their recruitment status as per the site of trial conduction across the globe. The databook offers a preliminary coverage of disease clinical trials by their phase, trial status, prominence of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating Bacteremia. This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis by team of industry experts ...
The clinical and economic impact of bloodstream infections (BSI) due to multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria is incompletely understood. From 2009-2015, all adult inpatients with Gram negative BSI at our institution were prospectively enrolled. MDR status was defined as resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes. Clinical outcomes and inpatient costs associated with the MDR phenotype were identified. Among 891 unique patients with Gram negative BSI, 292 (33%) were infected with MDR bacteria. In an adjusted analysis, only history of Gram negative infection was associated with MDR BSI versus non-MDR BSI (odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.16; P=0.002). Patients with MDR BSI had increased BSI recurrence (1.7% [5/292] vs 0.2% [1/599]; P=0.02) and longer hospital length of stay (median 10.0 vs.8.0 days; P=0.0005). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between MDR (26.4% [77/292]) and non-MDR (21.7% [130/599]) groups (P=0.12). Unadjusted mean costs were ...
Our study population comprised 3,394,936 individuals (median age = 43.2 years). Over a median follow-up of 15.9 years, 13,181 individuals acquired SAB. SES was inversely associated with SAB acquisition, which declined with increasing age, e.g. in individuals with lowest SES, IRRs were 3.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.89-4.95) in age 30-50 years, 1.87 (CI = 1.60-2.18) in age > 50-70 years and 1.31 (CI = 1.11-1.54) in age > 70 years (interaction-p < 0.0001). Adjustment for comorbidities attenuated the IRRs, but the pattern persisted. No association between SES and endocarditis risk among patients with SAB was observed ...
Αmong 145 patients with gram-negative COB, 83 (57.2%) had HCAB and 62 (42.8%) had CAB. The frequency of malignant tumors, renal insufficiency and dementia was higher in patients with HCAB than with CAB. In both groups Escherichia coli was the mostcommon causative agent but the prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in HCAB was significantly higher than CAB (19.3% vs. 4.8%). Patients with HCAB had higher Charlson score and higher Pitt bacteremia score, less frequent administration of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment and higher probability of death than patients with CAB.. The antimicrobial resistance in HCAB και CAB patients respectively, was found 27/83 (32.5%) vs. 4/62 (6.5%) (P,.001) to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC), 22/83 (26.5%) vs. 7/62 (11.3%) (P=.021) to aminoglycosides, 29/83 (34.9%) vs. 9/62 (14.5%) (P=.005) to quinolones. Bacteria that produced ESBL were 16/76 (21.1%) vs. 2/59 (3.4%) (P=.003), and carbapenem-resistant were 10/83 (12.0%) vs. 2/62 (3.2%) (P=.056) in ...
Researchers observed a 95.3% reduction of S pneumoniae bacteremia after implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
L PARVARESH¹, S C-A CHEN, V W LEE³´⁴, V SINTCHENKO¹´²´⁴. ¹Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology-Public Health, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW; ²Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, NSW Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, NSW; ³Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW; ⁴Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW. Aim: This review of episodes of bacteraemia in haemodialysis patients, admitted to a tertiary hospital in Sydney and dialysed through any type of vascular access, was conducted in order to determine the frequency and patterns of antimicrobial resistance or causative organisms.. Background: Bacteraemia is the most common infection-related cause of mortality in patients with kidney disease on haemodialysis. Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. are the most frequent isolates. Antibiotic ...
Monotherapy was the empirical therapy most frequently used (267, 67.8 %), mainly consisting of piperacillin/tazobactam (49.4 %) and carbapenems (37.1 %). On the other hand, combined treatment was used in 127 (32.2 %) cases, with carbapenems plus colistin being the most common combination. The EAT was adequate in 75.4 % of the cases. Seven- and 30-day mortality was 17 % and 23.9 %, respectively, related to infection in more than 80 % of the cases. Marked differences were observed in treatment and outcomes between the two groups. Carbapenems (35.4 versus 61.9 %, p=0.0001) and colistin (11.9 versus 31.5 %, p=0.0001) were more frequently used in the MDR GNR group, with worse outcomes in this group regarding breakthrough bacteremia (4 versus 14.3 %, p=0.0001), clinical response (75.2 versus 54.2 %, p=0.0001), and 30-day mortality (15.9 versus 34.5 %, p=0.0001).. Discussion. This prospective multicenter study of bacteremia in both cancer and HSCT patients was carried out in Argentina to help ...
... Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2011 Mar;29 Suppl 4:48-53. Authors: Fortún J, Sanz MÁ, Madero L, López J, de la Torre J, Jarque I, Vallejo C. The present article is an update of the literature on bacteraemia in onco-hematologic patients. A multidisciplinary group of Spanish physicians with an interest in this field selected the most important papers published recently. Papers from the fields of basic science, epidemiology, causative microorganisms and clinical syndromes are discussed. Important aspects of these studies include the assessment of different strategies in the management of fever in neutropenic patients and the validation of specific scores. Moreover, early identification of patients at risk of bacterial and of multi-drug resistant infections is a topic of increasing interest.. PMID: 21458720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. ...
Follow-up blood cultures may have little utility in the management of Gram-negative bacilli bacteremia, according to data from a recent study.
Problem Bacteraemia in dialysis units accounts for major morbidity, mortality, and antibiotic usage. Risk is much greater when lines rather than fistulas are used for haemodialysis. Surveillance is critical for infection control, but no standardised surveillance scheme exists in the United Kingdom.. Design Prospective study in a London dialysis unit of the implementation and applicability of a dialysis associated bacteraemia surveillance scheme developed in the United States and its effect on bacteraemia, antibiotic usage, and admission.. Setting Hammersmith Hospital dialysis unit, London, where 112 outpatients receive dialysis three times weekly. Between June 2002 and December 2004, 3418 patient months of data were collected.. Key measures for improvement Successful adoption of the scheme and reductions in bacteraemia rates, antibiotic usage, and admission to hospital.. Strategy for improvement Embedding the surveillance scheme in the units clinical activity.. Effects of change Raised ...
To describe the difference of the clinical features, bacteremia severity, and outcome of patient with community-onset bacteremic pneumonia between Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and other causative microorganisms, the total 278 adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteremic pneumonia were studied in a retrospective cohort. Klebsiella (61 patients, 21.9%) and Pseudomonas (22, 7.9%) species was the leading and the fifth common pathogen, respectively. More patients having initial presentation with critical illness (a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4) and a fatal comorbidity (McCabe classification) as well as a higher short- (30-day) or long-term (90-day) mortality rate was evidenced in patients infected with Klebsiella or Pseudomonas species, compared to other causative microorganisms ...
Mandatory reporting of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (bloodstream infections) should be introduced to help improved health care practices and save lives...
Eight of 30 persons with normal-appearing gingiva developed bacteremia after using an oral irrigation device. In comparison, none of 30 persons using toothbrushes developed bacteremia. This difference is statistically significant and suggests that the use of an oral irrigation device is contraindicated in persons at risk of bacterial endocarditis. ...
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Ritvo, Rachel, "Transient bacteremia due to suction abortion: implications for SBE antibiotic prophylaxis" (1977). Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. 3071 ...
Results:. Eight patients aged 19 to 82 years (six women) underwent FMT. They experienced a median of four previous episodes of CDI (range 3-8). The mean duration of CDI was 18 days (range 3-36) before FMT. All procedures were performed by colonoscopy. Effectiveness with one session of FMT was 100%. During the follow-up period (median 24 months, range 7-55), two patients developed CDI, one of them after using antibiotics. Adverse events were reported in three patients. Two had bloating and one patient with Crohns disease and a history of bacteremia had an episode of Escherichia coli bacteremia. All patients would use FMT again if necessary. ...
128 episodes of bacteremia associated with NP were identified. In 110 episodes a tracheal surveillance culture 48-96 h prior to bacteremia was available: this culture predicted the pathogen in 67 episodes (61%). Overall rates of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy within 24 and 48 h were 62 and 87%, respectively. Pathogen prediction was associated with a significantly higher rate of appropriate antibiotic therapy within 24 h (71 vs 45%; p = 0.01), but not within 48 h (91 vs 82%; p = 0.15). Crude in-hospital mortality was 50%. Pathogen prediction was associated with increased survival in univariate (OR 0.43; CI 0.19-0.93; p = 0.04) and multivariate analysis (OR 0.32; CI 0.12-0.82; p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis further identified age (OR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.02), increasing APACHE II score (OR 1.08; CI 1.02-1.15; p = 0.01), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OR 5.90; CI 1.36-25.36; p = 0.01) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 3.30; CI 1.04-10.4; p = 0.04) as independent risk ...
her current employer. Two years ago, Greene led a team of professionals to reduce bacteria associated with central venous catheters (CVC) in the facilitys intensive care unit and expanded the program to the entire organization. CVC bacteremia can prolong hospitalization, increase healthcare costs and lead to death. Within three months, death attributed to CVC bacteremia decreased from 4 percent to zero. Two years later, the overall bacteremia rate decreased 72 percent.. Greenes work garnered Rochester General Hospital, the Hospital Association of New York States 2005 Pinnacle award for quality.. Dolan is currently employed as the hospital epidemiologist at The Childrens Hospital in ...
For Staph aureus bacteraemia in a patient with a CVC or permcath, the line should be removed unless there are major contraindications preventing this. A line should only be kept in situ if removal means that there is no alternative means of dialysis or if risk associated with removal outweighs risk of recurrent bacteraemia and risk of developing deep seated Staph aureus infection (e.g. discitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis ...
Intra-dialytic instillation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be associated with increased catheter-related bacteremia (CRB).
Blood cultures are used to detect bacteria or fungi in the blood and guide treatment and to identify a blood infection (septicemia) that can lead to sepsis. Blood cultures are ordered when a person has signs and symptoms of sepsis, which indicates that bacteria, fungi, or their toxic by-products are causing harm in the body.
AGUSTÍN JULIÁN-JIMÉNEZ, FRANCISCO JAVIER CANDEL, JUAN GONZÁLEZ-DEL CASTILLO, EN REPRESENTACIÓN DEL GRUPO INFURG-SEMES (GRUPO DE ESTUDIO DE INFECCIONES DE LA SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA DE MEDICINA DE URGENCIAS Y EMERGENCIAS). Between all patients attended in the Emergency Department (ED), 14.3% have an infectious disease diagnosis. Blood cultures (BC) are obtained in 14.6% of patients and have a profitability of 20%, whereas 1% are considered as contaminated and 1-3% of positive cultures correspond to discharge patients ("hidden bacteraemia"). The highest number of confirmed bacteraemias comes from the samples of patients with urinary tract infections, followed by community-acquired pneumonia. The suspicion and detection of bacteraemia have an important diagnostic and prognostic significance and could modify some important making-decisions (admission, BC request, administration of appropriate and early antimicrobial, etc). Therefore, finding a predictive model of bacteraemia useful and applicable in ...
Bacteremia and septicemia occur when the persistent presence of bacterial organisms in a cats bloodstream becomes systemic, meaning that it has spread throughout the body. This is also referred to as blood poisoning, or septic fever. Learn more about the causes and treatment of this condition on PetMD.com.
Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00428051 Pneumonia, Meningitis, Bacteremia, Sepsis Cancer trial. Review trial description, criteria and location information here.
p,While we can count many successes from our 2013-18 Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Strategy, resistance has continued to increase. In the United Kingdom we have seen a 35% increase in resistant blood stream infections in humans from 2013-17.,/p,,p,The number of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is increasing each year. Although the proportion of antibiotic resistant BSIs remain stable year to year, the burden on resistance increases. This is mostly due to increasing prevalence of E.coli bloodstream infections.,/p,,p,Estimates of the multi-resistant cases can be made, however not all the bacteria are tested against the same antibiotics, so a definitive number of cases cannot be given. The Public Health England Fingertips tool also has an indicator showing the rolling quarterly average proportion of E. coli blood specimens non-susceptible to at least three of the key antimicrobials (gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, 3rd-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems). For England this is ...
Rattanaumpawan, P., Ussavasodhi, P., Kiratisin, P. and Aswapokee, N. (2013) Epidemiology of Bacteremia Caused by Uncommon Non-Fermentative Gram-Negative Bacteria. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13, 167-175.
CXCL10 improves outcome by decreasing bacteremia in IFNAR−/− mice. (A) SEV129 wild-type mice (n = 10), IFNAR−/− mice (n = 11), or IFNAR−/− mice with
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Bacteremia. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user reviews, and more...
Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a severe disease carrying a high risk of complications such as metastatic disease with deep-seated foci of infection, endocarditis, severe sepsis or recurrences - in particular in community-onset cases. In a recent European survey (n=1,838)[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL ...
Results. A total of 1,425 blood cultures were finally enrolled in the study. Of those were considered true bacteremia 179 (12.6 %) and as negative blood cultures 1,246 (87.4 %). Amongst negatives, 1,130 (79.3%) without growth and 116 (8.1%) as contaminants blood cultures. Five variables were significantly associated with true bacteraemia: serum procalcitonin (PCT) ≥ 0.51 ng/ml [odds ratio (OR): 4.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.20-4.84, P ,.001], temperature , 38.3°C [OR:1.60; 95% CI:1.29-1.90, P ,.001], systolic blood pressure (SBP) , 100 mmHg [OR:3.68; 95% CI:2.78-4.58, P ,.001], septic shock [OR:2.96; 95% CI:1.78-4.13, P ,.001] and malignancy [OR:1.73; 95% CI:1.27-2.20, P ,.001 ...
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Antibiotic resistance in E. coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans, the most common cause of urinary tract infections, a common cause of both community and hospital-acquired bacteraemia as well as a cause of diarrhea. In addition, resistant E. coli strains have the ability to transfer antibiotic resistance not only to other strains of E.coli, but also to other bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract and to acquire resistance from other organisms. [2] ...
Antibiotic resistance in E. coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans, the most common cause of urinary tract infections, a common cause of both community and hospital-acquired bacteraemia as well as a cause of diarrhea. In addition, resistant E. coli strains have the ability to transfer antibiotic resistance not only to other strains of E.coli, but also to other bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract and to acquire resistance from other organisms. [2] ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. In addition, it is the most common cause of skin and skin structur...
Bacterial diseases affect all animals and cattle are no less immune or unique to their onslaught. bacteria can cause varying ranges of illness in cattle from mild dermatitis to sepsis and death. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be based on isolation and culture and sensitivity of causative bacteria. Bacterial diseases in cattle include: ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Bloodstream Infections in Hemodialysis, Fever in End Stage Renal Disease, Febrile Dialysis Patient, Bacteremia in ESRD, Sepsis in Hemodialysis Patient.
A new study may change our understanding of bacteremia, a bloodstream infection commonly seen in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units.
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This report discusses a study of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of blood culture isolates between 2001 and 2009 in non-specialty adult patients at an Australian tertiary referral centre, which found that gram negative bloodsteam infections appeared to be re-emerging, particularly in community onset infections and also amongst the younger patients at the study institution.
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While the clinicians could not rule out the possibility of transmission from a colonized household member, their final diagnosis was late-onset GBS disease attributable to high maternal colonization secondary to consumption of GBS-infected placental tissue.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Biology of Infectious Disease from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Harvard scientists are developing a device known as the spleen-on-a-chip, for treating sepsis by filtering pathogens from the blood.
Background: There is little information on nasopharyngeal (NP) flora or bacteremia in HIV-infected children. Our aim was to describe the organisms and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children enrolled in a prospective ...
理化学研究所 脳科学総合研究センター(理研BSI)、岡本 仁, M.D., Ph.D.の概要ページ。研究内容や主要論文などを掲載しています。
理化学研究所 脳科学総合研究センター(理研BSI)、馬塚 れい子, Ph.D.の概要ページ。研究内容や主要論文などを掲載しています。
Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) is predominantly acquired in the hospital setting. Community-onset infection is less common. Differences in epidemiology, clinical features, microbiological factors and BSI outcomes led to the separation of bacterial community-onset BSI into the categories of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and community-acquired infection (CAI). Community-acquired P. aeruginosa BSI epidemiology is not well defined in the literature. In addition, it is also not clear if the same factors separate CAI and HCAI BSI caused by P. aeruginosa alone. A retrospective multicentre cohort study was performed looking at P. aeruginosa BSI from January 2008 to January 2011. Strict definitions for HCAI and CAI were applied. Extensive epidemiological, clinical and outcome data were obtained. Thirty-four CAI episodes and 156 HCAI episodes were analysed. The CAI group could be characterised into seven distinct categories based on comorbidities and clinically suspected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Septic pulmonary embolism of unknown origin in patients with staphylococcus aureus bacteremia; A case report and review of 18 cases. AU - Camargo Galvis, Jose. AU - Sakoulas, George. AU - Dodd, Jonathan D.. AU - Muñoz-Gomez, Sigridh. AU - Kadeishvili, Khatuna. AU - Lenox, Theodore. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Septic pulmonary embolism (SPE) results when fragments of thrombus containing bacteria or fungi travel to the pulmonary circulation and lodge in segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Almost invariably such embolization implies the presence of an endovascular infection (typically endocarditis, septic thrombophlebitis, or catheter-related infection) as the source of embolism. Here we report a case of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia complicated with SPE in a patient who had no septic foci other than a soft tissue infection. We found 17 similar cases in the literature and reviewed their clinical presentation and outcomes. The most common presenting symptoms were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endemic Burkholderia cepacia bacteraemia. T2 - Clinical features and antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates. AU - Yu, Wen Liang. AU - Wang, Der Yuan. AU - Lin, Cheng Wen. AU - Tsou, Mei Fen. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen, causing numerous outbreaks, particularly among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Reports of clinical features of endemic B. cepacia bacteraemia in non-CF patients are rare. Twenty-five patients with B. cepacia bacteraemia were matched with 25 controls with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteraemia at China Medical College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, over a period of 3 y. Case-patients included 16 men and 9 women, from 13 to 75 y. All had severe underlying diseases, most commonly malignancy (44%). Twenty-four patients (96%) had nosocomial infections. Five patients (20%) had polymicrobial bacteraemia. Our controls included 11 men and 14 women, age range 18-80 y. The most common underlying disease was malignancy ...
Objectives: In a prospective, randomized trial, daptomycin was non-inferior to standard therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and right-sided endocarditis. Since rates of infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection are increasing and treatment outcomes for bacteraemia caused by MRSA are generally worse than those observed with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus bacteraemia, clinical characteristics and treatment results in the trials pre-specified subset of patients with MRSA were analysed. Methods: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving daptomycin were compared with those receiving vancomycin plus low-dose gentamicin. Success was defined as clinical improvement with clearance of bacteraemia among patients who completed adequate therapy, received no potentially effective non-study antibiotics and had negative blood cultures 6 weeks after end of therapy. Results: Twenty of the 45 (44.4%) daptomycin patients and 14 of the 43 (32.6%) ...
Objectives: To examine whether urgent orotracheal intubation (OI) can induce bacteremia. To find predictive factors for post-intubation b
Sánchez-Diener I1, Zamorano L2, Peña C3, Ocampo-Sosa A4, Cabot G1, Gómez-Zorrilla S5, Almirante B6, Aguilar M7, Granados A8, Calbo E9, Baño JR10, Rodríguez-López F11, Tubau F12, Martínez-Martínez L11, Navas A13, and Oliver A14. 1Servicio de Microbiología and Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de les Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca,…
There is no evidence supporting the use of de-escalation therapy (DET) among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed the outcomes associated with DET among bacteraemic CAP patients. We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database, which contains data on 660 bacteraemic patients hospitalized because of CAP in 35 countries (2001-2013). Exclusion criteria were death within 72h from admission and an inappropriate empirical antibiotic regimen. DET was defined as changing an appropriate empirical broad-spectrum regimen to a narrower-spectrum regimen according to culture results within 7 days from hospital admission. Two study groups were identified: patients whose antibiotic therapy was de-escalated (the DET group), and patients whose antibiotic therapy was not de-escalated (the N-DET group). The primary study outcome was 30-day mortality. Two hundred and sixty-one bacteraemic CAP patients were included. Gram-positive bacteria were ...
We have reviewed 107 cases of staphylococcal bacteraemia in order to assess the current clinical spectrum of serious staphylococcal sepsis in Zimbabwe, where staphylococcal bacteraemia is common. Infection was hospital-acquired in 35 cases and community-acquired in 72 cases. The mortality rate was 28%. Most patients were young, with predisposing conditions such as prematurity, protein-caloric maln...
Abstract Prior antibiotic use, contamination, limited blood volume, and processing delays reduce yield of blood cultures for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We performed immunochromatographic testing (ICT) on broth from incubated blood culture bottles and real-time lytA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on broth and whole blood and compared findings to blood culture in patients with suspected bacteremia. We selected 383 patients in Mali and 586 patients in Thailand based on their blood culture results: 75 and 31 were positive for pneumococcus, 100 and 162 were positive for other pathogens, and 208 and 403 were blood culture negative, respectively. ICT and PCR of blood culture broth were at least 87% sensitive and 97% specific compared with blood culture; whole blood PCR was 75-88% sensitive and 96-100% specific. Pneumococcal yields in children < 5 years of age increased from 2.9% to 10.7% in Mali with > 99% of additional cases detected by whole blood PCR, and from 0.07% to 5.1% in Thailand
Intravenous literature: Previsdomini, M., Gini, M., Cerutti, B., Dolina, M. and Perren, A. (2012) Predictors of positive blood cultures in critically ill patients: a retrospective evaluation. Croatian Medical Journal. 53(1), p.30-9.. Abstract:. Aim - To identify predictors of bacteremia in critically ill patients, to evaluate the impact of blood cultures on the outcome, and to define conditions for breakthrough bacteremia despite concurrent antibiotic treatment.. Methods - A descriptive retrospective study was performed over a two-year period (2007-2008) in the medico-surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the San Giovanni Hospital in Bellinzona, Switzerland.. Results - Forty-five out of 231 patients (19.5%) had positive blood cultures. Predictors of positive blood cultures were elevated procalcitonin levels (,2 µg/L, P43, P=0.014; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment ,4.0, P38.5°C) only showed a trend toward a higher rate of blood culture positivity (P=0.053). The rate of positive blood ...
S. O. Heard, R. F. Davis, R. J. Sherertz, R. C. Gallagher, A. J. Layon, M. S. Mikhail, T. J. Gallagher; STERILITY OF PULMONARY ARTERY CATHETERS WITH STERILE PROTECTIVE SLEEVES AND THE INCIDENCE OF CATHETER-RELATED BACTEREMIA. Anesthesiology 1984;61(3):A154. Download citation file:. ...
Surveillance blood cultures are often obtained in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients for detection of bloodstream infection. The major aims of this retrospective cohort study were to determine the utility of the practice of obtaining surveillance blood cultures from asymptomatic patients during the first 100 post-transplant days and to determine if obtaining more than one positive blood culture helps in the diagnosis of bloodstream infection. We conducted a 17-month retrospective analysis of all blood cultures obtained for patients admitted to the hospital for HSCT from January 2010 to June 2011. Each patients clinical course, vital signs, diagnostic testing, treatment, and response to treatment were reviewed. The association between number of positive blood cultures and the final diagnosis was analyzed. Blood culture results for 205 patients were reviewed. Cultures obtained when symptoms of infection were present (clinical cultures) accounted for 1,033 culture sets, whereas 2,474
Bloodstream infections are associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns should guide the choice of empiric antimicrobial regimens for patients with bacteremia. From January to December of 2002, 82,569 bacterial blood culture isolates were reported to The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database-USA by 268 laboratories. Susceptibility to relevant antibiotic compounds was analyzed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (42.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (8.3%), Escherichia coli (7.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%), and Enterococcus faecium (3.5%) were the most frequently isolated bacteria from blood cultures, collectively accounting for |80% of isolates. In vitro susceptibility to expanded-spectrum β-lactams such as ceftriaxone were high for oxacillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (98.7%), oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (99.8%), E. coli (97.3%), K.
http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/191_07_051009/tur10849_fm.html. Objective: To document the types of, and mortality from, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Australia and New Zealand, and determine factors associated with mortality.. Design and setting: Prospective observational study in 27 independent or hospital pathology laboratories in Australia (24) and New Zealand (3), employing a web-based database to prospectively record demographic features, selected risk factors, principal antibiotic treatment and mortality data on all patients with positive blood cultures for S. aureus from June 2007 to May 2008.. Main outcome measure: 30-day all-cause mortality.. Results: 1994 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia were identified, and complete 30-day follow-up data were available for 1865. Most episodes had their onset in the community (60.8%; 95% CI, 58.7%-63.0%). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) caused 450 episodes (24.1%; 95% CI, 22.2%-25.9%), and 123 of these (27.3%) had a susceptibility ...
Most of the studies evaluating the secular trends of blood isolates come from tertiary hospitals in urban areas. We sought to study the trends of the antimicrobial resistance of blood isolates in patients from a rural population hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in a small city in Greece. We retrospectively collected and analysed data for the first positive blood culture obtained for each admission for each patient hospitalized in General Hospital of Tripolis, Tripolis, Peloponnesus, Greece during a 5 year period (16/05/2000 - 15/05/2005). Sixty-seven thousand and seventy patients were hospitalized during the study period from whom 3,206 blood cultures were obtained. A higher increase of the number of obtained blood cultures than the number of admissions was noted during the study period (p | 0.001). Three hundred and seventy-three (11.6%) blood cultures were positive. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (35.9%), Escherichia coli (29%), and Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%) were the most commonly isolated
Introduction: Severe malnutrition is a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality among children aged 5 years in developing countries. The prevalence of bacteraemia, urinary tract infection, diarrhea and pneumonia among children with severe malnutrition is high. These, coupled with an atypical clinical presentation of sepsis, justify the routine use of empirical antibiotic treatment in the initial phase of inpatient management of SAM children1 2 .The choice of antibiotics should be guided by locally prevalent pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Objectives: The broad objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteraemia in SAM children at Mbagathi District Hospital and its association with the history and physical examination characteristics of the enrolled children. The primary objectives of the study were: • To determine the blood bacterial isolates in SAM children in Mbagathi District Hospital. • To determine the sensitivities of the bacterial ...
definition of NBMBRS, what does NBMBRS mean?, meaning of NBMBRS, National Bacterial Meningitis and Bacteremia Reporting System, NBMBRS stands for National Bacterial Meningitis and Bacteremia Reporting System