Other. Table of Content:. Chapter One Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Overview. 1.1Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Sales Volume Revenue and Price 2012-2022. 1.2 Bacillus Subtilis, by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.1 Global Bacillus Subtilis Sales Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.2 Global Bacillus Subtilis Revenue Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.3 Global Bacillus Subtilis Price by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.4 100 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.5 100-300 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.6 300 Billion CFU/g. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=enquiry&repid=1256588. About Market Research Hub:. Market Research Hub (MRH) is a next-generation reseller of Research Reports and analysis. MRHs expansive collection of pharmaceutical market research reports has been carefully curated to help key personnel and decision makers across industry verticals to clearly visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps.. MRH functions as an integrated platform for the ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
BioAssay record AID 1307019 submitted by ChEMBL: Potency index, ratio of chloromycin MIC to compound MIC for Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633.
Author Summary Many bacteria can actively acquire novel genetic material from their environment, which leads to the rapid spreading of, for example, antibiotic resistance genes. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis can differentiate into the state of competence, in which cells take up ssDNA through a DNA uptake complex that is specifically localized at a single cell pole. DNA can be integrated into the chromosome, via RecA, or can be reconstituted as circular dsDNA, if derived from plasmid or from viral DNA. We show that RecO, RecU, and Ku proteins, but not RecA, are important for plasmid transformation, and differentially accumulate at the polar DNA uptake machinery. Upon addition of any kind of DNA, the assembly of RecU at the competence pole dissipated, while RecA formed filamentous structures that rapidly grew and shrank within a 1 minute time scale. RecO visibly accumulated at the competence machinery only upon addition of plasmid DNA, but not of chromosomal DNA. In vitro, RecO was highly efficient at
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC ® 6633D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain NRS 231 TypeStrain=False Application: Food testing
Health Canada proposes registration of Bacillus velezensis strain RTI301 Technical, Bacillus subtilis strain RTI477 Technical, Ataplan Biological Fungicide and Arolist Biological Fungicide, containing the technical grade active ingredients Bacillus velezensis strain RTI301 and Bacillus subtilis strain RTI477.
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatl …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. AU - Sadaie, Yoshito. AU - Yata, Katsunori. AU - Fujita, Masaya. AU - Sagai, Hitoshi. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Kasahara, Yasuhiro. AU - Ogasawara, Naotake. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - A 36 kb sequence of the phoB-rrnE-groESL region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome at around 55°has been determined. The sequenced region contains 36 ORFs including the phoB and groESL genes, and the whole rrnE operon. The phoB gene is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of chromosome replication, while most ORFs, including groESL and the rrnE operon, are transcribed in the same direction. Two newly identified tRNA genes upstream of the rrnE operon were those for Arg-tRNA and Gly-tRNA. The sequenced region contains an operon consisting of genes for degradation and uptake of mannan. The rrnE operon and its downstream ORFs are well conserved among Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ...
A characteristic feature of biofilm formation is the production of a protective extracellular polymeric matrix. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the biofilm matrix is synthesized by the products of the epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO operon (hereafter called the eps operon) and yqxM-sipW-tasA loci. Transcription from these operons is repressed by two key regulators, AbrB and SinR. Relief of inhibition is necessary to allow biofilm formation to proceed. Here we present data indicating that Abh, a sequence and structural homologue of AbrB, regulates biofilm architecture by B. subtilis when colony morphology and pellicle formation are assessed. Data indicating that abh expression is dependent on the environmental signals that stimulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor sigma(X) are shown. We demonstrate that expression of slrR, the proposed activator of yqxM transcription, is positively controlled by Abh. Furthermore, Abh is shown to activate transcription from the ...
Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis B-3157. Microbiological Preparation of Deuterium Labeled Purine Ribonucleoside Inosine from Bacillus Subtilis B-3157
Source: Bacillus subtilis: A Healthy Probiotic Strain by Dr. Edward Group Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is found in soil and the gut of humans and some types of animals. Also known as Bacillus uniflagellatus, Bacillus globigii, and Bacillus natto, Bacillus subtilis is commonly included in probiotic supplement formulations. Its a useful and beneficial probiotic that supports digestion, enzyme production, and helps…
Summary The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is well-known for its contributions to agricultural, medical, and food biotechnology and for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, about 60% of the commercially available technical enzymes are produced by Bacillus species. Furthermore, a large body of information concerning transcription, translation, protein folding and secretion mechanisms, genetic manipulation, and large-scale fermentation has been acquired. But so far, efficient and inexpensive expression vectors for B. subtilis are still missing. To fill this gap, a glycine-inducible expression system and a lysine-autoinducible one were explored and IPTG-inducible expression plasmids that allow overexpression and purification of proteins were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, a technique with a useful promoter-probe plasmid to analyze strong promoters in B. subtilis was established, which allowed to study promoter and mRNA stabilizing elements to enhance the transcript ...
Spores of foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus are widely distributed in nature. Presence of those spores in food products, particularly C. botulinum spores in vacuum packed, ready-to-eat low-acid products, is a great safety concern. The research here described is a first effort towards understanding the role of the spore coat proteins in the inactivation of bacterial spore using high pressure processing. This study proposes a coat protein solubilization methodology using non-ionic detergents minimizing protein damage and compatible with spectroscopy methods. The methodology developed here was compared with approaches proposed in the literature with respect to protein yield, protein fractions identified, amino acid composition and suitability with spectroscopy techniques for the further analysis of coat proteins. Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 spore coat proteins were solubilized (n=3) using octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP) at room ...
Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have important applications in agriculture. A key prerequisite for those PGPRs to exert beneficial activities is to effectively colonize the roots. Paradoxically, a major challenge for those rhizobacteria is how to migrate from soil to the roots, and further spread along the roots, considering the arid or semi-arid nature of the soil and the root surface. Studies have shown that chemotaxis and swimming motility driven by flagella play an important role in root colonization in aqueous environments. However, one can argue that swimming motility is not productive in the semi-arid or arid soil and root surface. Bacteria may have to reply on certain types of solid surface motility to migrate in the soil and colonize roots. So here comes the simple question: how do bacteria migrate in the soil? We showed here that Bacillus subtilis, a well-known PGPR, can utilize sucrose, a simple sugar and an abundant root exudate component, as a signal to initiate ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|16077226|ref|NP_388039.1| from Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Bacillus subtilis uses two-component signal transduction systems to sense intra- and extracellular stimuli to adapt to fluctuating environmental situations. Regulator aspartate phosphatases (Raps) have important roles in these processes, as they can dephosphorylate certain response-regulators, and are themselves subject to cell-density-controlled inhibition by secreted Phr (phosphate regulator) peptides. Eleven chromosomal genes encode this family of phosphatases, but in addition, certain strains contain endogenous plasmids with genes for homologous Rap-Phr systems. Plasmid pTA1060 encodes Rap60 and its antagonistic signalling molecule Phr60. Strikingly, expression of Rap60 in B. subtilis 168 strongly repressed the production of proteolytic enzymes. In fact, the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular protease, was shown to be decreased upon Rap60 expression, whereas this effect could be antagonized by the extracellular addition of synthetic Phr60 pentapeptide. Finally,
The present study was conducted with an aim to scale up the production of iturin A using soybean curd residue (okara). Iturin A was produced by indigenous bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS through glass column reactor (GCR) under solid state fermentation (SSF) was characterized. The enhanced iturin A production was observed with respect to enhanced substrate bed height when SSF was conducted in Erlenmeyer flask. To check the effect of substrate bed height on iturin A production under SSF of okara, GCR was introduced. Substrate bed height of 15 cm was suitable for iturin A production which was about 2700 mg/kg wet substrate. The observed iturin A production by the aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis in nearly anaerobic condition in such high substrate bed for SSF is a wonderful finding for development of SSF system in future.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rok regulates yuaB expression during architecturally complex colony development of Bacillus subtilis 168. AU - Kovács, Ákos T.. AU - Kuipers, Oscar P.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Transcriptome analysis of a Bacillus subtilis rok strain that showed reduced complex colony structure formation revealed significant downregulation of the yuaB gene. Overexpression of yuaB restored structure formation in the rok strain. We show that transcription of yuaB is indirectly regulated by Rok, independently from its previously described AbrB-dependent regulation.. AB - Transcriptome analysis of a Bacillus subtilis rok strain that showed reduced complex colony structure formation revealed significant downregulation of the yuaB gene. Overexpression of yuaB restored structure formation in the rok strain. We show that transcription of yuaB is indirectly regulated by Rok, independently from its previously described AbrB-dependent regulation.. U2 - 10.1128/JB.01170-10. DO - ...
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pAM beta 1, a 26.5-kilobase plasmid originally isolated from Streptococcus faecalis, was conjugally transferred from Streptococcus lactis to Bacillus subtilis. No conjugal transfer of pAM beta 1 from B. subtilis to S. lactis was observed. In addition, pAM beta 1 which had been reintroduced in S. lactis after cycling through B. subtilis had lost its conjugal transferability to Streptococcus cremoris, although under the same conditions noncycled pAM beta 1 was transferred at high efficiency. Restriction and Southern blot analyses showed that pAM beta 1 had suffered one major, specific 10.6-kilobase deletion and several minor but also specific deletions in B. subtilis. Comparing the major deletion derivative, delta pAM beta 1, with B. subtilis strains which have been reported to contain pAM beta 1 showed that these strains also contained delta pAM beta 1. Hybridization experiments showed that the deleted fragment was not transposed to the B. subtilis chromosome. Based on the size of the minor ...
This chapter focuses on Bacillus subtilis multicellularity, emphasizing the two-cell differentiation process of endospore formation and attempting to note similarities to Myxococcus xanthus. While cell growth, division, motility, and chemotaxis clearly play roles in forming bioconvection patterns, complex colonies, and macrofibers, these multicellular phenomena have not yet been subjected to systematic genetic analysis. In contrast, recently discovered multicellular behaviors of biofilm formation and swarming motility are rapidly being elucidated by genetic and genomic approaches. The most studied and best understood multicellular behaviors of B. subtilis are the development of genetic competence (the ability to take up exogenous DNA) and sporulation. The chapter summarizes the understanding of how morphogenesis and intercellular signaling control the activity of cell-specific s factors, focusing on recent progress and attempting to identify questions that remain. It also reviews the results of genomic
Of 130 strains classified as Bacillus subtilis, 60 fermented lactose and utilized gluconate slowly. High deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 70 to 100% to the type strain (NRRL B-14393) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens indicated these organisms to be strains of that species. The 70 remaining strains did not ferment lactose, utilized gluconate strongly, and were highly related genetically to the type strain (NRRL NRS-744) of B. subtilis. Lactose fermentation was observed in a standard medium containing 2% lactose instead of the usual 0.5%. Low deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 25 to 37% established that neither group was related to B. pumilus, B. coagulans, B. firmus, or B. licheniformis. The results indicated that lactose fermentation and gluconate utilization are characteristics that can differentiate between B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens.
Bacillus subtilis can secrete active substances, activate plant defense systems, enhance crop immunity and disease resistance, and reduce or eliminate the harm of pathogenic bacteria to plants. It can also promote the growth and development of a variety of plant seeds, seedlings, roots, and enhance the disease resistance of plants, thereby indirectly reducing the occurrence of diseases. For example, Bacillus subtilis increase the formation of auxin (IAA, IBA), stimulates crop roots development, and enhances photosynthesis. At the same time, it converts materials that are difficult to absorb in the soil into materials that are easily absorbed by crops, promotes the absorption and utilization of nutrients by crops, and improves the utilization rate of fertilizers. ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Cytochromes of c-type contain covalently bound haem and in bacteria are located on the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic membrane. More than eight different gene products have been identified as being specifically required for the synthesis of cytochromes c in Gram-negative bacteria. Corresponding genes are not found in the genome sequences of Gram-positive bacteria. Using two random mutagenesis approaches, we have searched for cytochrome c biogenesis genes in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Three genes, resB, resC and ccdA, were identified. CcdA has been found previously and is required for a late step in cytochrome c synthesis and also plays a role in spore synthesis. No function has previously been assigned for ResB and ResC but these predicted membrane proteins show sequence similarity to proteins required for cytochrome c synthesis in chloroplasts. Attempts to inactivate resB and resC in B. subtilis have indicated that these genes are essential for growth. We demonstrate ...
A biofilm is a complex community of cells enveloped in a self-produced polymeric matrix. Entry into a biofilm is exquisitely controlled at the level of transcription and in the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis it requires the concerted efforts of three major transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to transcriptional control, B. subtilis utilizes post-translational modifications to control biofilm formation; specifically through phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. Through our work we have assigned novel roles during biofilm formation to two proteins; the protein tyrosine kinase PtkA and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpZ. Furthermore by introducing amino acid point mutations within the catalytic domains of PtkA and PtpZ we have identified that the kinase and phosphatase activities, respectively, are essential for function. PtkA contains a conserved C-terminal tyrosine cluster that is the site of autophosphorylation; however, our in vivo analysis demonstrates that ...
Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655) was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 μg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 μg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 μg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 μg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein) than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein). B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic
On July 17, 2009 the U.S. Food & Drug Adminsitration (FDA) in association withLuv N Care, LTD issued an urgent, nationwide recall of various gel filled baby/infant teeters after the FDA discovered that some lots of the Nuby, Cottontails and Playschool Teethers contained Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans.. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans bacteria generally do not cause illness in healthy babies, however if a baby has a weakened immune system the results of ingesting wither forms of the Bacillus bacteria could lead to serious health problems.. If your child or somebody you know has gotten sick after ingesting any of the contaminated teether liquid, you should speak with a qualified medical professional immediately. You should then contact us for a free confidential case review, as you may be entitled to compensation for your childs injuries. ...
Inactivation kinetics for Bacillus subtilis endospores for (△) pure argon, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen i
Bacillus subtilis subsp. stercoris is the correct name if this subspecies is regarded as a separate subspecies (i.e., if its nomenclatural type is not assigned to another subspecies whose name is validly published, legitimate and not rejected and has priority) within a separate species Bacillus subtilis within a separate genus Bacillus. ...
Biodegradable plastics can be made from polylactate, which is a polymer made from lactic acid. This compound can be produced from renewable resources as substrates using microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a GRAS microorganism (g enerally r egarded a s s afe) by the FDA. B. subtilis produces and secretes different kind of enzymes, such as proteases, cellulases, xylanases and amylases to utilize carbon sources more complex than the monosaccharides present in the environment. Thus, B. subtilis could be potentially used to hydrolyze carbohydrate polymers contained in lignocellulosic biomass to produce chemical commodities. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction of agroindustrial wastes produces cellobiose and a lower amount of glucose. Under aerobic conditions, B. subtilis grows using cellobiose as substrate. In this study, we proved that under non-aerated conditions, B. subtilis ferments cellobiose to produce L-lactate with 82% of the theoretical yield,
article{b934b2b3-a5c6-4edc-b815-40c3fe1ef9c9, abstract = {Bacteria use a number of mechanisms for coping with the toxic effects exerted by nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives. Here we show that the flavohemoglobin encoded by the hmp gene has a vital role in an adaptive response to protect the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis from nitrosative stress. We further show that nitrosative stress induced by the nitrosonium cation donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) leads to deactivation of the transcriptional repressor NsrR, resulting in derepression of hmp. Nitrosative stress induces the sigma B-controlled general stress regulon. However, a sigB null mutant did not show increased sensitivity to SNP, suggesting that the sigma B-dependent stress proteins are involved in a nonspecific protection against stress whereas the Hmp flavohemoglobin plays a central role in detoxification. Mutations in the yjbIH operon, which encodes a truncated hemoglobin (YjbI) and a predicted 34-kDa cytosolic protein of unknown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of σ(B) levels and activity in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Benson, A. K.. AU - Haldenwang, W. G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The sigB operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes σ(B) plus three additional proteins (RsbV, RsbW, and RsbX) that regulate σ(B) activity. Using an anti- σ(B) monoclonal antibody to monitor the levels of σ(B) protein, P(SPAC) to control the expression of the sigB operon, and a ctc-lacZ reporter system to monitor σ(B) activity, we observed that the rsbV and rsbW products control σ(B) activity at the ctc promoter independently of their effects on σ(B) levels. In contrast, RsbX was found to have no effect on expression of ctc when the sigB operon was controlled by P(SPAC). The data are consistent with RsbV and RsbW being regulators of σ(B) activity and RsbX acting primarily as a negative regulator of sigB operon expression. Evidence that stationary- phase induction of the σ(B)-dependent ctc promoter is accomplished by a reduction in ...
TY - THES. T1 - Developing Bacillus subtilis as a versatile bioproduct platform for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. AU - Song, Yafeng. PY - 2021. Y1 - 2021. N2 - Bioproducts made by microbial cell factories play important roles in human life ranging from food, feed, cosmetic and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Microbial hosts are required to be non-pathogenic overproducers and should be growing at low costs. Bacillus subtilis is one of the bacteria, which can fulfill these requirements. It is generally regarded as safe, easy to modify genetically and able to grow fast in simple medium. It can secrete high levels of proteins into the culture medium, and has also been reported to be a high isoprene producer. The work described in the thesis of Yafeng Song focuses on two aspects. Firstly, she engineered B. subtilis to secrete high level of β-mannanase, a major mannan-degrading enzyme that is extensively used in agriculture as feed additive. This was achieved by increasing β-mannanase ...
An efficient heat-inducible Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage 105 expression and secretion system for the production of the Streptomyces clavuligerus beta-lactama
Abstract: Bacillus subtilis has long been a model bacterium for understanding biological mechanisms, such as fatty acid catabolism and polyketide biosynthesis. Our interest in the latter was centered on the polyketide synthase (PKS) mechanism responsible for ß-branching polyketides. The unique structural moiety is attributed to a HMG-CoA synthase homolog, such as the pksG gene in B. subtilis. The first goal was a metagenomic survey of local soils, using the conserved pksG homolog sequence as a genetic marker. After optimizing techniques for the extraction and purification of environmental DNA, the ß-branching polyketide population was not detected in any local soil samples. While working with a pksG homolog, an apparent sequence anomaly prompted us to verify the taxonomic classification of B. subtilis research strains ATCC 39374 and 39320. Comparison of DNA sequences (pksG homologs, hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA and rDNA) and species-specific genes showed the two ATCC strains are more ...
The Bacillus subtilis (k1) grew in submerged fermentation cultures supplemented with various organs of banana agricultural wastes as the cheapest substrate. Due to the differential richness of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of banana organs, it could be a valuable factor for B. subtilis growth and the production of valuable secondary products. The B. subtilis was inoculated on LB0 (TY-medium), LB1 (⅛ TY-medium), LB2 (LB1 + leaf blade), LB3 (LB1 + leaf midrib), LB4 (LB1 + leaf sheet), LB5 (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence that a single monomer of Spx can productively interact with RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Lin, Ann A.. AU - Zuber, Peter. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Spx activates transcription initiation in Bacillus subtilis by directly interacting with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase(RNAP) holoenzyme- subunit, which generates a complex that recognizes the promoter regions of genes within the Spxregulon. Many Gram-positive species possess multiple paralogs of Spx, suggesting that two paralogous forms of Spx could simultaneouslycontact RNAP. The composition of Spx/RNAP was examined in vitro using an Spx variant (SpxδCHA) bearing a 12-amino-acid deletion of the C terminus (SpxδC) and a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag and Spxc-Myc, a full-length Spx with aC-terminal myelocytomatosis oncoprotein (c-Myc) epitope tag. All Spx/RNAP complexes bearing deletion or C-terminal-taggedvariants were transcriptionally active in vivo and in vitro. Reaction mixtures ...
Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces. B. subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium arranged in either single cells, small clumps, or short chains. Its cell wall consists of a thick peptidoglycan layer. B. subtilis is apart of the kingdom Bacteria, which means this organism has a single circular chromosome within the nucleoid region of its cytoplasm. B. subtilis has a helical cytoskeleton composed of a single protein. (11) B. subtilis is a motile organism through use of its flagella, which is a whip-like appendage used for movement. Specifically, B. subtilis has peritrichous flagella, meaning has flagella projecting in all directions around the cell. (11) B. subtilis exhibits endospore formation. Endospores are dormant durable structures often created from a vegetative cell in response to nutrient deprivation are produced through the process sporulation. During this process, a thick layer of peptidoglycan and spore coat form around a copy of ...
Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces. B. subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium arranged in either single cells, small clumps, or short chains. Its cell wall consists of a thick peptidoglycan layer. B. subtilis is apart of the kingdom Bacteria, which means this organism has a single circular chromosome within the nucleoid region of its cytoplasm. B. subtilis has a helical cytoskeleton composed of a single protein. (11) B. subtilis is a motile organism through use of its flagella, which is a whip-like appendage used for movement. Specifically, B. subtilis has peritrichous flagella, meaning has flagella projecting in all directions around the cell. (11) B. subtilis exhibits endospore formation. Endospores are dormant durable structures often created from a vegetative cell in response to nutrient deprivation are produced through the process sporulation. During this process, a thick layer of peptidoglycan and spore coat form around a copy of ...
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Spores of Bacillus subtilis are being used as probiotics and competitive exclusion agents for animal consumption. Commercial production media often include relatively expensive components of animal origin that are a potential source for the presence of adventious agents, therefore undesirable for use in production scale. In this study a new animal-free component, chemically defined medium, was tested for B. subtilis spore production. Medium composition was optimized with respect to vitamin composition, carbon, nitrogen and calcium concentrations. A fed-batch bioprocess was developed, being the effect on sporulation of the carbon to nitrogen ratio at the end of the exponential growth phase studied. The developed strategy consisted of an initial and a final batch phase and an intermediate fed-batch phase with the addition of a feeding solution containing glucose and calcium and the addition of a feeding solution of ammonium sulphate, using an exponential and a constant feeding profile,
Bacillus subtilis comC protein: Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader peptide processing enzyme; has prepilin peptidase (EC 3.4.23.43) as well as N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) activities; amino acid sequence given in first source; may be a component of the DNA-processing apparatus of competent cells; cleaves pre-comGC; homologous to pilD protein; member of protease/transmethylase family; isolated from Bacillus subtilis; Do not confuse with comC, a peptide competence factor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B. AU - Joshi, Sanket. AU - Bharucha, Chirag. AU - Desai, Anjana J.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 °C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil ...
Bacillus subtilis spoVK protein: from Bacillus subtilis; MW 36 kDa; expressed only in mother cell from sequentially active promoters; amino acid sequence given in first source
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Bacillus subtilis DSM 28343 when used in feed for pigs for fattening. The additive is a preparation containing viable spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis. This species is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach to safety assessment which requires the identity of the strain to be conclusively established, evidence that the strain is not toxigenic and that it does not show resistance to antibiotics of human and veterinary importance. The strain was found to meet the criteria for the QPS approach in the context of a previous opinion and since concerns are not expected from other components of the additive, the additive is presumed safe for all target species, consumers and the environment. In a previous opinion, the FEEDAP Panel concluded that ...
Structure of a Bacillus subtilis endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene.: The nucleotide sequence of the portion of a Bacillus subtilis (strain PAP115) 3 kb Pst I fragmen
For the first time, the antagonistic properties of the strains of the Bacillus subtilis TNP-3-DEP and Bacillus subtilis TNP-5-DEP bacteria in relation to v
Castaing, J.-P., Lee, S., Anantharaman, V., Ravilious, G. E., Aravind, L. and Ramamurthi, K. S. (2014), An autoinhibitory conformation of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein SpoIVA prevents its premature ATP-independent aggregation. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 358: 145-153. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12452 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA repair and the evolution of transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. AU - Michod, R. E.. AU - Wojciechowski, M. F.. AU - Hoezler, M. A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The purpose of the work reported here is to test the hypothesis that natural genetic transformation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis has evolved as a DNA repair system. Specifically, tests were made to determine whether transformation functions to provide DNA template for the bacterial cell to use in recombinational repair. The survivorship and the homologous transformation rate as a function of dose of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) was studied in two experimental treatments, in which cells were either transformed before (DNA-UV), or after (UV-DNA), treatment with UV. The results show that there is a qualitative difference in the relationship between the survival of transformed cells (sexual cells) and total cells (primarily asexual ...
Phytochemicals of Syzygium cumini are used for the treatment of various diseases as a traditional medicine but the mechanism behind their action is not well reported. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic seed extract of S. cumini was done by agar well diffusion assay on Bacillus subtilis and its zone of inhibition was found to be 20.06 mm in comparison to control having no zone of inhibition. MIC of S. cumini was found to be 0.3 mg/ml. Genomic DNA degradation of B. subtilis reveals apoptosis and FE-scanning electron microscope indicates cell wall cracking on several intervals of time. Results of propidium iodide staining showed few bacterial cells were stained in control; however population of stained cells increased after exposing them for varying period of time. Flow cytometric kinetic data analysis on the membrane permeabilization in bacterial cell showed the significant contribution of antimicrobial potential of the seed extract on antimicrobial-induced permeabilization. In silico analysis revealed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Horizontal transfer of iturin a operon, itu, to Bacillus subtilis 168 and conversion into an iturin A producer. AU - Tsuge, Kenji. AU - Inoue, Satoka. AU - Ano, Takashi. AU - Itaya, Mitsuhiro. AU - Shoda, Makoto. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Iturin A and its derivatives are lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis and several closely related bacteria. Three iturin group operons (i.e., iturin A, mycosubtilin, and bacillomycin D) of those antibiotic-producing strains have been cloned and sequenced thus far, strongly implying the horizontal transfer of these operons. To examine the nature of such horizontal transfer in terms of antibiotic production, a 42-kb region of the B. subtilis RB14 genome, which contains a complete 38-kb iturin A operon, was transferred via competent cell transformation to the genome of a non-iturin A producer, B. subtilis 168, using a method based on double-crossover ...
The activation of additional promoter sites by production of an alternative sigma subunit for RNA polymerase is a common strategy for the coordinate regulation of gene expression. Many alternative sigma factors control genes for specialized, and often narrowly distributed, functions. For example, most of the alternative sigma factors in Bacillus subtilis control genes necessary for endospore formation. In contrast, the B. subtilis sigma D protein controls the expression of genes important for flagellar-based motility and chemotaxis, a form of locomotion very broadly distributed in the eubacteria. A homologous sigma factor, sigma F, controls a similar group of motility genes in the enteric bacteria. The conservation of both promoter specificity and genetic function in these two regulons allowed us to test the ability of a B. subtilis sigma factor to function within an Escherichia coli host. We demonstrate that expression of the B. subtilis sigD gene restores motility to an E. coli strain mutant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and Characterization of Bacillus subtilis CheY. AU - Bischoff, David S.. AU - Kirsch, Michael L.. AU - Ordal, George W.. AU - Bourret, Robert B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Amino acid sequence comparison suggests that numerous proteins are common to the signal transduction pathways controlling Chemotaxis in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, previous work has indicated several differences between the two systems. We have undertaken a comparative study of the roles of the CheY protein in Chemotaxis by B. subtilis and E. coli. Although CheY from the two species share only 36% amino acid sequence identity, purified B. subtilis CheY was phosphorylated in vitro by E. coli CheA, and dephosphorylation of CheY-P was enhanced by E. coli CheZ. Alteration of the putative site of phosphorylation in B. subtilis CheY, Asp54, eliminated Chemotaxis in vivo, further confirming that phosphorylation is ...
sigma B, a secondary sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis, was found to increase 5- to 10-fold when cultures were shifted from 37 to 48 degrees C. Western blot (immunoblot) analyses, in which monoclonal antibodies specific for the sigB operon products RsbV, RsbW, and sigma B were used to probe extracts from wild-type and mutant B. subtilis strains, revealed that all three proteins increased coordinately after heat shock and that this increase was dependent on sigma B but not RsbV, a positive regulator normally essential for sigma B-dependent sigB expression. Nuclease protection experiments of RNA synthesized after heat shock supported the notion that the shift to 48 degrees C enhanced transcription from the sigB operons sigma B-dependent promoter. The level of mRNA initiating at the sigma B-dependent ctc promoter was also seen to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold after heat shock. Pulse-labeling of the proteins synthesized after a shift to 48 degrees C demonstrated that sigB wild-type and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and expression of inulin fructotransferase gene of Arthrobacter sp. A-6 in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. AU - Kim, H. Y.. AU - Kim, C. W.. AU - Cho, Y. J.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The inulin fructotransferase (depolymerizing) (IFTase, EC 2.4.1.93) gene of Arthrobacter sp. A-6 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The IFTase gene consisted of an ORF of 1,311 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids containing a signal peptide of 31 amino acids in the N-terminus. The molecular mass of the IFTase based on the nucleotide sequence was calculated to be 46,116 Da. The recombinant E. coli DH5α cells expressing the Arthrobacter sp. A-6 IFTase gene produced most of the IFTase intracellularly. In contrast, the recombinant B. subtilis DB 104 carrying the IFrase gene on a B. subtilis-E. coli expression vector secreted the IFrase into the culture fluid efficiently.. AB - The inulin fructotransferase (depolymerizing) (IFTase, EC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression dynamics of the poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis genes of Bacillus subtilis in response to glucose and glutamic acid-a pilot study. AU - Tiwari, Deepika Pandey. AU - Chatterjee, Poonam Mishra. AU - Rotti, Harish. AU - Chand, Bipin. AU - Raval, Ritu. AU - Dubey, Ashok Kumar. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is biosynthesized by various Bacillus species through PGA synthetase, encoded by the PGA operon comprised of the ywsC and ywtABC genes. Due to the minimal available knowledge, understanding the expression pattern of PGA operon genes is pivotal. In this study, the effect of glucose and glutamic acid on the global gene expression profile of Bacillus subtilis Natto3 was investigated using high throughput microarray, with an emphasis on the PGA operon and genes influencing PGA production. Two treatment groups (set1-in the presence of glutamic acid and set2-in the presence of glutamic acid + glucose) were analyzed against the control (in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 inhibits germination of Penicillium roqueforti conidiospores. AU - Chitarra, G.S.. AU - Breeuwer, P.. AU - Nout, M.J.R.. AU - van Aelst, A.C.. AU - Rombouts, F.M.. AU - Abee, T.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Aims: To identify and characterize an antifungal compound produced by Bacillus subtilis YM 10-20 which prevents spore germination of Penicillium roqueforti . Methods and Results: The antifungal compound was isolated by acid precipitation with HCl. This compound inhibited fungal germination and growth. Identification by HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis showed high similarity to iturin A. Permeabilization and morphological changes in P. roqueforti conidia in the presence of the inhibitor were revealed by fluorescence staining and SEM, respectively. Conclusions: The iturin-like compound produced by B. subtilis YM 10-20 permeabilizes fungal spores and blocks germination. Significance and Impact of the Study: ...
Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogenic fungus, lives commensally in the human gut. Caenorhabditis elegans, an ideal host organism for microbiome studies, pre-exposed to the beneficial bacteria Bacillus subtilis are able to resist wildtype C. albicans infections and live longer than naive worms. We have identified C. albicans mutants that showed significant difference in lifespans of C. elegans with and without pre-exposure to B. subtilis. This approach will identify genes and pathways that modulate microbial interactions to alter host outcomes.. ...
A team of researchers from the Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana (Polonca Štefanič, Barbara Kraigher and Ines Mandić-Mulec) and their colleagues from Harvard University (Nick Lyons and Roberto Kolter) were the first to show the world that the Bacillus subtilis bacteria strains are implementing kin discrimination. This means that only the swarms of the most closely related strains interact. This research and its findings were published in the renowned journal PNAS and triggered exceptional interest in the international research community, since the descriptions of kin discrimination in microorganisms are extremely rare, and no one had yet examined the kin discrimination in sympatric bacteria populations.. The genetic profile of the Bacillus subtilis bacteria is very well known, which is why it serves as an excellent model for further research of mechanisms and the meaning of kin discrimination for the evolution and territoriality of bacteria, as well as for the development of ...
The inactivation performances of different nonthermal plasmas are often compared with each other in terms of their decimal reduction values, typically obtained by linearizing selected segments of their inactivation curves. However, this approach is subjective and can result in uncertainties in the prediction of this parameter. To overcome this, in this paper, the application of models capable of describing inactivation curves in their entirety is considered. The authors employ the Baranyi and Weibull models, both commonly used for microbial inactivation by heat. An empirical model based on a third-order polynomial to seek greater accuracy is further proposed. Using these three inactivation models, predictions of decimal reduction values for 11 plasma inactivation studies of Bacillus subtilis spores are obtained and compared with their reported values. Although the agreement obtained between these different approaches is generally fair, the current practice of segmented linearization is shown to ...
article{4e41ad28-a68a-44c9-88fe-3468160150e0, abstract = {The azlB locus of Bacillus subtilis was defined previously by a mutation conferring resistance to a leucine analog, 4-azaleucine (J. B. Ward, Jr., and S. A. Zahler, J. Bacteriol. 116:727-735, 1973). In this report, azlB is shown to be the first gene of an operon apparently involved in branched-chain amino acid transport. The product of the azlB gene is an Lrp-like protein that negatively regulates expression of the azlBCDEF operon. Resistance to 4-azaleucine in azlB mutants is due to overproduction of AzlC and AzlD, two novel hydrophobic proteins.}, author = {Belitsky, B R and Gustafsson, Mattias and Sonenshein, A L and von Wachenfeldt, Claes}, issn = {0021-9193}, language = {eng}, number = {17}, pages = {5448--5457}, publisher = {American Society for Microbiology}, series = {Journal of Bacteriology}, title = {An lrp-like gene of Bacillus subtilis involved in branched-chain amino acid transport}, url = ...
The Bacillus subtilis gnt operon is negatively regulated by GntR, which is antagonized by gluconate. Three GntR mutants with diminished gluconate-binding ability were obtained. Two were missense mutants (Met-209 to Ile and Ser-230 to Leu), whereas the third had a deletion of the C-terminal 23 amino acids. The mutant GntR proteins were unable to become properly detached from the gnt operator even in the presence of gluconate. ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.
Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...
Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...