Other. Table of Content:. Chapter One Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Overview. 1.1Global Bacillus Subtilis Market Sales Volume Revenue and Price 2012-2022. 1.2 Bacillus Subtilis, by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.1 Global Bacillus Subtilis Sales Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.2 Global Bacillus Subtilis Revenue Market Share by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.3 Global Bacillus Subtilis Price by Product Type 2012-2022. 1.2.4 100 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.5 100-300 Billion CFU/g. 1.2.6 300 Billion CFU/g. Make an Enquiry @ http://www.marketresearchhub.com/enquiry.php?type=enquiry&repid=1256588. About Market Research Hub:. Market Research Hub (MRH) is a next-generation reseller of Research Reports and analysis. MRHs expansive collection of pharmaceutical market research reports has been carefully curated to help key personnel and decision makers across industry verticals to clearly visualize their operating environment and take strategic steps.. MRH functions as an integrated platform for the ...
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the polymer with the longest hydrophobic block precipitating ...
Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC ® 6633D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain NRS 231 TypeStrain=False Application: Food testing
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatl …
A characteristic feature of biofilm formation is the production of a protective extracellular polymeric matrix. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the biofilm matrix is synthesized by the products of the epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO operon (hereafter called the eps operon) and yqxM-sipW-tasA loci. Transcription from these operons is repressed by two key regulators, AbrB and SinR. Relief of inhibition is necessary to allow biofilm formation to proceed. Here we present data indicating that Abh, a sequence and structural homologue of AbrB, regulates biofilm architecture by B. subtilis when colony morphology and pellicle formation are assessed. Data indicating that abh expression is dependent on the environmental signals that stimulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor sigma(X) are shown. We demonstrate that expression of slrR, the proposed activator of yqxM transcription, is positively controlled by Abh. Furthermore, Abh is shown to activate transcription from the ...
Source: Bacillus subtilis: A Healthy Probiotic Strain by Dr. Edward Group Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is found in soil and the gut of humans and some types of animals. Also known as Bacillus uniflagellatus, Bacillus globigii, and Bacillus natto, Bacillus subtilis is commonly included in probiotic supplement formulations. Its a useful and beneficial probiotic that supports digestion, enzyme production, and helps…
Summary The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is well-known for its contributions to agricultural, medical, and food biotechnology and for the production of recombinant proteins. At present, about 60% of the commercially available technical enzymes are produced by Bacillus species. Furthermore, a large body of information concerning transcription, translation, protein folding and secretion mechanisms, genetic manipulation, and large-scale fermentation has been acquired. But so far, efficient and inexpensive expression vectors for B. subtilis are still missing. To fill this gap, a glycine-inducible expression system and a lysine-autoinducible one were explored and IPTG-inducible expression plasmids that allow overexpression and purification of proteins were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, a technique with a useful promoter-probe plasmid to analyze strong promoters in B. subtilis was established, which allowed to study promoter and mRNA stabilizing elements to enhance the transcript ...
Spores of foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus are widely distributed in nature. Presence of those spores in food products, particularly C. botulinum spores in vacuum packed, ready-to-eat low-acid products, is a great safety concern. The research here described is a first effort towards understanding the role of the spore coat proteins in the inactivation of bacterial spore using high pressure processing. This study proposes a coat protein solubilization methodology using non-ionic detergents minimizing protein damage and compatible with spectroscopy methods. The methodology developed here was compared with approaches proposed in the literature with respect to protein yield, protein fractions identified, amino acid composition and suitability with spectroscopy techniques for the further analysis of coat proteins. Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 spore coat proteins were solubilized (n=3) using octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP) at room ...
Bacillus subtilis uses two-component signal transduction systems to sense intra- and extracellular stimuli to adapt to fluctuating environmental situations. Regulator aspartate phosphatases (Raps) have important roles in these processes, as they can dephosphorylate certain response-regulators, and are themselves subject to cell-density-controlled inhibition by secreted Phr (phosphate regulator) peptides. Eleven chromosomal genes encode this family of phosphatases, but in addition, certain strains contain endogenous plasmids with genes for homologous Rap-Phr systems. Plasmid pTA1060 encodes Rap60 and its antagonistic signalling molecule Phr60. Strikingly, expression of Rap60 in B. subtilis 168 strongly repressed the production of proteolytic enzymes. In fact, the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular protease, was shown to be decreased upon Rap60 expression, whereas this effect could be antagonized by the extracellular addition of synthetic Phr60 pentapeptide. Finally,
The present study was conducted with an aim to scale up the production of iturin A using soybean curd residue (okara). Iturin A was produced by indigenous bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS through glass column reactor (GCR) under solid state fermentation (SSF) was characterized. The enhanced iturin A production was observed with respect to enhanced substrate bed height when SSF was conducted in Erlenmeyer flask. To check the effect of substrate bed height on iturin A production under SSF of okara, GCR was introduced. Substrate bed height of 15 cm was suitable for iturin A production which was about 2700 mg/kg wet substrate. The observed iturin A production by the aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis in nearly anaerobic condition in such high substrate bed for SSF is a wonderful finding for development of SSF system in future.
Seair Exim Provides details of Bacillus subtilis HS Code along With description and shipment records for Bacillus subtilis import and export.
pAM beta 1, a 26.5-kilobase plasmid originally isolated from Streptococcus faecalis, was conjugally transferred from Streptococcus lactis to Bacillus subtilis. No conjugal transfer of pAM beta 1 from B. subtilis to S. lactis was observed. In addition, pAM beta 1 which had been reintroduced in S. lactis after cycling through B. subtilis had lost its conjugal transferability to Streptococcus cremoris, although under the same conditions noncycled pAM beta 1 was transferred at high efficiency. Restriction and Southern blot analyses showed that pAM beta 1 had suffered one major, specific 10.6-kilobase deletion and several minor but also specific deletions in B. subtilis. Comparing the major deletion derivative, delta pAM beta 1, with B. subtilis strains which have been reported to contain pAM beta 1 showed that these strains also contained delta pAM beta 1. Hybridization experiments showed that the deleted fragment was not transposed to the B. subtilis chromosome. Based on the size of the minor ...
Of 130 strains classified as Bacillus subtilis, 60 fermented lactose and utilized gluconate slowly. High deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 70 to 100% to the type strain (NRRL B-14393) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens indicated these organisms to be strains of that species. The 70 remaining strains did not ferment lactose, utilized gluconate strongly, and were highly related genetically to the type strain (NRRL NRS-744) of B. subtilis. Lactose fermentation was observed in a standard medium containing 2% lactose instead of the usual 0.5%. Low deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness values of 25 to 37% established that neither group was related to B. pumilus, B. coagulans, B. firmus, or B. licheniformis. The results indicated that lactose fermentation and gluconate utilization are characteristics that can differentiate between B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens.
Bacillus subtilis can secrete active substances, activate plant defense systems, enhance crop immunity and disease resistance, and reduce or eliminate the harm of pathogenic bacteria to plants. It can also promote the growth and development of a variety of plant seeds, seedlings, roots, and enhance the disease resistance of plants, thereby indirectly reducing the occurrence of diseases. For example, Bacillus subtilis increase the formation of auxin (IAA, IBA), stimulates crop roots development, and enhances photosynthesis. At the same time, it converts materials that are difficult to absorb in the soil into materials that are easily absorbed by crops, promotes the absorption and utilization of nutrients by crops, and improves the utilization rate of fertilizers. ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Cytochromes of c-type contain covalently bound haem and in bacteria are located on the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic membrane. More than eight different gene products have been identified as being specifically required for the synthesis of cytochromes c in Gram-negative bacteria. Corresponding genes are not found in the genome sequences of Gram-positive bacteria. Using two random mutagenesis approaches, we have searched for cytochrome c biogenesis genes in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Three genes, resB, resC and ccdA, were identified. CcdA has been found previously and is required for a late step in cytochrome c synthesis and also plays a role in spore synthesis. No function has previously been assigned for ResB and ResC but these predicted membrane proteins show sequence similarity to proteins required for cytochrome c synthesis in chloroplasts. Attempts to inactivate resB and resC in B. subtilis have indicated that these genes are essential for growth. We demonstrate ...
A biofilm is a complex community of cells enveloped in a self-produced polymeric matrix. Entry into a biofilm is exquisitely controlled at the level of transcription and in the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis it requires the concerted efforts of three major transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to transcriptional control, B. subtilis utilizes post-translational modifications to control biofilm formation; specifically through phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. Through our work we have assigned novel roles during biofilm formation to two proteins; the protein tyrosine kinase PtkA and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpZ. Furthermore by introducing amino acid point mutations within the catalytic domains of PtkA and PtpZ we have identified that the kinase and phosphatase activities, respectively, are essential for function. PtkA contains a conserved C-terminal tyrosine cluster that is the site of autophosphorylation; however, our in vivo analysis demonstrates that ...
Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655) was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 μg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 μg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 μg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 μg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein) than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein). B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic
On July 17, 2009 the U.S. Food & Drug Adminsitration (FDA) in association withLuv N Care, LTD issued an urgent, nationwide recall of various gel filled baby/infant teeters after the FDA discovered that some lots of the Nuby, Cottontails and Playschool Teethers contained Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans.. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans bacteria generally do not cause illness in healthy babies, however if a baby has a weakened immune system the results of ingesting wither forms of the Bacillus bacteria could lead to serious health problems.. If your child or somebody you know has gotten sick after ingesting any of the contaminated teether liquid, you should speak with a qualified medical professional immediately. You should then contact us for a free confidential case review, as you may be entitled to compensation for your childs injuries. ...
Inactivation kinetics for Bacillus subtilis endospores for (△) pure argon, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen i
Biodegradable plastics can be made from polylactate, which is a polymer made from lactic acid. This compound can be produced from renewable resources as substrates using microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a GRAS microorganism (g enerally r egarded a s s afe) by the FDA. B. subtilis produces and secretes different kind of enzymes, such as proteases, cellulases, xylanases and amylases to utilize carbon sources more complex than the monosaccharides present in the environment. Thus, B. subtilis could be potentially used to hydrolyze carbohydrate polymers contained in lignocellulosic biomass to produce chemical commodities. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction of agroindustrial wastes produces cellobiose and a lower amount of glucose. Under aerobic conditions, B. subtilis grows using cellobiose as substrate. In this study, we proved that under non-aerated conditions, B. subtilis ferments cellobiose to produce L-lactate with 82% of the theoretical yield,
article{b934b2b3-a5c6-4edc-b815-40c3fe1ef9c9, abstract = {Bacteria use a number of mechanisms for coping with the toxic effects exerted by nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives. Here we show that the flavohemoglobin encoded by the hmp gene has a vital role in an adaptive response to protect the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis from nitrosative stress. We further show that nitrosative stress induced by the nitrosonium cation donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) leads to deactivation of the transcriptional repressor NsrR, resulting in derepression of hmp. Nitrosative stress induces the sigma B-controlled general stress regulon. However, a sigB null mutant did not show increased sensitivity to SNP, suggesting that the sigma B-dependent stress proteins are involved in a nonspecific protection against stress whereas the Hmp flavohemoglobin plays a central role in detoxification. Mutations in the yjbIH operon, which encodes a truncated hemoglobin (YjbI) and a predicted 34-kDa cytosolic protein of unknown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of σ(B) levels and activity in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Benson, A. K.. AU - Haldenwang, W. G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The sigB operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes σ(B) plus three additional proteins (RsbV, RsbW, and RsbX) that regulate σ(B) activity. Using an anti- σ(B) monoclonal antibody to monitor the levels of σ(B) protein, P(SPAC) to control the expression of the sigB operon, and a ctc-lacZ reporter system to monitor σ(B) activity, we observed that the rsbV and rsbW products control σ(B) activity at the ctc promoter independently of their effects on σ(B) levels. In contrast, RsbX was found to have no effect on expression of ctc when the sigB operon was controlled by P(SPAC). The data are consistent with RsbV and RsbW being regulators of σ(B) activity and RsbX acting primarily as a negative regulator of sigB operon expression. Evidence that stationary- phase induction of the σ(B)-dependent ctc promoter is accomplished by a reduction in ...
An efficient heat-inducible Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage 105 expression and secretion system for the production of the Streptomyces clavuligerus beta-lactama
Abstract: Bacillus subtilis has long been a model bacterium for understanding biological mechanisms, such as fatty acid catabolism and polyketide biosynthesis. Our interest in the latter was centered on the polyketide synthase (PKS) mechanism responsible for ß-branching polyketides. The unique structural moiety is attributed to a HMG-CoA synthase homolog, such as the pksG gene in B. subtilis. The first goal was a metagenomic survey of local soils, using the conserved pksG homolog sequence as a genetic marker. After optimizing techniques for the extraction and purification of environmental DNA, the ß-branching polyketide population was not detected in any local soil samples. While working with a pksG homolog, an apparent sequence anomaly prompted us to verify the taxonomic classification of B. subtilis research strains ATCC 39374 and 39320. Comparison of DNA sequences (pksG homologs, hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA and rDNA) and species-specific genes showed the two ATCC strains are more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence that a single monomer of Spx can productively interact with RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis. AU - Lin, Ann A.. AU - Zuber, Peter. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Spx activates transcription initiation in Bacillus subtilis by directly interacting with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase(RNAP) holoenzyme- subunit, which generates a complex that recognizes the promoter regions of genes within the Spxregulon. Many Gram-positive species possess multiple paralogs of Spx, suggesting that two paralogous forms of Spx could simultaneouslycontact RNAP. The composition of Spx/RNAP was examined in vitro using an Spx variant (SpxδCHA) bearing a 12-amino-acid deletion of the C terminus (SpxδC) and a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag and Spxc-Myc, a full-length Spx with aC-terminal myelocytomatosis oncoprotein (c-Myc) epitope tag. All Spx/RNAP complexes bearing deletion or C-terminal-taggedvariants were transcriptionally active in vivo and in vitro. Reaction mixtures ...
Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces. B. subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium arranged in either single cells, small clumps, or short chains. Its cell wall consists of a thick peptidoglycan layer. B. subtilis is apart of the kingdom Bacteria, which means this organism has a single circular chromosome within the nucleoid region of its cytoplasm. B. subtilis has a helical cytoskeleton composed of a single protein. (11) B. subtilis is a motile organism through use of its flagella, which is a whip-like appendage used for movement. Specifically, B. subtilis has peritrichous flagella, meaning has flagella projecting in all directions around the cell. (11) B. subtilis exhibits endospore formation. Endospores are dormant durable structures often created from a vegetative cell in response to nutrient deprivation are produced through the process sporulation. During this process, a thick layer of peptidoglycan and spore coat form around a copy of ...
Interesting features of cell structure; how it gains energy; what important molecules it produces. B. subtilis is a rod-shaped bacterium arranged in either single cells, small clumps, or short chains. Its cell wall consists of a thick peptidoglycan layer. B. subtilis is apart of the kingdom Bacteria, which means this organism has a single circular chromosome within the nucleoid region of its cytoplasm. B. subtilis has a helical cytoskeleton composed of a single protein. (11) B. subtilis is a motile organism through use of its flagella, which is a whip-like appendage used for movement. Specifically, B. subtilis has peritrichous flagella, meaning has flagella projecting in all directions around the cell. (11) B. subtilis exhibits endospore formation. Endospores are dormant durable structures often created from a vegetative cell in response to nutrient deprivation are produced through the process sporulation. During this process, a thick layer of peptidoglycan and spore coat form around a copy of ...
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were previously identified and mapped by classical genetic crosses. Comparison of these experimentally determined positions to th
Bacillus subtilis comC protein: Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader peptide processing enzyme; has prepilin peptidase (EC 3.4.23.43) as well as N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) activities; amino acid sequence given in first source; may be a component of the DNA-processing apparatus of competent cells; cleaves pre-comGC; homologous to pilD protein; member of protease/transmethylase family; isolated from Bacillus subtilis; Do not confuse with comC, a peptide competence factor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B. AU - Joshi, Sanket. AU - Bharucha, Chirag. AU - Desai, Anjana J.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 °C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil ...
Bacillus subtilis spoVK protein: from Bacillus subtilis; MW 36 kDa; expressed only in mother cell from sequentially active promoters; amino acid sequence given in first source
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Bacillus subtilis DSM 28343 when used in feed for pigs for fattening. The additive is a preparation containing viable spores of a strain of Bacillus subtilis. This species is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach to safety assessment which requires the identity of the strain to be conclusively established, evidence that the strain is not toxigenic and that it does not show resistance to antibiotics of human and veterinary importance. The strain was found to meet the criteria for the QPS approach in the context of a previous opinion and since concerns are not expected from other components of the additive, the additive is presumed safe for all target species, consumers and the environment. In a previous opinion, the FEEDAP Panel concluded that ...
Structure of a Bacillus subtilis endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene.: The nucleotide sequence of the portion of a Bacillus subtilis (strain PAP115) 3 kb Pst I fragmen
For the first time, the antagonistic properties of the strains of the Bacillus subtilis TNP-3-DEP and Bacillus subtilis TNP-5-DEP bacteria in relation to v
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Bacillus subtilis ATCC ® 87098™ Designation: pK19mobsacB plamid in E. coli SCS110 TypeStrain=False Application: Integrating vector Mobilizable vector Produces protein levansucrase Vector containing primer sites useful for sequencing Vector permitting visual detection of recombinants
The Bacillus subtilis σ W regulon is induced by different stresses that most probably affect integrity of the cell envelope. The activity of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor σ W is modulated by the transmembrane anti-sigma factor RsiW, which undergoes stress-induced degradation in a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis, finally resulting in the release of σ W and the transcription of σ W-controlled genes. Mutations in the ecsA gene, which encodes an ATP binding cassette (ABC) of an ABC transporter of unknown function, block site-2 proteolysis of RsiW by the intramembrane cleaving protease RasP (YluC). In addition, degradation of the cell division protein FtsL, which represents a second RasP substrate, is blocked in an ecsA-negative strain. The defect in σ W induction of an ecsA-knockout strain could be partly suppressed by overproducing RasP. A B. subtilis rasP-knockout strain displayed the same pleiotropic phenotype as an ecsA knockout, namely defects in processing
1FSP: High-resolution NMR structure and backbone dynamics of the Bacillus subtilis response regulator, Spo0F: implications for phosphorylation and molecular recognition.
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are required in the synthesis of the cell wall of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, PBPs play important roles in the life cycle, including both vegetative growth and sporulation, and contribute to the formation of the different structures of vegetative cell wall and spore cortex. The B. subtilis genome sequencing project revealed there were two uncharacterized genes, ykuA and yrrR, with extensive sequence similarity to class B PBPs. These two genes are renamed and referred to henceforth as pbpH and pbpI, respectively. A sequence alignment of the predicted product of pbpH against the microbial protein database demonstrated that the most similar protein in B. subtilis is PBP2A and in E. coli is PBP2. This suggested that PbpH belongs to a group of the genes required for maintaining the rod shape of the cell. Study of a pbpH-lacZ fusion showed that pbpH was expressed weakly during vegetative growth and the expression reached the highest level at the transition from ...
Intracellular serine protease-1 (ISP-1) from Bacillus subtilis had been previously purified to homogeneity. The purified protease (Mr = 31,000) had undergone processing to remove 17 to 20 amino-terminal amino acid residues. Then observations and a number of other studies led to the proposal that ISP-1 is synthesized in B. subtilis cells as an inactive precursor, which may undergo activation by amino-terminal processing. To examine these questions, monospecific polyclonal antibodies against ISP-1 were raised. A variety of procedures for extracting ISP-1 from cells under conditions that prevent proteolysis in vitro were evaluated by immunobloting and ISP-1 activity assays. ISP-1 was found to be always produced in a form (Mr = 34,000) that was larger than the purified form. This larger form was readily converted to the smaller form in vitro in crude extracts at pH 8.5 in the presence of Ca$\sp{2+}$ ions. It was also found that the appearance of ISP-1 activity and immunologically cross-reactive ...
A fixed gene copy number is important for the in silico construction of engineered synthetic networks. However, the copy number of integrated genes depends on their genomic location. This gene dosage effect is rarely addressed in synthetic biology. Two studies in Escherichia colipresented conflicting data on the impact of gene dosage. Here, we investigate how genome location and gene orientation influences expression in Bacillus subtilis. An important difference with the E. coli studies is that we used an unbiased genome integration approach mediated by random transposon insertion. We found that there is a strong gene dosage effect in fast growing B. subtilis cells, which can amount to a 5-fold difference in gene expression. In contrast, gene orientation with respect to DNA replication direction does not influence gene expression. Our study shows that gene dosage should be taken into account when designing synthetic circuits in B. subtilis and presumably other bacteria.. ...
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are
Acid and base environmental stress respones were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH 6.0 survived 60 to 100% at pH 4.5, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived |5%. Thus, growth in a moderate acid or base induced adaptation to a more extreme acid or base, respectively. Expression indices from Affymetrix chip hybridization were obtained for 4.095 protein-encoding open reading frames of B. subtilis grown at external pH 6, pH 7, and pH 9. Growth at pH 6 upregulated acetoin production (alsDS), dehydrogenases (adhA, ald, fdhD, and gabD), and decarboxylases (psd and speA). Acide upregulated malate metabolism (maeN), metal export (czcDO and cadA), oxidative stress (catalase katA; OYE family namA), and the SigX extracytoplasmic stress regulon. Growth at pH 9 upregulated arginine
article{15a70f88-5605-4029-8620-57102abad8ae, abstract = {Little is known about c-type cytochromosomes in Gram-positive bacteria in contrast to the wealth of information available on this type of cytochrome in Gram-negative bacteria and in eucaryotes. In the present work, the strictly aerobic bacterium Bacillus subtilis was analyzed for subcellular localization and number of different cytochromes c. In vivo labeling with radioactive 5-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor to heme, showed that the proteins containing covalently bound heme are predominantly found in the membranes fraction. One major membrane-bound cytochrome c of about 15 kDa and with an .alpha.-band absorption peak in the reduced state at 550 nm was analyzed in more detail. Cytochrome c-550 has the properties of an integral membrane protein. The physiological function of this relatively high redox potential cytochrome is not known. Its structural gene, cccA, was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in B. subtilis. The gene maps ...
Robust colony formation by Bacillus subtilis is recognized as one of the sessile, multicellular lifestyles of this bacterium. Numerous pathways and genes are responsible for the architecturally complex colony structure development. Cells in the biofilm colony secrete extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and protein components (TasA and the hydrophobin BslA) that hold them together and provide a protective hydrophobic shield. Cells also secrete surfactin with antimicrobial as well as surface tension reducing properties that aid cells to colonize the solid surface. Depending on the environmental conditions, these secreted components of the colony biofilm can also promote the flagellum-independent surface spreading of B. subtilis, called sliding. In this study, we emphasize the influence of Ca2+ in the medium on colony expansion of B. subtilis. Interestingly, the availability of Ca2+ has no major impact on the induction of complex colony morphology. However, in the absence of this divalent ion, peripheral
Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) has become widely accepted as a model organism for studies on Gram-positive bacteria. A deeper insight into the physiology of this prokaryote requires advanced studies of its metabolism. To provide a reliable basis for metabolome investigations, a validated experimental protocol is needed since the quality of the analytical sample and the final data are strongly affected by the sampling steps. To ensure that the sample analyzed precisely reflects the biological condition of interest, outside biases have to be avoided during sample preparation. Procedures for sampling, quenching, extraction of metabolites, cell disruption, as well as metabolite leakage were tested and optimized for B. subtilis. In particular the energy status of the bacterial cell, characterized by the adenylate energy charge, was used to evaluate sampling accuracy. Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrate that the cultivation medium can affect the efficiency of the developed sampling
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p | 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p | 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p | 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium
PRINCETON, N.J. (Nov. 26, 2019)-Arm & Hammer Animal and Food Production announces the discovery of two new beneficial Bacillus strains, Bacillus subtilis 839 and Bacillus subtilis 4976. The new strains will be incorporated into ARM & HAMMER™ Targeted Microbial Solutions™ available in CERTILLUS™ products for poultry, swine and cattle producers.. Both new strains have antimicrobial activity against harmful bacteria that are prevalent within the livestock and poultry industries. Bacillus subtilis 839 is effective against diverse E. coli species in both ruminants and poultry. Bacillus subtilis 4976 offers activity against E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens and other clostridial bacteria that are common in poultry, swine, and beef and dairy cattle.. "Commercial development of these strains is integral to helping our customers address pathogenic disease and food safety threats," says Dr. Xandra Smith, ARM & HAMMER manager of microbial ecology and genetics. "Through our commitment to ...
1. When Bacillus subtilis was grown in a medium in which sporulation occurred well-defined morphological changes were seen in thin sections of the cells. 2. Over a period of 7·5hr. beginning 2hr. after the initiation of sporulation the following major stages were observed: axial nuclear-filament formation, spore-septum formation, release of the fore-spore within the cell, development of the cortex around the fore-spore, the laying down of the spore coat and the completion of the corrugated spore coat before release of the spore from the mother cell. 3. The appearance of refractile bodies and 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the development of heat-resistance began between 5 and 6·5hr. after initiation of sporulation. 4. The appearance of 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the onset of refractility appeared to coincide with a diminution of electron density in the spore core and cortex. 5. Heat-resistance was associated with the terminal stage, the completion of the spore coat. 6. The spore coat was composed of ...
A considerable amount of Mn2+-stimulated DNAase (deoxyribonuclease) activity is released by Bacillus subtilis 168 during sporulation in a glucose-deficient medium; much smaller amounts are released during starvation for phosphate or nitrogen. Protein synthesis is required. Two forms of evidence are presented that production of the DNAase is associated with events late in stage II of sporulation. 19 Thymidine starvation, which inhibits the biochemical events associated with sporulation, also inhibits release of the DNAase. 2. Several asporogenous mutants blocked at stage II or earlier and unable to produce alkaline phosphatase (a stage-II event) do not produce the enzyme. Mutants blocked towards the end of stage II or later produce both enzymes. During sporulation of the wild-type strain, the DNAase appears about 1 h after alkaline phosphatase. The results suggest that production of the DNAase is controlled by a still-undiscovered stage-II genetic locus. ...
Wilking, J. N. ; Zaburdaev, V. ; De Volder, M. ; Losick, R. ; Brenner, M. P. ; Weitz, D. A. Liquid transport facilitated by channels in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013, 110, 848-852.
Glycine Oxidase H244K, Bacillus subtilis recombinant protein, Glycine oxidase, glycine oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating), GO validated in (PBV11404r-250), Abgent
3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-HP) is an important biomass-derivable platform chemical that can be converted into a number of industrially relevant compounds. There have been several attempts to produce 3-HP from renewable sources in cell factories, focusing mainly on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant progress made in this field, commercially exploitable large-scale production of 3-HP in microbial strains has still not been achieved. In this study we investigated the potential of Bacillus subtilis as a microbial platform for bioconversion of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae. Genetic engineering, driven by in silico optimization, and optimization of cultivation conditions resulted in a 3-HP titer of 10 g/L, in a standard batch cultivation. Our findings provide the first report of successful introduction
DnaA protein (a trans-acting element) and its binding sequence, DnaA-box: (a cis-acting element) are two elements essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. Recently these two elements have been found to be conserved in three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Mycoplasma capricolum) as well as in Gram-negative pseudomonads. DnaA protein was also found to be essential in the initiation of the replication of the B. subtilis chromosome, and regions containing multiple repeats of DnaA-box (DnaA-box region) are found to be active as autonomously replicating elements both in B. subtilis and pseudomonads. In this MicroReview we compare first the structures of these DnaA-box regions and their locations on the chromosome and then functional aspects of DnaA protein and DnaA-box regions in the initiation and regulation of chromosomal replication. From these observations we propose evolutionary relationships between ...
Growth under conditions of salt stress has important effects on the synthesis of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. Salt stress strongly stimulates the expression of sacB, encoding levansucrase (about ninefold), and downregulates the expression of aprE, encoding alkaline protease (about sixfold). It is suggested that the DegS-DegU two-component system is involved in sensing salt stress. Moreover, it has been shown that the level of sacB expression strongly depends on the growth conditions; its expression level is about eightfold higher in cells grown on agar plates than in cells grown in liquid medium. ...
Attributes soil organism spore former heat resistant Produces amylase protase subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) - fibrinolytic activity 1 gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) - calcium absorption 1, acts as dietary fibre to reduce cholesterol 1 bacteriocin Uses Digestive health Natural fungicide for edible plants 3 Anti-fungal activity 3 Anti-bacterial activity 3 Traditional Foods fermented with bacillus subtilis Natto…
Bidnenko, V., Shi, L., Kobir, A., Ventroux, M., Pigeonneau, N., Henry, C., Trubuil, A., Noirot-Gros, M.-F. and Mijakovic, I. (2013), Bacillus subtilis serine/threonine protein kinase YabT is involved in spore development via phosphorylation of a bacterial recombinase. Molecular Microbiology, 88: 921-935. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12233 ...
The procedure has been used successfully for isolation of high- and low-copy-number plasmids from various Bacillus subtilis strains. Yield of plasmid DNA was typically 10-20 µg plasmid DNA from 100 ml culture ...
Delobbe A, Chalumeau H, Gay P (1975) Existence of two alternative pathways for fructose and sorbitol metabolism in Bacillus subtilis Marburg. Eur J Biochem 51:503-10.[PMID:168069 ...
In this paper in Molecular Microbiology, we describe our results that show that SpoIIQ and SpoIIIAH form a complex in C. difficile. This complex is essential for forespore engulfment and, surprisingly, also seems to be required for late stages of spore morphogenesis and gene expression control. This work highlights key differences between C. difficile and the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, paving the way to a better understanding of sporulation mechanisms in C. difficile.
Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells ...
The goal of this research was to isolate and identify the thermostable alkaline protease producing bacteria among several native Iranian microorganisms. At the end of screening program, a Bacillus subtilis BP-36 strain producing thermophilic alkaline protease was isolated from a hot spring in Ardebil province. The target enzyme was purified using a one-step Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) protocol involving 22% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG)-10,000, and 18% (w/w) citrate with a yield of 39.7%, specific activity of 2600 U/mg and purification factor of 4.8. It was shown to have a molecular weight of 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified thermophile enzyme was stable in alkaline pH range (9.0-11.0) with the optimum pH of 9.0. It was highly stable at 60 °C and retained 100% activity even after 90 minutes, suggesting that it belong to the family of thermophilous. Collectively, our obtained data revealed that the thermophilic protease produced by B.
Krogh, S, Jorgensen, ST, Devine, KM, Lysis genes of the Bacillus subtilis defective prophage PBSX, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 180, 8, 1998, 2110-2117 ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Bacillus subtilis TnrA is a global regulator that responds to the availability of nitrogen sources and both activates and represses many genes during nitrogen-limited growth. In order to obtain a holistic view of the gene regulation depending on TnrA, we performed a genome-wide screening for TnrA-re …
The CssRS two-component system responds to heat and secretion stresses in Bacillus subtilis by controlling expression of HtrA and HtrB chaperone-type proteases and positively autoregulating its own expression. Here we report on the features of the CssS extracellular loop domain that are involved in signal perception and on CssS subcellular localization. Individual regions of the CssS extracellular loop domain contribute differently to signal perception and activation. The conserved hydrophilic 26-amino-acid segment juxtaposed to transmembrane helix 1 is involved in the switch between the deactivated and activated states, while the conserved 19-amino-acid hydrophobic segment juxtaposed to transmembrane 2 is required for signal perception and/or transduction. Perturbing the size of the extracellular loop domain increases CssS kinase activity and makes it unresponsive to secretion stress. CssS is localized primarily at the septum but is also found in a punctate pattern with lower intensity ...
This paper reviews the results from hybrid quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations of the hydride transfer reaction catalysed by wild-type (WT) and mutant Escherichia coli and WT Bacillus subtilis dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Nuclear quantum effects such as zero point energy and hydrogen tunnelling are significant in these reactions and substantially decrease the free energy barrier. The donor-acceptor distance decreases to ca 2.7 Å at transition-state configurations to enable the hydride transfer. A network of coupled motions representing conformational changes along the collective reaction coordinate facilitates the hydride transfer reaction by decreasing the donor-acceptor distance and providing a favourable geometric and electrostatic environment. Recent single-molecule experiments confirm that at least some of these thermally averaged equilibrium conformational changes occur on the millisecond time-scale of the hydride transfer. Distal mutations can lead to non-local structural ...
枯草桿菌 ( Bacillus subtilis )F29-3 能產生一種抗絲狀真菌的抗生素--fengymy- cin (fengycin) 。 本論文是利用轉位子 (transposon)Tn917, 作為快速選殖fengy- mycin合成基因的工具。 首先, 將帶有Tn917 的質體pTV1以原生質體轉形法送入枯草桿菌F29-3 中。並以紅黴 素誘使Tn917 發生轉位作用。篩選得十株不產生fengymycin的突變株。再將帶有pBR3 22-Tn917融合的線狀質體pTV20 轉形到已除去pTV1的四株突變株中, 並發生同源置換 重組作用 (homologously replacemental recombination),而將抗氯黴素基因及pBR3 22的DNA 序列由pTV20 置換到突變株的Tn917 中。篩選抗氯黴素的轉形株。 將轉形株 FEX11, FEX31, FEX51, 及FEX71 的染色體分別以ECORI(或SphI) 切割, 這 些片段再自身圈接 (self-ligation), 並轉形到 E. coli HB101中, 篩選抗安黴素 ( 或抗安黴素加氯黴素) 的 E. coli HB101菌株。經DNA 雜交試驗 (DNA hybridizati- on ), 證實, 送入 E. coli ...
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The regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is a fundamental process in prokaryotes. Among the different kind of mechanisms modulating gene transcription, the one based on DNA binding transcription factors, is the most extensively studied and the results, for a great number of model organisms, have been compiled making it possible the in silico construction of their corresponding transcriptional regulatory networks and the analysis of the biological relationships of the components of these intricate networks, that allows to elucidate the significant aspects of their organization and evolution. We present a thorough review of each regulatory element that constitutes the transcriptional regulatory network of Bacillus subtilis. For facilitating the discussion, we organized the network in topological modules. Our study highlight the importance of σ factors, some of them acting as master regulators which characterize modules by inter- or intra-connecting them and play a key role in the
Dajkovic, A, Tesson B, Chauhan S, Courtin P, Keary R, Flores P, Marliere C, Filipe SR, Chapot-Chartier M-P, Carballido-Lopez R. 2017. Hydrolysis of Peptidoglycan is Modulated by Amidation of meso-Diaminopimelic Acid and Mg2+ in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 104:972-988 ...
It is a fascinating phenomenon that in genetically identical bacteria populations of Bacillus subtilis, a distinct DNA uptake phenotype called the competence phenotype may emerge in 10-20% of the population. Many aspects of the phenomenon are believed to be due to the variable expression of critical genes: a stochastic occurrence termed
BioAssay record AID 772019 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis NRRL B-543 after 24 hrs by agar diffusion method.
Histochemical studies and electron microscopy of Bacillus subtilis revealed the presence of ATPase in various subcellular fractions. The enzyme was preferentially localized in mesosomes, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic space, and cell wall ...
Random Tn917 mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis followed by selection of lipoic acid auxotrophs led to the isolation of the cysH gene. The gene was sequenced and found to encode a phosphoadenylylsulfate sulfotransferase with a molecular mass of 27 kDa. Expression of lacZ fused to the cysH promoter was repressed by cysteine and sulfide and induced by sulfur limitation, indicating that cysH is controlled at the level of transcription. ...
BioAssay record AID 626597 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 by microtiter broth dilution method.
TY - GEN. T1 - Analysis of a trimeric complex involving chorismate synthase from Bacillus subtilis. AU - Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.. AU - Amrhein, Nikolaus. AU - Macheroux, Peter. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 749. EP - 752. BT - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium. PB - Rudolf Weber. CY - Berlin. ER - ...
A careful analysis of the methylation and demethylation of Bacillus subtilis MCPs has revealed that one of the MCPs has a source of methyl groups other than S-adenosyl methionine. Time course studies have shown that this source is probably another MCP. Also, it has been found that not only is the demethylation reaction enhanced by the addition of attractants, but also the methylation reaction and the transfer of methyl groups from one MCP to another. An in vitro methylation-demethylation system was used to demonstrate that the in vivo responses of the system were not completely duplicated in vitro. In particular, the transfer of methyl groups from one MCP to another was not observed ...
Lindi von Mutius co-authored the article "Binding of the Bacillus Subtilis LexA protein to the SOS operator" in the Oxford Journal of Nucleic Acids Research in 2005 ...
Two hundred fifty-five pigs, weaned at 4 wk of age, were used in an experiment to compare the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and antibiotics as growth promoters for swine from nursery to finishing. Treatments were a ...
Construction of RAPD-generated DNA probes for the quantification of Bacillus subtilis FZB C and the evaluation of its biocontrol efficiency in the system Cucumis sativus Pythium ultimum ...
[103 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bacillus Subtilis Market 2020-2026,With Breakdown Data of Capacity, Sales, Revenue, Price, Cost and Gross Profit report by XYZResearch. In this report, our team offers a comprehensive analysis of...
[119 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2017-2022 China Bacillus Subtilis Market Report (Status and Outlook) report by LP Information INC. ...
Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changes in their environment or in their intracellular state. Each two-component system consists of a sensor protein-histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the prototypical two-component pathway, the sensor HK phosphorylates its own conserved His residue in response to a signal(s) in the environment. Subsequently, the phosphoryl group of HK is transferred onto a specific Asp residue on the RR. The activated RR can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating gene expression. Two-component pathways thus often enable cells to sense and respond to stimuli by inducing changes in transcription ...
The present investigation was aimed at the synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzoxazole, a series of Schiffs bases 1-[α-(arylidine hydrazino) acetyl]-2-mercaptobenzoxazole 2MB-2a-e and 2-[(aryl)-3-(acetyl amino)-1, 3-thiazolidine-4-ones]-2-mercaptobenzoxazole 2MB-3a have been synthesized from 2-mercaptobenzoxazole and compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by agar diffusion method. The structures of the all synthesized compounds have been determined by their IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. All the compounds have showed moderate to promising antibacterial and antifungal activities, against Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Streptomyces griseus (MTCC 1540) and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (MTCC 443) and for antifungal activity against Ashbya gossypii (MTCC 358) and Aspergillus niger (MTCC 282).. [PDF] , ...
1) Kunst F, et al. (1997) The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis.. Nature 390(6657):249-56 PubMed: 9384377 ...
In the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the checkpoint protein DisA (DNA integrity scanning protein A) scans the bacterial chromosome at the onset of sporulation; it localizes at sites of DNA damage to temporarily block sporulation and allow the bacterium to repair the damage before proceeding. Witte et al. performed structural analysis of Thermotoga maritima DisA and determined that it formed an octameric complex; intriguingly, they found bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) bound to the purified complex. When nucleotide-deprived DisA was crystallized in the presence of Mg2+-ATPγS, the crystals were again bound to c-di-AMP, indicating that DisA could act as a diadenylate cyclase. c-di-GMP is known to act as a signaling molecule in bacteria; however, fluorescence anisotropy titration analysis revealed that the binding affinity of fluorescently labeled ATP for both T. maritima and B. subtilis DisA was about 20 times greater than that of fluorescently labeled GTP. ...
Bacillus subtilis is a non-pathogenic soil bacterium and the prevalent model organism for all low GC Gram-positive bacteria. When B. subtilis cells are starved, they initiate a developmental program that culminates in the formation of highly resistant endospores (also referred to as spores). Endospore formation (sporulation) constitutes a relatively simple developmental system in which the generation of distinct cell types can be investigated experimentally. In previous work in the laboratory of Prof. Richard Losick at Harvard University, we have used a variety of genomics techniques to identify most, if not all, of the genes that are specifically turned on during the process of sporulation in B. subtilis. However, the function of many of these newly-identified genes remains undetermined.. 1. B. subtilis spore coat composition and assembly during sporulation. In my laboratory, our characterization of newly-identified sporulation genes focuses on genes involved in the formation of the outermost ...
Bacteria thrive in many different habitats, and therefore will encounter a multitude of environmental stresses. Survival requires the development of sophisticated response mechanisms that can identify potential threats and initiate regulatory cascades orchestrating the expression of defensive components. The cell envelope is the first layer of the cell to come in contact with any environmental agent. In Gram-positive bacteria this envelope is comprised of a cytoplasmic membrane surrounded by a thick multilayered cell wall. The cytoplasmic membrane forms an essential permeability barrier and is made of different types of complex lipids which vary not only in the length and modifications of the acylated fatty acid groups but also in the composition of their headgroups. The cell wall is a complex matrix consisting predominantly of equal amounts of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids with the addition of surface attached proteins. Cell wall synthesis and maturation requires both incorporation of new ...
Our research seeks to elucidate the molecular basis for the temporal and spatial control of cell division. From bacteria to yeast to humans, cell division is initiated by the formation of a ring of a cytoskeletal protein at the nascent division site. This ring establishes the location of the division septum and serves as a framework for assembly of the division apparatus. In bacteria this ring is composed of the essential tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ. In response to an unidentified cell cycle signal, FtsZ polymerizes into a ring structure that serves as a framework on which the division machinery is assembled. As division proceeds, the FtsZ ring constricts, like a drawstring, at the leading edge of the invaginating septum. We focus our research on the regulatory networks that govern FtsZ ring formation in three model organisms, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. To date, the signals that couple FtsZ ring formation and constriction to the cell cycle ...
The soil organism Bacillus subtilis has the ability to take up DNA from its environment and, provided there is homology, recombine it into its genome. This process is called transformation. In order for the bacterium to be transformed it must be in a specific physiological state called competence. During the competent state specific proteins are synthesized which are required for the binding and transport of the DNA molecule into the competent cell. It has been found that as transformability increases many competence specific proteins localize to the poles of the rod shaped Bacillus subtilis bacterium and as transformability declines the competence proteins delocalize. These proteins colocalize and interact and seem to form a complex that helps internalize the DNA molecule, preferentially at the poles of the cell. Jeanette Hahn s focus is understanding how the polar localization and delocalization of the competence proteins occurs. Localization seems to occur via a diffusion and capture ...
Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. In addition to medical uses bacillus ,spores, due to their extreme tolerance to both heat and disinfectants, are used to test heat sterilization techniques and chemical disinfectants. Bacilli are also used in the detergent manufacturing industry for their ability to synthesize important enzymes.The sequence for the genome of Bacillus subtilis was completed in 1997 and was the first published sequence for a single-living bacterium. The genome is 4.2 Mega-base pairs long with with 4100 protein-coding regions. Bacillus subtilis has a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium shown to synthesize antifungal peptides. This ability has lead to the use of B. subtilis in biocontrol. B. subtilis has been shown to increase crop yields, although it has not been shown whether this is because it enhances plant growth, or inhibits ...
Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. In addition to medical uses bacillus ,spores, due to their extreme tolerance to both heat and disinfectants, are used to test heat sterilization techniques and chemical disinfectants. Bacilli are also used in the detergent manufacturing industry for their ability to synthesize important enzymes.The sequence for the genome of Bacillus subtilis was completed in 1997 and was the first published sequence for a single-living bacterium. The genome is 4.2 Mega-base pairs long with with 4100 protein-coding regions. Bacillus subtilis has a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium shown to synthesize antifungal peptides. This ability has lead to the use of B. subtilis in biocontrol. B. subtilis has been shown to increase crop yields, although it has not been shown whether this is because it enhances plant growth, or inhibits ...
A computer search of DNA sequence databases revealed that BPG2-related genes occur in the genomes of other plants, including green algae, mosses and rice, and also in the common soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Plants arose from a union of two organisms, including the bacterial ancestor of chloroplasts, which explains why chloroplasts have their own genomes.. "The fact that BPG2-related genes are conserved in bacteria suggests that the BPG2 gene family arose early in the evolution of life on Earth," explains Nakano. "We hope to genetically engineer plants to increase the expression of BPG2 so as to promote chloroplast and photosynthesis activity, which in future could potentially increase the productivity of agricultural crops and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in Earths atmosphere.". The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Plant Chemical Biology Research Unit, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute. Journal information Komatsu, T., Kawaide, H., Saito, C., Yamagami, A., ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Involved in the degradation of arabinan and is a key enzyme in the complete degradation of the plant cell wall. Catalyzes the internal cleavage of alpha-(1->5)-L-arabinofuranosyl residues of the alpha-1,5-L-arabinan to produce arabino-oligosaccharides and L-arabinose. It is also active toward linear branched sugar beet arabinan, and pectin from apple.
Peptidase S8 family domain in Vpr-like proteins. The maturation of the peptide antibiotic (lantibiotic) subtilin in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 includes posttranslational modifications of the propeptide and proteolytic cleavage of the leader peptide. Vpr was identified as one of the proteases, along with WprA, that are capable of processing subtilin. Asp, Ser, His triadPeptidases S8 or Subtilases are a serine endo- and exo-peptidase clan. They have an Asp/His/Ser catalytic triad similar to that found in trypsin-like proteases, but do not share their three-dimensional structure and are not homologous to trypsin. The stability of subtilases may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity. Some members of this clan contain disulfide bonds. These enzymes can be intra- and extracellular, some function at extreme temperatures and pH values. ...
This chapter reviews the molecular biology and genetics of gram-positive endoproteases, focusing on Bacillus subtilis proteases. Microbial endoproteases are generally classified into four categories based on their mechanisms of action. The genes for seven different extracellular proteases have been cloned and characterized in B. subtilis. Two proteases have been isolated from sporulating or stationary-phase cells of B. subtilis. The first-characterized and most abundant intracellular protease was a serine protease originally called intracellular serine protease (ISP); now called ISP-1. The activity of this enzyme increases dramatically 2 to 3 h after the onset of sporulation. From the large number of proteases described in various gram-positive bacterial species, this chapter deals with only those extracellular proteases from other gram-positive bacteria that have been most extensively studied and whose genes have been cloned and characterized. In summary, gram-positive bacteria have evolved the