TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA). T2 - Measurement of human anti-PA antibodies. AU - Iacono-Connors, L. C.. AU - Novak, J.. AU - Rossi, C.. AU - Mangiafico, J.. AU - Ksiazek, Thomas. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027975977&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7496927. AN - SCOPUS:0027975977. VL - 1. SP - 78. EP - 82. JO - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. JF - Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. SN - 1556-6811. IS - 1. ER - ...
BioAssay record AID 289164 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen 63 reconstituted in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine lipid membranes assessed as inhibition of channel conductance at 5 uM.
Jupiter Images / iStockphoto. The bacterium Bacillus anthracis occurs worldwide, its natural habitat is the soil. The pathogen causes the often fatal ending anthrax (Anthrax) in humans and in herbivorous animals such as cows or sheep. 95 percent by a Bacillus anthracis infection lead to all cutaneous anthrax, initially manifested by a painless, itchy papules on the hands, forearms or face, the black turns later from the center. but the bacterium can other forms of anthrax as Inhalation anthrax or Gastrointestinal anthrax trigger. All three forms can include one anthrax sepsis entail that ends in a few hours fatal. The bacteria form resistant survival structures (spores), which can remain viable for decades in nature. In the body, Bacillus anthracis is a special capsule of D-glutamic acid, which protects the pathogen from the scavenger cells of the immune system.. Especially in southern Europe and South America there are often anthrax disease caused by Bacillus anthracis in farm animals. The ...
Article Identification and characterization of bacillus anthracis spores by multiparameter flow cytometry. In response to the need for methods that can rapidly detect potentially virulent Bacillus anthracis spores, we developed a two-color flow cytom...
Uchida, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Terakado, N., 1986: Virulence and immunogenicity in experimental animals of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring or lacking 110 MDa and 60 MDa plasmids
Description of disease Bacillus anthracis. Treatment Bacillus anthracis. Symptoms and causes Bacillus anthracis Prophylaxis Bacillus anthracis
ABSTRACT. Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories) in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA). As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63 %) wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a whole and the other groups (P , 0.001) and no significant difference between the South African and control groups (P , 0.05). Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheres, six out of ten White-backed ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bacillus anthracis spore and vegetative stages, photocomposite of bacteria on human skin. Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, encapsulated, spore-forming, zoonotic, rod prokaryote. It most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue. In humans it causes the acute infectious disease, anthrax which can lead to septicaemia and death if left untreated. Bacillus anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years. Human anthrax has three major clinical forms: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Cutaneous anthrax is a result of introduction of the spore through the skin; inhalation anthrax through the respiratory tract; and gastrointestinal anthrax by ingestion. Magnification: x700 bacteria; x5 skin when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0087
Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated immune responses (CMI) are crucial in affording protection against brucellosis. B. abortus strain RB51 has been shown to be useful in eliciting protective cell mediated immunity and humoral responses against Brucella in cattle and other animal species. Since the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis is known to induce protective antibodies, it was decided that the objective of this research was to test whether the gene encoding PA could be expressed in Brucella producing a bivalent vaccine to protect against ...
We evaluated the abilities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequences of intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) between two highly conserved genes, 16S-23S rDNA and gyrB-gyrA ISRs, to detect variation in strains of Bacillus anthracis as well as two closely related species, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and B. mycoides ATCC 6462. For each restriction enzyme, (NotI, SfiI, and SmaI), the PFGE banding patterns for three B. anthracis strains (Ames, Vollum, and Sterne) were identical. However, closely related species could be differentiated from B. anthracis and from each other. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR yielded a 143- to 144-bp fragment, showing identical sequences for B. anthracis strains, one nucleotide deletion between B. cerus and B. anthracis, and 13 nucleotide differences between B. mycoides and B. anthracis. The gyrase ISR sequences (121 bp) in B. anthracis strains were also identical, but those in B. cereus and B. mycoides differed from that in B. anthracis by 1 and 2 ...
BioAssay record AID 329453 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of cytopathic effect in Bacillus anthracis Sterne infected mouse RAW264.7 macrophage after 6 hrs by propidium iodide exclusion assay.
In 1855, Aloys Pollender - a German Physician - published his findings on anthrax in which he described a group of stick-shaped bacteria that were present in the blood of infected animals. He is credited with recognizing the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. In 1864, Casimir Davaine - a French physician - studied the bacteria found in the blood of people infected with anthrax, and found that they physically resembled the bacteria described by Dr. Pellender, and thus concluded that the symptoms of anthrax occurred when these bacteria were present in the blood. Later in 1876, Robert Koch provided conclusive evidence that Bacillus anthracis was the cause of anthrax (Théodoridès 159 ...
Bacillus anthracis secretes the edema toxin (ET) that disrupts the cellular physiology of endothelial and immune cells, ultimately affecting the adherens
Protective antigen component of B. anthracis toxin was produced and purified to the |99% level. Toxin was purified from culture supernatant utilizing concentration and liquid chromatography techniques. Purity was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protective antigen retained biological and antigenic activity as evidenced respectively by lethality in Fischer 344 rats when injected in combination with lethal factor, and by positive results on the Ouchterlony double diffussion assay. Radioiodinated protective antigen was used both in the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. In vivo distribution of labelled protective antigen was determined in Fischer 344 rats. Assay of organ tissues for labelled protective antigen aided in the decision to use Maden-Darby bovine kidney cells for the cell cultures in the protective antigen binding studies. Protective antigen binding studies, all performed at 37°C, evaluated criteria for receptor existence. Labelled
Anthrax, the zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is nowadays rare in northern parts of Europe including Finland and Scandinavia. Only two minor outbreaks of anthrax in 1988 and in 2004 and one sporadic infection in 2008 have been detected in animals in Finland since the 1970s. Here, we report on two Finnish B. anthracis strains that were isolated from spleen and liver of a diseased calf related to the outbreak in 1988 (strain HKI4363/88) and from a local scrotum and testicle infection of a bull in 2008 (strain BA2968). These infections occurred in two rural Finnish regions, i.e., Ostrobothnia in western Finland and Päijänne Tavastia in southern Finland, respectively. The isolates were genetically characterized by PCR-based methods such as multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome-sequence analysis (WGS). Phylogenetic comparison of the two strains HKI4363/88 and BA2968 by chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis
To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to construct a phage display library from which single domain antibodies (sdAbs) targeting each of the proteins were isolated. Unique sdAbs exhibiting nanomolar or better affinities for the recombinant proteins were obtained and most of the isolated sdAbs retained their ability to bind antigen after cycles of heating as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a direct ELISA; the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis
Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using
... The Bacillus anthracis bacillus, Bacillus anthracis, was the primary bacterium appeared to be the reason for an ailment Kochs Propose In 1877, Robert Koch developed the living being in immaculate society, exhibited its capacity to frame endospores, and
Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F2) to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340) resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.
Description: Polyclonal Bacillus anthracis antibody (Protective Antigen), Anti-Bacillus anthracis antibody (Protective Antigen), Bacillus anthracis PA antibody, Anthrax PA antibody, Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen antibody, Anthrax Protective Antigen antibody ...
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, is initiated by the entry of spores into the host body. There are three types of human infection: cutaneous, inhalational, and gastrointestinal. For each form, B. anthracis spores need to cross the cutaneous, respiratory or digestive epithelial barriers, respectively, as a first obligate step to establish infection. Anthrax is a toxi-infection: an association of toxemia and rapidly spreading infection progressing to septicemia. The pathogenicity of Bacillus anthracis mainly depends on two toxins and a capsule. The capsule protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. The toxins alter host cell signaling, thereby paralyzing the immune response of the host and perturbing the endocrine and endothelial systems. In this review, we will mainly focus on the events and mechanisms leading to crossing of the respiratory epithelial barrier, as the majority of studies have addressed inhalational
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Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are in need of specific nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials (8). The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex (Figure 3). The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enable the spore to hold the core during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The cortex containing peptidoglycan protects the spore from radiation, heat and ...
Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are deficient of certain nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials [8]. The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex. Figure 3 reveals these layers through a transmission electron micrograph. The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enables the spore to hold the core especially during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. Protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis. (MAB0363) - Products - Abnova
The pathogen Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins during anthrax infection, known as lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF). Using transgenic Drosophila as a model system for the identification of pathways that might be involved in anthrax pathogenesis, Ethan Bier and colleagues show that these two toxins interact synergistically to block Rab11/Sec15 exocyst-dependent endocytic recycling, resulting in reduced Notch signalling and cadherin-dependent adhesion at the adherens junction. Tests in human endothelial cells indicate that the toxins have a similar effect on Rab11/Sec15 activity and Notch signalling. During infection, Bacillus anthracis secretes two potent toxins called lethal factor and oedema factor. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, these authors show that these toxins interact with the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst, which is involved in endocytic recycling. This interaction may explain vascular leakage during infection. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in
Bacillus anthracis AcpA protein: Capsule synthesis trans-acting positive regulator; involved in the regulation of encapsulation by Bacillus anthracis; MW about 57 kDa; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank U02535
Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen. The deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA replication and repair are provided via the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme. RNR is also important for spore germination and cell proliferation upon infection. We show that the expression of B. anthracis class Ib RNR responds to the environment that the pathogen encounters upon infection. We also show that several anti-proliferative agents (radical scavengers) specifically inhibit the B. anthracis RNR. Owing to the importance of RNR in the pathogenic infection process, our results highlight a promising potential to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis early during infection.. ...
Staged health picture showing the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax due to B. anthracis. This slide was created to help a person suspect an illness, not diagnose the illness, in this case anthrax was the etiologic pathogen. Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Photographed in 1963. This image was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Stock Photography of a Man with Cutaneous Bacillus Anthracis On His Face.
The misuse of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon continues to be a serious concern. Medical personnel and researchers are served well if appropriate non-pathogenic anthrax simulants can be used as countermeasures in preparative planning. While there are several accepted simulants of B. anthracis, the addition of another model organism would be beneficial. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of B. pumilus as a simulant for B. anthracis. All organisms were grown on AK Agar #2 to foster sporulation. Optimum conditions for spore formation were determined for B. pumilus as well as for currently used anthrax surrogates B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis. Spore dimensions were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative antibody binding studies using commercially available anti-Bacillus antisera were completed with the simulants as well as with a negative control organism, Clostridium sporogenes. We report that B. pumilus sporulated readily (2.9 × 1010 viable spores per
B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a nonmotile, Gram-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium approximately 4 μm by 1 μm, although under the microscope it frequently appears in chains of cells. Like other Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis is saprophyte, being able to live in vegetation, air, water and soil.[4] These bacterial cells may occur isolated, form groups of 2 or more cells in the body, or long chains in cultures.[4] In blood smears, smears of tissues or lesion fluid from diagnostic specimens, these chains are two to a few cells in length. In smears made from in vitro cultures, they can appear as endless strings of cells - responsible for the characteristic tackiness of the colonies and for the flocculating nature of broth cultures. Cell cultures appear with a large, grey and curled structure, resembling a "medusa head".[4] B. anthracis have a characteristic square-ended appearance, traditionally associated with its vegetative ...
During October 19-21, 2001, four postal workers at the Brentwood Mail Processing and Distribution Center in the District of Columbia were hospitalized with inhalational anthrax; two of the workers died. The building, which was closed on October 21, was believed to have been contaminated by a letter containing Bacillus anthracis spores sent to the Hart Senate Office Building (HSOB) that had passed
✅ Answered - [B cells] [macrophages] [ciliated epithelial cells] [M cells] are the options of mcq question Each of the 3 virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis i.e. the capsule, edema toxin and lethal toxin can affect the activity of realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on Nov 25, 2018 15:01
The pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis depends on several virulence factors, including the anthrax toxin. Loss of the alternative sigma factor σI results in a coordinate decrease in expression of all three toxin subunits. Our observations suggest that loss of σI alters the activity of the master virulence regulator AtxA, but atxA transcription is unaffected by loss of σI. σI-containing RNA polymerase does not appear to directly transcribe either atxA or the toxin gene pagA. As in Bacillus subtilis, loss of σI in B. anthracis results in increased sensitivity to heat shock and transcription of sigI, encoding σI, is induced by elevated temperature. Encoded immediately downstream of and part of a bicistronic message with sigI is an anti-sigma factor, RsgI, which controls σI activity. Loss of RsgI has no direct effect on virulence gene expression. sigI appears to be expressed from both the σI and σA promoters, and transcription from the σA promoter is likely more significant to virulence regulation
Protective Antigen antibody LS-C505586 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen (PA ). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
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Anthrax merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh Bacillus anthracis yang termasuk ke dalam famili Bacillaceae. Penyakit ini dapat meninfeksi hewan terutama herbivora dan juga manusia. B. anthracis merupakan bakteri gram positif, berbentuk batang, aerobik, tidak motil, memiliki kapsul dan membentuk spora serta lebarnya 1 - 1.5 µm dan panjang 5 - 6 µm. Bakteri ini seperti barisan batang panjang dengan .... Read More » ...
The capsule of Bacillus anthracis, composed of poly-D-glutamic acid, serves as one of the principal virulence factors during anthrax infection. By virtue of its negative charge, the capsule is purported to inhibit host defence through inhibition of phagocytosis of the vegetative cells by macrophages …
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/cJ mice became terminally ill earlier and with higher frequency than C57BL/6J mice. Timed histopathological analysis identified bone marrow, spleen, and liver as major affected organs in both mouse strains. LT induced extensive hypoxia. Crisis was due to extensive liver necrosis accompanied by pleural edema. There was no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or renal dysfunction. Instead, analyses revealed hepatic dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, and vascular/oxygenation insufficiency. Of 50 cytokines analyzed, BALB/cJ mice showed rapid but transitory increases in specific factors including KC, MCP-1/JE, IL-6, MIP-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, eotaxin, FasL, and IL-1β. No changes in TNF-α occurred. The C57BL/6J mice did not mount a similar cytokine response. These factors were not ...
The bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes the disease anthrax, primarily in herbivores but many mammals are susceptible to the disease. Its infective form is as a dormant spore that can lie in the soil for decades. Thus, in its cycle of infection, it spends most of the time in an inactive state and replication-induced DNA-mutations are therefore kept at a minimum. Partly due to these long periods of inactivity, all B. anthracis isolates found in the world are genetically very similar. This makes strain characterization difficult and requires high-resolution technologies. Bacillus anthracis also has similar DNA-content as other Bacillus spp. and therefore diagnostic cross-reactions are not uncommon. Anthrax incidence has steadily declined in the world during the last century but there are still endemic areas. In 2008 and in 2011 Sweden suffered two large and costly outbreaks, most likely caused by the disturbance of old anthrax epizootic graves from the 1940s and 1950s. Several studies emanated ...
Anthrax toxin. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores caused by gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Humans are accidental hosts through the food of animal origin and animal products. Anthrax is prevelant in most parts of the globe, and cases of anthrax have been reported from almost every country. Three forms of the disease have been recognized: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). The major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis are a poly-D glutamic acid capsule and a three-component protein exotoxin. The genes coding for the toxin and the enzymes responsible for capsule production are carried on plasmid pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. The three proteins of the exotoxin are protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa), and edema factor (EF, 89 kDa). The toxins follow the A-B model with PA being the B moeity and LF/EF, the alternative A moeities. LF and EF are individually ...
Lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Sprague Dawley rats manifest pronounced lung edema and shock after LT treatments, resulting in high mortality. The heart failure that is induced by LT has been suggested to be a principal mechanism of lung edema and mortality in rodents. Since LT-induced death occurs more rapidly in rats than in mice, suggesting that other mechanisms in addition to the heart dysfunction may be contributed to the fast progression of LT-induced pathogenesis in rats. Coagulopathy may contribute to circulatory failure and lung injury. However, the effect of LT on coagulation-induced lung dysfunction is unclear. To investigate the involvement of coagulopathy in LT-mediated pathogenesis, the mortality, lung histology and coagulant levels of LT-treated rats were examined. The effects of activated protein C (aPC) on LT-mediated pathogenesis were also evaluated. Fibrin depositions were detected in the lungs of LT-treated rats, indicating that coagulation was
csaB gene analysis clustered 198 strains of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis into two groups related to mammalian and insect hosts, respectively. Mammal-related group I strains also have more S-layer homology (SLH) protein genes than group II strains. This indicates that csaB-based differentiation reflects selective pressure from animal hosts. ...
Bacillus anthracis may caused anthrax. Bacillus anthracis is a gram positive rod with the formation of the spores. Bacillus anthracis may present with virulence factors such as protective antigen, lethal factor ( mitogen activated protein kinase kinase
The genome of Bacillus cereus contains 26 Nudix hydrolase genes, second only to its closest relative, Bacillus anthracis which has 30. All 26 genes have been cloned, 25 have been expressed, and 21 produced soluble proteins suitable for analysis. Substrates for 16 of the enzymes were identified; these included ADP-ribose, diadenosine polyphosphates, sugar nucleotides, and deoxynucleoside triphosphates. One of the enzymes was a CDP-choline pyrophosphatase, the first Nudix hydrolase active on this substrate. Furthermore, as a result of this and previous work we have identified a new sub-family of the Nudix hydrolase superfamily recognizable by a specific amino acid motif outside of the Nudix box.
Whilst various remedial human monoclonal antibodies have been developed to treat the potentially life-threatening systemic complications associated with anthrax infection, an optimal and universally effective administration route has yet to be established. In the later stages of infection when antibody administration by injection is more likely to fail one possible route to improve outcome is via the use of an antibody-bound, adsorbent haemoperfusion device. We report here the development of an adsorbent macroporous polymer column containing immobilised B. anthracis exotoxin-specific antibodies, PANG (a non-glycosylated, version of a plant-produced human monoclonal antibody) and Valortim (a fully human monoclonal N-linked glycosylated antibody), for removal of anthrax protective antigen (PA) from freshly frozen human plasma and human whole blood. In addition, we have demonstrated that continuous extracorporeal blood recirculation through a Valortim-bound haemoperfusion column significantly ...