The potency of two β-endorphin fragments, des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE, βE-(2-17)) and des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, βE-(6-17)) was compared on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and on retention of a one-trial step-through passive avoidance procedure. Both peptides facilitated the extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and attenuated passive avoidance behavior. The γ-type endorphins exhibited an ... read more inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on passive avoidance behavior but not on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior. DEγE appeared to be approximately three times more potent than DTγE on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior but one hundred times more potent on passive avoidance behavior. It is suggested that DEγE rather than DTγE represents the endogenous neurolepticlike neuropeptide derived from β-endorphin. show less ...
Church, A C. and Sprott, R L., " The influence of mouse genotype on passive avoidance learning and subsequent concentrations of norepinephrine and serotonin in the hypothalamus and hippocampus." (1979). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 1053 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complex effects of NMDA receptor antagonist APV in the basolateral amygdala on acquisition of two-way avoidance reaction and long-term fear memory. AU - Savonenko, Alena. AU - Werka, Tomasz. AU - Nikolaev, Evgeni. AU - Zieliñski, Kazimierz. AU - Kaczmarek, Leszek. PY - 2003/7. Y1 - 2003/7. N2 - Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. In the present study, rats with a pretraining injection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-S-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were found to be impaired in two-way active avoidance learning. During multitrial training in a shuttle box, the APV-injected rats were not different from the controls in sensitivity to shock or in acquisition of freezing to contextual cues. However, APV ...
We investigated the effects of thioperamide, a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, on a scopolamine-induced learning deficit in the step-through passive avoidance test in mice, and on contents of acetylcholine and choline in the brain. In a behavioral study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) alone slightly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning deficit, and pretreatment with zolantidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ameliorating effect of thioperamide. This enhanced ameliorating effect of thioperamide was antagonized by pyrilamine, a histamine H1-receptor antagonist and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a histamine H3-receptor agonist, suggesting that thioperamide showed the ameliorating effect via histamine H3 receptors and/or histamine H1 receptors. In the biochemical study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) in combination with zolantidine (20 mg/kg) significantly increased contents of choline in most of brain regions. These findings suggest that there is a close relationship between
Assessment of inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish is based on a conflict, and addresses learning and memory related to anxiety and fear behavior.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists on the passive avoidance task in mice. AU - Nabeshima, T.. AU - Itoh, K.. AU - Kawashima, K.. AU - Kameyama, T.. AU - Shih, J. C.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - Effects of 5-HT agonists on learning and memory were examined using a step-down passive avoidance task in mice. A nonselective 5-HT agonist. 5- methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) given immediately after training remarkably decreased the step-down latencies in the retention test. A 5-HT1 antagonist, (±)-pindolol significantly attenuated 5-MeODMT-induced amnesia. 5-HT(1A) selective agonists. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH- DPAT) and 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (PAPP) given immediately after training caused impairment of memory. 8-OH- DPAT-induced memory impairment was inhibited by a nonselective 5-HT antagonist, methysergide and a 5-HT1 antagonist, (±)-pindolol, whereas a selective 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin was ...
Morphines effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Opiate antagonist facilitation of time-dependent memory processes. T2 - Dependence upon intact norepinephrine function. AU - Gallagher, Michela. AU - Rapp, Peter R.. AU - Fanelli, Richard J.. PY - 1985/11/18. Y1 - 1985/11/18. N2 - Post-training administration of opiate antagonists improves retention of recent learning in laboratory animals tested on a variety of tasks. We examined the possibility that this effect of opiate antagonist treatment might be due to release of brain norepinephrine (NE) function from opioid peptide inhibition. The behavioral testing procedure in these experiments consisted of one-trial passive avoidance conditioning. Rats received post-training treatments immediately after the training trial and retention was tested 24 h later. Lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNB) that were induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) were found to prevent the memory enhancing effect of post-training naloxone administration. The memory enhancing effect of naloxone ...
Both muscarinic antagonists, such as scopolamine, and benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonists, such as diazepam, produce a reliable impairment in the performance of one trial passive avoidance. Such deficits are frequently interpreted as drug-induced amnesia. However, these deficits could also result from a learning impairment. The present experiments compared the effects of two BZR agonists, lorazepam (0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 mg/kg, IP) and diazepam (0, 0.78, 1.56, and 3.13 mg/kg, IP) with the effects of two muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine (0, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/kg, SC) and atropine (0, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, IP) on a multiple trial passive avoidance task. In this procedure, the rats were trained with a 5-min inter-trial interval until a learning criterion was achieved. Retention was assessed 24 h later. This enabled the effects of the drugs on the acquisition and the retention of a passive avoidance response to be dissociated. Both atropine and scopolamine produced a marked impairment in the
Electric shock is a common stimulus for nociception-research and the most widely used reinforcement in aversive associative learning experiments. Yet, nothing is known about the mechanisms it recruits at the periphery. To help fill this gap, we undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 38 inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, which avoided shock to varying extents. We identified 514 genes whose expression levels and/or sequences covaried with shock avoidance scores. We independently scrutinized 14 of these genes using mutants, validating the effect of 7 of them on shock avoidance. This emphasizes the value of our candidate gene list as a guide for follow-up research. In addition, by integrating our association results with external protein-protein interaction data we obtained a shock avoidance- associated network of 38 genes. Both this network and the original candidate list contained a substantial number of genes that affect mechanosensory bristles, which are hairlike organs distributed
Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OXO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OXO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OXO-M/PZ binding ...
Passive avoidance learning is with advantage studied in day-old chicks trained to distinguish between beads of two different colors, of which one at training was associated with aversive taste. During the first 30-min post-training, two periods of gl
79 Moreover, the amygdaloid complex contains a moderate density of receptors and the developmental role of u s cholinergic amygdaloid system in passive avoidance learning cymbalta the rat has been described to occur during cymbalta us patent same time period. 25c 1 H 0.
Aversiveness of biological sounds has been studied in detail in the context of predator avoidance (Deecke et al., 2002; Tuttle and Ryan, 1981). By contrast, factors influencing aversiveness of other sounds are poorly understood and have only been investigated with respect to stimulus amplitude (Campbell, 1957; Kastelein et al., 2006a), practical applications (Blackshaw et al., 1990; Kastelein et al., 2001; Talling et al., 1998) or the use of sound as a reinforcing stimulus (Campbell and Bloom, 1965). An aversive stimulus is an unpleasant or noxious stimulus, which induces an avoidance response in an animal. Such behavioural responses to sounds are influenced by a variety of psychophysical factors relating to sound perception, the motivational state of an animal and basic learning processes (e.g. habituation, conditioning). Elucidating the role of these factors is not only relevant for animal welfare and conservation (Nowacek et al., 2007) but can also provide answers to fundamental questions of ...
Based on feedback from its partners in the BC offset market, Pacific Carbon Trust (PCT) has launched a new, streamlined project acquisition process.This new ...
An avoidance response is a response that prevents an aversive stimulus from occurring. It is a kind of negative reinforcement. An avoidance response is a behavior based on the concept that animals will avoid performing behaviors that result in an aversive outcome. This can involve learning through operant conditioning when it is used as a training technique. It is a reaction to undesirable sensations or feedback that leads to avoiding the behavior that is followed by this unpleasant or fear-inducing stimulus. Whether the aversive stimulus is brought on intentionally by another or is naturally occurring, it is adaptive to learn to avoid situations that have previously yielded negative outcomes. A simple example of this is food aversions, or the aversion developed to food that has previously resulted in sickness. Food aversions can also be conditioned using classical conditioning, so that an animal learns to avoid a stimulus previously neutral that has been associated with a negative outcome. This ...
Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into shorter peptides, such as [pGlu4r,Cyt6]VP(4 9[ and [pGIu4,Cyt6,]VP(4 8), which preserve ... read more the behavioral activity but lose the peripheral activities of the parent hormone. Using brain slices, we investigated whether VP or VP(4 8) affects excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and/or membrane responses to depolarization in neurons of the CA 1 /subiculum of the ventral hippocampus. The EPSPs were evoked by stimulating the stratum radiatum of the CAI field; the membrane responses were elicited by current injections. Exposure of slices for 15 min to 0.1 nM solution of these peptides resulted in an increase in the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs in 21 neurons (67%) tested. No consistent ...
The principles of operant conditioning have taught us to recognize how certain coping techniques can reward, and therefore continue anxiety disorders. Two similar coping strategies for dealing with anxiety symptoms are called avoidance and escape.
The effects of scopolamine (2.0 mg/kg) and d-amphetamine (3.0 mg/kg) on one-way, shuttle and inhibitory avoidance performance were evaluated in 3 strains of mice (A/J, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J) and their 6 reciprocal F1 hybrids. In the saline condition, intermediate inheritance was observed in the inhibitory task, complete dominance for superior avoidance in the one-way task, and hybrid superiority in the shuttle situation. Administration of d-amphetamine disrupted inhibitory performance in all strains. In the shuttle task no amphetamine effect was observed in C57BL/6J mice, while improvement was seen in A/J and DBA/2J mice, as well as in all the hybrid crosses. No drug effect was seen in the one-way task. As with d-amphetamine, scopolamine disrupted performance in the inhibitory task among the inbreds, but had negligible effects in the hybrids. In the shuttle task, only the A/J mice exhibited improved performance, while a small decline in response rate was seen in one-way avoidance. Results were ...
The present study investigated the potential sex differences in repeated aripiprazole (ARI) treatment-induced behavioral sensitization from adolescence to adulthood, and to determine whether ARI sensitization can be transferred to olanzapine (OLZ) and/or clozapine (CLZ) using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and phencyclidine-induced (PCP) hyperlocomotion tests of antipsychotic activity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley adolescence rats (P46) were first treated with ARI (10 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days (P46-50) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. After they became adults (|P68), rats were challenged with ARI (1.5 mg/kg, sc) (P70), OLZ (0.5 mg/kg, sc; P73), CLZ (5 mg/kg, sc; P76) and again with ARI (1.5 mg/kg, sc; P84) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion again. During the drug treatment period in adolescence, repeated ARI treatment suppressed avoidance response, inhibited the PCP
Reforms that focus on the methodological procedures of the acquisition process are only partial remedies because they do not address incentives to deviate from sound practices. Weapons acquisition is a complicated enterprise, complete with unintended incentives that encourage moving programs forward by delaying testing and employing other problematic practices. These incentives stem from several factors. For example, the different participants in the acquisition process impose conflicting demands on weapon programs so that their purpose transcends just filling voids in military capability. Also, the budget process forces funding decisions to be made well in advance of program decisions, which encourages undue optimism about program risks and costs. Finally, DOD program managers short tenures and limitations in experience and training can foster a short-term focus and put them at a disadvantage with their industry counterparts ...
To test hippocampal-dependent learning in the absence of immature neurons, both DCXDTR and WT mice were treated with DT and subsequently tested in the active place avoidance task in "Room 1," 3 d after the last DT injection. The experimental design is shown in Figure 2C. In the 5 min habituation phase, during which the shock zone was not activated, both DCXDTR and WT mice explored the arena to a similar extent. The total distance covered (WT: 30.0 ± 1.4 m vs DCXDTR: 26.7 ± 1.5 m), the number of "virtual shocks" (WT: 27.9 ± 2.0 vs DCXDTR: 24.33 ± 1.6), and the number of entries into the shock zone (WT: 13.3 ± 0.8 vs DCXDTR: 12.1 ± 1.0) were similar between genotypes (n = 12 per experimental group). During habituation, the number of "virtual shocks" was typically higher than the number of entries into the shock zone because test animals were not presented with an aversive stimulus to encourage their exit from this area. However, after activation of the shock zone, the number of shocks ...
Im running on avoidance this week. That means I am doing everything and anything that I can think of, just to avoid doing anything. It that makes sense to you, then welcome to the avoidance club. It is probably one of the most stupid of human states, that exist. It would quite simply be easier,…
The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR) collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM). The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT), maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning
We present a multi scale approach for automating the image acquisition process for an computerized virus diagnostic application. Our methods are designed to mimic the methodology used by virus TEM experts manually operating the microscope. The methods decrease the search area considerably. In addition we present a segmentation method for virus-like particles based on local intensity information and PCA. This method makes no assumption regarding shape which is vital since many viruses are highly pleomorphic, i.e., have different shapes. The only input parameter used is the approximate virus thickness, which is a conserved feature within a virus species.. ...
Chronic pain is associated with cognitive deficits. Considerable overlap in brain regions involved in pain and aversion suggests that aversive learning and memory may be affected during chronic pain. Passive-avoidance ...
Morys, F.; Janssen, L.; Cesnaite, E.; Beyer, F.; Garcia-Garcia, I.; Kumral, D.; Liem, F.; Mehl, N.; Mahjoory, K.; Schrimpf, A. et al.; Gaebler, M.; Margulies, D. S.; Villringer, A.; Neumann, J.; Nikulin, V. V.; Horstmann, A.: Hemispheric asymmetries in resting-state EEG and fMRI are related to approach and avoidance behaviour, but not to eating behaviour or BMI. Human Brain Mapping 41 (5), S. 1136 - 1156 (2020 ...
University of Washington law professor Anita Ramasastry comments on the recent release of records known as the Paradise Papers, which reveal the identities of thousands of individuals and corporations using offshore jurisdictions as a tax avoidance strategy. Ramasastry argues that while such actions may in many cases be legal, they are also unethical. She points out that if we focus on the harm of tax avoidance to society, rather than how it is legally defined, then we can see that it contributes to growing inequality and increases tax burdens on resident taxpayers who cannot change their citizenship or move their money.
Collision Avoidance Sensors Market - Global industry segment analysis, regional outlook, share, growth; Collision Avoidance Sensors Market 2017 to 2027 by future market insights
Tobe BTD, Crain AM, Winquist AM, Calabrese B, Makihara H, Zhao WN, Lalonde J, Nakamura H, Konopaske G, Sidor M, Pernia CD, Yamashita N, Wada M, Inoue Y, Nakamura F, Sheridan SD, Logan RW, Brandel M, Wu D, Hunsberger J, Dorsett L, Duerr C, Basa RCB, McCarthy MJ, Udeshi ND, Mertins P, Carr SA, Rouleau GA, Mastrangelo L, Li J, Gutierrez GJ, Brill LM, Venizelos N, Chen G, Nye JS, Manji H, Price JH, McClung CA, Akiskal HS, Alda M, Chuang DM, Coyle JT, Liu Y, Teng YD, Ohshima T, Mikoshiba K, Sidman RL, Halpain S, Haggarty SJ, Goshima Y, Snyder EY ...
Roadscope Lx , Find Complete Details about Roadscope Lx,Fcw,Ldws,Crash Avoidance from Car Black Box Supplier or Manufacturer-PLK TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.
Nagano-Saito, A.; Kato, T.; Arahata, Y.; Washimi, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Abe, Y.; Yamada, T.; Iwai, K.; Hatano, K.; Kawasumi, Y. et al.; Kachi, T.; Dagher, A.; Ito, K.: Cognitive- and motor-related regions in Parkinsons disease: FDOPA and FDG PET studies. NeuroImage 22 (2), S. 553 - 561 (2004 ...
Aversion therapy uses principles from behavioral psychology to help reduce or eliminate unwanted behaviors. Learn more about how this process works.
၂၂-၉-ဝ၉ ေန႔က အဂၤလန္မွာ ထုတ္ျပန္ လိုက္တဲ့ သုေတသန စစ္တမ္းအရ "အမ်ိဳးသမီး ဆရာဝန္မ်ားသည္ အမ်ိဳးသား ဆရာဝန္မ်ားထက္ စိတ္ခ်ရျပီး၊ အလုပ္ ထုတ္ျပစ္ခံရျခ ...
The Raimondi range of Tile Spacers offer precision spaced joints and the optimum system for levelling tiles for the avoidance of Lippage - ALL AT THE RIGHT PRICE!!
Businesses and individuals being targeted for alleged tax avoidance are being left in “limbo” as HM Revenue & Customs struggles with a huge backlog.
Description: In the conditioned taste aversion test, rats are given two water bottles from which to drink. One is filled with plain water and the other is filled with water to which a small amount of saccharin or sucrose has been added. After a conditioning period, the rats are injected with either a test drug or a saline solution. The rats are returned to their cages and observed to determine whether they avoid the water bottle filled with sweet-tasting water, which would suggest a learned aversion to the solution, i.e., they associated the sweet-tasting water with a negative reaction (e.g., gastrointestinal malaise) that was actually caused by the injected drug. Purpose: Conditioned taste aversion is a useful test for determining whether a drug causes gastrointestinal side effects ...
The amygdala is strongly implicated in learning under emotionally charged settings such as fear. An inhibitory avoidance paradigm was used by Alkire and Nathan in which rats were placed in a lighted chamber facing a dark tunnel, which they normally prefer to enter. However, entrance into the dark area was negatively reinforced by electrical shock; rats quickly learned to avoid entering the dark tunnel and remained in the nonpreferred but "safe" lighted environment. When retested the next day, the rats continued to avoid entering the dark tunnel; their memory retention latency (i.e. , time to enter the dark tunnel) was very long, indicating that they remember being shocked. If a low concentration of sevoflurane was administered during the initial training period, the animals quickly entered the dark tunnel the following day, i.e. , sevoflurane prevented avoidance learning. However, after bilateral lesion of the basolateral amygdala, rats exhibited equally long memory retention latencies ...
Although the terms "taste avoidance" and "taste aversion" are often used interchangeably, studies with rats indicate they are not necessarily synonymous. "Aversion" is defined as "a strong dislike or disinclination"[4] and "avoidance" is defined as "stopping oneself from doing".[5] The difference is that in avoidance, the organism is controlling its behavioural responses. Taste avoidance and taste aversion can at times go hand in hand, but they cannot be looked at or be defined the same way.. Studies on rats to determine how they react to different tasting liquids and injections indicate this difference. Scientists measured the facial and somatic reactions of rats after exposure to a flavored solution (sucrose or salt) which do not induce abnormal feelings. However, immediately after the rat ingests the solution, the rat is injected with a drug that induces nausea. The rat subsequently expresses a disgust reaction towards the solution, seen by mouth gaping. This is a Pavlovian conditioned ...
Background and Objective: Lipolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule isolated from bacteria such as the enterobacteriaceae family with a negative effect on memory and learning through disturbing the balance of free radicals and creating oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and LPS-induced memory impairment in the rat. Materials and Methods: Male rats (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, control under treatment with quercetin at a dose of 50 mg/kg, LPS, and LPS groups treated with quercetin at doses of 10 or 50 mg/kg. For induction of inflammation, LPS dissolved in normal saline (500 μg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After one week, the passive avoidance behavior was tested in the shuttle box and hippocampal homogenate was prepared. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured using specific kits. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16). Results: Step
In aposematism a prey species use bright colours, often combined with a black contrasting pattern, to signal unprofitability as prey to potential predators. Although there are several different hypotheses about the presence of these internally contrasting patterns, there is little experimental evidence of any beneficial effects. In this thesis I have used bird predators and artificial prey signals to investigate if the contrasting internal patterns in warning displays may have evolved to increase signal efficacy, especially regarding the speed of avoidance learning. In paper I the relative importance of colour and pattern in avoidance learning was studied. The conclusion was that birds primarily attend to colour, not pattern, when learning the discrimination, which was further supported by the results in paper II-IV, all suggesting a secondary role of patterns. In paper II I show that predators may to some degree use patterns for discrimination, if they convey important information about prey ...
Landis, D M. and Sidman, R L., "Electron microscopic analysis of postnatal histogenesis in the cerebellar cortex of staggerer mutant mice." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4340 ...
The aim of the present work was to shed light on the role played by the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in the modulation of emotional reactivity and memory consolidation in rodents through the inhibition of the key and rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) both in vivo and in vitro with simvastatin. Three-month-old male Wistar rats treated for 21 days with simvastatin or vehicle were tested in the social interaction, elevated plus-maze, and inhibitory avoidance tasks; after behavioral testing, the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, dorsal, and ventral striatum were dissected out for biochemical assays. In order to delve deeper into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, primary rat hippocampal neurons were used. Our results show that HMGR inhibition by simvastatin induces anxiogenic-like effects in the social interaction but not in the elevated plus-maze test, and improves memory consolidation in the inhibitory ...
Whereas reward (appetitiveness) and aversiveness (punishment) have been distinguished as two discrete dimensions within psychology and behavior, physiological and computational models of their neural representation have treated them as opposite sides of a single continuous dimension of "value." Here, I show that although dopamine neurons of the primate ventral midbrain are activated by evidence for reward and suppressed by evidence against reward, they are insensitive to aversiveness. This indicates that reward and aversiveness are represented independently as two dimensions, even by neurons that are closely related to motor function. Because theory and experiment support the existence of opponent neural representations for value, the present results imply four types of value-sensitive neurons corresponding to reward-ON (dopamine), reward-OFF, aversive-ON, and aversive-OFF ...
The dorsal anterior cingulate (adACC) and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) play a central role in the discrimination and appraisal of threatening stimuli. Yet, little is known about what specific features of threatening situations recruit these regions and how avoidance may modulate appraisal and activation through prevention of aversive events. In this investigation, thirty healthy adults underwent functional neuroimaging while completing an avoidance task in which responses to an Avoidable CS+ threat prevented delivery of an aversive stimulus, but not to an Unavoidable CS+ threat. Extinction testing was also completed where CSs were presented without aversive stimulus delivery and an opportunity to avoid. The Avoidable CS+ relative to the Unavoidable CS+ was associated with reductions in ratings of negative valence, fear, and US expectancy and activation. Greater regional activation was consistently observed to the Unavoidable CS+ during avoidance, which declined during extinction. Individuals
RESULTS: A deficit in avoidance learning and higher corticosterone level were observed in learned helplessness rats. SYG significantly reduced this deficit and reversed the corticosterone alteration. CMS induced significant reduction of sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test, an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and an increased immobility time in the forced swim test as compared to the control. It was also found that BDNF and TrkB levels were decreased in CMS model. Chronic treatment of SYG significantly suppressed the behavioral changes and up-regulated the BDNF signal pathway in the hippocampus ...
Brain areas involved in aversive conditioning and/or extinction.Different brain areas (with at least unilateral activation during aversive conditioning and/or e
Introduction: Kisspeptin-13 (KP-13) is a novel endogenous factor, increases synaptic transmission and is involved in several behavioral functions such as anxiety, locomotion, epilepsy and avoidance learning. However, the role of this peptide on cognition has not been well clarified yet. Here we studied the effect of kisspeptin-13 pretreatment on spatial learning ...
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
Prey face a conflict between acquiring energy and avoiding predators and use both direct and indirect cues to assess predation risk. Illumination, an indirect cue, influences nocturnal rodent foraging behaviour. New Zealand holds no native rodent species but has introduced mice (Mus musculus) that severely impair native biodiversity. We used Giving-Up Densities (GUDs) and observations of foraging frequency and duration to assess if artificial light induces risk avoidance behaviour in mice and could limit their activity. We found both captive (wild strain) mice in outdoor pens and wild mice within a pest fenced sanctuary (Maungatautari, New Zealand) displayed avoidance behaviour in response to illumination. In captivity, total foraging effort was similar across lit and unlit pens but mice displayed a strong preference for removing seeds from dark control areas (mean: 15.33 SD: +/-11.64 per 3.5 hours) over illuminated areas (2.00 +/-3.44). Wild mice also removed fewer seeds from illuminated areas (0.42 +/