After monolayer cultures of rat islets were exposed to [125I]insulin,[125I]glucagon, and [125I]tyrosinyl somatostatin, specific autoradiographic grains associated with each radioactively labeled ligand were found on B, A, and D cells.The density of labeling of the B, A, and D cells with each labeled ligand correlated well with the known actions of the three hormones on each of the islet cells. ...
Many physiological mechanisms as well as numerous neurological diseases involve the complex interaction of various receptors. Quantitative evaluation of the receptor distribution is essential for developing improved procedures in diagnosis and effective treatments of neurological diseases.. Quantitative Receptor Autoradiography. Using in-vitro autoradiography we analyze a broad range of different neuroreceptors in brain slices (10 -20 µm thick). After preincubation in buffer to remove endogenous ligand, sections are incubated with a radioactive substance, that binds specificly to the receptor being studied (radioligand). For the assessment of non-specific binding, selected slices are incubated with the radioligand in presence of an specific antagonist. After washing and a rapid rinse in ice-cold water the sections are dried and exposed against phosphor-imaging plates or conventional film slides in combination with tritium activity standards (see figure 1) for quantitative evaluation. Specific ...
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance. Alternatively, the autoradiograph is also available as a digital image (digital autoradiography), due to the recent development of scintillation gas detectors or rare earth phosphorimaging systems. The film or emulsion is apposed to the labeled tissue section to obtain the autoradiograph (also called an autoradiogram). The auto- prefix indicates that the radioactive substance is within the sample, as distinguished from the case of historadiography or microradiography, in which the sample is X-rayed using an external source. Some autoradiographs can be examined microscopically for localization of silver grains (such as on the interiors or exteriors of cells or organelles) in which the process is termed micro-autoradiography. For example, micro-autoradiography was used to examine whether atrazine was being ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tritiated 2‐deoxy‐D‐glucose. T2 - A high‐resolution marker for autoradiographic localization of brain metabolism. AU - Hammer, Ronald P.. AU - Herkenham, Miles. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The technique for autoradiographic localization of 2‐deoxy‐D‐glucose (2DG) uptake has become a useful method for observing alterations of functional brain activity resulting from experimental manipulation. Autoradiographic resolution is improved using tritiated ([3H]) rather than carbon‐14 ([14C])2DG, due to the lower energy and shorter path of tritium emissions. In addition, lower 2DG uptake by white matter relative to gray matter is exaggerated in the [3H]2DG autoradiographs due to the greater absorption of tritium emissions by lipids. Using [3H]2DG, it is possible to observe differential metabolic labeling in various individual nuclei or portions of nuclei that is unresolvable using [14C]2DG in the awake, normal animal. Heterogeneous patterns of 2DG uptake seen only ...
Various techniques for detection of blood platelets in tissue section were evaluated in an incremental air embolism model of ischemia in order to further investigate the accumulation of platelets in brains subjected to cell-damaging ischemia. The experimental animals were dogs anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. A new autoradiographic technique was devised that allows precise localization of 111Indium-labeled platelets in brain sections. The technique is described in detail along with some effects of the label on platelet function and behavior. The technique can be performed in conjunction with 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic measurement of blood flow without causing mutual interference or other forms of interaction. This permits the simultaneous investigation of local blood flow and deposition of platelets. ...
Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. - T Christensen, T Balchen, T Bruhn, N H Diemer
We have investigated 5-HT1A (serotonin1A) and 5-HT2A (serotonin2A) receptor mRNA abundance and binding site densities in various neocortical and hippocampal regions of schizophrenics and control subjects. Age, agonal state (brain pH), and post mortem interval were included where necessary as covariates in our analyses. In schizophrenics, 5-HT1A binding site densities, determined autoradiographically by [3H]8-hydroxy-2,3-(dipropylamino)-tetralin ([3H]8-OH-DPAT), were significantly increased (+23%) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with a similar trend in anterior cingulate gyrus. These increases were not accompanied by any change in 5-HT1A receptor mRNA. No differences between the groups in [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding or 5-HT1A receptor mRNA were seen in superior temporal gyrus, striate cortex, or hippocampus. 5-HT2A binding sites, determined by [3H]ketanserin, were decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (-27%) and parahippocampal gyrus (-38%) of schizophrenics, with a similar trend in cingulate
Blanks, J C. and Bok, D, "An autoradiographic analysis of postnatal cell proliferation in the normal and degenerative mouse retina." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3447 ...
Mendelsohn, M L., "Autoradiographic analysis of cell proliferation in spontaneous breast cancer of c3h mouse. Iii. The growth factor." (1961). Subject Strain Bibliography 1961. 685 ...
Unmodified oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were synthesized and tested for their ability to cross external eukaryotic cell membranes and to enter the cytosol and nucleus in tissue cultures. The ODNs were labeled with high-specific-activity [3H]thymidine (| or = 100 Ci/mmol), or [ alpha-32P]ATP or [ gamma-32P]ATP (300-1000 Ci/mmol; 1 Ci = 37 GBq), and the label was either in the central portion of the molecule or at the 3 or 5 end. The cells employed were for the most part 3T6 murine fibroblasts, grown in monolayers, either semiconfluent or confluent, but some experiments were carried out with chicken embryo fibroblasts or human HeLa cells. Parallel wells in the same experiment were prepared for electron microscopy or for cell fractionation and radioactivity assays. Electron microscopic autoradiography indicated that ODNs cross the external cell membrane, traverse the cytosol, and begin to enter the cell nucleus within a few seconds to 5 min at 37 degrees C in Dulbeccos medium without added serum. After
CCD (charged coupled device) and CMOS imaging technologies can be applied to thin tissue autoradiography as potential imaging alternatives to using conventional film. In this work, we compare two particular devices: a CCD operating in slow scan mode and a CMOS-based active pixel sensor, operating at near video rates. Both imaging sensors have been operated at room temperature using direct irradiation with images produced from calibrated microscales and radiolabelled tissue samples. We also compare these digital image sensor technologies with the use of conventional film. We show comparative results obtained with (14)C calibrated microscales and (35)S radiolabelled tissue sections. We also present the first results of (3)H images produced under direct irradiation of a CCD sensor operating at room temperature. Compared to film, silicon-based imaging technologies exhibit enhanced sensitivity, dynamic range and linearity.. ...
Regional measurements of 131I-9.2.27 distribution in human melanoma tumors were obtained using quantitative autoradiography. Tumors were removed from patients 72-96 h after they had received an i.v. injection of 9.15 mCi (100 mg) of 131I-9.2.27. The autoradiographic images showed that the radioactivity reaching the tumor was heterogeneously distributed. Areas of relative high and low uptake were selected in each tumor. Regions of high activity contained from 51 to 1371 nCi/g, while areas with low uptake had radioactivity ranging from 12 to 487 nCi/g. The reliability of the autoradiographic measurements was demonstrated by the strong positive correlation with direct tissue sample counting (r = 0.994 P , 0.001). Since comparative immunocytochemistry showed a homogeneous and diffuse staining of target antigen on viable tumor cells, variability of monoclonal antibody uptake within individual tumors was not primarily due to heterogeneity of antigen expression in these cases. However, antigen levels ...
The presence and abundance of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor mRNAs in post mortem human hippocampus was investigated using a novel quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique using cyclophilin mRNA as an internal standard. 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor mRNAs were each co-amplified with varying dilutions of cyclophilin primers, and their abundance expressed as a ratio of cyclophilin mRNA. Using this technique in combination with quantitative autoradiography we have investigated the effect of aging on hippocampal 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA abundance and binding site densities. There was a significant negative correlation between hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor binding site densities and age and a similar trend for 5-HT1A receptor mRNA abundance. Neither 5-HT2A receptor binding site densities nor mRNA abundance were affected by age. Both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor binding site densities in individual subjects correlated significantly with abundance of their encoding mRNA. This
Read "Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of 5‐HT 3 receptors in the rat CNS using ( 125 I)iodo‐zacopride and ( 3 H)zacopride as radioligands, Synapse" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Distribution of 2-chloro-2 -deoxyadenosine, 2-chloro-2 -arabino-fluoro-2 -deoxyadenosine, Fludarabine and Cytarabine in mice: a whole-body autoradiography study ...
Ling, E.A. (1974). Ultrastructure and radioautographic studies of the thyroid gland. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 3 (3) : 207-211. [email protected] Repository ...
Morphological analysis of transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma of rat has revealed a continuum of cells from those which totally lack mature secretory granules to cells with abundant well-formed secretory granules. This tumor is easily dissociable into single cells which incorporate [3H]thymidine and [3H]leucine into DNA and protein at a linear rate for 3 to 4 hr. The number of cells synthesizing DNA, as assessed by light microscope autoradiography, was about 17%. Dissociated neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells are classified into four cell types (types I to IV) on the basis of nuclear morphology, degree of polarization, and the extent of specialization of cytoplasmic organelles. Type IV cells possess all the characteristics of mature pancreatic acinar cells, such as abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, prominent Golgi apparatus, and numerous secretory granules. Cell types III, II, and I are progressively less differentiated. An analysis of the cytological features of 285 dissociated tumor ...
Agar Scientific is pleased to be able to still offer a range of Kodak and Ilford films and emulsions suitable for Autoradiography studies and the detection of radioactively labelled samples.
The distribution of infused tritiated norepinephrine (NE-3H) in small mesenteric arteries and intestinal arterioles in rats was investigated with electron microscopic radioautography. Silver grains, indicating the presence of the tritium label on the sections, were found lying mainly over axon bundles, but some were present over collagen and smooth muscle cells. Axons with the highest concentrations of silver grains had been sectioned at points where they were naked of Schwann cell sheath, were dilated into varicosities, and contained small granular vesicles. This finding was taken as confirmatory circumstantial evidence that the small granular vesicles were the sites of uptake and storage of NE. The short interval between the start of infusion and the fixation of the tissue appeared to rule out any process other than a direct uptake of NE by the peripheral axons. If axonal sites of uptake of NE-3H correspond to sites of release of NE, then the evidence suggests that such sites of release are ...
Conceptual computer illustration of the DNA double helix together with a graphic representation of an autoradiograph display. The pattern of the DNA autoradiograph bands is unique to each individual, but some bands are shared by related people, such as a parent & child. DNA fingerprints can be used to prove conclusively whether people are related. - Stock Image C010/5265
The distribution of cells expressing mu-receptor mRNA and mu-receptor binding sites were compared in brain and spinal cord tissue sections using a combination of in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiographic techniques. mu-Receptor mRNA was visualized with a 35S-labeled cRNA probe directed to transmembrane III-VI of the rat mu-receptor, while mu-receptor binding sites were labeled with the mu-selective ligand [3H]DAMGO ...
The IVISR provides optical, CT, ultrasound, high-resolution planar gamma imaging, and PET of mice and rats, as well as high-resolution digital autoradiography and fluorescent imaging of thin whole body rodent sections.
Figure 1 Antiphospho-Pak1 antibody specifically recognizes activated Pak1. (A) Activation loop sequence of the phosphorylated peptide used for production of polyclonal antiphospho-Pak1 antisera. (B) Immunoblots (lanes 1-4) and radiolabeled kinase reaction products (lanes 5 and 6) of baculovirus-produced Pak1. Purified KD or CA Pak1 was incubated in protein kinase buffer in the presence of ATP, then immunoblotted using anti-Pak1 (lanes 1 and 2) and antiphospho-Pak antisera (lanes 3 and 4) autoradiographed to detect antibody-bound proteins. Although both forms of the protein were detected with anti-Pak1, only activated Pak1 was detected using the phospho-specific antibody, despite the large amount of recombinant protein used in this assay. Lanes 5 and 6 show autoradiographed PAGE gel of reaction products from a kinase assay performed in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP. Molecular mass in kilodaltons is shown to the right of the blot. (C) Comparison between immunoblot and radiolabeled kinase reaction ...
PCR products were separated by electrophoresis (Protean-2, Biorad, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France) on 8% polyacrylamide gels, which were then vacuum dried and processed for autoradiography on Biomax films (Kodak, Sevran, France). Exposure times were adjusted to avoid film saturation. For each primer pair, we first determined the optimal hybridization temperature and minimum number of PCR cycles necessary to detect radiolabeled reaction products at a unique, expected molecular size, so that each PCR analysis would be performed in the exponential phase of amplification. Forward and reverse primers were designed in separate exons to avoid any bias caused by residual genomic contamination. PCR-amplified products were checked with restriction enzymes. For all primer pairs, no amplification was observed when PCR was performed on either RNase-free water or non-reverse-transcribed RNA samples. At least three independent PCRs were performed on the same samples for each primer pair.. Optical densities (ODs) ...
The first concerns cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. There is considerable evidence that a crucial step in memory formation is the synthesis of new proteins in the hippocampus. We are using autoradiographic techniques to focus on proteins that are made in dendrites of hippocampal neurons, near synapses. Very few proteins are made there, but we have found out that electrical stimulation of the axons that make contact with these dendrites greatly stimulates their synthesis of proteins. This only happens when the stimulus is combined with another neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. There is reason to believe this phenomenon is important in memory formation and we are studying its mechanisms and significance. The second area concerns the regulation of synaptic transmission by glycolysis. We have found that synaptic transmission in the hippocampus will only occur if glycolysis is active, even if adequate energy is supplied in other ways. This is very unexpected. There appears to be a ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Ive had a decades-long fascination with herbs and natural healing and found over the years that many such treatments can be quite successful. Im...
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Grain counting by eye is a tedious and time-consuming technique but one with great potential in cell kinetics and for the study of DNA excision repair activity (unscheduled DNA synthesis or UDS). We have been investigating the levels of UDS in human skin sections exposed in situ to ultraviolet radiation using a short-term incubation in tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the decline in UDS levels with time (repair kinetics). We have adapted an automated image analysis system automatically to assess the number of grains over epidermal cell nuclei in autoradiographs of sections of epidermis. An excellent correlation was observed between visual counting and machine measurement of the area (in pixels) occupied by silver grains. The levels of UDS declined with time as lesions are progressively repaired. The half time (+/- standard deviation) for the reduction in UDS is 7.25 +/- 0.18 h. The grain counts can be significantly increased by increasing the autoradiographic exposure, by increasing ...
The modulation of oxytocin (OT) receptors (OTRs) by estrogen was investigated in the ventromedial hypothalamus by in vitro receptor autoradiography. Treatment of ovariectomized and adrenalectomized rats with various doses of estradiol benzoate (EB) increased OTR binding not only in the ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus (VMN), but also in the area lateral to the nuclei (IVMN). After a single injection of EB, OTRs first were induced within the ventrolateral parts of the VMN, and only hours later they appeared in the IVMN. This is consistent with the interpretation that OTRs are first induced within the estrogen- sensitive neurons of the ventrolateral VMN and then are transported laterally out of the nuclei. Two additional experiments confirmed this interpretation. First, local infusion of a low dose (10 micrograms) of the neuronal transport inhibitor vinblastine blocked the appearance of OTRs in the IVMN but did not prevent the induction of OTRs by EB within the nuclei. Second, a knife cut ...
The publisher regrets that a mistake was published in this article. On page 747, the word "antagonist" was incorrectly published instead of "agonist." The whole sentence should correctly read: "Importantly, also in response to an adenosine A1 agonist, old rats had less sleep compared with young animals." Our sincere apologies are offered to the authors, editor, and readers.. The original article of this erratum was published in J Neurosci Res 2004; 78: 742-748 ...
Charles River designs and conducts GLP-compliant quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) programs integrated with our preclinical drug metabolism services.
An assemblage useful for autoradiography comprising, in order, a sample layer containing a radioactively labeled biological sample in contact with a phosphor layer, a film layer and a reflector layer. The phosphor layer is preferably a gadolinium oxysulfide containing layer and the film is preferably a photographic film containing a tabular grain emulsion.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoradiography of monoamine uptake in Molluscan ganglia. AU - Elekes, K.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018084061&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018084061&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018084061. VL - 10. SP - S268. JO - Neuroscience Letters. JF - Neuroscience Letters. SN - 0304-3940. IS - suppl. 1. ER - ...
Read independent reviews on EN3HANCE™ Spray Surface Autoradiography Enhancer, 2oz Spray Can from PerkinElmer, Inc. on SelectScience
DNA. Computer artwork of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double helix seen against autoradiograms of genetic sequences (upper right). The spiralling strands of the DNA helix (blue) are composed of complex chemical groups called nucleotides, which consist of a sugar phosphate and a base group. Complementary pairing between the base groups of nucleotides on opposite strands holds the helix together. The sequence of the 4 base groups (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; coloured rods) along the DNA helix is unique for every individual and is known as the genetic code. The autoradiograms depict DNA base sequences, each band (dark blue) representing an individual base. - Stock Image G110/0642
The effect of aerosol upon cloud properties is studied over the Baltic Sea region, which presents a distinct contrast of aerosol loading between the clean Fennoscandia and the polluted area of central-eastern Europe. Statistically significant positive values are found over the Baltic Sea and Fennoscandia, while negative values are found over central-eastern Europe, contradicting the theory of aerosol indirect effect on clouds ...
A variety of methods have been used in published studies for image segmentation (manual outlining, thresholding, magic wand, use of templates, etc.) to determine what is part of the structure or region of interest and what is not. Similarly, once grey levels are measured, a variety of methods have been employed to convert them into optical densities or units of radioactivity. Based on the above results, the line method was the best way to select the structure or region of interest as it was not subject to floor-effects, had a low coefficient of variation, and low within-sample variability. This method is similar to, and a modification of the outline method, which requires that the actual boundaries of the structure be determined, whereas the line method sampled only from the interior of the structure. Since the DG is a long narrow structure, this was best done with a line down the centre. Larger structures can follow the same principle by outlining the structure but staying well inside the ...
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There are 13 fifteen-letter words containing A, D, G, U and Y: AUTORADIOGRAPHY DAGUERREOTYPERS DAGUERREOTYPIES ... PSEUDOPREGNANCY RADIOAUTOGRAPHY UNDERSTANDINGLY. Every word on this site can be used while playing scrabble. Create other lists, beginning with or ending with letters of your choice.
A Duke University study that found over 40 percent of our actions aren’t actually decisions, but habits. Heres how to build good ones. 
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic, γ-aminobutyric acidA and phencyclidine receptors in spontaneously epileptic rats; in vitro quantitative autoradiographic analysis. AU - Murase, Kenshi. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Kameyama, Tsutomu. AU - Sasa, Masashi. AU - Takaori, Shuji. AU - Ujihara, Hisamitsu. AU - Ishihara, Kumatoshi. AU - Yamada, Junzo. AU - Serikawa, Tadao. PY - 1991/9/30. Y1 - 1991/9/30. N2 - Characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic (mACh), γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and phencyclidine (PCP) receptors in the spontaneously epileptic rats (SER), which exhibit both absence-like seizures and tonic convulsion, were examined using in vitro quantitative autoradiography. Computer analysis using autoradiographic technique revealed that the amount of the specific binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to mACh receptors in the striatum of SER was more than that of zitter rats, not exhibiting both seizures and convulsion. However, the specific bindings of ...
Clinically effective antidepressants are thought to exert their therapeutic effects by facilitating central monoamine neurotransmission. However, recent data showing that neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have antidepressant properties in both animal and clinical studies raise the possibility that classical antidepressants may also influence NK1R expression in the brain. To test this hypothesis, rats were treated with desipramine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, tranylcypromine or vehicle for 14-42 days. NK1R binding sites and mRNA were determined in a wide variety of brain areas using in situ hybridization and quantitative receptor autoradiography. In all areas examined, the abundance of NK1R binding sites was unchanged after 14 days of treatment. None of the treatments altered the number of NK1R binding sites following 42 days treatment with the exception that an increase was found in the locus coeruleus with tranylcypromine. Taken together, we report that repeated treatment with antidepressants of
1. Binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide were localized and characterized in porcine coronary arteries using quantitative autoradiography, and the density of binding sites was compared between large epicardial and small intramyocardial coronary arteries.. 2. A single class of binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide with a dissociation constant of 2.1 ± 0.2 nmol/l was detected in both the large and small coronary arteries. The density of specific binding sites was higher (maximum binding site density 231 ± 14 fmol/mg of protein) in the small coronary arteries than in the large epicardial coronary arteries (maximum binding site density 108 ± 5 fmol/mg of protein). β-Human calcitonin-gene-related peptide showed higher affinity than α-human calcitonin-gene-related peptide for the binding sites. Most of the specific binding sites for both peptides in the large coronary artery were localized in the intima and media.. 3. In coronary artery from patients with coronary heart ...
THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 222:191-200 (1988) Radioautographic Demonstration of Receptors for Epidermal Growth Factor in Various Cells of the Oral Cavity MOON-IL CHO, YU LIN LEE, AND PHILIAS R. GARANT Department of Oral Biology and Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794-8700 ABSTRACT Mouse iodinated epidermal growth factor (EGF)was localizedby light and electron microscopic radioautography in basal cells of oral epithelium, papillary cells of the enamel organ, periodontal ligament fibroblasts, preodontoblast precursor cells, and preosteoblasts of the alveolar bone of 13-day-old Sprague-Dawleyrats. The specificity of binding in these cells was suggested by an observed reduction of about 90% in the labeling when excess unlabeled EGF was injected along with the 125I-EGF. In contrast, fully differentiated cells, such as ameloblasts. odontoblasts, and osteoblasts, were only poorly labeled. Quantitative analysis of the light microscopic ...
Glycoproteins were metabolically labeled with 3H-fucose in cultured RPE cells from RCS rdy-p+ and Long Evans rats. 3H-labeled glycoproteins associated with a plasma membrane-enriched subcellular fraction were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Relative incorporation of 3H-fucose into high molecular weight cell surface glycoproteins (Mr of 128,000-183,000) was measured by quantitative autoradiography and densitometry. The results of these experiments show that 3H-fucose incorporation into four glycoproteins (Mr of 183,000, 175,000, 164,000 and 156,000) was reduced by 30-50% in the dystrophic RPE as compared to the normal cells. This reduction was not due to an absence of the protein core of glycoproteins on the dystrophic RPE cell surface; when RPE cells were labeled with 3H-leucine prior to analysis, no reduction in label was found in the dystrophic RPE as compared to normal. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the RCS rat RPE processes the oligosaccharide portion of ...
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Abstract Migration and elimination of 75Se-labeled Schistosoma mansoni were studied in previously infected mice by means of autoradiography and worm recovery. As in control mice, there appeared to be little if any worm elimination in the skin of previously infected mice. In previously infected mice, there appeared to be some worm elimination in the lungs and in migration sites between the lungs and liver, though much less than would have been expected from previous studies. In two of three experiments most of the challenge worm elimination in previously infected mice, above the normal attrition level occurring in the controls, appeared to take place in the liver. In the third experiment, it appeared that all of the challenge worm elimination occurred after migration to the lungs, and at least one-third of it in the liver. It was also observed that the lung chop procedure recovered viable schistosomula much less efficiently from previously infected mice than from controls, indicating that the reduction
Figure 3. Ocular clusterin localization by immunohistochemistry and in situ analysis. Shown are sections of cornea (panels A-C, serial sections), skin/eyelid (panels D, E, serial sections), ciliary body (unfilled arrow and * in panel F), and lens (panels G, H, serial sections). Immunodetection with G7 are shown in panels B, E, F, and H; panels A, D, and G are the negative controls in which the G7 antibody was omitted. In situ hybridization of an anti-sense clusterin mRNA probe on cornea is shown in panel C. Panel I: graph illustrating the distribution of silver grain over different regions of the cornea shown in panel C, for each general region 10 independent counts within a fixed area were taken. Solid arrows indicate the interface between epithelial and stromal cells (cs) in the cornea, arrow heads indicate the area of epithelial cells in the lens.. ...
Apixaban, a potent and highly selective factor Xa inhibitor, is currently under development for treatment of arterial and venous thrombotic diseases. The distribution, metabolism, and elimination of [14C]apixaban were investigated in male, female, pregnant, and lactating rats after single oral doses. Tissue distribution of radioactivity in rats was measured using quantitative whole-body autoradiography. After a single oral administration, radioactivity distributed quickly in rats with Cmax at 1 h for most tissues. The elimination t1/2 of radioactivity in blood was 1.7 to 4.2 h. The blood area under the plasma concentration-time curve of radioactivity was similar between male and female rats and was slightly higher in pregnant rats and lower in lactating rats. The radioactivity concentration in tissues involved in elimination was greater than that in blood with the highest concentration in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and urinary bladder/contents and lowest level in brains. In pregnant ...