The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
A major challenge for sensory processing in the brain is considering stimulus context, such as stimulus probability, which may be relevant for survival. Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. All cell types displayed SSA of fast ("early") subthreshold and suprathreshold responses with oddball tones of a deviant frequency eliciting enlarged responses compared with adapted standards. SSA was especially strong when oddball frequency matched neuronal preference. In ...
It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
Schuller, Gerd; ONeill, W. E.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne (1991): Facilitation and delay sensitivity of auditory cortex neurons in CF-FM bats, Rhinolopus rouxi and Pteronotus p. parnellii. In: European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 11: pp. 1165-1181 ...
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
Via: PLoS Biology:. How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial ...
Author: Kayser, C et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-12; Title: Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology
Brasselet, R., Panzeri, S., Logothetis, N. K., & Kayser, C. (2012). Neurons with stereotyped and rapid responses provide a reference frame for relative temporal coding in primate auditory cortex. J Neurosci, 32(9), 2998-3008. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5435- ...
A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. The electrode can be arranged in the patients primary auditory cortex and each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical contacts can be arranged to approximately tonotopically match the primary auditory cortex.
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
Front Neural Circuits. 2014 Mar 11;8:15. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2014.00015. eCollection 2014. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex.
Despite vast literature on catecholaminergic neuromodulation of auditory cortex functioning in general, knowledge about its role for long-term memory formation is scarce. Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerb …
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory...
A GENESIS GUI for providing inputs to an auditory cortex model ======================================================================*/ //=============================== // Function Definitions //=============================== // Display the parameters for the specified input function show_params(input_num) str control_form = /input_control int input_num, row_num setfield {control_form}/input_num value {input_num} float frequency, delay, width, interval str pulse_src = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /spikepulse str spike_out = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /soma/spike // this assumes set_pulse_params has been called so that abs_refract != 0 row_num = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_row} setfield {control_form}/targ_row value {row_num} frequency = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_freq} setfield {control_form}/spikefreq value {frequency} delay = {getfield {pulse_src} delay1 } float width = {getfield {pulse_src} ...
When two sounds are presented in quick succession, the neural response to the second sound can decrease relative to when it is presented alone. Previous two-tone experiments have not determined whether the frequency tuning of cortical suppression was determined by the receptive field of the neuron or the exact relationship between the frequencies of the two tones. In the first experiment, it is shown that forward suppression does depend on the relationship between the two tones. This confirmed that cortical forward suppression is frequency specific at the shortest possible timescale ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25;106(34):14611-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907682106. Epub 2009 Aug 10. Clinical Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A neural prosthetic device for an auditory cortex of a patient has a support arranged in the auditory cortex with a plurality of electrical contacts and is connected to a speech processor for receiving and processing audio information and outputting processed electrical signals. Each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical-contacts are arranged to approximately tonotopically match the auditory cortex. Methods and apparatus for selectively treating or inactivating neurons within the brain of a patient. The apparatus includes a dual purpose multicontact neuron-monitoring electrode assembly and an introducer tube for introducing the electrode assembly within the patient in the vicinity of the target tissue. The apparatus and methods of the instant invention are particularly suited to performing magnetic pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinsons disease.
The goal of this study was to understand the spontaneous neuronal activities and acoustic responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI), and the modulation of different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) on different layers of the auditory cortex (AC) especially AI, through in vivo intracellular recordings and/or extracellular recordings in adult urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. One hundred and eighty nine neurons/units in AC, distributed among all six cortical layers, were recorded intracellularly and/or extrcellularly. Thirty-one of forty intracellular recorded neurons (77.50 %) and one hundred and thirty of one hundred and forty nine extracellular recorded units (87.25%) showed excitatory responses to a noise burst stimulus applied to the contralateral ear of the animals. The extracellularly recorded neurons showed synchronized spikes with the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), action potential (AP) and/or rhythmic oscillation of the intracellularly recorded ...
In the next part of the study, we focused on the neuronal plasticity in the auditory cortex. The plasticity of synapse is widely accepted as a candidate mechanism of learning and memory in the brain. From the first published long term potentiation (LTP) induction experiment by Tim Bliss and colleagues in 1972, most experimenters have induced LTP through high frequency or repeated stimuli. Such artificial stimulus patterns in the experimental preparation are, however, uncommon in natural condition. The hippocampus is widely believed to serve only as a memory buffer instead of the location to store permanent memory. The cerebral cortex is regarded as the site for long term memory storage. In a parallel study by Chen and colleagues in our laboratory, they have found that an artificial visuoauditory memory trace could be induced in the auditory cortex through conditioning a combined stimulus of electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex and a visual stimulus with foot shock in the behaving rat. ...
This study addresses the temporal fidelity and spatial topography of auditory cortex suppression during vocalization and resolves a controversy in the animal versus human literature. We first examined averaged ECoG responses across auditory electrodes in seven different subjects. We found a reduction in the N100 component of the ECoG auditory ERP as well as a reduction of induced spectral responses that peaked at 100 Hz, corresponding with the γHigh band. However, examining each auditory electrode with a γHigh response revealed differential degrees of suppression across auditory cortex. Moreover, within each subject different regions of auditory cortex exhibited different types of self-speech modulation of ECoG auditory responses. Single-trial analysis of these electrodes revealed a consistent response across the different trials. Both highly suppressed and nonsuppressed electrodes revealed the same pattern of response in single-trials across the experimental session. Only a few sites ...
Stimuli were generated digitally in MATLAB (MathWorks) at a sampling rate of 97.7 kHz using custom software, converted to analog signals (Tucker-Davies Technologies), power amplified (Crown Audio), attenuated (Tucker-Davies Technologies), and played from a loudspeaker (Fostex FT-28D or B&W-600S3) situated ∼1 m in front of the animal. The loudspeaker had a flat frequency response curve (±5 dB) across the range of frequencies of the stimuli used, with a calibrated level (at 1 kHz) of ∼90 dB SPL at a set level of 0 dB attenuation.. Two-pip stimuli consisted of two short 20-40 ms long tone pips, with one pip centered on an estimated best frequency (BF) to reduce search space. Since we were interested in neurons that did not respond to pure tones, estimating BF of such neurons was a difficult task. Usually, we first defined a narrow search range (usually 0.5 octaves) based on tone responses in the middle cortical layers in the neighborhood of the present electrode track. We then used a wide ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely ...
Little is known about the underlying neurobiology of rhythm and beat perception, despite its universal cultural importance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study rhythm perception in musicians and nonmusicians. Three conditions varied in the degree to which external reinforcement versus internal generation of the beat was required. The "volume" condition strongly externally marked the beat with volume changes, the "duration" condition marked the beat with weaker accents arising from duration changes, and the "unaccented" condition required the beat to be entirely internally generated. In all conditions, beat rhythms compared with nonbeat control rhythms revealed putamen activity. The presence of a beat was also associated with greater connectivity between the putamen and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the premotor cortex (PMC), and auditory cortex. In contrast, the type of accent within the beat conditions modulated the coupling between premotor and auditory cortex, ...
Any of a class of small interneurons in the cerebellum, with multiple processes that synapse on the dendrites of Purkinje cells, the action of which they inhibit, also found in the cerebral cortex, where spiny stellates are excitatory and non-spiny stellates are inhibitory. They are especially abundant in the somatosensory cortex, the primary visual cortex (Area V1), and the primary auditory cortex. Compare basket cell, Golgi cell, pyramidal cell. [From Latin stellatus starry, from stella a star] ...
Deletion of PTEN gene in a subset of auditory cortical neurons increases the length and density of dendritic spines (right panels)."Its long been hypothesized that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) arise from a partial disruption of long-range connections in the brain during development," explains Professor Tony Zador, who led the study. "Our finding that PTEN-deficient neurons receive stronger inputs suggests that one way this disruption can be caused is by signal enhancement." His teams work appears in the Journal of Neuroscience on February 1.. Although ASDs could arise from mutations in any of dozens of candidate genes, a core triad of symptoms defines all cases: impaired language, impaired social interaction, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. "The challenge therefore has been to understand how this diverse set of candidate genes and the pathways they control converge to cause the common signature of ASDs," Zador says. The auditory cortex, which plays a critical role in auditory ...
Keywords: Communications Biophysics, Electrical Responses to Clicks and Tone Pips as Recorded from the Auditory Cortex, Analog Correlator for Electroencephalography, Auditory Sensitization, Electrophysiological Results, Electronic Device for the Measurement of the Latency of Neurals ...
Article: Synaptic properties of thalamic input to the subgranular layers of primary somatosensory and auditory cortices in the mouse. ...
Brain, Human, Amygdala, Extremity, Language, Lower Extremity, Neuroimaging, Organization, Regulation, Arousal, Auditory Cortex, Humans, Learning, Magnetic, Magnetic Resonance, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Music, Prefrontal Cortex, Scales, Time
A new study reveals exactly how the brains motor cortex, seemingly in anticipation of movement, can tweak the volume control in the auditory cortex.
Complexity such as that revealed in Modha and Singhs diagrams always comes to my mind when I read about someones "brain inspired" AGI architecture -- say, Hierarchical Temporal Memory architectures (like Numenta or DeSTIN, etc.) that consist of a hierarchy of layers of nodes, passing information up and down in a manner vaguely reminiscent of visual or auditory cortex. Such architectures may be quite valuable and interesting, but each of them captures a teensy weensy fraction of the architectural and dynamical complexity in the brain. Each of the brain regions in Modha and Singhs diagram is its own separate story, with its own separate and important functions and structures and complex dynamics; and each one interacts with a host of others in specially configured ways, to achieve emergent intelligence. In my view, if one wants to make a brain-like AGI, ones going to need to emulate the sort of complexity that the actual brain has -- not just take some brain components (e.g. neurons) and ...
Tinnitus, the chronic perception of ringing or other phantom sounds, is typically associated with hearing loss. The reduction of auditory input that conveys to auditory cortex leads to the changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activation of the corresponding neurons in this area and is possibly the cause of tinnitus. From the other hand a recent study (Gordon et al. Beain 2013) has shown that bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally driven reorganization. Based on this finding we could expect that in patient with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus the input from unimpaired ear has not been transfered sufficiently to the bilateral hemisphere and this loss of input has resulted in reorganization in neuronal activity of the auditory cortex. To test this hypothesis we compare the amplitude of the neuronal activity bold response of the auditory cortex in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere to the hearing ear in response to different frequency tones. Ten tinnitus patients
Video articles in JoVE about auditory cortex include Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI, Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging, Stereotactically-guided Ablation of the Rat Auditory Cortex, and Localization of the Lesion in the Brain, High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning, Combined Shuttle-Box Training with Electrophysiological Cortex Recording and Stimulation as a Tool to Study Perception and Learning, Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training, Reversible Cooling-induced Deactivations to Study Cortical Contributions to Obstacle Memory in the Walking Cat, Decoding Auditory Imagery with Multivoxel Pattern Analysis, Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice
Congenital amusia is a disorder characterized by impaired musical skills, which can extend to an inability to recognize very familiar tunes. The neural bases of this deficit are now being deciphered. According to a study conducted by researchers from CNRS and Inserm at the Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS / Inserm / Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), amusics exhibit altered processing of musical information in two regions of the brain: the auditory cortex and the frontal cortex, particularly in the right cerebral hemisphere. These alterations seem to be linked to anatomical anomalies in these same cortices. This work, published on April 2013 in the journal Brain, adds invaluable information to our understanding of amusia and, more generally, of the
Birn R.M., Converse A.K., Rajala A.Z., Alexander A.L., Bloek W.F., McMillan A.B, Christian B.T., Filla C.N, Murali D., Hurley S.A., Jenison R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2019) Changes in Endogenous Dopamine Induced by Methylphenidate Predict Functional Connectivity in Nonhuman Primates , Journal of Neuroscience 39:8 1436-1444.. Rajala A.Z., Jenison R.L., and Populin L.C. (2018) Neural correlate of auditory spatial attention allocation in the superior colliculus, Journal of Neurophysiology 119: 1450-1460.. Jenison R.L., Reale R.A., Armstrong A.L., Oya H., Kawasaki H. and Howard III M.A. (2015) Sparse Spectro-temporal Receptive Fields based on Multi-unit and High-gamma response in Human Auditory Cortex, PLoS ONE, 10(9). Rajala, A.Z., Jenison, R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2015) Decision making: effects of methylphenidate on temporal discounting in nonhuman primates. Journal of Neurophysiology, 114, 70-79. Jenison, R.L. (2014) Directional Influence between the Human Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex at the ...
Mammalian hearing is a complex special sense that involves detection, localization, and identification of the auditory stimulus. The cerebral cortex may subserve higher auditory processes by providing direct modulatory cortical projections to the auditory brainstem. To support the hypothesis that co …
The following m files are included: discrimination_MLE.m Calculates the discrimination ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take an hour to run categorization_llikhd.m Calculates the identification ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take 4 minutes to run. Both scripts above use the following helper functions: MNRRS.m Gets the response of the population of neurons to a specific frequency. likhood.m The likelihood function (equation 2 in manuscript) get_params.m The parameters used for the simulation (population parameters and testing parameters) Editing this file will suffice to change population or testing parameters smth_gass_distr.m Helper function for get_params to redefine over-representation. categorization_llikhd also includes: binornd_sim.m The Bernoulli random process simulation (Eq 5 in paper) In addition, the following mat files are included: discr_temp.mat output expected at line 93 of discrimination_MLE to plot, use lines 98-103 ...
The average patient age at tadalafil 20mg lowest price diagnosis was 30.6 years and the mean followup was 65 months. Responses in the human auditory cortex to natural speech reveal a dual character.. The evolution of pharmacokinetics and clinically useful drug assays tadalafil cost at walmart has led to pharmacokinetic dosing, a more sophisticated and exact method of dosing certain agents. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide deficiency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy.. Since the human heart has a complex anatomy, the two-dimensional analysis of myocardial scintigrams obviously is not satisfactory. A range of factors influence health-related quality of life in people with heart failure. Atrophic and a mixed pattern tadalafil online of acne scars improved with a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient. The need to measure the level of surgical risk ...
5. Categorization of Species-Specific Vocalizations in the Non-Human Primate: Features Guiding Behavioral Discrimination and Neural Processing in the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex (Gordon W. Gifford, and Yale E. Cohen)pp. 65- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Penikis, Kristina B.. AU - Young, Stephen K.. AU - Ferrer, Christopher E.. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2017/6/20. Y1 - 2017/6/20. N2 - Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, ...
The scientists found that this learned behaviour was permanent and when they mapped oxytocins effect in the brain of the mice, they found it was working on the left hemisphere of the auditory cortex. In other words they believe that oxytocin was controlling the volume of "social information" that was being processed by individual nerve cells, similar to the way a dimmer switch can turn a light up or down ...
Dr Catia Andreassi, UCL Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology: Bridging funding to support a post-doctoral RA working on understanding the role of mRNA transport and local translation in axons of developing neurons.. Dr Maria Arantzazu Barrios Lafuente, UCL Division of Biosciences: Bridging funds for an intermediate career scientist working with c.elegans in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology.. Dr Daniel Bendor, UCL Psychology and Language Sciences: Contribution towards electrophysiology equipment for a new Investigator recruited from MIT to work on neural circuits in the auditory cortex.. Professor Frances Brodsky, UCL Division of Biosciences: Start-up funds for the provision of postdoctoral RA salaries for a new senior recruit specialising in the biochemical properties of clathrin and its role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes.. Dr Steven Buckingham, UCL Division of Medicine: Bridging funding for a postdoctoral RA pending PI grant applications. His research focuses on ion ...
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural properties of fundamental function encoding of sound selectivity in the female avian auditory cortex. AU - Inda, Masahiro. AU - Hotta, Kohji. AU - Oka, Kotaro. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) use their voices for communication. Song structures in the songs of individual males are important for sound recognition in females. The caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and nidopallium (NCM) are known to be essential higher auditory regions for sound recognition. These two regions have also been discussed with respect to their fundamental functions and song selectivity. To clarify their functions and selectivity, we investigated latencies and spiking patterns and also developed a novel correlation analysis to evaluate the relationship between neural activity and the characteristics of acoustic factors. We found that the latencies and spiking patterns in response to song stimuli differed between the CMM and NCM. In addition, our correlation analysis ...