Subject: Re: neural coorelates of auditory selective attention (development)? From: Rick ,[email protected], Date: Sun, 26 Oct 2008 14:03:59 -0500 List-Archive: I think only a couple or one of these addresses the question directly, but their bibliographies might lead somewhere r =============== Woldorff, M. G., Gallen, C. C., Hampson, S. A., Hillyard, S. A., Pantev, C., Sobel, D. & Bloom, F. E. (1993) Modulation of Early Sensory Processing in Human Auditory Cortex During Auditory Selective Attention. PNAS, 90, 8722-8726. Y. S. Sininger &Cone-Wesson, B. (2004) Asymmetric Cochlear Processing Mimics Hemispheric Specialization. Science, 305, 1581. Van-orden, G. C. (2002) Intentional contents and self-control. Ecological Psychology.; 14, 87-109. Rauschecker, J. P. (1995) Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 36-43. On 10/26/08, Gaab, Nadine ,[email protected], wrote: , Hello List! ...
Authors: Petit, Laurent , Simon, Grégory , Joliot, Marc , Andersson, Frédéric , Bertin, Thomas , Zago, Laure , Mellet, Emmanuel , Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Purpose : Previous neuroimaging studies of oddball tasks and other paradigms measuring attention processes support right hemisphere dominance for attentional processes. Using an auditory selective attention task, we studied the functional asymmetry of the human brain in response to attended or unattended deviant tones. Secondly, we examined whether a congruency or a discrepancy between audio-spatial and visuo-spatial cued attentional resources may influence the activity elicited by an auditory selective attention task. Methods : We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study healthy adults as they performed an auditory oddball task in which a spatial-cued instruction indicated the …ear to attend a monaural deviant tone. We addressed the question of ...
Previous studies have shown that the perceptual organization of the visual scene constrains the deployment of attention. Here we investigated how the organization of multiple elements into larger configurations alters their attentional weight, depending on the pertinence or behavioral importance of the elements features. We assessed object-based effects on distinct aspects of the attentional priority map: top-down control, reflecting the tendency to encode targets rather than distracters, and the spatial distribution of attention weights across the visual scene, reflecting the tendency to report elements belonging to the same rather than different objects. In 2 experiments participants had to report the letters in briefly presented displays containing 8 letters and digits, in which pairs of characters could be connected with a line. Quantitative estimates of top-down control were obtained using Bundesens Theory of Visual Attention (1990). The spatial distribution of attention weights was assessed
The primary commodity in the world is attention. This is the resource whose scarcity matters most-every day, and as it adds up, in your life, in the lives of everyone you know, in the history of the world, in the world itself. The question then becomes: what should you focus your attention on? What issues or problems or features of the world are most worth your attention? You should train yourself to only pay attention to things that matter and things where your attention will pay off and things where your attention will luxuriate and amplify and be drawn to other things that you now realize matter.. We should teach this to children. To pay attention to how you pay attention and what it feels like. Teach them and ourselves how to decide what things are worth paying attention to.. Maybe some people are lucky enough to already be paying attention to only those things and other people need training in how to find those things interesting-because the eventual goal is to narrow the focus of your ...
Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were included only if they showed evidence of attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet; (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output, visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory and the conditional (no-go) component of responding. Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Although the task required attention to be equally shifted to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a greater area of activation in the
Negative priming refers to the situation in which an ignored item on an initial prime trial suffers slowed responding when it becomes the target item on a subsequent probe trial. In this experiment (and a replication), we demonstrate two ways in which stimulus consistency (matching) governs negative priming. First, negative priming for identical words occurred only when the prime distractor changed color when it became the probe target (i.e., constant cue to read the red word); negative priming disappeared when the prime distractor retained its color as the probe target (i.e., cue switches from read the red prime word to read the white probe word). Second, negative priming occurred for identical words, but not for semantically related words, whether related categorically or associatively. This pattern of results is consistent with a memory retrieval account, but not with an inhibition account of negative priming, and casts doubt on whether there is semantic negative priming for words.
To investigate the impact of exogenous covert attention on chromatic (blue and red) and achromatic visual perception in adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Exogenous covert attention, which is a transient, automatic, stimulus-driven form of attention, is a key mechanism for selecting relevant information in visual arrays. 30 adults diagnosed with ADHD and 30 healthy adults, matched on age and gender, performed a psychophysical task designed to measure the effects of exogenous covert attention on perceived color saturation (blue, red) and contrast sensitivity. The effects of exogenous covert attention on perceived blue and red saturation levels and contrast sensitivity were similar in both groups, with no differences between males and females. Specifically, exogenous covert attention enhanced the perception of blue saturation and contrast sensitivity, but it had no effect on the perception of red saturation. The findings suggest that exogenous covert attention is
Background. Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD. Method. Twelve SAD and 15 control participants performed a modified dot-probe task using angry-neutral and happy-neutral face pairs. The P1 component elicited by face pairs was analyzed to test the hypothesis that SAD participants would display early hypervigilance to threat-related cues. The PI component to probes replacing angry, happy or neutral faces was used to evaluate whether SAD participants show either sustained hypervigilance or decreased visual processing of threat-related cues at later processing Stages. Results. Compared to controls, SAD ...
Although, after reviewing Posners research, it may seem logical to conclude that covert and overt attention shifts utilize different neural mechanisms, other more recent studies have shown more overlap than not. Multiple studies have shown activity evident in the frontal cortex, concentrating in the precentral sulcus, the parietal cortex, specifically in the intraparietal sulcus, and in the lateral occipital cortex for both overt and covert attention shifts.[18] This is in support of the premotor theory of attention. While these studies may agree on the areas, they are not always in agreement on whether an overt or covert attentional shift causes more activation. Utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, Corbetta et al., found that overt and covert attention shift tasks showed activation within the same areas, namely, the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Additionally, this study reported that covert shifts of attention showed greater activity levels than in the ...
Debate continues over the hypothesis that children with language or literacy difficulties have a genuine auditory processing deficit. Several recent studies have reported deficits in frequency discrimination (FD), but it is unclear whether these are genuine perceptual impairments or reflective of the comorbid attentional problems that exist in many children with language and literacy difficulties. The present study investigated FD in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when their attentional state was altered with stimulant medication. Auditory thresholds were obtained using FD and frequency modulation detection (FM) tasks. In the FD task, participants judged which of 2 pairs contained a high-low frequency sound, and in the FM task, children judged which of two tones wobbled (i.e., modulated). Children with ADHD had significantly poorer and more variable FD performance when off compared to on stimulant medication, and did significantly worse than controls on all FD runs when
In several markets, firms compete not for consumer expenditure but instead for consumer attention. We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. Specifically, we identify (i) persistence in the elasticity of attention according to income and (ii) complete stability in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gating by inhibition during top-down control of willed attention. AU - Bengson, Jesse J.. AU - Liu, Yuelu. AU - Khodayari, Natalia. AU - Mangun, George R. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - In natural settings, the control of attention may be influenced both by external information as well as internal decision-making processes driven by intent (e.g. free will). In past studies of spatial attention, we and others have developed experimental paradigms that permit individuals to choose where to direct their attention on a trial-by-trial basis in the absence of instructive external cues - we term this willed attention. Here we investigate the electrophysiological correlates of willed attention by recording EEG activity when subjects decided to focus covert attention on one of two lateralized target locations versus when they decided to maintain attention at fixation. Independent of the direction of attention, decisions to attend, relative to decisions not to attend, resulted in ...
Michael Harper for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online A new study published this week in the journal PLoS ONE explains that active and healthy people are more likely to have better attention spans than those with sedentary lifestyles.. Researchers from the University of Granada carried out the study and found that physical activity, such as running or playing sports, can improve the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In addition to a longer attention span, active people were also found to have better cognitive abilities than their less active peers. To reach this conclusion, the University of Granada researchers compared cognitive performance by testing the sustained attention, time oriented attention and time perception of their subjects.. A group of 28 young males comprised the study´s subjects, many of them University of Granada students. These students, aged 17 to 23, showed a low level of physical aptitude and represented the less active ...
BACKGROUND: Attention is frequently impaired after stroke, and its impairment is associated with poor quality of life. Physical activity benefits attention in healthy populations and has also been associated with recovery after brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between objectively measured daily physical activity, attention network connectivity, and attention task performance after stroke. We hypothesized that increased daily physical activity would be associated with improved attention network function. METHODS: Stroke patients (n = 62; mean age = 67 years, SD = 12.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 27; mean age = 68 years, SD = 6 years) underwent cognitive testing and 7 minutes of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting-state. Patients were tested 3 months after ischemic stroke. Physical activity was monitored with an electronic armband worn for 7 days. Dorsal and ventral attention network function was examined using seed-based connectivity analyses. RESULTS:
In crowded visual scenes, attention is needed to select relevant stimuli. To study the underlying mechanisms, we recorded neurons in cortical area V4 while macaque monkeys attended to behaviorally relevant stimuli and ignored distracters. Neurons activated by the attended stimulus showed increased gamma-frequency (35 to 90 hertz) synchronization but reduced low-frequency (,17 hertz) synchronization compared with neurons at nearby V4 sites activated by distracters. Because postsynaptic integration times are short, these localized changes in synchronization may serve to amplify behaviorally relevant signals in the cortex. ...
Behavioral data. RT data for each of the attentional tasks performed before scanning and during PET scanning were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVAs. The value of informative cues was assessed in an ANOVA that compared the four task conditions (ST, S, T, N), of which N provided noninformative cues, whereas all other conditions provided valid cue information for 80% of the trials. The relative advantage and disadvantage for valid and invalid cues was assessed with an ANOVA on data from the two attention conditions in which cueing information was provided along one dimension only (i.e., S and T). The ANOVA tested for the effect of task condition (S, T), cue validity (valid, invalid), target side (left, right), and interval duration (short, long). A final ANOVA looked at data from the attention condition that used both spatially and temporally informative cues simultaneously (ST) and tested the effects of cue validity, target side, and interval duration.. PET and fMRI data. All functional images ...
The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when the fillers were threat/test-related words. To evaluate the effect of the test adaptation, the original ANT, which utilized no emotional distracter, was employed as a control task in Experiment 2. We then consolidated the data on efficiency of attentional networks, which were derived from both tasks. Contrasting the two tasks showed that TA reduced executive attention in the revised task only, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity provided by the adaptation from the original task. Taken together, these findings indicate
Traditionally, in selective visual attention tasks, participants search for a relevant visual target that occurs unpredictably at one of several locations (Posner, 1980). The classic finding is that participants attention can be cued to a certain location, resulting in shorter reaction times (RTs) and fewer errors if a cue is a valid indicator of the upcoming targets location (Posner, 1980) and its visual properties (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). Based on these methods, we recently developed an experimental setup in which a relevant target movie is presented next to an irrelevant distractor movie, and, with every cut, the positions of the two movies can switch or stay the same (Valuch & Ansorge, 2015; Valuch, Ansorge, Buchinger, Patrone, & Scherzer, 2014). The participants attentively viewed the target movie and avoided looking at the distractor movie. Whenever the movies switched locations, participants needed to make a saccadic eye movement to the new location of the target movie. ...
In this chapter we review psychological and physiological experiments on selective attention to touch stimuli. We explore the role of selective attention in tactile target detection and search, determining those tasks that benefit from attention and those which can be effectively performed pre-attentively. We also try to determine the stage at which attentional selection occurs. We review electrophysiological and human brain imaging (PET, fMRI, MEG, SEP) studies to assess how early in the somatosensory processing pathway attentional modulation occurs. There is some evidence that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can show attentional effects. However, a number of studies have suggested that there is a hierarchy to attentional modulation in the somatosensory system, with the greatest effects being observed in secondary and association areas.
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
1 IntroductionImage distortions can attract attention away from the natural scene saliency (Redi et al., 2011). Performance of viewers in visual search tasks and their fixation patterns are also affected by different types and amounts of distortions (Vu et al., 2008). In this paper, we have discussed the opinion that distortions could largely affect the performance of predictive models of visual attention, and simulated the effects of distorted low-level visual features on the saliency-based bottom-up visual attention. Saliency is a fast and pre-attentive mechanism for orienting visual attention to intrinsically important objects which pop-out more easily in a cluttered scene. Distortion of the low-level features that contribute to saliency may impair the readiness of the visual system in detection of salient objects, which may have major implications for critical situations like driving or locomotion. These distortions in natural life can be introduced by eye diseases such as cataract, or spectacles
Learn how to improve your attention span. A short attention span affects every action and area of life. Increasing it, would improve your life in many ways.
Orienting attention to locations in mnemonic representations engages processes that functionally and anatomically overlap the neural circuitry guiding prospective shifts of spatial attention. The attention-based rehearsal account predicts that the requirement to withdraw attention from a memorized location impairs memory accuracy. In a dual-task study, we simultaneously presented retro-cues and pre-cues to guide spatial attention in short-term memory (STM) and perception, respectively. The spatial direction of each cue was independent of the other. The locations indicated by the combined cues could be compatible (same hand) or incompatible (opposite hands). Incompatible directional cues decreased lateralized activity in brain potentials evoked by visual cues, indicating interference in the generation of prospective attention shifts. The detection of external stimuli at the prospectively cued location was impaired when the memorized location was part of the perceptually ignored hand. The ...
Studies have shown that there is a high probability that those who suffer from low attentional control also experience other mental conditions. Low attentional control is more common among those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),a disorder with persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities.[24] Also low attentional control is common in individuals with Schizophrenia and [25] Alzheimers disease,[26] those with social anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression,[27] and attention difficulties following a stroke.[25] Individuals also respond quicker, and have better overall executive control when they have low levels of anxiety and depression.[28] Low levels of attentional control are also thought to increase chances of developing a psychopathology because the ability to shift ones focus away from threat information is important in processing emotions.[29] More researchers are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occipital-parietal interactions during shifts of exogenous visuospatial attention. T2 - Trial-dependent changes of effective connectivity. AU - Indovina, Iole. AU - Macaluso, Emiliano. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. N2 - We studied neural interactions between brain areas involved in exogenous (stimulus-driven) control of visuospatial attention. With event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated changes of connectivity during shifts of spatial attention from an attended location to a previously unattended target location. Using a 3-T scanner, fMRI data were acquired from three healthy volunteers. According to a central visual cue, participants directed endogenous spatial attention to the left or the right visual hemifield for blocks of 56 s. Peripheral visual targets were presented unpredictably in either the attended hemifield (valid trials, 80%) or in the unattended hemifield (invalid trials, 20%) and participants performed a two-alternative ...
We investigated the nature of intrinsic fluctuations in sustained attention by examining distractor processing as a function of attentional state during a continuous performance task. We found evidence that periods of successful attentional performance were associated with greater depth of distractor processing, which was akin to states of low perceptual load. Specifically, we observed enhanced neural sensitivity to irrelevant distractors, as measured by repetition attenuation and error precursors, during periods of superior performance (in the zone epochs).. We also observed unique neural signatures of attentional states across large-scale networks, finding that more erratic, error prone performance (i.e., being out of the zone) is associated with greater engagement of classic TPN regions, whereas relatively stable, in the zone performance is associated with greater activity in TNN/DMN regions. The finding that DMN activity is associated with increased stability replicates our prior work ...
Many current models of working memory (WM) emphasize a close relationship between WM and attention. Recently it was demonstrated that attention can be dynamically and voluntarily oriented to items held in WM, and it was suggested that directed attention can modulate the maintenance of specific WM representations. Here we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the effects of orienting attention to a category of stimuli when participants maintained a variable number of faces and scenes in WM. Retro-cues that indicated the relevant stimulus type for the subsequent WM test modulated maintenance-related activity in extrastriate areas preferentially responsive to face or scene stimuli - fusiform and parahippocampal gyri respectively - in a categorical way. After the retro-cue, the activity level in these areas was larger for the cued category in a load-independent way, suggesting the modulation may also reflect anticipation of the probe stimulus. Activity in associative parietal and
Evidence from visual probe detection tasks suggests that anxious individuals exhibit biased (enhanced) selective attention to threat stimuli, such as angry and fearful faces. Attentional bias to threatening stimuli has been characterized by (1) facilitated attention to stimuli (vigilance), (2) difficulty disengaging attention away from stimuli, or (3) attentional avoidance of stimuli. The current study used event-related potentials (ERP) and behavioural performance measures to examine the effects of attentional bias towards ecologically threatening stimuli (emotional faces) in 18 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and 18 healthy controls during a dot probe task. Behavioural measures of target detection and the amplitude and latency of early (P100, N100) and late (P200, P300) ERPs were assessed during presentation of face pair displays and target probes. Processing of threat-face pairs did not reveal evidence of attentional bias in PTSD patients. Perceptual (P100) and cognitive ...
It is controversial whether the effects of aging on various cognitive functions have the same common cause or several different causes. To investigate this issue, we scanned younger and older adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different tasks: working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. There were three main results. First, in all three tasks, older adults showed weaker occipital activity and stronger prefrontal and parietal activity than younger adults. The occipital reduction is consistent with the view that sensory processing decline is a common cause in cognitive aging, and the prefrontal increase may reflect functional compensation. Secondly, older adults showed more bilateral patterns of prefrontal activity than younger adults during working memory and visual attention tasks. These findings are consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Finally, compared to younger adults, older adults showed ...
Selective visual attention serializes the processing of stimulus data to make efficient use of limited processing resources in the human visual system. This paper describes a connectionist network that exhibits a variety of attentional phenomena reported by Treisman, Wolford, Duncan, and others. As demonstrated in several simulations, a hierarchical, multiscale network that uses feature arrays with strong lateral inhibitory connections provides responses in agreement with a number of prominent behaviors associated with visual attention. The overall network design is consistent with a range of data reported in the psychological literature, and with neurophysiol-ogical characteristics of primate vision.. ...
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Analyzing a scene requires shifting attention from object to object. Although several studies have attempted to determine the speed of these attentional shifts, there are large discrepancies in their estimates. Here, we adapt a method pioneered by Carlson et al (2006) that directly measures pure attentional shift times. We also test if attentional shifts can be handled in parallel by the independent resources available in the two cortical hemispheres. We present 10 clocks, with single revolving hands, in a ring around fixation. Observers are asked to report the hand position on one of the clocks at the onset of a transient cue. The delay between the reported time and the veridical time at cue onset can be used to infer processing and attentional shift times. With this setup, we use a novel subtraction method that utilizes different combinations of exogenous and endogenous cues to determine shift times for both types of attention. In one experiment, subjects shift attention to an exogenously ...
I have an extremely active son. Hes two-and-a-half. Hes been active since I began feeling him move around inside me when I was five months pregnant. Like, non-stop. Did this fetus ever sleep? He certainly didnt sleep when I tried to sleep, and he was especially roused by my everyday activities, such as drinking water, walking and playing music. Olin wanted to run before he could walk. And he got bruises on his head trying. He is, by his very nature, an active kid.. Short Attention Spans in Toddlers are Normal. Being active is really different from having a short attention span. Having a long attention span is a function of age and training. Even toddlers who dont run around all the time like Olin does tend to have really short attention spans. Thats because the neurons in the brain that allow us to pay attention for long periods of time are still developing, according to Lise Eliot in Whats Going On In There: How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life. In other words, ...
Background: Catheterization is the most common cause of pain and distress in children, which causes physical and psychological dysfunctions and disrupts the treatment. Therefore, the control of this type of pain should be considered as a priority for nursing care. The audio-visual distraction can be used to reduce the intensity of pain. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of audio-visual distraction on catheterization pain among school-age children. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 64 school-age children assigned into intervention and control group in Qods Hospital during 2016. Oucher face pain intensity scale was utilized to evaluate the intensity level of pain. Catheterization duration was also recorded in this study. Data were analysed in SPSS software (Version.18) through descriptive statistics, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: The mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 7.8±1.4 and 7.7±1.6, respectively.
Traditionally, scientists have believed that separate areas of the brain controlled these two processes, with bottom-up attention occurring in the posterior parietal cortex and top-down attention occurring in the prefrontal cortex.. This has implications for conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects millions of people worldwide. People with ADHD have difficulty filtering information and focusing attention.. In the Wake Forest Baptist study, two monkeys were trained to detect images on a computer screen while activity in both areas of the brain was recorded. The visual display was designed to let one image pop out due to its color difference from the background, such as a red circle surrounded by green. To trigger bottom-up attention, neither the identity nor the location of the pop-out image could be predicted before it appeared. The monkeys indicated that they detected the pop-out image by pushing a lever.. The neural activity associated with ...
A new study from Microsoft Corp. a human attention span is 8 seconds, showing the affect of increasingly digitalized lifestyle on the brain
Orienting spatial attention to locations in the extrapersonal world has been intensively investigated during the past decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is also possible to shift attention to locations within mental representations held in working memory. This is an important issue, since the allocation of our attention is not only guided by external stimuli, but also by their internal representations and the expectations we build upon them. The present experiment used behavioural measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether spatial orienting to mental representations can modulate the search and retrieval of information from working memory, and to identify the neural systems involved, respectively. Participants viewed an array of coloured crosses. Seconds after its disappearance, they were cued to locations in the array with valid or neutral cues. Subsequently, they decided whether a probe stimulus was presented in the array. The behavioural results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attentional control of the processing of neutral and emotional stimuli. AU - Pessoa, Luiz. AU - Kastner, Sabine. AU - Ungerleider, Leslie G.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - A typical scene contains many different objects that compete for neural representation due to the limited processing capacity of the visual system. At the neural level, competition among multiple stimuli is evidenced by the mutual suppression of their visually evoked responses and occurs most strongly at the level of the receptive field. The competition among multiple objects can be biased by both bottom-up sensory-driven mechanisms and top-down influences, such as selective attention. Functional brain imaging studies reveal that biasing signals due to selective attention can modulate neural activity in visual cortex not only in the presence but also in the absence of visual stimulation. Although the competition among stimuli for representation is ultimately resolved within visual cortex, the source of ...
The objective of this research was to measure the effects of energising drinks containing caffeine and glucose, upon mental activity during sustained selective attention. Non-invasive electrophysiological brain recordings were made during a behavioural study of selective attention in which participants received either energising or placebo drinks. We tested specifically whether energising drinks have significant effects upon behavioural measures of performance during a task requiring sustained visual selective attention, as well as on accompanying components of the event-related potential (ERPs) related to information processing in the brain. Forty healthy volunteers were blindly assigned to receive either the energising drink or a similar-tasting placebo drink. The behavioural task involved identifying predefined target stimulus among rapidly presented streams of peripheral visual stimuli, and making speeded motor responses to this stimulus. During task performance, accuracy, reaction times and ongoing
We propose a novel object-of-interest (OOI) segmentation algorithm for various images that is based on human attention and semantic region clustering. As object-based image segmentation is beyond current computer vision techniques, the proposed method segments an image into regions, which are then merged as a semantic object. At the same time, an attention window (AW) is created based on the saliency map and saliency points from an image. Within the AW, a support vector machine is used to select the salient regions, which are then clustered into the OOI using the proposed region merging. Unlike other algorithms, the proposed method allows multiple OOIs to be segmented according to the saliency map.. © 2006 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Visual attention is a voluntary mechanism allows human to allocate our sensory and computational resources to the most valuable information embedded in the vast amount of incoming visual data. Neuromorphic prosthetics with high-level cognitive function can be used to complete increasingly sophisticated tasks. Inspired by recent developments in the field of attention modulation, we propose a biological neural attention model for online visual attention and implement this model on Xilinx ZYNQ 7000 System-on-chip system. ...
We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory
Mary Anna Dunn, Ed.D.. Originally posted on blogger.com., October 2012.. Among the concerns I have heard raised by enrichment providers, problems with distractibility and impulsiveness are certainly among the most common. Though it may be tempting to assume children with these issues all have ADHD, not every child who has issues with distractibility and impulse control has ADHD. Some are simply on the high end of active for any number of possible reasons.. Given that the relationship between the enrichment provider and the child is often very short term, it may not be necessary to know whether or not the child has ADHD or is struggling because of other, possibly temporary issues (such as adjusting to the unfamiliar environment of your program). What is important is this: if a childs distractibility or impulse control challenges are interfering with her own or her peers opportunities to thrive in your program, she needs your help.. Keep in mind that you are not going to fix this child. You ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective visual attention in patients with frontal lobe lesions or Parkinsons disease. AU - Lee, Sonia S.. AU - Wild, Krista. AU - Hollnagel, Caroline. AU - Grafman, Jordan. PY - 1999/2/1. Y1 - 1999/2/1. N2 - Visual selective attention and response competition were tested in patients with frontal lobe lesions or with Parkinsons disease, and matched normal controls. The target stimuli were presented with flanking distractors that were either compatible, incompatible, or neutral to the target stimulus. The distance between the target and distractors was systematically varied. A control condition without distractors was also included. Subjects response times to target stimuli and accuracy were measured. Both patient groups responded significantly slower and less accurately than their respective matched normal controls across all interference conditions and spatial distances. However, they did not show significantly greater interference or facilitation effects. Thus, the data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine and the mechanisms of cognition. T2 - Part I. A neural network model predicting dopamine effects on selective attention. AU - Servan-Schreiber, David. AU - Bruno, Randy M.. AU - Carter, Cameron S.. AU - Cohen, Jonathan D.. PY - 1998/5/15. Y1 - 1998/5/15. N2 - Background: Dopamine affects neural information processing, cognition, and behavior; however, the mechanisms through which these three levels of function are affected have remained unspecified. We present a parallel distributed processing model of dopamine effects on neural ensembles that accounts for effects on human performance in a selective attention task. Methods: Task performance is stimulated using principles and mechanisms that capture salient aspects of information processing in neural ensembles. Dopamine effects are simulated as a change in gain of neural assemblies in the area of release. Results: The model leads to different predictions as a function of the hypothesized location of dopamine effects. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slowed reaction time performance on a divided attention task in elderly with environmental chemical odor intolerance. AU - Bell, Iris R.. AU - Wyatt, James K.. AU - Bootzin, Richard R.. AU - Schwartz, Gary E.. N1 - Funding Information: Correspondence to: Dr. Iris Bell, Department of Psychiatry, Tucson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3601 S. Sixth Avenue, MS 116A. Tucson, AZ 85723, USA. This research was supported by a grant from the National Dairy Board administered in cooperation with the National Dairy Council. *Current Address: Section on Sleep DisordersICircadianM edicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham & Womens Hospital, Boston, MA USA.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Previous research has suggested an association between the subjective report of illness from environmental chemical odors and poorer cognitive task performance in persons with industrial levels of xenobiotic exposures. The present study investigated baseline morning performance on a computerized divided ...
The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of attention network test and demographic information to detect mild cognitive impairment via combining feature selection with support vector machine. AU - Lv, Shipin. AU - Wang, Xiukun. AU - Cui, Yifen. AU - Jin, Jue. AU - Sun, Yan. AU - Tang, Yiyuan. AU - Bai, Ying. AU - Wang, Yan. AU - Zhou, Li. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is now thought as the prodromal phase of Alzheimers disease (AD), and the usual method for diagnosing the disease would be a battery of neuropsychological assessment. The present study proposes to integrate a feature selection scheme with support vector machine (SVM) to identify patients with MCI by using attention network test (ANT) and demographic data. Forty-two patients with MCI and forty-five normal individuals underwent ANT recording, and the reaction time and accuracy of ANT and demographics (age, gender, and educational level) were selected as original features. To select features, we first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of menstrual-related pain on attentional interference. AU - Keogh, E.. AU - Cavill, R.. AU - Moore, D.J.. AU - Eccleston, C.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Pain-related attentional interference has been found in both chronic pain and laboratory-inducted pain settings. However, few studies have examined such interference effects during common everyday painful episodes. Menstrual cycle-related pain is a common pain that affects a large number of women on a regular basis. The purpose of the current study was, therefore, to examine the effects of menstrual pain on attentional interference. Fifty-two healthy adult women were tested during 2 different phases of their menstrual cycles: once during a nonpain phase (mid follicular), and once while experiencing menstrual pain (late luteal/early follicular). On each testing session, participants received a battery of 4 attentional interference tasks that included selective attention (flanker task), attention span (n-back task), ...
Bodenhausen, Galen. 1999. Resisting stereotype change: the role of motivation and attentional capacity in defending social beliefs. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 2(1): 5-16.
Press Release Title: NCCCOs Lift Safety Zone Attracts Worldwide Attention at CONEXPO. Details: Crane users from all over the world were drawn to NCCCOs activities at CONEXPO-CON/AGG in Las Vegas. In particular, the crane and rigging demonstrations featured in the Lift Safety Zone were a resounding success. NCCCO provides complete coverage of crane and rigging events at CONEXPO in its current special issue of its e-newsletter CCOnline. (Not signed up? Click here to subscribe for free!) ...
Variable Technologies garners global attention at Consumer Electronics Show (CES) with help of Atlanta public relations firm Write2Market.
Should Attention Training be Thought in Schools? Should attention training be thought in schools? Before I get into my personal answer, let me offer some background information. They say the currency on the internet is attention. Rightfully so as every webpage these days have been developed with the purpose of keeping you within its constraints,…
The present study demonstrates that controlled hypoglycemia causes attentional dysfunction in nondiabetic humans. A decline in the rate of information processing was demonstrable in visual and auditory selective attention and in attentional switching. By contrast, nonverbal intelligence was not affected by hypoglycemia.. Although previous investigators have attempted to demonstrate attentional problems during acute hypoglycemia using psychological tests, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to confirm dysfunction of subdivisions of attention during hypoglycemia using a test battery designed specifically to measure attention. The TEA was devised from the evidence on separable attention systems in the brain (10). Using the concept that attention is fractionated into different supramodal systems, it has been proposed that attention consists of at least three separate systems (10), as follows: a selection system is responsible for selecting relevant stimuli/processes and inhibiting ...
Analyses revealed significant impairments in patients neurocognitive test performance on all measures. After statistically controlling for age at RT and time from RT, significant associations were found between NAWM volumes and both attentional abilities and IQ, and between attentional abilities and IQ. Subsequent analyses supported the hypothesis that attentional abilities, but not memory, could explain a significant amount of the relationship between NAWM and IQ. The final developmental model predicting academic achievement based on NAWM, attentional abilities, and IQ explained approximately 60% of the variance in reading and spelling and almost 80% of the variance in math. ...
During skill execution, performers have been shown to attend to different aspects of movement, the external effects of ones action, or to other environmental information. A variety of psychological mechanisms have been proposed to account for the differential outcomes when adopting each attentional strategy. However, there is limited information about the extent to which different attentional foci change the workload demands of task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), and also with a secondary task that directed attention toward an aspect of skill execution (skill-focused) and an unrelated environmental stimulus (extraneous focus). Primary and secondary task performances were significantly greater in the extraneous focus compared to the skill-focused dual-task. Also, workload was significantly lower during the extraneous focus compared to ...
As is known to all, vitiligo is a kind of very stubborn skin disease, that vitiligo patients should pay attention to take a shower? How to take a shower is beneficial to the health of patients with vitiligo? This is a lot of patients issues of concern, to this, huahai vitiligo hospital experts point out that, in the bath, patients should pay attention to the following: ...
This report unifies past literature on mirror neurons, thought to participate in the imitation and interpretation of observed action (15, 16), with literature on gaze following, thought to mediate the sharing of attention between individuals (1, 2, 6, 9). Mirror neurons are motor neurons that discharge not only during enactment, but also during observation of a particular behavior (15, 16). LIP, although not classically a motor area, is active in gaze-related sensorimotor transformations (47-50), and its activity contributes to both overt (51) and covert shifts of attention (32, 41), and to maintenance of attention at fixation (52, 53). We here report that neurons in LIP respond not only when monkeys orient attention toward their RFs, but also when other monkeys are observed orienting in the same direction. These effects are detectable despite the irrelevance of social gaze cues to the behavioral task, and despite the fact that faces were presented outside the classical RFs of neurons. We find ...
Humans survive in environments that contain a vast quantity and variety of visual information. All items of perceived visual information must be represented within a limited number of brain networks. The human brain requires mechanisms for selecting only a relevant fraction of perceived information for more in-depth processing, where neural representations of that information may be actively maintained and utilized for goal-directed behavior. Object-based attention is crucial for goal-directed behavior and yet remains poorly understood. Thus, in the study we investigate how neural representations of visual object information are guided by selective attention. The magnitude of activation in human extrastriate cortex has been shown to be modulated by attention; however, object-based attention is not likely to be fully explained by a localized gain mechanism. Thus, we measured information coded in spatially distributed patterns of brain activity with fMRI while human participants performed a task ...
Shifts of covert visual attention induce changes in alpha power over posterior electrode sites. Initial analyses revealed that an early desynchronization was of little discriminative value regarding the direction of attention shifts. We believe that this early desynchronization may be related to the preparation of covert attention shifts. A subsequent synchronization, however, yielded distinctive topographic patterns for the different directions and served as a basis for classification.. Using regularized logistic regression, significant binary classification performance was obtained for each participant, with a mean accuracy of 73.65% for the best pair of directions. A classification accuracy of 70% was proposed as performance threshold above which BCI performance can be considered as robust [32, 33]. In the present study, six participants had a peak performance above 70%, and two participants had a performance that was slightly lower (66% and 69%). Interestingly, this figure is close to the ...
TY - THES. T1 - When attention takes over. T2 - attentional bias and its modification in substance use and addiction. AU - Heitmann, Janika. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - It has been proposed that selective attention for substance-relevant information might contribute to the persistence of addiction. To improve insight about which component of attentional bias is relevant to target during treatment, the first aim of this dissertation was to investigate whether substance use is most strongly related to attentional capture of substance cues or to a difficulty to redirect attention away from these cues. In a non-clinical sample it was found that alcohol use was related to a difficulty to disengage attention from alcohol cues. However, patients diagnosed with alcohol or cannabis addiction showed heightened attentional capture of substance cues, indicating that especially heightened attentional capture might be relevant in problematic substance use.The second aim of this dissertation was to test the ...
Clothing often focuses attention on the genitals and sexual arousal, rather than away from them. [52] At various times in Western history different parts of female anatomy have been eroticized: bellies and thighs in the Renaissance; buttocks, breasts, and thighs by the late 1800s (and relatively diminutive waists and bellies). Underwear design has historically emphasized these erogenous body parts: corsets in the 1800s de-emphasized the midriff and emphasized the breasts-using materials including whalebone and steel; the crinoline in the mid 1800s emphasized the waist; and the bustle, appearing in 1868, emphasized the buttocks.[53] Bathing suit design today focuses attention on the breasts and pubic region. E.B. Hurlock writes: When primitive peoples are unaccustomed to wearing clothing, putting it on for the first time does not decrease their immorality, as the ladies of missionary societies think it will. It has just the opposite effect. It draws attention to the body, especially for those ...
article{897de195-2872-4fbd-a994-ffa44f635d84, abstract = {,p,Gestalt psychology has traditionally ignored the role of attention in perception, leading to the view that autonomous processes create perceptual configurations that are then attended. More recent research, however, has shown that spatial attention influences a form of Gestalt perception: the coherence of random-dot kinematograms (RDKs). Using ERPs, we investigated whether temporal expectations exert analogous attentional effects on the perception of coherence level in RDKs. Participants were presented fixed-length sequences of RDKs and reported the coherence level of a target RDK. The target was indicated immediately after its appearance by a postcue. Target expectancy increased as the sequence progressed until target presentation; afterward, remaining RDKs were perceived without target expectancy. Expectancy influenced the amplitudes of ERP components P1 and N2. Crucially, expectancy interacted with coherence level at N2, but not at ...
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a change detection task in which we manipulated both target and distracter set sizes. We directly compared the IPS response as a function of the number of targets and distracters in the display and in VSTM. When distracters were not present, the posterior and middle segments of IPS showed the predicted asymptotic activity increase with an increasing target set size. When distracters were added to a single target, activity also increased as predicted. However, the addition of distracters to multiple targets suppressed both middle and posterior IPS activities, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and
This graphic is from a YouTube video created this month by one of two college students from South Korea who were working with me in Chicago. And this graphi…
Image of 21-year-old woman, who presented with a chronic nasal bone fracture and soft tissue swelling of the left lateral face. Review of electronic medical records revealed presentation to an outside hospital 9 months ago with oblique fracture of the right ring finger proximal phalanx, blowout fracture of the medial wall of the left orbit and similar soft tissue swelling of the left face. Traumatic findings separated in time suggest recurrent violence. Image courtesy of Elizabeth George, M.D.. ...
Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an irrelevant-change distracting effect, where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants processing manner, leading to a false-positive result. The current study conducted a strict examination of OBE in VWM, by probing whether irrelevant-features guided the deployment of attention in visual search. The participants memorized an objects colour yet ignored shape and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target line among distractor lines, each embedded within a different object. One object in the search display could match the shape, colour, or both dimensions of the memory item, but this object
In the present experiment, 25 adult subjects discriminated speech tokens ([ba]/[da]) or made pitch judgments on tone stimuli (rising/falling) under both binaural and dichotic listening conditions. We observed that when listeners performed tasks under the dichotic conditions, during which greater dem …
J. Allman, F. Miezin, & E. McGuinness (1985). Stimulus specific responses from beyond the classical receptive field: neurophysiological mechanisms for local-global comparisons in visual neurons. Annual Review of Neuroscience 8:407-430. N. Bruce & J. K. Tsotsos (2006). Saliency Based on Information Maximization. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 18:155-162. M. W. Cannon & S. C. Fullenkamp (1991). Spatial interactions in apparent contrast: inhibitory effects among grating patterns of different spatial frequencies, spatial positions and orientations. Vision Research 31:1985-1998. R. Carmi & L. Itti (2006). Visual Causes versus Correlates of Attentional Selection in Dynamic Scenes. Vision Research 46(26):4333-4345. F. Crick (1984). Function of the thalamic reticular complex: the searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences USA 81(14):4586-90. R. Desimone & J. Duncan (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of ...
A new framework for simulating the visual attention system in primates is introduced. The proposed architecture is an abstraction of existing approaches influenced by the work of Koch and Ullman, and Tompa. Each stage of the attentional hierarchy is chosen with consideration for both psychophysics and mathematical optimality. A set of attentional operators are derived that act on basic image channels of intensity, hue and orientation to produce maps representing perceptual importance of each image pixel. The development of such operators is realized within the context of a genetic optimization. The model includes the notion of an information domain where feature maps are transformed to a domain that more closely corresponds to the human visual system. A careful analysis of various issues including feature extraction, density estimation and data fusion is presented within the context of the visual attention problem ...
Popularity is self reinforcing. The attention garnered by popular options propels further interest in them. Yet rather than blindly follow the crowd, most pay attention to how well these items match their tastes. We model this role of social learning in guiding selective attention and market dynamics. We confirm that attention focuses on options that quickly achieve popularity. Information externalities render the chosen set smaller than socially optimal. This rationalizes antitrust policies that encourage early experimentation. When attention costs are based on Shannon entropy, optimal policies are computable. With rich data, optimal choices can be identified for all consumer types. You may purchase this paper on-line in .pdf format from SSRN.com ($5) for electronic delivery.. ...
write an opinion on this Look at something red in the room, and youll be more likely to notice something red out of the corner of your eye, elsewhere in the room. Researchers have known that this implicit attentional selection is outside conscious control and that we are unaware of its functioning.. Researchers, led by David Melcher of Oxford Brookes University and Zoltán Vidnyánszky of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, have developed an experimental technique for measuring the processing of visual input outside the focus of attention as a function of what subjects are concentrating on inside their attentional focus. Their technique will enhance study of this little-understood phenomenon, they said. The research is published in the June 2 issue of Neuron.. For example, they used their technique to show that, in the process of implicit attentional selection, different features of an object are automatically clustered. For example, subjects asked to pay attention ...
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The winter of 2013-14 disrupted the intermodal shipping industry in North America, causing service problems and impeding growth. However, intermodal now offers a number of attractive advantages for shippers, particularly as rail operations pour resources into their intermodal efforts to strengthen service and compete with trucking. Sites that specialize in intermodal utilize innovations to streamline the process and apply new resources to make for an increasingly efficient and effective distribution process.. ...
Figure 2: Deviations of ocular saccades when attention is allocated to a peripheral point. The figure reports an example of the experimental paradigm used by Sheliga, Riggio, and Rizzolatti (1995) to support the premotor theory of attention. The basic assumption was that if visuospatial attention involves an activation of oculomotor circuits, then this activation should influence an overt oculomotor response. In contrast, if attention is not related to oculomotion, there is no reason why such an influence should occur. The basic experimental situation was similar to that used in experiments on meridian effect (see Figure 1). Participants were instructed to fixate a central cross and to pay attention to one of the possible stimulus locations according to the cue. The major difference was that the measured variable was not a manual response but a vertical saccade directed to a box located below or above the fixation point. Specifically, the visual display comprised three filled and two empty ...
The ability of animals to communicate using gaze is a rich area of research. How domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) use and respond to the gaze of humans is...
Pay attention to the difference in child cerebral palsy and calcium cerebral palsy not heal,We have received a children in the family, more than 3 months have found some exceptions: lying in bed almost neck lift, hands and legs no e
Visual search can be facilitated by the learning of spatial configurations that predict the location of a target among distractors. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence implicates the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system in this contextual cueing effect, and electroencephalography (EEG) studies have identified the involvement of visual cortical regions related to attention.
Why Investors Should Pay Attention to Seattle Genetics Drug Trial - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
We should all know that diet is very important for us, kidney stones caused by not pay attention to diet, then we look on patients with kidney stones which have diet advice! Drink plenty of water: recommendations in the United States doctor
This population study suggests that FC in early childhood does not have adverse effects on behavior, scholastic performance, and neurocognitive attention. On the contrary, the FC group demonstrated significantly better control of distractibility and attention at school age.