Environmental factors can alter DNA methylation and epigenetic modifications in the germline [51, 90]. We studied the effects of the widely used herbicide atrazine (ATZ) on meiosis. In many countries, ATZ is the most common contaminant detected in rivers [19, 72, 92]. ATZ residues are even detected in soil and aqueous environments in countries where it has been banned [59, 102, 103]. Low levels of ATZ metabolites in pregnant women are associated with low birth weight [16, 61]. In mammals, ATZ is metabolized by several groups of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. The metabolism of ATZ interferes with oxidative phosphorylation and cytochrome P450 function, resulting in decreased oxygen consumption [10, 14, 39, 47]. ATZ is known to alter reproductive processes in rodents [96, 101], reptiles [18], birds [104], goats [81], amphibians [28-30] and fish [63, 69]. ATZ targets many tissues, including the testes [67, 68, 101], ovaries [8, 17, 41, 52], brain [5, 7], liver [25, 36, 38, 78]. The effects of ATZ ...
Beyond Pesticides, December 15, 2009) Exposure to the endocrine-disrupting herbicide atrazine triggers the release of stress hormones in rats, according to a new study published in the December 2009 issue of the journal Toxicological Sciences. The researchers believe this may explain how the popular weed killer produces some its harmful reproductive effects. The study, "Characterization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response to Atrazine and Metabolites in the Female Rat," was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory.. According to a December 4 analysis by Environmental Health Sciences, a foundation-funded journalism organization, the researchers discovered that female rats fed atrazine at the time of ovulation released a flow of stress hormones that are known to interfere with hormones essential for reproduction. The findings reveal one way atrazine may impact female reproduction. Elevated stress hormones ...
The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. Atrazine is also a potent endocrine disruptor that is active at low, ecologically relevant concentrations. Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Atrazine-exposed males were both demasculinized (chemically castrated) and completely feminized as adults. Ten percent of the exposed genetic males developed into functional females that copulated with unexposed males and produced viable eggs. Atrazine-exposed males suffered from depressed testosterone, decreased breeding gland size, demasculinized/feminized laryngeal development, suppressed mating behavior, reduced spermatogenesis, and decreased fertility. These data are consistent with effects of atrazine ...
Beyond Pesticides, March 3, 2010) A recently published study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that male frogs exposed to the herbicide atrazine can become so completely female that they can mate and lay viable eggs. This latest study adds to the growing scientific evidence which shows that atrazine, one of the most common herbicides used in the U.S., disrupts the development and behavior of aquatic animals, and negatively effects their immune, hormone, and reproductive systems. The study, "Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)," led by Tyrone Hayes, PhD, at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Dr. Hayes and other researchers examined a group of 40 African clawed frogs, all of which carried male chromosomes. As tadpoles, the frogs were put in water with 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) of atrazine - a concentration ...
The EPA has measured concentrations of atrazine and similar pesticides in food crops and livestock commodities. They used this information in another model which contains data from consumption surveys (that asked for the type and amount of food consumed) of nearly 25,000 individuals in the US. The model converted any processed food into its corresponding raw agricultural commodity (i.e., vegetable, fruit, cereal grain, etc.), thus estimate the amount of atrazine an average American consumes through food.. Additionally, the EPA periodically monitors lakes, streams, rivers and groundwater for levels of atrazine. Using toxicology data, the EPA is able to estimate the maximum concentration of atrazine in drinking water safe for humans. This concentration should be less than the concentrations actually observed in the EPAs extensive water monitoring data.. Finally, the EPA addressed atrazine exposure through skin contact. They looked at studies on how much atrazine transferred to cloths that were ...
Soluble sugars, which play a central role in plant structure and metabolism, are also involved in the responses to a number of stresses, and act as metabolite signalling molecules that activate specific or hormone-crosstalk transduction pathways. The different roles of exogenous sucrose in the tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets to the herbicide atrazine and oxidative stress were studied by a transcriptomic approach using CATMA arrays. Parallel situations of xenobiotic stress and sucrose-induced tolerance in the presence of atrazine, of sucrose, and of sucrose plus atrazine were compared. These approaches revealed that atrazine affected gene expression and therefore seedling physiology at a much larger scale than previously described, with potential impairment of protein translation and of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) defence mechanisms. Correlatively, sucrose-induced protection against atrazine injury was associated with important modifications of gene expression related to ROS defence
Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58% > limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure < median was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.42) compared to girls with exposure < LOD (reference). In the subset that excluded girls with missing data, the adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposure < median was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.24) compared to the reference ...
The Environmental Protection Agency will hold a Scientific Advisory Panel public meeting Tuesday, to review and consider the ecological risks from the use of Atrazine. The product is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States and it could be banned here. Produced by Swiss agrochemical company Syngenta, Atrazine has been banned in the European Union since 2004, but 80 million pounds of it are applied in the United States each year.. Atrazine is a potent endocrine disruptor that has been shown to cause immunosuppression, hermaphroditism and even complete sex reversal in male frogs at concentrations as low as 2.5 parts per billion. The chemical has been linked to reproductive defects in fish and prostate and breast cancer in laboratory rodents, and epidemiological studies suggest it is carcinogenic to humans. Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide in American groundwater.. It is used primarily on corn, sugarcane, rice, sorghum and on golf courses and lawns. Atrazine has a ...
A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL)-based immunoassay technique based on both dipstick and flow injection analytical formats is reported for the detection of atrazine. In the dipstick-based immunoassay technique, antibody (anti-atrazine) was first immobilized on the nitrocellulose membranes. The dipstick was then treated with atrazine and atrazine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (atra-HRP) to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with urea-hydrogen peroxide (U-H2O2) and luminol to generate photons. The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the atrazine concentration. In the flow injection analysis (FIA) format, the antibody was immobilized on protein-A sepharose matrix and packed in a glass capillary column, which functioned as an immunoreactor. Competitive binding of antigen and antibody occurred. The CL signals generated during the biochemical reactions were correlated with atrazine concentrations in the analytical samples. By using dipstick ...
Excessive use of pesticides and herbicides is a major environmental and health concern worldwide. Atrazine, a synthetic triazine herbicide commonly used to control grassy and broadleaf weeds in...
Atrazine is widely used as a selective triazine herbicide for controlling a wide varieties of broad-leaf and grassy weeds [1]. Atrazine herbicide is moderately present in the aquatic environment and has a low rate of biodegradability. Despite the atrazines low water solubility, there is much concern about the contamination of water resources with the highly toxic herbicides [2, 3]. Many studies reported that atrazines half-life in the aqueous phase and groundwater resources ranges from 41 to 237 days and 15 months to 20 years, respectively [4].. The maximum contaminant level for atrazine in drinking water established by the USEPA and WHO is 3.0 and 2.0 $$\mu$$gL−1, respectively [5]. Long-term effects of atrazine include probable human carcinogen, endocrine-disrupter, alteration in vitamins function, hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity [6].. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) [7] and photocatalytic oxidation process are efficient methods relying on hydroxyl radicals (OH°) production to ...
A new study came out this week that happened to remind me of one of my pet peeves about certain biomedical studies -- choosing an "outcome" measure that doesnt tell you what you really want to know. The study, which was led by Stanford postdoctoral fellow Jennifer Hartle, DrPH, and estimated the amount of BPA a child is exposed to in the course of a normal school day, was great. But her description of EPA safety tests on the plastics component Bisphenol A, or BPA -- done back in the 1980s -- made me think back to earlier work by University of California, Berkeley biologist Tyrone Hayes, PhD.. In the 1990s, the agricultural herbicide atrazine was safety tested by exposing frogs to low doses of atrazine as they developed from eggs to tadpoles to frogs. The adult frogs didnt die or show obvious deformities such as extra legs, so the pesticide was deemed safe. But Hayes took a closer look and, in 2002, found that even at very low levels of atrazine exposure, male frogs were producing eggs instead ...
Abstract The photodegradation of the herbicides atrazine and ametryn with visible light in aerated neutral aqueous solutions and 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (2,6-dichloro-3-sulfophenyl) porphyrin or 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (4-sulfophenyl) porphyrin as sensitizers are reported for the first time. Our findings show that the degradation percentage reached 30% for atrazine and 63% for ametryn. The final photoproducts were characterized as dealkylated s-triazines. Photolysis of the pesticides in the presence of a singlet oxygen quencher showed only a minor contribution of this type of mechanism, while a bimolecular quenching reaction between the triplet state of the sensitizer and the pesticides is excluded by flash photolysis studies. It is proposed that the mechanism may involve the formation of a superoxide radical anion from the triplet state of the sensitizer and molecular oxygen, followed by a radical decomposition pathway ...
Following is a press release from US EPA summarizing important regulatory actions relating to atrazine.. "In January 2003, EPA issued an Interim Re-registration Eligibility Decision (IRED) for the widely-used pesticide atrazine, culminating a multi-year assessment. Specific risk mitigation measures were described for potential human health concerns, however the document committed to future development of measures for mitigating ecological risks. As a follow-up, an addendum to the January document is being released. The addendum discusses ecological monitoring and risk mitigation within sensitive watersheds, the most current scientific information regarding potential effects of atrazine on amphibians and recent scientific work about the potential association between atrazine exposure and the incidence of prostate and other cancers.. "Specifically to target monitoring of ecologically vulnerable watersheds, the manufacturers of atrazine are required to monitor residue levels in 40 indicator ...
atrazine chlorohydrolase: an atrazine-dechlorinating enzyme with restricted substrate specificity & contributes to the microbial hydrolysis of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine in soils & groundwater
The PELAGIE cohort. The PELAGIE cohort included 3,421 pregnant women from Brittany from 2002 through February 2006. Enrollment started in the district of Ille-et-Vilaine, continued in Finistère, and ended in Côtes dArmor. Gynecologists, obstetricians, and ultrasonographers recruited women during consultations in early pregnancy, informing them about the nature of the study and asking them to participate (after providing written consent). Women were enrolled before the 19th week of gestation after providing written informed consent and completing a questionnaire at home concerning family social and demographic characteristics, diet, and lifestyle. Women were asked to return the questionnaire by mail, along with a first-morning-void urine sample that they collected and transferred into two vials containing nitric acid (to inhibit bacterial proliferation). Samples were mailed to the study laboratory (INSERM U625, Rennes, France) in a prestamped package at ambient temperature, with routine ...
Article Sorption and resistant desorption of Atrazine in typical Chinese soils. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides and is produced and used in large quantity worldwide. In the present study, the sorption and desorption of atrazine i...
Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plots of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by
The present study investigates the efficiency of a sustainable treatment technology, the electrophotocatalytic (EPC) process using innovative photoanode TiO2−x prepared by a magnetron sputter deposition process to remove the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) from water. The coexistence of anatase and rutile were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the presence of oxygen vacancies reduce the value of the observed bandgap to 3.0 eV compared to the typical 3.2 eV TiO2, this reduction is concomitant with a partial phase transition which is probably responsible for the increase in photoactivity. The experimental results with an initial concentration of ATZ (100 μg L−1) show that more than 99% of ATZ oxidation was obtained after 30 min of treatment and reaction kinetic constant was about 0.146 min−1. This good efficiency indicates that EPC process is an efficient, simple and green technique for degradation of pesticides such as ATZ in water. The analysis with liquid chromatography technique ...
Tese de mestrado em Biologia (Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008Atrazine has been used worldwide since 1952 and is frequently detected above the levels established by regulatory authorities in consumption waters. Therefore, and because of its ecotoxicological properties, its use has been forbidden in most European countries, including Portugal. However, atrazine is still used in many countries worldwide. The main purpose of the present work was to examine the efficacy of the atrazinedegrading bacteria Pseudomonas sp. ADP (P. ADP) as bioaugmentation agent in soils contaminated with high doses (~20x and ~50xRD; RD Recommended dose) of the commercial formulation, Primextra S-Gold, that contains atrazine, and also S-metolachlor and benoxacor as main active ingredients. It was also tested the effect of combining bioaugmentation and biostimulation using soil amendment with trisodium citrate in open soil microcosms, with ...
Atrazine exposure during embryonic development could cause later reproductive problems for female zebrafish, as well as physical deformations in their offspring, according to new research from Purdue University.
The herbicide atrazine is a potent endocrine disrupter that chemically castrates and feminizes exposed male amphibians. Further, when combined with other pesticides, exposure results in a hormonal stress response that leads to retarded growth and development, and immuno-suppression. The immuno-suppression results in increased disease rates and mortality. Though many factors likely contribute to amphibian declines, pesticides likely play an important role even in populations that appear to decline for other reasons, such as disease. Pesticides like atrazine are ubiquitous, persistent contaminants. Effects of exposure have been shown in every vertebrate class examined (fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals) via common mechanisms. These observations demonstrate the critical impact that pesticides have on environmental health. Furthermore, reproductive cancers and birth defects associated with exposure to many of these same chemicals (e.g. atrazine) via identical mechanisms demonstrate that the ...
Reliable predictions of the fate and behaviour of pesticides in soils is dependent on the use of accurate equilibrium sorption constants and/or rate coefficients. However, the sensitivity of these parameters to changes in the physicochemical characteristics of soil solids and interstitial solutions remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effects of soil organic matter content, particle size distribution, dissolved organic matter and the presence of crop residues (wheat straw and ash) on the sorption of the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon by a clay soil. Sorption Kds derived from batch equilibrium studies for both atrazine and isoproturon by ,2 mm clay soil were approximately 3.5 L/kg. The similarity of Kocs for isoproturon sorption by the ,2 mm clay soil and ,2 mm clay soil oxidised with hydrogen peroxide suggested that the sorption of this herbicide was strongly influenced by soil organic matter. By contrast, Kocs for atrazine sorption by oxidised soil were three times ...
Citation: Barriuso, E., Koskinen, W.C., Sadowsky, M.J. 2004. Solvent extraction characterization of bioavailability of atrazine residues in soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52:6552-6556. Interpretive Summary: Characterization of pesticide bioavailability, particularly in aged soils, is of continued interest because this information is necessary for environmental risk assessment of pesticides. The objective of this study was to correlate atrazine (a triazine herbicide) residue bioavailability in aged soils, as determined by solvent extraction methods, to atrazine mineralization by an atrazine-degrading bacterium. We identified an extraction procedure using aqueous methanol (a water/alcohol mixture) that can characterize atrazine bioavailability in dissimilar aged soils, which in turn may be useful to determine bioavailability of other compounds in soils, especially other triazine herbicides. Scientists now a relatively easy and inexpensive technique to determine the amounts of ...
The most-researched crop production product in use today is subject of another study that raises questions about the safe levels of the product in drinking water. Atrazine, a widely used herbicide, has been on the market for more than 50 years, and has been subject to thousands of studies.. This latest toxicology study from Purdue University reports to have found that atrazine "alters reproductive and neuroendocrine genes during embryonic development in fish." Digging into the study isnt for the non-tech faint of heart; this is a look at a genetic response to the herbicide on 42 genes out of more than 35,000 in the genome of a fish - the zebrafish.. Freeman tells Farm Progress that researchers evaluated all the genes in the zebrafish genome for changes in response to exposure at 0.3 parts per billion, 3 ppb and 30 ppb. She reports that 21 genes changed at 0.3 ppb, 62 genes changed at 3 ppb and 64 genes changed at 30 ppb adding that "42 is the number o genes that were changed in both the 3 and ...
Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide that has been shown to have adverse reproductive effects including alterations in levels of pituitary hormones such as prolactin (prl) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in female LE rats when administered at doses of 200 mg/kg/day for 1 and 3 days. Because the action of prl in promotion of progesterone secretion is essential for the initiation of pregnancy in rats, this study was designed to examine the effect of exposure to ATR during early pregnancy on implantation and short-term pregnancy maintenance. Rats were divided into two groups representing periods of dosing with ATR prior to the diurnal or nocturnal surges of prl. Within each group, four groups consisting of four strains of rats [Holtzman (HLZ); Sprague Dawley (SD); Long Evans (LE); Fischer 344 (F344)] were each further subdivided into four ATR dosages. Rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day ATR on days 1-8 of pregnancy (day 0 = sperm +). All animals were necropsied on day 8 or 9 of ...
Atrazine is a common but controversial pre- and post-emergent herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass-like weeds in commercial farming fields. It is also a component of granular weed and feed lawn products designed for the home and landscape gardener. The use of atrazine is banned in Europe due to concerns over ...
Adsorption of two widespread emerging water contaminants (atrazine and paracetamol) onto three different activated carbons was investigated. The carbons were characterized and the influence of their physicochemical properties on the adsorption performance of atrazine and paracetamol was evaluated. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to different adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) while the adsorption rates were described using three different kinetic models (pseudo second order, intraparticle diffusion and a new approach based on diffusion-reaction models). The results indicated that hydrophobic character of the compounds does not affect the sorption capacity of the tested carbons but does influence the uptake rate. The model proposed, based on mass balances, lead to interpret and compare the kinetic of different adsorbents in contrast to classical empirical models. The model is a simple and powerful tool able to satisfactorily estimate the ...
EPAs draft human health risk assessment for atrazine identifies potential risks to workers who apply atrazine or enter treated fields after application.
M. M. Corvi, Stanley, K. A., Peterson, T. S., Kent, M. L., Feist, S. W., La Du, J. K., Volz, D. C., Hosmer, A. J., and Tanguay, R. L., "Investigating the Impact of Chronic Atrazine Exposure on Sexual Development in Zebrafish", Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 95, no. 44, pp. 276 - 288, 2012. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immobilization of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. T2 - Applied Clay Science. AU - Stelting, Scott. AU - Burns, Richard G.. AU - Sunna, Anwar. AU - Visnovsky, Gabriel. AU - Bunt, Craig R.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - Storage and delivery of beneficial microorganisms are fundamental issues determining their value and effectiveness for a wide range of industrial and environmental purposes. One such application is the use of bacteria for the remediation of soil pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and persistent pesticides. Liquid cultures of a candidate for atrazine degradation in soil and water, Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP (3.67×10 9 colony-forming units, cfu/mL), when stored at 4 and 25°C, showed a 1 log reduction in cfu/mL occurs after approximately 4 and 2weeks, respectively. When immobilized onto natural zeolite from two sources (a New Zealand and an Australian quarry) and stored in open containers exposed to the ...
Oh, the beleaguered frogs. You probably already know that amphibian species are declining around the world. You have probably seen the depressing photos of deformed frogs trying to get through life with too many (or too few) legs. You may even have seen Dr. Tyrone Hayes breathtaking presentation on how the herbicide atrazine turns boy frogs in to hermaphrodite frogs.. This week the N & O ran a story about a new study that reinforces the theory that farm runoff is causing the deformed limbs. Excess nutrients in the water lead to lots more parasites in the water that turn normal tadpoles into sickly, deformed adult frogs.. One of the questions about this research is, how come the trematodes make frogs so sick? Theyre not a new pathogen - theyve always been in the frogs environments. Its just that lately the frogs cant seem to fight them off. Another stumper: if its one disease deforming the frogs, why does it affect so many species? Leopard frogs, bullfrogs, wood frogs, and many others have ...
Based on submission by Monika Frey to the MaizeGDB and the Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter. Function Maize gene for first step in biosynthesis of benzoxazin, which aids in resistance to insect pests, pathogenic fungi and bacteria. First report Hamilton 1964, as a mutant sensitive to the herbicide atrazine, and lacking benzoxazinoids (less than 1% of non-mutant plants). Mutations in the bx1 gene reduce the resistance to first generation European corn borer that is conferred by benzoxazinoids. Molecular characterization reveals that the BX1 protein is a homologue to the alpha-subunit of tryptophan synthase. The reference mutant allele has a deletion of about 900 bp, located at the 5-terminus and comprising sequence upstream of the transcription start site and the first exon. A second mutant allele is given by a Mu transposon insertion in the fourth exon (Frey et al. 1997 ). Gene sequence diversity analysis has been performed for 281 inbred lines of maize, and the results suggest that bx1 is ...
Atrazine is the worlds most widely used herbicide. It is used to control weeds in plantations, on roadsides, in parks, gardens, orchards and pastures, etc - lots of places where children play. It is notorious for its tendency to contaminate groundwater, with a consequent deleterious effect on human health as documented by the World Health Organisation. Because it is a systemic poison (organochlorine), its residues penetrate the flesh of fruit and vegetables and cannot be washed off. The Australian Medical Association is opposed to Atrazine spraying.. Research 4 has indicated that atrazine is associated with prostrate, ovarian and creast cancer and also damages the endocrine system, functioning as a synthetic hormone disruptor. As a hormon mimic it can block, antagonise, compete with, or mimic hormones at cellular level. This may lead to reproductive and endocrinal effects. Atrazine has also demonstrated cardiac toxicity in experimental animals. Exposure may lead to abdominal pain, impaired ...
Given that water is oxidized indirectly by P680+ and the build up of intermediates caused by inhibition in Qb would not allow P680 to deposit its extra electron into the beginning of the electron transport chain, water would not be oxidized/split into 2H+ and (1/2)O2 because P680 would not become P680+. So this inhibition would halt the production of oxygen, correct?. Given that, I would say that the production of O2 would be more immediately halted than that of ATP, especially since ATP synthase would continue to function until the electrochemical gradient between the stroma and thylakoid space was spent, and would not be immediately affected by inhibition in Qa (although the electron transport chain which maintains the electrochemical gradient would be compromised and thus indirectly ATP synthase would be affected).. Is my reasoning correct?. ...
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is widely used as a broad-spectrum herbicide. Animal studies have demonstrated that ATR exposure can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATR-induced neuronal cell death, however, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy and apoptosis induced by ATR in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Wistar rats were administered with ATR at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for three months. In terms of histopathology, the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related genes as well as proteins related to the Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) autophagy and apoptosis pathways were examined in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. We observed degenerative micromorphology indicative of neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy by electron microscopy in ATR-exposed rat striatum. The rat ventral mesencephalon in the ATR-exposed groups also showed increased
Atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(l-methylethyl)-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a herbicide of the triazine family used for controlling broadleaf and some grassy weeds in corn and sorghum. Since its intr
Avoid treating powdery dry or light sand soils when conditions are favorable for wind erosion. Under these conditions, settle the soil surface first by rainfall or irrigation.. - Do not apply to impervious substrates, such as paved or highly compacted surfaces.. - Do not use tailwater from the first flood or furrow irrigation of treated fields to treat nontarget crops, unless at least 1/2 inch of rainfall has occurred between application and the first irrigation.. Where directions specify a VISOR S-MOC HERBICIDE tank mixture with AAtrex formulations, other brands of atrazine may be used. Follow all use rates and other use restrictions on the AAtrex or respective atrazine product label if other brands of atrazine are used.. Note: Certain states may have established rate limitations for atrazine within specific geographical areas. Consult your state lead pesticide control agency for additional information. It is a violation of this label to deviate from state use regulations.. Precaution: Injury ...
Minutes released from the EPAs independent Scientific Advisory Panel show that there is serious concern about Atrazine and its cancer-causing properties.
EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES INGESTION: Induce vomiting immediately by giving two glasses of water and sticking finger down throat. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician. EYE AND SKIN CONTACT: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Call a physician. Flush skin with water. Wash clothing before reuse. INHALATION: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician. NOTE TO PHYSICIAN: There is not a specific antidote if atrazine is ingested. If a large amount has been ingested and emesis has been inadequate, lavage stomach. Five mg/kg of activated charcoal suspension (50 g/400 ml water) can be given to absorb the remaining toxicant ...
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The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADP, participates in the degradation of cyanuric acid, an intermediate in the degradation of s-triazine herbicides such as atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-1,3,5-triazine]. The enzyme is a heterotetramer composed of a catalytic subunit (AtzE) and an accessory subunit (AtzG) that stabilizes the complex ...
The notion started with mounting evidence that native grasses could render harmless a common weed killer. That herbicide, atrazine, is the second most common herbicide used in agriculture in the U.S. and has been a stubborn pollutant in the nations waterways. Mounting evidence has shown that certain native grasses, and the microbes that thrive around their roots, convert the toxic leftovers from atrazine into harmless carbon dioxide ...
(Medical Xpress)-A Purdue University study found an agricultural herbicide alters reproductive and neuroendocrine genes during embryonic development in fish, a finding that will help establish a genetic profile to determine ...
Have you ever read the label on the weed and feed, or the chemical fertilizer you use? Does it contain Atrazine? Did you know, than in order to apply weed and feed, or any other pesticide in a property other than yours, you are required by law to have a pesticide license? Or that you Read more about Atrazine , Environmental Pollution[…] ...
The Environmental Protection Agency estimated that in 1997 nearly one billion pounds of pesticides were used in the United States alone. About 79% was used in agriculture, 14% for industrial, commercial and governmental use, and seven percent in the home and garden ...
1. This is the average level found averaged over all samples that were tested. If a sample had no detection, its contribution to the average is zero, even though there might be a small amount of residue present, but below the "detection limit." The units are μg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) which is the same as part per billion (ppb). For liquids the definition is slightly different but for practical purposes equivalent.. 2. The results in this table are for all groups of samples combined: domestic, imported, conventional and organic. Click on "Show Details" to see the levels broken down by group.. 3. The maximum level is the highest level found in a sample. For both the average level and the maximum level, all samples - organic or conventional, domestic or imported - are included.. ...
1. This is the average level found averaged over all samples that were tested. If a sample had no detection, its contribution to the average is zero, even though there might be a small amount of residue present, but below the "detection limit." The units are μg/kg (micrograms per kilogram) which is the same as part per billion (ppb). For liquids the definition is slightly different but for practical purposes equivalent.. 2. The results in this table are for all groups of samples combined: domestic, imported, conventional and organic. Click on "Show Details" to see the levels broken down by group.. 3. The maximum level is the highest level found in a sample. For both the average level and the maximum level, all samples - organic or conventional, domestic or imported - are included.. ...
104766-03-2 - JULLKPHHQFBTBW-UHFFFAOYSA-N - s-Triazine, 2,6-diamino-4-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-, 1-oxide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
4407-40-3 - ZPHLQJFYCYTLLX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - s-Triazine, 2,4-bis(methylthio)-6-chloro- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.