The median atlanto-axial joint is the articulation between the anterior surface of the odontoid process and the posterior surface of the arch of the atlas. The axis of rotation of the joint is vertical and corresponds to the long axis of the odontoid process. The articulation between the odontoid process and the anterior arch of the atlas is a pivot joint with incomplete articular surfaces, since the odontoid process is frequently covered with cartilage upon its anterior surface only, its posterior surface articulating with the transverse ligament of the atlas by a separate joint. Both joints have separate capsules; the posterior one is also regarded as a synovial bursa. The capsule of the median atlanto-axial joint is roomy and relaxed. The articulation is provided with a series of accessory ligaments, which create an extremely firm connection between the head and the first two vertebrae ...
Excessive movement between atlas and axis characterizes anterior atlantoaxial instability. At present, dynamic plain radiographs are the criterion standard in diagnosing AAA subluxation. The atlas slips abnormally forward during flexion because of laxity or rupture of the transverse and alar ligaments. The atlas slips backward when the cervical spine is in the neutral or extension positions. A few studies have reported MR imaging findings of AAA subluxation,8,9 but none has focused on the diagnostic implications of abnormalities in the associated structures or suggested a method to improve the false-negative diagnostic rate in nAAA subluxation patients. To our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to do so.. Routinely cervical spine MR imaging is performed with supine and neutral positioning. With this positioning, gravity pulls the subluxated atlas backward and downgrades the severity of disease on MR images. In our study, x-ray radiographs with neutral positioning yielded a 28% (11 of 40) ...
Instrumented fixation techniques: A number of techniques for atlantoaxial fixation are described including transarticular screw fixation and the C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pedicle screws (Harms technique) fixation techniques. ...
There are several techniques to be found in literature for reducing odontoid fractures and atlanto-axial dislocations. In odontoid fractures, Uchiyami uses an assisted but active extension movement without anesthesia for reduction [14]. Advantages in this approach are direct feedback on neurologic symptoms and no risk of anaesthesia. Griffith describes reduction by constant traction which needs immobilization [11]. We here used the passive reduction under anesthesia in the operating room with fluoroscopy control as previously described by Mandabach [15]. As we opted for implantation of dorsal tension wires according to Brooks procedure, reduction under anesthesia with fluoroscopy control in the same session seemed most appropriate. Odontoid fractures in children can be treated with or without surgery depending on the stability of the fragment. For successful fracture healing, 50% contact of the fragments is reported to be sufficient in children [16]. Dislocation of the odontoid fragment into ...
DUNN, RN and STANDER, H. Atlanto-axial fusion: Magerl transarticular versus Harms instrumentation techniques. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2014, vol.13, n.2, pp.31-34. ISSN 2309-8309.. Transarticular screw fixation offers acceptably high fusion rates but is not possible in 18% of patients due to a high riding vertebral artery. It also requires pre-operative anatomical reduction which is not always possible. The Harms technique utilises a posterior C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw. This allows easier access due to the angle of drilling and has become an increasingly popular surgical technique. AIM: The aim of this study is to review and compare the above techniques with regard to surgery, complications and outcome. METHODS: A retrospective case note and radiographic review of 42 patients undergoing posterior C1-2 fusion in a single institution during the period 2003 to 2011, identified on a prospectively maintained database, was performed. The indication for surgery was atlanto-axial instability ...
Read "Feasibility and outcome of stand-alone trans-articular screw fixation in atlantoaxial instability in children less than 8years of age, European Spine Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Atlantoaxial instability implies excessive movement between the first cervical vertebra or atlas, and second cervical vertebra or axis.
There were four intra-operative unintentional durotomies with CSF leaks. Three were in the transar-ticular group. These were successfully dealt with at the time of surgery with surgical, muscle and/ or Duroseal.. There was one case of instrumentation failure with bilateral screw fracture in the transarticular group. Despite this the patient went onto successful fusion.. There were no cases of neurological deterioration or sepsis.. Median time to union was similar in both groups at around 5 months (Table IV). All Harms patients were fused by 9 months, with 18% of the transarticular group taking longer than this and one requiring revision for an established non-union.. Discussion. Atlanto-axial instability is a concern due to the risk of myelopathy and sudden death from proximal spinal cord compression.4 The decision to arthrodese the joint is based on the appreciation of this risk and the expectation that stabilisation will not occur spontaneously with conservative means.. In the case of trauma, ...
orthosis, 2 with a Minerva brace, and 1 with a halo. Two patients required cervical surgery; an occipital cervical fusion for a type 2 odontoid fracture and one atlantoaxial fusion for atlantoaxial instability was performed. At the follow up appointments, none of the patients were found to have delayed instability based on clinical examination, upright x-rays or flexion-extension x-rays. Conclusion: All isolated OCF are likely stable injuries. Our data suggests all isolated OCF may be treated conservatively with any type of cervical orthosis and minimal follow up. ...
Twenty-three healthy adult participants (14 men and 9 women; mean [SD] age, 40 [12.6] years [range, 27-69 years]) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=11), in which HVT was applied to the atlantoaxial segment, or a control group (n=12), in which participants were held in the premanipulative hold position. Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure VA3 hemodynamics. Exclusion criteria included a history of known vertebral artery anomalies, hypoplasia, various spinal conditions, and more. Participants were also excluded if the investigators were unable to visualize VA3 on ultrasonography. The primary outcome measures were peak systolic and end diastolic velocities, which were measured at neutral, pre-HVT, post-HVT, and post-HVT-neutral positions. ...
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If signs are mild, conservative therapy may be attempted. Your dog will be placed in a rigid neck splint and confined to a kennel for 6-8 weeks. Immobilization of the neck will, in theory, allow scar tissue to form that will help stabilize the joint. During this time, your dog will also be treated with pain medication to keep them comfortable and/or steroids to decrease spinal swelling. While some dogs will experience complete resolution of clinical signs with conservative treatment, many dogs will not, especially if their signs have been present for an extended period of time. The risks of conservative therapy can include progression of disease (including a risk of paralysis or death), as well as pressure sores from the splint/bandage rubbing against the skin.. In the case of long-standing neurologic signs, or a dog that has not responded to conservative treatment, surgery is often required. The goal of surgery is to permanently stabilize the atlantoaxial joint, in order to prohibit excessive ...
Objective To reveal the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation of occipital-cervical lesions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The atlanto-axial region is one of the most common locations for lesions in RA. Some cases progress from reducible atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) to irreducible vertical migration, while others continue to exhibit reducible AAS. No study has revealed the factors that determine the natural course of subluxation. We focus on the odontoid as a key structure of the progression of occipito-cervical lesions and investigated this region in patients with RA using reconstructive computed tomography (CT) images, and analyzed factors in association with CT findings. ...
If the spinal vertebrae are misaligned in such a way as to bring pressure and irritation to the nerves which travel through their openings . . . a condition exists, which is referred to as "subluxation".. Since these nerves serve all parts of the body, providing a vital pathway to and from the brain, any subluxation that hinders or disrupts their function endangers the well-being of the entire body. These subluxations may be of an acute nature, causing sudden painful symptoms or the chronic type, which may result in long-term, painful degeneration and resulting impairment. Actually though, subluxations dont cause symptoms - they cause decreased function of the nervous system, which by itself will ultimately lead to symptoms.. Subluxations are often deceiving since the symptoms may appear at a point in the body far from the cause. Simple treatment of the symptom alone is generally fruitless. The longer the cause of the problem is allowed to exist, the longer and more difficult it is to correct. ...
OBQ09.111) An 11-year-old male complains of one year duration of neck pain. He denies any recent trauma. He has noticed intermittent episodes of gait imbalance and difficulty with buttoning his shirt over the past 3 months. Physical exam shows normal strength in all four extremities and hyper-reflexic patellar tendons. Neutral and flexion radiographs are shown in Figures A and B. A sagittal CT scan is shown in Figure C with a coronal reconstruction shown in Figure D. What is the most appropriate treatment? Review Topic , Tested Concept ...
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Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
In a recent article [ME Havig et al.: Evaluation of non-surgical treatment of atlantoaxial subluxation in dogs: 19 cases (1992-2001) in JAVMA, Vol. 227, No. 2, July 15, 2005], it was suggested that non-surgical treatment (neck-brace application) of acute atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) carries a good long-term outcome in about 62 percent of the cases. The success rate of surgical treatment was cited as a 61-91 percent in the same paper ...
A revolution in preventing fatal craniovertebral junction injuries: lessons learned from the Head and Neck Support device in professional auto racing Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases Venous air embolus during prone cervical spine fusion: case report Spontaneous
A direct blow to the neck, a sustained tight grip around the neck or a hyperextension injury may produce an intimal tear of the extracranial vessels. This may lead to dissection and occlusion.. The vertebral arteries arc particularly susceptible to trauma in view of their close relationship to the cervical spine at intervertebral foramina, the atlanto-axial joint and the occipito-atlantal joint. Carotid dissection may present with a painful isolated Horners syndrome.. Angiography will confirm, and exploration and/or anticoagulant therapy may halt thrombus formation.. ...
How come Ive never heard of Subluxations? Maybe youve never heard of subluxations before, but thats ok! There was probably a time when youd never heard of a lot of things that can happen to your body. You have more than 200 bones in your body. Whenever two bones come together at a joint,…
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accidental breach of the vertebral artery (VA) during the performance of cervical pain blocks can result in significant morbidity. Whereas anatomical variations have been described for the foraminal (V2) segment of the VA, those involving its V3 portion (between the C2 transverse process and dura) have not been investigated and may be of importance for procedures targeting the third occipital nerve or the lateral atlantoaxial joint. METHODS: Five hundred computed tomography angiograms of the neck performed in patients older than 50 years for the management of cerebrovascular accident or cervical trauma (between January 2010 and May 2016) were retrospectively and independently reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists ...
Causes of subluxations fall into three broad categories: physical, chemical, and emotional.. Any bodily trauma like car accidents, falls, sports injuries, heavy lifting, surgery, or genetic weaknesses can cause physical subluxations. A repeated posture like leaning uncomfortably forward at a desk can factor into subluxation patterns. A difficult birthing process, for mother and child, is also a common cause.. When looking at root causes for chemical subluxations, we look to environmental factors and substances taken into the body, either through the lungs, skin, or digestive system. Habitual smoking, illegal and legal drug use, excessive use of alcohol, chronic dehydration, and poor nutrition, are some of the factors too.. Emotional subluxations originate from stress on the mind and body. This can range from something small, like the stresses from the daily grind to major emotional stressors, such losing a job or loved one. Uncontrolled stress is a major factor in the deterioration of ...
Widening such as this should be viewed with suspicion and careful neurological examination and MRI carried out. Followup for this patient is lost to the vagaries of history.
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You have more than 200 bones in your body. Whenever two bones come together at a joint, there can be movement. Since joints in your spine are so close to your spinal cord and nerve roots, too much or too little joint motion can have serious effects.. If spinal bones get "stuck" and don t move right, they can irritate or chafe delicate nerves. If a joint moves too much, spinal bones can press against adjacent nerve tissue. This can interfere with the vital "life force" transmitted over your nervous system that helps keep your brain in touch with your body.. The result is the vertebral subluxation complex, or more simply, a subluxation.. Distorted Communications Between Your Brain and Your Body Can Cause All Kinds of Health Problems. More than bones and nerves are involved. Muscles can become too tight or too weak. Discs, ligaments and other connective tissues can become inflamed. Bone spurs and arthritic degeneration can set in.. Subluxations are serious!. However, the most important aspect of a ...
Atlas Of Common Subluxations Of The Human Spine And Pelvis Ruch William J Informa 9780849331176 : Subluxation is the loss of joint alignment and integrity. This book describes such injury to t
Complications of uncorrected subluxations may be serious, resulting in respiratory depression, and in some cases SIDS. Infants who survive and are properly diagnosed for subluxations have a better chance of having the neurological defects ultimately eliminated.6 A wide range of subluxations may occur, primarily due to the stretch injury and/or compression of the spinal cord and brain stem. As the vertebrae are forced out of their natural alignment, spinal and cranial nerve roots, as well as the dura and surrounding structures, may be torn.. Most authorities believe that brain stem and spinal injuries at birth are essentially attributable to excessive longitudinal traction, especially when force is combined with flexion and torsion of the spinal axis during delivery.. Although birth subluxations may cause immediate symptoms, there may be far-reaching effects that are manifested for years. The childs ability to fight against disease, for example may be lowered. Cold, ear infections, colic, and ...
Complications of uncorrected subluxations may be serious, resulting in respiratory depression, and in some cases SIDS. Infants who survive and are properly diagnosed for subluxations have a better chance of having the neurological defects ultimately eliminated.6 A wide range of subluxations may occur, primarily due to the stretch injury and/or compression of the spinal cord and brain stem. As the vertebrae are forced out of their natural alignment, spinal and cranial nerve roots, as well as the dura and surrounding structures, may be torn.. Most authorities believe that brain stem and spinal injuries at birth are essentially attributable to excessive longitudinal traction, especially when force is combined with flexion and torsion of the spinal axis during delivery.. Although birth subluxations may cause immediate symptoms, there may be far-reaching effects that are manifested for years. The childs ability to fight against disease, for example may be lowered. Cold, ear infections, colic, and ...
Upper cervical subluxations most likely play a key role in CCVBP and neurodegenerative diseaes such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease and mutliple sclerosis.
Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide the balance and variety that are vital to good health.. Your Nervous System & Digestion - Your brain communicates with every cell in your body through the miles of nerve fibers that make up your nervous system. When this communication is interrupted, problems can occur. All of your bodys functions are regulated by your nervous system. It causes the heart to beat, lungs to breathe, muscles to contract, stomach to digest, and glands to secrete.. Your Spinal Column - The brain is protected by the skull. The spinal cord, which connects the brain to the body, has a unique protection. It is protected by a combination of twenty-four bony segments, called vertebra, and soft tissue. The soft tissues give the spine the ability to bend while maintaining its protective alignment.. Vertebral Subluxations - Spinal distortions interfere with nerve function and are called subluxations. When the spine becomes distorted or misaligned, the contents of the ...
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Subluxations can interfere with nerve signals that travel over your spine - causing your body to not function properly. Read this post and learn more about
List of 5 disease causes of Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Atlantoaxial instability causing neck stiffness and torticollis.
Looking for online definition of atlantoaxial membrane in the Medical Dictionary? atlantoaxial membrane explanation free. What is atlantoaxial membrane? Meaning of atlantoaxial membrane medical term. What does atlantoaxial membrane mean?
This is the first case report of a traumatic odontoid process synchondrosis fracture in a calf. Neurological examination was useful for early and correct neuroanatomical localisation. Radiography was easy to perform and allowed an initial diagnosis. MRI and CT examination (although performed post-mortem for scientific interest) were helpful for sub-classifying the fracture type, excluding additional (traumatic or congenital) cervical lesions and, potentially, allowing better planning of potential surgical interventions. However, as evident in our case, transportation to the advanced diagnostic imaging site incurred the risk of further displacement and neurological deterioration, suggesting that the benefits versus risks of any procedure and transport should be carefully considered.. So far, detailed classification systems of atlantoaxial fractures are lacking in veterinary medicine. In humans, several classification systems for odontoid process fractures have been established but are still a ...
Objective: Nowadays anterior resection of the odontoid process is rarely indicated.. Removal of the odontoid is for instance conducted for decompression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and basilar invagination. The transoral approach to the odontoid process is well established for many years despite its associated complications. An endoscopic transnasal approach to the odontoid process was introduced recently. Experience with the endonasal novel approach is limited and range of indication for this approach is still inexplicit.. Methods: With a case of a 77-year-old woman with retrodental tumor and cervical myelopathy who underwent dorsal fusion a week prior to odontoid resection and a case of a 64-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and severe symptomatic basilar impression who already underwent dorsal atlantoaxial fusion more than 20 years ago the technique of endoscopic transnasal odontoid resection is demonstrated. A pure endoscopic transnasal approach was used; neuronavigation on ...
Synonyms for Alar ligaments in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Alar ligaments. 8 synonyms for ligament: bond, knot, ligature, link, nexus, tie, vinculum, yoke. What are synonyms for Alar ligaments?
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
Vertebral subluxations have a great number of different causes all of which the average individual is exposed to daily. These causes can be described in terms of physical, chemical, and emotional causes. Physical causes include acute trauma to the body, repetitive motions affecting the spine, bad postural habits, improper workstation habits and design, and weak or imbalanced spinal musculature. Chemical causes include poor dietary and nutritional practices, drug and alcohol use and abuse, and the ingestion of chemical toxins in the foods we eat, air we breath, and water we drink. Chemicals which are harmful to the body decrease the bodys ability to function optimally and reduce the ability to successfully adapt to and withstand internal and external stresses - making us more susceptible to spinal subluxations and the consequences of these subluxations. Emotional causes refer to stress. Excessive stress or inadequate stress management skills can deplete the body of the ability to sustain normal ...
A wonderful and much-needed review of studies to date and some common-sense recommendations. Theres a lot here, so I want to hit on the more important points by the author. First, the background. The craniovertebral joint is made up of the skull and the first two cervical (neck) vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra, C1, is called the atlas and has the shape of a ring. It sits on top of the second vertebra, C2, which is also called the axis. The axis has a protrusion called the odontoid process. In Down syndrome, a combination of bony abnormalities and lax ligaments contribute to the instability called atlantoaxial instability (AAI). For more background on the controversy on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition, see my essay on AAI. On the topic of radiologic screening, Dr. Brockmeyer reviews the studies to date and contends that on lateral (side view) neck X-rays, the measurement called the "neural canal width" is much better than the commonly used atlanto-dens interval, as it ...
The CT examination (Fig. 2a-e) shows erosion of the odontoid peg (arrowed on Fig. 2a) and atlanto-axial subluxation with antero-lateral translation of C1 of C2. Superior migration (cranial settling) of the odontoid peg is seen (Fig. 2b) with the odontoid tip at 6mm above the McGregor line (drawn from hard palate to occiput: normal ,4.5mm). CT images are also able to better demonstrate facet joint arthropathy dominating at the upper to mid cervical levels and multilevel uncovertebral degenerative changes. A left C2/3 facet joint fusion is also shown (Fig. 2d-e ...
Old Anderson II fracture with dorsal dislocation of the dens axis and subluxation of the atlanto-axial joints. The spinal cord is not affected. ...