Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and
Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) of living organisms contains information on the quality of the living state of these organisms. Employing a LS-55 Luminescence Spectrometer, the changes of DL spectra of rice with Aspergillus flavus treating different time were observed. Rice with Aspergillus flavus treatment for a shorter time had a stronger intensity of DL. The polluted degree of Aspergillus showed a negative correlation with the intensity of DL. Comparing with the intensity of DL, we found that the concentration of aflatoxin in different polluted degree rice had negative correlation with the intensity of DL. We believe DL technique may be helpful in elaborating a fast, holistic, and non-invasive method for the rapid evaluation the polluted degree of rice by Aspergillus flavus.. © 2005 Chinese Optics Letters. PDF Article ...
Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here.
Aspergillus flavus ATCC ® 204304™ Designation: MCV-C#1 Application: Susceptibility testing Antifungal susceptibity testing Ref Ref Biomedical Research and Development Material Reference strain for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI)-developed Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Green mould (Aspergillus flavus) - conidiophore (fruiting structure) producing conidia (asexual conidia). Aspergillus flavus is a wide spread saprophyte found in soil, seeds, fruits and decaying vegetation. It is also found indoors on water damaged carpets and building materials. It is one of the Aspergillus species which causes aspergillosis, commonly in the tropics. Aspergillosis is a respiratory lung infection in people with weakened lungs or that are immune deficient (especially AIDS patients). This fungus produces aflatoxin, a group of virulent mycotoxins that are known animal carcinogens. These mycotoxins are can induce liver cancer in humans. The toxins may contaminate stored food (particularly carbohydrates). A. flavus has also been reported to be allergenic and its presence is associated with asthma. Magnification: x220 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0238
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A. flavus cultures. Our identifications of these CPA-type alkaloids are based on a dereplication strategy involving accurate mass high resolution mass spectrometry data and a careful study of the α-CPA fragmentation pattern. In total, 22 CPA-type alkaloids were identified in extracts from the A. flavus strains examined. Of these metabolites, 13 have been previously reported in other fungi, though this is the first report of their existence in A. flavus. Two of our
Resveratrol has been reported as a natural phytoalexin that inhibits infection or the growth of certain fungi including Aspergillus flavus. Our previous research revealed that aflatoxin production in A. flavus was reduced in medium with resveratrol. To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus. In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis revealed that 48 significantly differentially expressed genes were involved in 6 different terms. Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. The transcription of aflA and aflB was significantly suppressed under
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...
per fungal biomass dry weight/colony size has rarely been reported. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to model the kinetics of mycotoxin production under the assumption of existing both no-growth-associated and growth-associated production. Aspergillus flavus was chosen as a model mycotoxigenic microorganism, and it was grown in maize agar medium and maize grain at 0.90 and 0.99 aw at 25 °C. A significant positive correlation (p , 0.05) was observed among the biomass responses (colony radius and biomass dry weight) in agar medium and colony radius in maize at both aw levels assayed. The Luedeking-Piret model was used to model AFB1 production and reasonable percentages of variability were explained. Moreover, AFB1 production was in general slightly better predicted through colony area. As conclusion, aflatoxin production may follow a mixed-growth associated trend, confirming that toxin formation does not present a clear delay in relation to growth under certain conditions ...
LOINC Code 51529-6 Mold Allergen Mix 4 (Aspergillus fumigatus+Aspergillus niger+Aspergillus terreus+Aspergillus flavus) IgE Ab [Presence] in Serum by Multidisk
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus in an elderly immunocompetent patient- a rare presentation-AGEMS-Print ISSN No:-2348-7348 Online ISSN No:-2348-7240Article DOI No:-10.18231,Annals of Geriatric Education and Medical Sciences-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication,
BioAssay record AID 1094518 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus at 500 ppm after 72 to 96 hr by disk diffusion method.
Citation: MAHONEY, N.E., MOLYNEUX, R.J., CAMPBELL, B.C., CARY, J.W. WALNUT CONSTITUENTS INHIBIT AFLATOXIN FORMATION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING. 2004. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Tree nuts are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination and therefore subject to regulatory restrictions both domestically and abroad. In order to identify natural sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation, tree nuts were screened for their ability to support aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus using agar-based media composed of almond, pistachio, or walnut cultivars. A. flavus grown on walnut cultivars produced significantly less aflatoxin than on pistachio or almond cultivars. Walnut cultivars were not uniform in their ability to inhibit aflatoxin; Tulare completely inhibited the production of aflatoxin, while Chico was the most susceptible. The aflatoxin inhibiting property of Tulare kernels was found to reside in the seed coat and ...
DOBOLYI Cs, F SEBŐK, J VARGA, S KOCSUBÉ, G SZIGETI, N BARANYI, Á SZÉCSI, B TÓTH, M VARGA, B KRISZT, S SZOBOSZLAY, C KRIFATON, J KUKOLYA: Occurence of Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolates in maize kernel in Hungary, ACTA ALIMENTARIA HUNGARICA 42: (3) pp. 451-459. pp. 451-459 ...
Citation: Cary, J.W., Rajasekaran, K., Bennett, C. 2003. A proteomics approach for the isolation of seed coat-specific genes from cotton. Plant Molecular Biology International Conference Proceedings. S5-90:93. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide secondary metabolites produced by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus during growth on crops such as corn, cottonseed, peanuts, and treenuts. Efforts are underway in our lab to develop transgenic cotton expressing genes for antifungal proteins and peptides that inhibit the ability of A. flavus to infect cottonseed and produce aflatoxins. We are interested in identifying novel promoter sequences of cotton genes that will control expression of these antifungal genes in a tissue-specific manner. We have shown that during invasion of cottonseed, A. flavus most often enters the seed at the chalazal end and ramifies along the inner seed coat prior to colonizing the lipid acid-rich cotyledons. Based ...
These images dont show differences that distinguish A. flavus and A. parasiticus. An oil immersion magnification of the spores may be useful, but the aflatoxin profile is the best information to determine species.. Was this fungus isolated from a person with an Aspergillosis infection?. Only about 50% of A. flavus isolates have been found to make aflatoxin while nearly all A. parasiticus isolates have been found to make aflatoxins. ...
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Moraes, A. M. L., M. Corrado, V. L. Holanda, G. L. Costa, M. Ziccardi, R. de Lourenço-de-Oliveira & P. C. Oliveira. Aspergillus from Brazilian mosquitoes - I. Genera Aedes and Culex from Rio de Janiero State, Mycotaxon 78: 413-422. 2001.. ABSTRACT: As part of an ongoing survey of potential biological control fungi from insects in Brazil. aspergilli were isolated from 625 mosquitoes belonging to 17 species in the genera Aedes and Culex. Two hundred and fifteen isolates belonging to 17 Aspergillus species were found. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans were the most frequently isolated species. Two other species, Aspoergillus fischerianus and Aspergillus heteromorphus were new records for insects. The macro- and microcharacteristics of the Brazilian isolates are compared to those in previously published descriptions. The habitat and geographical distribution of these fungi in Brazil is reviewed.. KEYWORDS: biological control, taxonomy, entomogenous fungi. NOMENCLATURAL ...
B. subtilis asustab risosfääri ja kuna on leitud, et ta soodustab taimekasvu, on tema spoore lisatud bioväetiste koostisesse, kuid on kasutusel ka biofungitsiidina ja bakteriaalsete taimehaiguste vastu.[9][10] Näiteks, suudavad mõned B. subtilise tüved peatada aflatoksiini tootvate ning maapähkleid ja maisi koloniseerivate kerahallikute Aspergillus flavus ja Aspergillus parasiticus kasvu ning isegi inhibeerida aflatoksiini tootmist.[11]. Kahjuritõrjes on olulisel kohal putukate (peamiselt liblikaliste, kuid ka mardikaliste, kahetiivaliste ja kiletiivaliste) patogeen B. thuringiensis, mis toodab spooride moodustamise ajal protoksiinikristalle ehk Cry-valke, mis putuka soolestikus lagunevad δ-endotoksiiniks (tuntud ka Bt-toksiini nime all). Toksiin hävitab putukavastse kõhtu sattudes tema soolestiku, mistõttu putukas hukkub. Toksiin on biolagunev ning selgroogsetele ja taimedele ohutu, seetõttu kasutatakse seda tüve laialdaselt bioloogilise pestitsiidina.[12] Insektitsiidseid ...
Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Aflatoxins are the most commonly occurring and economically important mycotoxins, produced largely by a fungi called Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxicosis is associated with grains and other feed sources such as maize, soyabeans, peanuts and millet.
Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Aspergillus Flavus, Production, Isoflavones, Power, Conidia, Gene, Genes, Fungus, Proteins, Concentrations, Water, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant Effects, Color, Genotypes, Hydroxyl, Hydroxyl Radical, Phenol
Aspergillus flavus) will produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, zearaleone, fumonisin, ochratoxin, etc of which aflatoxin B1 is probably the most toxic. , 1995). , 1994). Levels as low as 20 ppm of fumonisin can be toxic to shrimps. Antinutritional Factors (ANF) from Vegetable Ingredients Antinutritional factors (ANF) in vegetable ingredients are rather complex as there is a vast array of toxic substances (Tacon, 1985, 1987). Insoluble fibres, soluble fibres, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, lectins, tennins, phytic acid and gossypol are the most important anti-inhibitors factors and are transmitted via the feed (Krogdahl, 1989). Then suitable quality agricultural lime are added according to soil acidity. Five tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14 (NPK) are added subsequently. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. (iv) Poisoning Predators and Pests Before shrimp PL/juveniles are stocked, eggs and larvae of ...
Interestingly, the ethyl acetate extract was even more effective at destroying the bacteria than the drug chloramphenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat several infections, including infections of the respiratory tract, brain, eye and ear.. Next, the research team turned their attention to the effects of the different extracts on fungus, including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigates.. As with the bacteria, the ethyl acetate extract once again came out on top as the most potent antifungal. Yet again, the chloroform extract had only a mild effect against the fungi, whereas the ethyl acetates effects were comparable to the chemical medicine nystatin, an antifungal medication that prevents fungus growing on the skin, and is often used in the treatment of oral thrush.. The research team concluded that the ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest antimicrobial properties, and as such should be investigated further. They also indicated their belief that phenolic and flavonoid ...
ID B8N000_ASPFN Unreviewed; 499 AA. AC B8N000; DT 03-MAR-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 55. DE RecName: Full=Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; DE EC=1.1.1.42 {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000108}; GN ORFNames=AFLA_086400 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1}; OS Aspergillus flavus (strain ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM OS 12722 / SRRC 167). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; OC Eurotiomycetidae; Eurotiales; Aspergillaceae; Aspergillus. OX NCBI_TaxID=332952 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EED57942.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 200026 / FGSC A1120 / NRRL 3357 / JCM 12722 / SRRC 167 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001875}; RX PubMed=25883274; DOI=10.1128/genomeA.00168-15; RA Nierman W.C., Yu J., Fedorova-Abrams N.D., Losada L., ...
When seven immunocompromised patients developed invasive aspergillosis during construction at a hospital, new methods were performed to compare fungal isolates and a case-control study was conducted to determine risks for infection. Typing of Aspergillus flavus with the use of restriction endonuclease analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism using random amplified polymorphic DNA reactions to generate DNA probes revealed different patterns between isolates from two patients and a similar pattern among those from one patient, a health care worker, and an environmental source.… Read more. ...
The polysaccharide of peach gum, prepared by a partial acid hydrolysis, was degraded by a mixture of extracellular glacanohydrolases of Aspergillus flavus. This way obtained polysaccharide differed from the original one especially by a higher content of D-mannose and a lower content of D-galactose bound by (1 3) glycosidic bonds. The obtained results are discussed from the standpoint of composition of the main and side chains of the native polysaccharide.. ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/IXXXX/I-5101-1.pdf]Ferritin Conjugated Limax flavus
الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 1; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 5-7; أشعه شرجية لينه: 18 - 21; فقرات: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais moles (total): 5-7; Raios anais moles: 18 - 21; Vértebras: 36 - 37. Distal half of anterior edge of pectoral spine serrated; body depth at anus 14.3-17.3% SL; dorsal fin without black margin; eye diameter 27.4-34.9% HL; and length of adipose-fin base 10.6-14.4% SL. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child. T2 - A rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. AU - Beluffi, Giampiero. AU - Bernardo, Maria Ester. AU - Meloni, Giulia. AU - Spinazzola, Angelo. AU - Locatelli, Franco. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. AB - We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI.. KW - Aspergillus. KW - Child. KW - Complication. KW - ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Considerable progress has been achieved in reducing aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products [47-52] since the discovery that aflatoxin is extremely toxic to humans and animals [2, 53]. Many inhibitors [9, 54] have been demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus. Among them, plant-derived metabolites are of special interest. Non-host plant metabolites, such as onion, garlic extracts, eugenol [55-57], khellin, visnagin [58], caffeine, and piperlongumine [59] inhibit A. flavus growth and/or aflatoxin production. At the same time, host plant-derived metabolites including luteolin [60], eriodictyol [61], and tanning acids [62] also inhibit A. flavus development and/or aflatoxin production. However, most of these compounds can hardly be applied in practice because their biosynthesis pathway and the related biochemical steps are not well understood.. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, could protect plants from fungal infection and improve the defense ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes with reduced linoleic acid composition. AU - Holbrook, C. Corley. AU - Wilson, David M.. AU - Matheron, Michael E. AU - Hunter, John E.. AU - Knauft, David A.. AU - Gorbet, Daniel W.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus can contaminate several agricultural crops with the toxic fungal metabolite aflatoxin. Previous research has indicated that resistance may be conferred by altering the fatty acid composition of these crops. Recently, peanut breeding lines with reduced linoleic acid content have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced linoleic acid composition on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut. Seven breeding lines with relatively low linoleic acid and two check genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates for 4 years in Georgia and for 3 years in Arizona. The plots were inoculated with a ...
Literature Cited. 1. Abbas, H. K., ed. 2003. Special issue: Aflatoxin and food safety Part 1. J. of Toxicol, Toxin Rev. 22:139- 459.. 2. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., and Locke, M. A. 2004. Spatial variability of Aspergillus flavus soil populations under different crops and corn grain colonization and aflatoxins. Can. J. Bot. 82:1768-1775. 3. Abbas, H. K., Cartwright, R. D., Xie, W., and Shier, W. T. 2006. Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of corn (maize, Zea mays) hybrids in Arkansas. Crop Prot. 25:1-9. 4. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., Bruns, H. A., and Abel, C. A. 2006. Biocontrol of aflatoxin in corn by inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates. Biocontrol Sci. Tech. 16:437-449.. 5. Ahmad, M., Majerczak, D. R., Pile, S., Hoyas, M. E., Novacky, A., and Coplin, D. L. 2001. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1223-1234.. 6. Baker, C. J., Orlandi, E. W., and Mock, N. M. 1993. Harpin, an ...
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) "These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
Orizin (EC 3.4.21.63, Aspergillus alkaline proteinaza, aspergilopeptidaza B, API 21, aspergilopepsin B, aspergilopepsin F, Aspergillus candidus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus flavus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus semialkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus oryzae alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus parasiticus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus serin proteinaza, Aspergillus sydowi alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus soya alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus melleus alkalna proteinaza, Aspergillus sulphureus alkalna proteinaza, prozim, P 5380, kiorinaza, seaproza S, semi-alkalna proteaza, sumizim MP, prozim 10, onoproza, onoproza SA, proteaza P, promelaza) je enzim.[1][2][3][4][5] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Infection with the fungus Aspergillus, seen especially in people with a deficient immune system. The clinical features of aspergillosis can include invasive lung infection and disseminated disease, usually with fever, cough, spitting up blood, and chest pain. Aspergillosis may mimic asthma with cough and inspiratory stridor (noise on breathing in) or sinusitis with fever, localized pain. Aspergillosis is due most often to Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus and less commonly A. niger, A. terreus, or A. nidulans. These fungi frequently colonize the upper respiratory tract and are among the most common in the environment. At elevated risk for aspergillosis are people with a blood malignancy or lymphoma, anyone who has had a transplant or is taking high-dose corticosteroids and, rarely, people with HIV infection. Diagnosis may be difficult. It usually requires a biopsy. The advent of effective, less toxic antifungal drugs (such as itraconazole) has improved therapy. The prognosis (outlook) ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
Our data demonstrate that the observed rhythm in sclerotium formation in A. flavus strain 12S is under the control of an endogenous circadian oscillator. The rhythm persists in constant conditions, is entrained and reset by environmental signals, and is temperature compensated. However, although the canonical clock properties are present in the A. flavus clock, several features of the rhythm differ from those of other eukaryotes.. The FRP of the A. flavus developmental rhythm at 30°C is 33 h and thus is significantly longer than a typical circadian rhythm, which is usually close to 24 h. The longest documented circadian rhythms to date are 29 h in the bean plant Phaseolus (8) and ∼30 h for the rhythm of promoter activity of the Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (cab2) in DD (27). It has generally been assumed that circadian clocks have FRPs close to 24 h in order to maintain a stable phase relationship to the earths 24-h rotational cycle; the inherent cycle cannot be too far away ...
Aflavinine, a novel indole-​mevalonate metabolite from tremorgen-​producing Aspergillus flavus species. Gallagher, Rex T.; McCabe, Terrence; Hirotsu, Ken; Clardy, Jon; Nicholson, Judith; Wilson, Benjamin J. (Dep. Chem., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA). Tetrahedron Lett., 21(3), 243-6 (English) 1980. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from brazil nuts. Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C. PLoS One (2012), 7(8), e42480. Three new aflavinines from the sclerotia of ...
Since the 1993-1994 unusual outbreak of pulmonary hemorrhage (lung breeding) in infants in Cleveland, Ohio, that was then thought to be due to exposure to Stachybotrys, the health effects associated with this mold have remained controversial. Frequently referred to as the Black Mold by the general public, Stachybotrys has probably caused more economic and psychological agony than ill-health. The mold has resulted in multimillion dollar remediations and litigations.. Stachybotrys was first associated with death of horses in Eastern Europe in the 1930s. Horses fed with hay contaminated with Stachybotrys were reported to surfer from a disease characherized by irritation of the mouth, throat, and nose; shock; dermal necrosis; a decrease in leukocytes; hemorrhage; nervous disorder; and death.. While Stachybotrys is so much feared the number of cases where it was the cause of ill-health or death are insignificant compared to some other toxigenic molds such as Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus ...
seeking plant-based alternatives to conventional antimicrobial drugs.. The aromatic herb has a long legacy in traditional medicine from Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Hippocrates recommended it as an antiseptic and a treatment for gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments.. Biochemical analysis shows the various species making up the Origanum genus to be among the worlds richest plants in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A spate of recent research from labs all over the world is underscoring the antibacterial and antifungal potential of essential oils distilled from oregano.. A team at Kumaun University, Uttarakhand, India, showed that essential oil of Origanum vulgare was able to inhibit Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. The former, known for its lethal aflatoxin, is a major contaminant in peanuts. The investigators identified monoterpenes like p-Cymene and thymol as the key antifungal compounds among the 33 identified biochemical constituents of the essential oil (Bisht D, et al. ...
Tóth, Beáta and Török, Orsolya and Kótai, Éva and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Varga, János and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Aspergillus fajok szerepe a kukorica szántóföldi gomba és mikotoxin szennyeződésében. In: 59. Növényvédelmi Tudományos Napok, 19-20 Feb 2013, Budapest. Mesterházy, Ákos and Varga, Mónika and Tóth, Beáta and Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Az Aspergillus flavus mint a kukorica új nemesítési problémája. In: XIX. Növénynemesítési Tudományos Nap, 2013. március 7., Keszthely, Hungary. Mesterházy, Ákos and Tóth, Beáta and Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes and Varga, Mónika and Toldiné Tóth, Éva (2013) Breeding strategies and results against Fusarium head blight in bread wheat. In: 2nd Conference of Biotechnology and Breeding, 5-7 Nov 2013, Budapest. Szabó, Balázs and Toldiné Tóth, Éva and Tóth, Beáta and Varga, Mónika and Mesterházy, Ákos (2013) Examination of resistance level of maize hybrids against ...
Two cases of aflatoxicosis in broilers were characterised, unusually, by trembling, ataxia, paralysis of legs and wings and lameness. Histopathology showed severe degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct proliferation and depletion of lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the feed and litter. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one sample at a concentration of 2.4 mg/kg. ...