TY - JOUR. T1 - Meiosis drives extraordinary genome plasticity in the haploid fungal plant pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola. AU - Wittenberg, A.H.J.. AU - van der Lee, T.A.J.. AU - Ben MBarek, S.. AU - Ware, S.B.. AU - Goodwin, S.B.. AU - Kilian, A.. AU - Visser, R.G.F.. AU - Kema, G.H.J.. AU - Schouten, H.J.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Meiosis in the haploid plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola results in eight ascospores due to a mitotic division following the two meiotic divisions. The transient diploid phase allows for recombination among homologous chromosomes. However, some chromosomes of M. graminicola lack homologs and do not pair during meiosis. Because these chromosomes are not present universally in the genome of the organism they can be considered to be dispensable. To analyze the meiotic transmission of unequal chromosome numbers, two segregating populations were generated by crossing genetically unrelated parent isolates originating from Algeria and The ...
The Cryphonectria parasitica gene cpmk2, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase belonging to the yeast extracellular signalling-regulated kinase (YERK1) subfamily, was isolated and its biological function was examined. Disruption of cpmk2 resulted in impaired pigmentation and abolished conidiation. Growth defects were observed in the cpmk2 mutant grown on solid plates, but growth of the mutant appeared normal in liquid media, including EP complete and PD broth, suggesting that the cpmk2 gene is involved in sensing and responding to growth conditions. The mutant's production of laccase, as measured by the size of the coloured area produced on tannic-acid-supplemented plates, was significantly reduced compared with the wild-type, but the intensity of the coloured area was unchanged, suggesting that the reduced laccase activity was owing to reduced growth on solid media rather than transcriptional downregulation. A dramatic reduction observed in the canker area produced by the cpmk2 mutant
The invention relates to fungal disease resistance, in particular to resistance to blackleg disease caused by Leptosphaeria maculans. Provided are Brassica plants and seeds comprising a fragment of chromosome 8 of a wild B. rapa accession in their genome, wherein this fragment comprises a blackleg resistance locus. Further provided are molecular markers linked to the blackleg resistance locus and methods of using the markers. Brassica plants and seeds with stacked blackleg resistance loci are also provided.
Leptosphaeria maculans is the causal agent of blackleg, a serious disease on canola/rapeseed in western Canada, Australia and Europe. Genetic resistance and extended crop rotation provided effective disease control in western Canada for years but the emergence of new pathogen races has reduced the effectiveness of current management strategies. The objective of this study was to analyse L. maculans isolates derived from canola stubble in commercial fields collected in 2010 and 2011 across western Canada for the presence and frequency of avirulence (Avr) genes. A total of 674 isolates were examined for the presence of Avr alleles AvrLm1, AvrLm2, AvrLm3, AvrLm4, AvrLm6, AvrLm7, AvrLm9, AvrLepR1, AvrLepR2 and AvrLmS using a set of differential host genotypes carrying known resistance genes or PCR amplification of AvrLm1, AvrLm6 and AvrLm4-Lm7. Certain alleles were more prevalent in the pathogen population, with AvrLm6 and AvrLm7 present in ,85% of isolates, while AvrLm3, AvrLm9 and AvrLepR2 were ...
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi notable for their wide host ranges and environmental persistence. These attributes have made these species models for understanding the complexity of necrotrophic, broad host-range pathogenicity. De …
Phytopathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is the causal agent of chestnut blight in the European chestnut Castanea sativa Miller. This fungus is also the natural host of the virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1), which reduces fungal virulence and sporulation ability. Hypovirus can spread only between fungal strains that belong to the same vegetative compatibility (VC) type, i.e. that contain identical alleles at all vic loci, and less frequently from the strains in which theres a a difference in only one of six loci which determine the diversity of VC types in Europe. In this research C. parasitica populations from Ozalj and Kašt area were analyzed. The aim was to determine the diversity of VC types and the percentage of hypovirulent isolates with white morphology. In Ozalj population the dominant VC type was EU2 which represented 34% of the total number of isolates, followed by EU1 which represented 19% of the total number of isolates. The prevalence of VC types EU14, EU39 and EU40 ...
Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the most destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogens that infect more than 500 plant species throughout the world. It can grow rapidly in infected plants and subsequently produces a large amount of sclerotia that plugs the vessels, resulting in wilting of the plant. We sequenced and assembled ~49 Mb into 15 super-scaffolds covering 92.83% of the M. phaseolina genome. We predict 14,249 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 9,934 are validated by the transcriptome. This phytopathogen has an abundance of secreted oxidases, peroxidases, and hydrolytic enzymes for degrading cell wall polysaccharides and lignocelluloses to penetrate into the host tissue. To overcome the host plant defense response, M. phaseolina encodes a significant number of P450s, MFS type membrane transporters, glycosidases, transposases, and secondary metabolites in comparison to all sequenced ascomycete species. A strikingly distinct set of carbohydrate esterases (CE) are present in M. phaseolina, with the
Macrophomina phaseolina is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes a disease commonly known as charcoal rot. Currently, there is not an effective method for controlling the disease, because knowledge about the pathogen, the development of the disease and how it interacts with the plant host is limited. Therefore, a study is proposed to investigate the interactions between M. phaseolina and the plant species Medicago truncatula using a molecular genetics approach where the host genes involved in the disease development will be identified. We will first conduct a genetic screen in a mutant population of M. truncatula and look for strains that have altered susceptibility to M. phaseolina. We will then identify the genes that are involved in host-pathogen interactions ...
Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a double-stranded (ds)RNA virus without a capsid that infects phytopathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight. This virus reduces virulence and reproductive capacities of the fungus and thus is very important in biological control of the chestnut blight. If a hypovirulent fungus carrying CHV1 is introduced into an active canker caused by virulent C. parasitica strain, canker expansion ceases and callus is formed. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of CHV1 in chestnut calli. A total of 24 calli from Ozalj and Markuševac were included in the research. Observed presence of virulent fungal strains in chestnut calli was high. As many as 29.16% of calli had only virulent fungal strains in their tissue, 45.84% of calli had the combination of virulent and hypovirulent fungal strains, and only 25% of calli had solely hypovirulent fungal strains in their tissue. It is assumed that this could have happened ...
Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Septoria tritici ) is the cause of septoria tritici blotch, which in most years is the second most important disease of wheat in the United States, after rust, occurring in most wheat-growing areas every year. The disease occurs throughout the world, wherever wheat is grown. Yield losses caused by septoria tritici blotch can range from 30 to 50% but probably are more on the order of several percent annually in the United States. The economic damage caused by this disease probably is more than $275 million every year in lost revenue to U.S. wheat growers. This disease also is an important fungicide target in Europe, which is the most important market for cereal fungicides for the agrochemical industry, including a range of US companies. The estimated volume of fungicide input in this area is ~$400 million, which is approximately 70% of the total fungicide input in cereals. Losses in the developing world are difficult to estimate but M. graminicola infection ...
چکیده علف‌کش‌ها به-طور وسیعی در مزارع مختلف مورد استفاده قرار می-گیرند اما مکانیسم فعل و انفعلات ممکن بین علف‌کش‌ها و بیمارگرهای گیاهی به‌خوبی شناخته نشده است. یکی از مهم‌ترین بیماری‌های سویا، پوسیدگی ذغالی است که عامل آن قارچ Macrophomina phaseolina ، می‌باشد. علف‌کش‌های ایمازتاپیر، تریفلورالین و متری‌بیوزین به ‌صورت -کاربرد خاکی در کشت سویا کاربرد دارند. به-منظور بررسی اثر غلظت‌های مختلف علف‌کش‌های مذکور بر سرعت رشد قارچ، آزمایشی به-صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در شش تکرار در شرایط آزمایشگاهی انجام گردید. برای هر یک از علف‌کش‌ها، غلظت‌های
Espesye sa uhong sakop sa division nga Ascomycota ang Leptosphaeria gloeospora[7]. Una ning gihulagway ni Miles Joseph Berkeley ug Frederick Currey, ug nga gihatagan sa eksakto nga ngalan ni Pier Andrea Saccardo ni adtong 1883. Ang Leptosphaeria gloeospora sakop sa kahenera nga Leptosphaeria sa kabanay nga Leptosphaeriaceae.[8][9] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[8]. ...
Els pleosporals (Pleosporales) és lordre més gran de la classe dels Dothideomycetes. Sestima que conté 23 faílies, 332 gèneres i més de 4.700 espècies.[2] La majoria de les espècies són sapròtrofs sobre material vegetal en descomposició en aigua dolça,[3] marine,[4] o ambients terrestres, però algunes espècies estan associades amb plantes vives com paràsits, epífits o endòfits.[5] Les espècies més ben estudiades causen malalties en les plantes cultivades, per exemple, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, causa malalties en el panís, Phaeosphaeria nodorum (Stagonospora nodorum) la causa la blat i Leptosphaeria maculans la causa en la col (Brassica). Algunes espècies de pleosporals es troben en la femta dels animals[6] i un petit nombre en els líquens[7] i fongs que viuen en les roques.[8] El membre més antic dels Pleosporales és el gènere extint Margaretbarromyces de lEocè.[9]. ...
An allele of Pm2 for wheat powdery mildew resistance was identified in a putative Agropyron cristatum -derived line and used in wheat breeding programs. Powdery mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) is one of the most devastating wheat diseases worldwide. It is important to exploit varied sources of resistance from common wheat and its relatives in resistance breeding. KM2939, a Chinese breeding line, exhibits high resistance to powdery mildew at both the seedling and adult stages. It carries a single dominant powdery mildew resistance (Pm) allele of Pm2, designated Pm2b, the previous allelic designation Pm2 will be re-designated as Pm2a. Pm2b was mapped to chromosome arm 5DS and flanked by sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers SCAR112 and SCAR203 with genetic distances of 0.5 and 1.3 cM, respectively. Sequence tagged site (STS) marker Mag6176 and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Cfd81 co-segregated with SCAR203. Pm2b differs in specificity from donors of Pm2a,
Binding properties of the native Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (Tll), the inactive mutant of Tll (S146A; active Ser146 mutated to Ala), and the non-glycosylated mutant of Tll (N33Q) were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Tll, S146A mutant and N33Q mutant show significant different binding behavior to phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) liposomes. Generally, weaker association of lipase molecules is observed to PC liposomes than to PG liposomes. Strong lipase-lipid interactions are observed for the S146A mutant, which is less pronounced for Tll and the N33Q variant. Addition of fatty acid to PG liposomes reduces significantly the binding affinity of the lipases. This effect is less pronounced in fatty acid/PC liposomes. Although the catalytic activity of the N33Q mutant is comparable to Tll, the non-glycosylated variant shows generally lower binding affinity to PC or PG matrix than Tll. Addition of the substrate analog benzene boronic acid (BBA) increases the binding ...
Detection and quantification of airborne ascospores as a component of the Sclerotinia rot of carrot (SRC) forecast model is currently accomplished using the blue plate test (BPT), which uses Sclerotinia semiselective medium (SSM). A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to reduce the time to specifically quantify ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from air samples collected using a Burkard Multi-Vial Cyclone Sampler. The qPCR assay was highly sensitive and detected DNA from 0.5 to 5 × 104 ascospores within a linear range (R2 = 0.99). The qPCR assay was used to quantify ascospores of S. sclerotiorum in air samples collected over three growing seasons. Initial SRC disease was observed 8 and 34 days following detection of 9.5 and 2 ascospores m-3 of air, respectively. Results from air samples collected using an Andersen N6 Sampler and the qPCR assay were compared with the BPT. Ascospore counts from a Burkard Sampler coupled with the qPCR assay and the BPT followed ...
The interaction between Stagonospora nodorum and a susceptible wheat cultivar was investigated using a range of microscopic techniques. Germination of pycnidiospores occurred approximately 3 h after making contact with the leaf surface and was followed by attempted penetration 8-12 h later. Penetration was observed through stomata and also directly through periclinal and anticlinal epidermal cell walls. Penetration down the anticlinal cell walls appeared to occur without a differentiated penetrating structure whilst structures identified as either lateral appressoria or hyphopodia were typically present when penetrating over a periclinal cell wall. Once inside the leaf, the fungus continued to grow for the next 4-5 days colonising all parts of the leaf except the vascular bundles. Only in the later phase of the infection was total host cell collapse apparent. Evidence of polyphenolic compounds was observed. The infection cycle was completed within 7 days as indicated by sporulation on the leaf ...
What does powdery mildew look like? The name of this disease is descriptive. The upper and (less frequently) lower surfaces of leaves, as well as stems of infected plants, have a white, powdery appearance. They look as though someone has sprinkled them with talcum powder or powdered sugar.. Where does powdery mildew come from? Powdery mildew is caused by several closely related fungi that survive in plant debris or on infected plants. These fungi are fairly host specific. The powdery mildew fungus that infects one type of plant (e.g., phlox) is not the same powdery mildew fungus that infects another (e.g., lilac). However, if you see powdery mildew on one plant, then weather conditions, usually high humidity, are favorable for development of the disease on a wide range of plants.. How do I save a plant with powdery mildew? DO NOT panic! For many plants, powdery mildew is a cosmetic, non-lethal disease. For other plants [e.g., phlox, Monarda, zinnia (see University of Wisconsin Garden Facts ...
Seemuller, E., 1976: Infectivity and pathogenicity of Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and other stem inhabiting fungi on raspberry canes
Hypovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Hypoviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently four species in this genus including the type species Cryphonectria hypovirus 1. Diseases associated with this genus include: host virulence reduction. The diameter is around 50-80 nm. Genomes are linear, around 9-13kb in length. The genome has 1 or 2 open reading frames. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by cell to cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Hypovirus CHV1 is the only hypovirus found in Europe up to 2000. It is known for reducing the virulence of the fungus that causes chestnut blight (i.e. hypovirulence). Cryphonectria parasitica, the ascomycete fungus, originated in Asia and causes the disease chestnut blight in several chestnut species (Castanea sp.). Although symptoms are mild in Asian chestnut ...
Cerato-platanin (CP) is a 120 amino acids-long protein purified from the culture filtrate of Ceratocystis fimbriata (Ell. and Halst.) Davidson f. sp. platani Walter (Cfp), the causative agent of the canker stain of the plane trees (Pazzagli et al., 1999). CP contains 4 cysteines forming two S-S bridges, Cys20-57 and Cys60-115, and has a high percentage (40%) of hydrophobic residues. It is the founder member of the cerato- platanin family, and its N-terminal region is very similar to cerato-ulmin, a class II hydrophobin involved in the pathogenesis of Dutch elm disease (Del Sorbo et al., 2002). CP is located in the Cfp cell walls, and is early-detected in Cfp culture filtrates. In in vitro experimental conditions CP self-assembles, and interacts with the host plane leaves by eliciting phytoalexin synthesis, extended cell plasmolysis and crushing, and abundant starch accumulation in the chloroplasts (Bennici et al., 2005; Boddi et al., 2004; Pazzagli et al., 2005; Scala et al., 2004). cDNA ...
Hypovirulent isolates of the fruit tree fungal pathogen Diaporthe ambigua have previously been shown to harbour a double-stranded (ds)RNA genetic element of about 4 kb. In this study, we established the complete cDNA sequence of this dsRNA, which represents a replicative form of a positive-strand RNA virus that we have named D. ambigua RNA virus (DaRV). The nucleotide sequence of the genome is 4113 bp and has a GC content of 53%. Two large ORFs are present in the same reading frame. They are most probably translated by readthrough of a UAG stop codon in the central part of the genome. The longest possible translation product (p125) has a predicted molecular mass of about 125 kDa. A significant homology can be found to the non-structural proteins of carmoviruses of the positive-strand RNA virus family Tombusviridae. These proteins also include the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) domain. In contrast to the genome organization of these plant viruses, no ORF is present at the 3′ end of the
Gray leaf spot, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize worldwide. C. zeae-maydis orients hyphal growth towards stomata (stomatal tropism) and forms infectious structures (appressoria) that are necessary for successful infection. Although some genes involved in pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis have been identified, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In fungi, heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits (α, β, and γ) and mediate responses to environmental stimuli. They regulate diverse functions, including nutrient detection, virulence, fungal development, conidiation, secondary metabolism, and pathogenesis in many plant pathogenic fungi. This research explored the role of each G-protein α (Gpα) subunit of C. zeae-maydis in pathogenesis. To this end, the three Gpα subunits identified in C. zeae-maydis were functionally characterized. All three Gpα genes were required for appressorium formation and pathogenesis. Additionally,
The development of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei on susceptible leaves of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., has been examined under the scanning electron microscope. Specimens were not subjected to pre-treatment and high accelerating voltages were used in the microscope. Studies on conidial germination, appressorial formation, host cell wall penetration and conidiophore formation are presented ...
هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر غلظت‌های متفاوت سالیسیلیک اسید بر میزان بیان ژن‌های رمزکنندۀ چهار آنزیم فنیل‌آلانین آمونیالیاز، پلی‌فنل اکسیداز، پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در گیاه گندم (رقم متحمل زاگرس) در بر‌هم کنش با قارچ بیماری‌زای Mycosphaerella graminicolaبود. به این‌منظور، گیاه گندم در مرحلۀ دو برگی با سالیسیلیک اسید (SA) تلقیح و سپس با قارچ عامل بیماری مایه‌زنی شد. نمونه‌برداری از این گیاهان در پنج نقطۀ زمانی (0، 3، 6، 12 و 24 ساعت) پس از مایه‌زنی قارچ بیماری‌زا انجام شد. سپس میزان بیان ژن‌های رمزکنندۀ این آنزیم‌ها با روش نوردرن بلات معکوس بررسی شد. مقدار بیان
矽3可以減少白粉病(Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)罹病度達80%》Rémus-Borel等人(2005)在水耕液中添加矽3以光學顯微鏡 電子顯微鏡和高效液相層析儀(High performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)分析矽減少小麥(Triticum aestivum)罹患白粉病(Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)的機制3顯微鏡觀察發現白粉菌吸器(haustoria)瓦解處有酚化合物(phenolic-like material)堆積》由於小麥上並未曾有抗菌素(phytoalexins)之報導3以高效液相層析儀分析有或無添加矽的小麥植株3比較發現矽處理的白粉菌接種植株3至少有三種酚化合物量是比較高3顯示矽能夠在小麥-白粉菌組合上誘導抗病性》Samuels等人(1991)觀察胡瓜水耕液中添加矽3發現接種白粉病菌24小時後3矽除了累積於毛狀體基部外3亦累積於白粉病菌胞子及發芽管附近372 ...
Wood V, Gwilliam R, Rajandream MA, Lyne M, Lyne R, Stewart A, Sgouros J, Peat N, Hayles J, Baker S, Basham D, Bowman S, Brooks K, Brown D, Brown S, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Collins M, Connor R, Cronin A, Davis P, Feltwell T, Fraser A, Gentles S, Goble A, Hamlin N, Harris D, Hidalgo J, Hodgson G, Holroyd S, Hornsby T, Howarth S, Huckle EJ, Hunt S, Jagels K, James K, Jones L, Jones M, Leather S, McDonald S, McLean J, Mooney P, Moule S, Mungall K, Murphy L, Niblett D, Odell C, Oliver K, ONeil S, Pearson D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Rutter S, Saunders D, Seeger K, Sharp S, Skelton J, Simmonds M, Squares R, Squares S, Stevens K, Taylor K, Taylor RG, Tivey A, Walsh S, Warren T, Whitehead S, Woodward J, Volckaert G, Aert R, Robben J, Grymonprez B, Weltjens I, Vanstreels E, Rieger M, Schäfer M, Müller-Auer S, Gabel C, Fuchs M, Düsterhöft A, Fritzc C, Holzer E, Moestl D, Hilbert H, Borzym K, Langer I, Beck A, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Pohl TM, Eger P, Zimmermann W, Wedler H, Wambutt ...
Erysiphe Graminis, Puccinia Spp., Pyricularia Oryzae, Rhizoctonia Solani, Plasmopara Viticola, Uncinula Necator, Phytophthora Infestans, Alternaria Solani, Monilinia Spp., Cladosporium Carpophilum, Colletotrichum Spp., Hemileia Vastatrix, Elsinoë Fawcettii, Guignardia Citricarpa, Mycosphaerella Spp., Mycosphaerella Arachidis, Sclerotium Rolfsii, Sphaerotheca Fuliginea, Pseudoperonospora Cubensis, Leptosphaeria Nodorum, Septoria Tritici and Pyrenophora ...
The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualisticassociations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as keyinnovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date theorigin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack ofsatisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycetefossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils representfive major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes,and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 andRPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibrationpoints solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages ...
Read "Molecular characterisation of novel mitoviruses associated with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
ID JX970111; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 693 BP. XX AC JX970111; XX DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Created) DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 isolate Ka44 ORFA gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 OC Viruses; dsRNA viruses; Hypoviridae; Hypovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-693 RX PUBMED; 23301186. RA Bryner S.F., Rigling D., Brunner P.C.; RT "Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 RT across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus"; RL Ecol Evol 2(12):3227-3241(2012). XX RN [2] RP 1-693 RA Bryner S.F.; RT ; RL Submitted (15-OCT-2012) to the INSDC. RL Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, WSL Swiss Federal Research RL Institute, Zuercherstrasse 111, Birmensdorf, Zurich 8903, Switzerland XX DR MD5; 1eec5e1b9100a3b65df01ef0c2562746. XX CC ##Assembly-Data-START## CC Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing CC ##Assembly-Data-END## XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..693 FT ...
ID JX970039; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 693 BP. XX AC JX970039; XX DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Created) DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 isolate Bu35 ORFA gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 OC Viruses; dsRNA viruses; Hypoviridae; Hypovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-693 RX PUBMED; 23301186. RA Bryner S.F., Rigling D., Brunner P.C.; RT "Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 RT across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus"; RL Ecol Evol 2(12):3227-3241(2012). XX RN [2] RP 1-693 RA Bryner S.F.; RT ; RL Submitted (15-OCT-2012) to the INSDC. RL Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, WSL Swiss Federal Research RL Institute, Zuercherstrasse 111, Birmensdorf, Zurich 8903, Switzerland XX DR MD5; 7ca44ad7e463a604cf723a441c70c055. XX CC ##Assembly-Data-START## CC Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing CC ##Assembly-Data-END## XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..693 FT ...
Inoculation of wheat seedlings with certain combinations of isolates of Septoria tritici resulted in marked reductions in pycnidial coverage of leaves compared with plants inoculated separately with individual components of the mixture. The effect was greater when the isolates were grown together than when grown separately and mixed before inoculation. The suppression of pycnidial formation did not depend on the ratio of the isolates in the mixtures. The addition of a culture filtrate from one isolate to the conidial preparation of another isolate resulted in marked symptom suppression. In conidial preparations where the growth medium was decanted and the spores were resuspended in fresh medium, marked reductions in pycnidial coverages were observed on all cultivars. These results suggest that S. tritici may produce substances that regulate the expression of symptoms on wheat leaves inoculated with isolate mixtures. Challenge inoculations of Kavkaz winter wheat with an isolate several days after ...
Ragonnet-Cronin, M., S. Aris-Brosou, I. Joanisse, H. Merks, D. Vallée, K. Caminiti, et al. 2012. Genetic diversity as a marker for timing Infection in HIV-infected patients: evaluation of a 6-month window and comparison with BED. J. Infect. Dis. 206:756-764 ...
The ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of the marine Ascomycete, Leptosphaeria oraemaris (Linder) yielded a novel metabolite designated by the common name leptosphaerin. An x-ray crystallographic structure analysis was disproved by the synthesis of 3-acetoxy-S-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)- 3-pyrrolin-2-one 1, starting with N,N-dibenzylhydroxylamine 47 and D-mannitol 44. Oxidation of 47 followed by acid catalyzed hydrolysis gave N-benzylhydroxylamine 4_9. D-mannitol 44 was converted to a bis acetonide and the resulting vicinal diol was cleaved with lead tetraacetate to afford 2.3-0-isopropylidene-D-glyceraldehyde 46. Condensation of 46 and 49 gave N-benzyl-N-(2,3-0-isopropylideneglyceraldimine)-N-oxide 50 which, upon thermolyeis in the presence of methyl acryiate yielded 2- benzy1-3-(1,2-0-isopropylidene dihydroxyethyl)-S-carbomethoxyisoxazolidine 7S. Catalytic hydrogerolysis followed by oxidation and acetylation produced 3-acetoxy-5-(1,2-0-isopropylidenedihydroxyetnyi)-3-pyrroline-2- one 81. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discriminatory simplex and multiplex PCR for four species of the genus Sclerotinia. AU - Abd-Elmagid, Ahmed. AU - Garrido, Patricia A.. AU - Hunger, Robert. AU - Lyles, Justin L.. AU - Mansfield, Michele A.. AU - Gugino, Beth Krueger. AU - Smith, Damon L.. AU - Melouk, Hassan A.. AU - Garzon, Carla D.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, S. minor Jagger, S. trifoliorum Eriks, and S. homoeocarpa F.T. Benn are the most relevant plant pathogenic species within the genus Sclerotinia because of their large range of economically important hosts, including tomato, peanut, alfalfa, and turfgrass, among others. Species identification based on morphological characteristics is challenging and time demanding, especially when one crop hosts multiple species. The objective of this study was to design specific primers compatible with multiplexing, for rapid, sensitive and accurate detection and discrimination among four Sclerotinia species. Specific ...
Question 1: Southern corn leaf blight, caused by the fungus Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechs.) Drechs, anamorph Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado & Miyake) by the ________ Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. ...
...Powdery mildew is a fungus that infects both crop and ornamental plant...Investigating mildew susceptibility in plants is not really a main res...Recently Grossniklaus and his team uncovered a mutant that they named...Pollination and fun...,Fertility,or,powdery,mildew,resistance?,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
ID E3RZL0_PYRTT Unreviewed; 705 AA. AC E3RZL0; DT 11-JAN-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-JAN-2011, sequence version 1. DT 30-AUG-2017, entry version 24. DE RecName: Full=Glycogen [starch] synthase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU363104}; DE EC=2.4.1.11 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU363104}; GN ORFNames=PTT_15101 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EFQ88821.1}; OS Pyrenophora teres f. teres (strain 0-1) (Barley net blotch fungus) OS (Drechslera teres f. teres). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; OC Dothideomycetes; Pleosporomycetidae; Pleosporales; Pleosporineae; OC Pleosporaceae; Pyrenophora. OX NCBI_TaxID=861557 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001067}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EFQ88821.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001067} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=0-1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EFQ88821.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001067}; RX PubMed=21067574; DOI=10.1186/gb-2010-11-11-r109; RA Ellwood S.R., Liu Z., Syme R.A., Lai Z., Hane J.K., Keiper F., RA Moffat C.S., Oliver ...
ID E3RIY7_PYRTT Unreviewed; 524 AA. AC E3RIY7; DT 11-JAN-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-JAN-2011, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 35. DE RecName: Full=Glutamate decarboxylase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361171}; DE EC=4.1.1.15 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361171}; GN ORFNames=PTT_08052 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EFQ94305.1}; OS Pyrenophora teres f. teres (strain 0-1) (Barley net blotch fungus) OS (Drechslera teres f. teres). OC Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; OC Dothideomycetes; Pleosporomycetidae; Pleosporales; Pleosporineae; OC Pleosporaceae; Pyrenophora. OX NCBI_TaxID=861557 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001067}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EFQ94305.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001067} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=0-1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:EFQ94305.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001067}; RX PubMed=21067574; DOI=10.1186/gb-2010-11-11-r109; RA Ellwood S.R., Liu Z., Syme R.A., Lai Z., Hane J.K., Keiper F., RA Moffat C.S., Oliver ...
Development of a method for mRNA differential display in filamentous fungi: comparison of mRNA differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism in Leptosphaeria maculans
A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM) crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b
First, I would personally suspect that black dots, especially if appearing flush or bulging slightly from the surface, are pycnidia, not budding isidia. Isidiate species (and sorediate species) almost invariably produce isidia (and soredia) from a very early stage, much earlier than a fertile species would begin to produce apothecia (which apparently require a much greater investment). Fertile species, for whatever reason, frequently also have pycnidia. Sometimes sterile species do, but its a useful correlation: abundant pycnidia on a thallus with no soredia, isidia, or apothecia generally indicates an immature fertile species. (Ive heard suggested that the conidia produced by pycnidia can actually function as "sperm" or "pollen", a very inrtriguing possibility.). The other, and more important point, is the importance of distinguishing chemical spot tests done on the cortex versus on the medulla. I, too, am convinced that this specimen is Parmelina, which as you point out should have lecanoric ...
APHOTOFUNGI - Photographic Stock Image Library Page for Morchella esclenta - Common Morel - Ascomycetes (Ascomycota Images). A-P-H-O-T-O - Furthering environmental awareness and education through the medium of photography.
Septoria tritici, Bitkinin gelişme evresine ve çevre şartlarına bağlı olan, bitkinin toprak üstü aksamını etkileyen ve değişik tipte leke oluşturan...
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Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in
Wheat Domestication Accelerated Evolution and Triggered Positive Selection in the β-Xylosidase Enzyme of Mycosphaerella graminicola. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Leaves covered by powdery mildew cannot manufacture enough food which can impact on plant growth and fruit development, depending on the rate of infection. But rarely does the mildew kill the plant. It just looks horrible.. There are a number of different fungi species responsible for powdery mildew. Some are species specific, others will attack a wider range of plant varieties. In regions of high humidity and moderate temperatures, the fungi produce mycelium and spores on the surface of affected foliage. The spores are then carried by wind currents to other plants.. Strangely enough, it is the wind which will reduce the risk of fungal infection. Providing adequate spacing between plants will increase air circulation and decrease the moisture retention on the leaves. Opening up shaded areas to more sunlight will also help.. Autumn is another trying time of year for protecting our plants and crops from powdery mildew. A lot of fungi spores repose in the soil and come fall, the rains splashing up ...