TY - JOUR. T1 - Meiosis drives extraordinary genome plasticity in the haploid fungal plant pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola. AU - Wittenberg, A.H.J.. AU - van der Lee, T.A.J.. AU - Ben MBarek, S.. AU - Ware, S.B.. AU - Goodwin, S.B.. AU - Kilian, A.. AU - Visser, R.G.F.. AU - Kema, G.H.J.. AU - Schouten, H.J.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Meiosis in the haploid plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola results in eight ascospores due to a mitotic division following the two meiotic divisions. The transient diploid phase allows for recombination among homologous chromosomes. However, some chromosomes of M. graminicola lack homologs and do not pair during meiosis. Because these chromosomes are not present universally in the genome of the organism they can be considered to be dispensable. To analyze the meiotic transmission of unequal chromosome numbers, two segregating populations were generated by crossing genetically unrelated parent isolates originating from Algeria and The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Gene-for-Gene Relationship Between Wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola, the Septoria Tritici Blotch Pathogen. AU - Brading, P.A.. AU - Kema, G.H.J.. AU - Verstappen, E.C.P.. AU - Brown, J.K.M.. N1 - Applied Mycology & Biotechnology is an International Series. Titel of Volume 4: Fungal Genomics. Elsevier Science B.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Specific resistances to isolates of the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, which causes Septoria tritici blotch of wheat, have been detected in many cultivars. Cvs, Flame and Hereward, which have specific resistance to the isolate IPO323, were crossed with the susceptible cv. Longbow. The results of tests on F1 and F2 progeny indicated that a single semidominant gene controls resistance to IPO323 in each of the resistant cultivars. This was confirmed in F3 families of Flame x Longbow, which were either homozygous resistant, homozygous susceptible, or segregating in tests with IPO323 but were uniformly susceptible to another ...
The Cryphonectria parasitica gene cpmk2, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase belonging to the yeast extracellular signalling-regulated kinase (YERK1) subfamily, was isolated and its biological function was examined. Disruption of cpmk2 resulted in impaired pigmentation and abolished conidiation. Growth defects were observed in the cpmk2 mutant grown on solid plates, but growth of the mutant appeared normal in liquid media, including EP complete and PD broth, suggesting that the cpmk2 gene is involved in sensing and responding to growth conditions. The mutant's production of laccase, as measured by the size of the coloured area produced on tannic-acid-supplemented plates, was significantly reduced compared with the wild-type, but the intensity of the coloured area was unchanged, suggesting that the reduced laccase activity was owing to reduced growth on solid media rather than transcriptional downregulation. A dramatic reduction observed in the canker area produced by the cpmk2 mutant
The invention relates to fungal disease resistance, in particular to resistance to blackleg disease caused by Leptosphaeria maculans. Provided are Brassica plants and seeds comprising a fragment of chromosome 8 of a wild B. rapa accession in their genome, wherein this fragment comprises a blackleg resistance locus. Further provided are molecular markers linked to the blackleg resistance locus and methods of using the markers. Brassica plants and seeds with stacked blackleg resistance loci are also provided.
Leptosphaeria maculans is the causal agent of blackleg, a serious disease on canola/rapeseed in western Canada, Australia and Europe. Genetic resistance and extended crop rotation provided effective disease control in western Canada for years but the emergence of new pathogen races has reduced the effectiveness of current management strategies. The objective of this study was to analyse L. maculans isolates derived from canola stubble in commercial fields collected in 2010 and 2011 across western Canada for the presence and frequency of avirulence (Avr) genes. A total of 674 isolates were examined for the presence of Avr alleles AvrLm1, AvrLm2, AvrLm3, AvrLm4, AvrLm6, AvrLm7, AvrLm9, AvrLepR1, AvrLepR2 and AvrLmS using a set of differential host genotypes carrying known resistance genes or PCR amplification of AvrLm1, AvrLm6 and AvrLm4-Lm7. Certain alleles were more prevalent in the pathogen population, with AvrLm6 and AvrLm7 present in ,85% of isolates, while AvrLm3, AvrLm9 and AvrLepR2 were ...
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi notable for their wide host ranges and environmental persistence. These attributes have made these species models for understanding the complexity of necrotrophic, broad host-range pathogenicity. De …
Phytopathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is the causal agent of chestnut blight in the European chestnut Castanea sativa Miller. This fungus is also the natural host of the virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1), which reduces fungal virulence and sporulation ability. Hypovirus can spread only between fungal strains that belong to the same vegetative compatibility (VC) type, i.e. that contain identical alleles at all vic loci, and less frequently from the strains in which theres a a difference in only one of six loci which determine the diversity of VC types in Europe. In this research C. parasitica populations from Ozalj and Kašt area were analyzed. The aim was to determine the diversity of VC types and the percentage of hypovirulent isolates with white morphology. In Ozalj population the dominant VC type was EU2 which represented 34% of the total number of isolates, followed by EU1 which represented 19% of the total number of isolates. The prevalence of VC types EU14, EU39 and EU40 ...
Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the most destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogens that infect more than 500 plant species throughout the world. It can grow rapidly in infected plants and subsequently produces a large amount of sclerotia that plugs the vessels, resulting in wilting of the plant. We sequenced and assembled ~49 Mb into 15 super-scaffolds covering 92.83% of the M. phaseolina genome. We predict 14,249 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 9,934 are validated by the transcriptome. This phytopathogen has an abundance of secreted oxidases, peroxidases, and hydrolytic enzymes for degrading cell wall polysaccharides and lignocelluloses to penetrate into the host tissue. To overcome the host plant defense response, M. phaseolina encodes a significant number of P450s, MFS type membrane transporters, glycosidases, transposases, and secondary metabolites in comparison to all sequenced ascomycete species. A strikingly distinct set of carbohydrate esterases (CE) are present in M. phaseolina, with the
In this laboratory exercise, learners will discover how many different plant hosts they can find that are infected by the same genus of a powdery mildew fungus, or how many different genera of powdery mildew fungi can be found on the same plant host. This exercise demonstrates the diversity that exists within a fungal order. With a good collection of leaves infected with different powdery mildew fungi (collected by learners or instructor), learners use a written key and/or an illustrated key (or could even make their own key) to identify the powdery mildew fungus to genus. Since powdery mildew fungi reproduce by means of two spore types, asexual spores (conidia) and sexual spores (ascospores), discussions of the types of reproduction in fungi can be facilitated. Note: This lab works best in regions that experience cold weather for part of the year, since this encourages production of cleistothecia (sexual stage). Please scroll down for activity component links. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Variation in resistance to spot blotch and the aggressiveness of Bipolaris sorokiniana on barley and wheat cultivars. AU - Al-Sadi, A. M.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of spot blotch and other diseases in barley and wheat in different parts of the world. This study investigated the reaction of nine barley cultivars and four wheat cultivars to infection by 11 B. sorokiniana isolates. All B. sorokiniana isolates produced necrotic lesions on the inoculated barley and wheat cultivars, with no significant differences among most isolates in the necrotic lesion size. However, B. sorokiniana isolates induced significantly varying levels of chlorotic lesions and spores eight days following inoculation (P ,0.05). Isolates BsJ53 and BsJ51 were the most aggressive on barley cultivars, while isolates BsJ53, BsJ51, BsWM and BsWS were the most aggressive on wheat cultivars. The aggressive isolates resulted in large chlorotic lesions (, 7 mm) and produced ...
Macrophomina phaseolina is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes a disease commonly known as charcoal rot. Currently, there is not an effective method for controlling the disease, because knowledge about the pathogen, the development of the disease and how it interacts with the plant host is limited. Therefore, a study is proposed to investigate the interactions between M. phaseolina and the plant species Medicago truncatula using a molecular genetics approach where the host genes involved in the disease development will be identified. We will first conduct a genetic screen in a mutant population of M. truncatula and look for strains that have altered susceptibility to M. phaseolina. We will then identify the genes that are involved in host-pathogen interactions ...
Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a double-stranded (ds)RNA virus without a capsid that infects phytopathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight. This virus reduces virulence and reproductive capacities of the fungus and thus is very important in biological control of the chestnut blight. If a hypovirulent fungus carrying CHV1 is introduced into an active canker caused by virulent C. parasitica strain, canker expansion ceases and callus is formed. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of CHV1 in chestnut calli. A total of 24 calli from Ozalj and Markuševac were included in the research. Observed presence of virulent fungal strains in chestnut calli was high. As many as 29.16% of calli had only virulent fungal strains in their tissue, 45.84% of calli had the combination of virulent and hypovirulent fungal strains, and only 25% of calli had solely hypovirulent fungal strains in their tissue. It is assumed that this could have happened ...
Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Septoria tritici ) is the cause of septoria tritici blotch, which in most years is the second most important disease of wheat in the United States, after rust, occurring in most wheat-growing areas every year. The disease occurs throughout the world, wherever wheat is grown. Yield losses caused by septoria tritici blotch can range from 30 to 50% but probably are more on the order of several percent annually in the United States. The economic damage caused by this disease probably is more than $275 million every year in lost revenue to U.S. wheat growers. This disease also is an important fungicide target in Europe, which is the most important market for cereal fungicides for the agrochemical industry, including a range of US companies. The estimated volume of fungicide input in this area is ~$400 million, which is approximately 70% of the total fungicide input in cereals. Losses in the developing world are difficult to estimate but M. graminicola infection ...
چکیده علف‌کش‌ها به-طور وسیعی در مزارع مختلف مورد استفاده قرار می-گیرند اما مکانیسم فعل و انفعلات ممکن بین علف‌کش‌ها و بیمارگرهای گیاهی به‌خوبی شناخته نشده است. یکی از مهم‌ترین بیماری‌های سویا، پوسیدگی ذغالی است که عامل آن قارچ Macrophomina phaseolina ، می‌باشد. علف‌کش‌های ایمازتاپیر، تریفلورالین و متری‌بیوزین به ‌صورت -کاربرد خاکی در کشت سویا کاربرد دارند. به-منظور بررسی اثر غلظت‌های مختلف علف‌کش‌های مذکور بر سرعت رشد قارچ، آزمایشی به-صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در شش تکرار در شرایط آزمایشگاهی انجام گردید. برای هر یک از علف‌کش‌ها، غلظت‌های
Powdery mildews are ascomycete pathogens that colonize a wide range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. They have an obligate biotrophic lifestyle, meaning that they can only reproduce on living plant cells. Some powdery mildews, for example the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, have a very narrow host range and can only colonize a single plant species, while others have a broader host range and can infect multiple plant hosts. To obtain first insights into the molecular basis of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle of powdery mildew fungi we have initiated next generation sequencing-based genome projects of two species that colonize dicotyledonous host plants: Erysiphe pisi, the pea powdery mildew pathogen and Golovinomyces orontii, a powdery mildew species that colonizes the dicotyledonous reference species Arabidopsis thaliana. These efforts complement the genome sequencing of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, conducted by a consortium of researchers in the U.K. ...
Espesye sa uhong sakop sa division nga Ascomycota ang Leptosphaeria gloeospora[7]. Una ning gihulagway ni Miles Joseph Berkeley ug Frederick Currey, ug nga gihatagan sa eksakto nga ngalan ni Pier Andrea Saccardo ni adtong 1883. Ang Leptosphaeria gloeospora sakop sa kahenera nga Leptosphaeria sa kabanay nga Leptosphaeriaceae.[8][9] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[8]. ...
Els pleosporals (Pleosporales) és lordre més gran de la classe dels Dothideomycetes. Sestima que conté 23 faílies, 332 gèneres i més de 4.700 espècies.[2] La majoria de les espècies són sapròtrofs sobre material vegetal en descomposició en aigua dolça,[3] marine,[4] o ambients terrestres, però algunes espècies estan associades amb plantes vives com paràsits, epífits o endòfits.[5] Les espècies més ben estudiades causen malalties en les plantes cultivades, per exemple, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, causa malalties en el panís, Phaeosphaeria nodorum (Stagonospora nodorum) la causa la blat i Leptosphaeria maculans la causa en la col (Brassica). Algunes espècies de pleosporals es troben en la femta dels animals[6] i un petit nombre en els líquens[7] i fongs que viuen en les roques.[8] El membre més antic dels Pleosporales és el gènere extint Margaretbarromyces de lEocè.[9]. ...
An allele of Pm2 for wheat powdery mildew resistance was identified in a putative Agropyron cristatum -derived line and used in wheat breeding programs. Powdery mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) is one of the most devastating wheat diseases worldwide. It is important to exploit varied sources of resistance from common wheat and its relatives in resistance breeding. KM2939, a Chinese breeding line, exhibits high resistance to powdery mildew at both the seedling and adult stages. It carries a single dominant powdery mildew resistance (Pm) allele of Pm2, designated Pm2b, the previous allelic designation Pm2 will be re-designated as Pm2a. Pm2b was mapped to chromosome arm 5DS and flanked by sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers SCAR112 and SCAR203 with genetic distances of 0.5 and 1.3 cM, respectively. Sequence tagged site (STS) marker Mag6176 and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Cfd81 co-segregated with SCAR203. Pm2b differs in specificity from donors of Pm2a,
Orbiliomycetes Pezizomycetes dan Sordariomycetes Lahmiales, Medeolariales dan Triblidiales sebagai ordo yang tidak tergantikan dan Geoglossaceae sebagai famili yang tidak tergantikan. Struktur tubuh dari ascomycota memiliki bentuk tubuh buah kecil, bulat, bulat panjang, mangkuk. Contoh ascomycota yang memiliki tubuh buah adalah Morchella esculenta, Tuber melanosporum dan Xylaria comosa. Namun ada beberapa ascomycota yang tidak memiliki tubuh buah. Contoh ascomycota yang tidak memiliki tubuh buah adalah Neurospora crassa.. Pada jamur jenis ascomycota yang hidup secara parasit. Parasit adalah kemampuan bertahan hidup makhluk hidup menggunakan makhluk hidup lain dengan memberikan dampak yang negatif bagi inang sedangkan memberikan keuntungan pada jamur ascomycota. Adapun tubuh buah yang besar terdapat pada jamurascomycota yang hidup secara saprofit. Saprofit artinya kemampuan hidup jamur ascomycota yang membutuhkan makhluk hidup lain yang tidak memberikan pengaruh negatif dan positif pada ...
Binding properties of the native Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (Tll), the inactive mutant of Tll (S146A; active Ser146 mutated to Ala), and the non-glycosylated mutant of Tll (N33Q) were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Tll, S146A mutant and N33Q mutant show significant different binding behavior to phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) liposomes. Generally, weaker association of lipase molecules is observed to PC liposomes than to PG liposomes. Strong lipase-lipid interactions are observed for the S146A mutant, which is less pronounced for Tll and the N33Q variant. Addition of fatty acid to PG liposomes reduces significantly the binding affinity of the lipases. This effect is less pronounced in fatty acid/PC liposomes. Although the catalytic activity of the N33Q mutant is comparable to Tll, the non-glycosylated variant shows generally lower binding affinity to PC or PG matrix than Tll. Addition of the substrate analog benzene boronic acid (BBA) increases the binding ...
Detection and quantification of airborne ascospores as a component of the Sclerotinia rot of carrot (SRC) forecast model is currently accomplished using the blue plate test (BPT), which uses Sclerotinia semiselective medium (SSM). A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to reduce the time to specifically quantify ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from air samples collected using a Burkard Multi-Vial Cyclone Sampler. The qPCR assay was highly sensitive and detected DNA from 0.5 to 5 × 104 ascospores within a linear range (R2 = 0.99). The qPCR assay was used to quantify ascospores of S. sclerotiorum in air samples collected over three growing seasons. Initial SRC disease was observed 8 and 34 days following detection of 9.5 and 2 ascospores m-3 of air, respectively. Results from air samples collected using an Andersen N6 Sampler and the qPCR assay were compared with the BPT. Ascospore counts from a Burkard Sampler coupled with the qPCR assay and the BPT followed ...
The interaction between Stagonospora nodorum and a susceptible wheat cultivar was investigated using a range of microscopic techniques. Germination of pycnidiospores occurred approximately 3 h after making contact with the leaf surface and was followed by attempted penetration 8-12 h later. Penetration was observed through stomata and also directly through periclinal and anticlinal epidermal cell walls. Penetration down the anticlinal cell walls appeared to occur without a differentiated penetrating structure whilst structures identified as either lateral appressoria or hyphopodia were typically present when penetrating over a periclinal cell wall. Once inside the leaf, the fungus continued to grow for the next 4-5 days colonising all parts of the leaf except the vascular bundles. Only in the later phase of the infection was total host cell collapse apparent. Evidence of polyphenolic compounds was observed. The infection cycle was completed within 7 days as indicated by sporulation on the leaf ...
TY - ABST. T1 - Modelling population dynamics of virulence genes. Case: Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei causing powdery mildew in barley. AU - Østergård, Hanne. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Planteproduktion og stofomsætning. M3 - Conference abstract for conference. T2 - Graduate course in Disease Resistance - The biological defence of plants, KVL. Y2 - 1 January 2000. ER - ...
What does powdery mildew look like? The name of this disease is descriptive. The upper and (less frequently) lower surfaces of leaves, as well as stems of infected plants, have a white, powdery appearance. They look as though someone has sprinkled them with talcum powder or powdered sugar.. Where does powdery mildew come from? Powdery mildew is caused by several closely related fungi that survive in plant debris or on infected plants. These fungi are fairly host specific. The powdery mildew fungus that infects one type of plant (e.g., phlox) is not the same powdery mildew fungus that infects another (e.g., lilac). However, if you see powdery mildew on one plant, then weather conditions, usually high humidity, are favorable for development of the disease on a wide range of plants.. How do I save a plant with powdery mildew? DO NOT panic! For many plants, powdery mildew is a cosmetic, non-lethal disease. For other plants [e.g., phlox, Monarda, zinnia (see University of Wisconsin Garden Facts ...
Seemuller, E., 1976: Infectivity and pathogenicity of Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and other stem inhabiting fungi on raspberry canes
Hypovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Hypoviridae. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently four species in this genus including the type species Cryphonectria hypovirus 1. Diseases associated with this genus include: host virulence reduction. The diameter is around 50-80 nm. Genomes are linear, around 9-13kb in length. The genome has 1 or 2 open reading frames. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by cell to cell movement. Fungi serve as the natural host. Hypovirus CHV1 is the only hypovirus found in Europe up to 2000. It is known for reducing the virulence of the fungus that causes chestnut blight (i.e. hypovirulence). Cryphonectria parasitica, the ascomycete fungus, originated in Asia and causes the disease chestnut blight in several chestnut species (Castanea sp.). Although symptoms are mild in Asian chestnut ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22:932-941...Isabelle Fudal,1 Simon Ross,1 Hortense Brun,2 Anne-Laure Besnard,2 Magali Ermel,2 Marie-Line Kuhn,1 Marie-Hélène Balesdent,1 and Thierry Rouxel1...© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society...
Cerato-platanin (CP) is a 120 amino acids-long protein purified from the culture filtrate of Ceratocystis fimbriata (Ell. and Halst.) Davidson f. sp. platani Walter (Cfp), the causative agent of the canker stain of the plane trees (Pazzagli et al., 1999). CP contains 4 cysteines forming two S-S bridges, Cys20-57 and Cys60-115, and has a high percentage (40%) of hydrophobic residues. It is the founder member of the cerato- platanin family, and its N-terminal region is very similar to cerato-ulmin, a class II hydrophobin involved in the pathogenesis of Dutch elm disease (Del Sorbo et al., 2002). CP is located in the Cfp cell walls, and is early-detected in Cfp culture filtrates. In in vitro experimental conditions CP self-assembles, and interacts with the host plane leaves by eliciting phytoalexin synthesis, extended cell plasmolysis and crushing, and abundant starch accumulation in the chloroplasts (Bennici et al., 2005; Boddi et al., 2004; Pazzagli et al., 2005; Scala et al., 2004). cDNA ...
Hypovirulent isolates of the fruit tree fungal pathogen Diaporthe ambigua have previously been shown to harbour a double-stranded (ds)RNA genetic element of about 4 kb. In this study, we established the complete cDNA sequence of this dsRNA, which represents a replicative form of a positive-strand RNA virus that we have named D. ambigua RNA virus (DaRV). The nucleotide sequence of the genome is 4113 bp and has a GC content of 53%. Two large ORFs are present in the same reading frame. They are most probably translated by readthrough of a UAG stop codon in the central part of the genome. The longest possible translation product (p125) has a predicted molecular mass of about 125 kDa. A significant homology can be found to the non-structural proteins of carmoviruses of the positive-strand RNA virus family Tombusviridae. These proteins also include the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) domain. In contrast to the genome organization of these plant viruses, no ORF is present at the 3′ end of the
Gray leaf spot, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize worldwide. C. zeae-maydis orients hyphal growth towards stomata (stomatal tropism) and forms infectious structures (appressoria) that are necessary for successful infection. Although some genes involved in pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis have been identified, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In fungi, heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits (α, β, and γ) and mediate responses to environmental stimuli. They regulate diverse functions, including nutrient detection, virulence, fungal development, conidiation, secondary metabolism, and pathogenesis in many plant pathogenic fungi. This research explored the role of each G-protein α (Gpα) subunit of C. zeae-maydis in pathogenesis. To this end, the three Gpα subunits identified in C. zeae-maydis were functionally characterized. All three Gpα genes were required for appressorium formation and pathogenesis. Additionally,
Hislop EC. Peroxidase and ethylene production by barley leaves infected with Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei. (1971) PHYSIOLOGICAL PLANT PATHOLOGY 0048-4059 1 3 297-300,IN11-IN12,301- ...
The development of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei on susceptible leaves of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., has been examined under the scanning electron microscope. Specimens were not subjected to pre-treatment and high accelerating voltages were used in the microscope. Studies on conidial germination, appressorial formation, host cell wall penetration and conidiophore formation are presented ...
هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر غلظت‌های متفاوت سالیسیلیک اسید بر میزان بیان ژن‌های رمزکنندۀ چهار آنزیم فنیل‌آلانین آمونیالیاز، پلی‌فنل اکسیداز، پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در گیاه گندم (رقم متحمل زاگرس) در بر‌هم کنش با قارچ بیماری‌زای Mycosphaerella graminicolaبود. به این‌منظور، گیاه گندم در مرحلۀ دو برگی با سالیسیلیک اسید (SA) تلقیح و سپس با قارچ عامل بیماری مایه‌زنی شد. نمونه‌برداری از این گیاهان در پنج نقطۀ زمانی (0، 3، 6، 12 و 24 ساعت) پس از مایه‌زنی قارچ بیماری‌زا انجام شد. سپس میزان بیان ژن‌های رمزکنندۀ این آنزیم‌ها با روش نوردرن بلات معکوس بررسی شد. مقدار بیان
矽3可以減少白粉病(Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)罹病度達80%》Rémus-Borel等人(2005)在水耕液中添加矽3以光學顯微鏡 電子顯微鏡和高效液相層析儀(High performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)分析矽減少小麥(Triticum aestivum)罹患白粉病(Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)的機制3顯微鏡觀察發現白粉菌吸器(haustoria)瓦解處有酚化合物(phenolic-like material)堆積》由於小麥上並未曾有抗菌素(phytoalexins)之報導3以高效液相層析儀分析有或無添加矽的小麥植株3比較發現矽處理的白粉菌接種植株3至少有三種酚化合物量是比較高3顯示矽能夠在小麥-白粉菌組合上誘導抗病性》Samuels等人(1991)觀察胡瓜水耕液中添加矽3發現接種白粉病菌24小時後3矽除了累積於毛狀體基部外3亦累積於白粉病菌胞子及發芽管附近372 ...
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, the causal organism of stem rot of Brassica and over 500 host plants is distributed worldwide. Sclerotinia rot is menace to cultivation of.
Wood V, Gwilliam R, Rajandream MA, Lyne M, Lyne R, Stewart A, Sgouros J, Peat N, Hayles J, Baker S, Basham D, Bowman S, Brooks K, Brown D, Brown S, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Collins M, Connor R, Cronin A, Davis P, Feltwell T, Fraser A, Gentles S, Goble A, Hamlin N, Harris D, Hidalgo J, Hodgson G, Holroyd S, Hornsby T, Howarth S, Huckle EJ, Hunt S, Jagels K, James K, Jones L, Jones M, Leather S, McDonald S, McLean J, Mooney P, Moule S, Mungall K, Murphy L, Niblett D, Odell C, Oliver K, ONeil S, Pearson D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Rutter S, Saunders D, Seeger K, Sharp S, Skelton J, Simmonds M, Squares R, Squares S, Stevens K, Taylor K, Taylor RG, Tivey A, Walsh S, Warren T, Whitehead S, Woodward J, Volckaert G, Aert R, Robben J, Grymonprez B, Weltjens I, Vanstreels E, Rieger M, Schäfer M, Müller-Auer S, Gabel C, Fuchs M, Düsterhöft A, Fritzc C, Holzer E, Moestl D, Hilbert H, Borzym K, Langer I, Beck A, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Pohl TM, Eger P, Zimmermann W, Wedler H, Wambutt ...
Erysiphe Graminis, Puccinia Spp., Pyricularia Oryzae, Rhizoctonia Solani, Plasmopara Viticola, Uncinula Necator, Phytophthora Infestans, Alternaria Solani, Monilinia Spp., Cladosporium Carpophilum, Colletotrichum Spp., Hemileia Vastatrix, Elsinoë Fawcettii, Guignardia Citricarpa, Mycosphaerella Spp., Mycosphaerella Arachidis, Sclerotium Rolfsii, Sphaerotheca Fuliginea, Pseudoperonospora Cubensis, Leptosphaeria Nodorum, Septoria Tritici and Pyrenophora ...
The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualisticassociations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as keyinnovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date theorigin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack ofsatisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycetefossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils representfive major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes,and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 andRPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibrationpoints solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages ...
Read Molecular characterisation of novel mitoviruses associated with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Controle de la roya (Phakopsora packyrhizi) y moho blanco (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) de la soja con Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus y Baciilus amyloliquefaciens ...
ID JX970111; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 693 BP. XX AC JX970111; XX DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Created) DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 isolate Ka44 ORFA gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 OC Viruses; dsRNA viruses; Hypoviridae; Hypovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-693 RX PUBMED; 23301186. RA Bryner S.F., Rigling D., Brunner P.C.; RT Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 RT across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus; RL Ecol Evol 2(12):3227-3241(2012). XX RN [2] RP 1-693 RA Bryner S.F.; RT ; RL Submitted (15-OCT-2012) to the INSDC. RL Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, WSL Swiss Federal Research RL Institute, Zuercherstrasse 111, Birmensdorf, Zurich 8903, Switzerland XX DR MD5; 1eec5e1b9100a3b65df01ef0c2562746. XX CC ##Assembly-Data-START## CC Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing CC ##Assembly-Data-END## XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..693 FT ...
ID JX970039; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 693 BP. XX AC JX970039; XX DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Created) DT 11-JAN-2013 (Rel. 115, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 isolate Bu35 ORFA gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 OC Viruses; dsRNA viruses; Hypoviridae; Hypovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-693 RX PUBMED; 23301186. RA Bryner S.F., Rigling D., Brunner P.C.; RT Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 RT across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus; RL Ecol Evol 2(12):3227-3241(2012). XX RN [2] RP 1-693 RA Bryner S.F.; RT ; RL Submitted (15-OCT-2012) to the INSDC. RL Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, WSL Swiss Federal Research RL Institute, Zuercherstrasse 111, Birmensdorf, Zurich 8903, Switzerland XX DR MD5; 7ca44ad7e463a604cf723a441c70c055. XX CC ##Assembly-Data-START## CC Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing CC ##Assembly-Data-END## XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..693 FT ...
I have three Dracaena fragrans house plants that were propagated form another large plant. Ive found that two of them have White root rot disease. (The plant that did not have the fungus was the topmost cutting.). Can I propagate healthy plants from their cuttings (that is, is the fungus confined to the roots, or does affect the whole plant, so that the propagated plants will also end up having the disease)?. [I suspect that the large plant I propagated the tree plants had some root issues (the leaves had yellow spots and were turning brown and drying out at the end), although I couldnt identify any problems with the roots when I was replanting it, so I assumed it had to do with some unfavorable conditions. Ive been having the large plant for a year or so, and except for the yellow spots on the leaves I got it with it seems to be doing ok. ]. ...
Investigating mildew susceptibility in plants is not really a main research focus for Ueli Grossniklaus, a professor for plant genetics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Grossniklaus lab mainly investigates the molecular mechanism of both sexual and asexual plant reproduction. His group conducts fundamental research on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, whose complete genome has been deciphered.. Recently, Grossniklaus and his team uncovered a mutant that they named nortia after an Etruscan goddess of fertility. Together with FERONIA - a gene Grossniklaus group had previously discovered - NORTIA plays a key role in the communication between the female and male cells during fertilization. Surprisingly, examination of the structure of the NORTIA gene revealed that it was very similar to the structure the Mlo gene of barley. In barley, Mlo is responsible for powdery mildew susceptibility, with mlo mutants showing a resistance against many strains of powdery mildew infection. This ...
Brassica napus ; oilseed rape ; Leptosphaeria maculans ; Leptosphaeria biglobosa ; phoma stem canker ; leaf spot ; pseudothecia ; ascospore
Blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans is a widespread fungal disease on B~assica napus (oilseed rape). In contrast, Arabidopsis thaliana and B. nigra are in general highly resistant. This study presents results from genomic interaction between the A. thaliana and B. napus genome with focus on L. maculans resistance. Identification and partial characterization of A. thaliana resistance in accessions, L. maculans susceptible mutants, and signaling pathways were also performed. Finally, a resistance gene to L. maculans from B. nigra was cloned and transferred to B. napus. Chromosome counts and RFLP analyses of A. thaliana DNA content in A. thaliana (+) B. napus back-crossed progeny were performed. The results showed that in BC,, originating from symmetric hybrids, the frequency of retained A. thaliana loci was reduced to 42%. The average chromosome number decreased from 48 in BC1 to 39 in BC2. These results can be compared with the asymmetric hybrid derived BC,, that had 16% loci present and an ...
Symptoms of Aureobasidium pullulans exposure including 15 medical symptoms and signs of Aureobasidium pullulans exposure, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Aureobasidium pullulans exposure signs or Aureobasidium pullulans exposure symptoms.
Tan spot or yellow (leaf) spot disease of wheat (Triticum spp.) is caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that is wide-spread throughout the main wheat-growing regions in the world. This disease is currently the single most economically important crop disease in Australia. IN this study, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed as a diagnostic tool to detect the pathogen on wheat foliar tissue. A multicopy locus (PtrMulti) present in the P. tritici-repentis genome was assessed for its suitability as a qPCR probe. The primer pair PtrMulti_F/R that targets the region was evaluated with respect to species specificity and sensitivity. A PtrMulti SYBR qPCR assay was developed and proved to be suitable for the identification and relative quantification of P. tritici-repentis with a detection limi of DNA levels at ,0.1 pg. Variation of the PtrMulti copy number between the geographical representatives of P. tritici-repentis strains ...
American chestnut is a tree of great historical, ecological, and economical importance. It once dominated forests in eastern United States until the introduction of chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) in the late 19th century. Within 50 years, C. parasitica killed almost all of the 4 billion American chestnut trees in the eastern United States. The fungus first infects wounded stem, secretes oxalic acid to decrease the pH of the infected tissue to toxic levels for the tree, but optimum for fungal enzymes, and then mycelia fans spread forming a canker which when it girdles a branch prevents water and nutrient transport, eventually killing the tree above the canker. The fungus does not infect the roots, thus allowing the growth of adventitious shoots to keep the tree alive. However, this survival is only temporary because these spouts will again get infected by the fungus and die back to the ground. It is this continuing circle that made American chestnut, once a great canopy tree, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hazard from reliance on cruciferous hosts as sources of major gene-based resistance for managing blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) disease. AU - Li, Hua. AU - Barbetti, Martin. AU - Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - The host ran-e of eighty isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans obtained from various cruciferous hosts in Western Australia was tested by inoculating onto cotyledons of 13 cruciferous hosts, including six Brassira species and one interspecific line of Brassica. These field isolates produced highly variable responses across the hosts tested. One or more isolates overcame the resistance in each of the tested Brassica species with the B-genome. such as B. juncea, B. nigra and B. carinata and of other species tested, including Raphanus raphanistrum. Crambe abyssinica, Sinapis alba, Eruca vesicaria and Raphanus sativus. None of the isolates tested to date were virulent on Camelina sativa. Of all isolates, 48.8% (and 75%, of isolates taken from ...
American chestnut [Castanea dentate (Marshall) Borkhausen, Fagales: Fagaceae] was a dominant forest tree in the eastern forests of the U.S. until it was eliminated as a canopy tree species by 2 exotic pathogens. Ink disease, a root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (Pythiales: Pythiaceae), began to destroy chestnut populations on bottomland and poorly-drained sites in the mid-1800s, and the chestnut blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr, Diaporthales: Cryphonectriaceae] reduced the species to short-lived sprouts on upland sites in the first half of the 20th Century (cf. Campbell and Schlarbaum 2002, Fading Forests II: Trading Away North Americas Heritage, healing Stones Found., Knoxville, TN). Various organizations have used a backcross breeding approach to integrate blight resistance from Asiatic chestnut species into American chestnut in an effort to restore the species to eastern forests (Anagnostakis 1999, In Proc. 2nd Intern Symp. Chestnut; Hebard 2001, Ecol. ...
Banner MAXX is a systemic fungicide for use on turfgrasses for the control of dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa), brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani), anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola), red thread (Laetisaria fuciformis), pink patch (Limonomyces roseipellis), rust (Puccinia graminis), powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis), stripe smut (Ustilago striiformis and Urocystis agropyri), summer patch (Magnaporthe poae), necrotic ring spot (Leptosphaeria korrae), spring dead spot (Leptosphaeria korrae, Leptosphaeria narmari, Ophiosphaerella herpotricha, Gaeumannomyces graminis), take-all patch (Gaeumannomyces graminis), leafspot (Bipolaris spp., Drechslera spp.), gray leafspot (Pyriculariagrisea), pink snowmold (Microdochium nivale), Fusarium patch (Fusarium nivale), gray snowmold (Typhula spp.), yellow patch (Rhizoctonia cerealis), and zoysia patch (Rhizoctonia solani). Banner MAXX also controls numerous diseases on ornamentals and other landscape and nursery plantings. It controls powdery mildews, ...
Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, the causal organism of the necrotrophic foliar wheat disease tan spot [also known as yellow (leaf) spot in Australia] is an important disease in Australia and in many parts of the world. North American isolates of the pathogen have been shown to produce combinations of three host-specific toxins, ToxA, ToxB and ToxC. Each toxin interacts with a host sensitivity locus, respectively Tsn1, Tsc2 and Tsc1. The virulence of an isolate is partially correlated with the presence of these toxins and resistance in the host is associated with absence of the sensitivity loci. Breeding for resistance to tan spot can, therefore, be aided by knowledge of the prevalence of the toxin-encoding genes in local pathogen populations. Two of the toxins, A and B, are encoded by known genes and molecular tests for the genes have been developed. We screened a diverse collection of 119 tan spot isolates collected between 1984 and 2008 and from all affected regions of Australia (Queensland, New ...
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; Drimys, etc ; seedlings; essential oils; wheat; plant extracts; height; plant pathogenic fungi; application rate; botanical pesticides; essential oil crops; fungal antagonists; stomatal conductance; dry matter accumulation; disease severity; Triticum aestivum; antifungal properties; bark; biological control; grain crops; take-all disease; phytotoxicity; chlorophyll; Chile; Show all 24 Subjects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intraspecific variation in plant growth-promoting traits of aureobasidium pullulans. AU - Sun, Pei Feng. AU - Chien, I. An. AU - Xiao, Hong Su. AU - Fang, Wei Ta. AU - Hsu, Chia Hsuan. AU - Chou, Jui-Yu. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Aureobasidium pullulans is a yeast-like fungus exhibiting various morphologies in different niches. It is one of the most widespread saprophyte fungi and is distributed across a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Previous studies have reported that A. pullulans can be used as biopesticide. However, the morphological variations may influence its selection as a biocontrol agent. Therefore, knowing the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits is essential not only for the application as biopesticides but also as biofertilizers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to investigate the different strains of A. pullulans in terms of their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid, ammonia, and polyamine-producing abilities, ...
The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) causes tan spot, a destructive foliar disease of wheat worldwide. The pathogen produces several necrotrophic effectors, which induce necrosis or chlorosis on susceptible wheat lines. Multiple races of Ptr have been identified, based on their ability to produce one or more of these effectors. Ptr has a wide host range of cereal and non-cereal grasses, but is known to cause damage only on wheat. Previously, we showed that Ptr can interact specifically with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare), and that the necrotrophic effector Ptr ToxB induces mild chlorosis in a highly selective manner when infiltrated into certain barley genotypes. In the present study, a barley doubled-haploid (DH) population was evaluated for reaction to Ptr race 5, a Ptr ToxB-producer. Then a comprehensive genetic map composed of 381 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used to map the locus conditioning this chlorosis. The F1 seedlings, and 92 DH lines ...
Stem rot disease in canola caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum leads to lodging and severe yield losses in Canada. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is equipped with small, secreted proteins (effectors) to induce plant cell death to facilitate nutrient uptake. Characterizing cell death/necrosis-inducing effectors might enable devising strategies to identify disease tolerant germplasm that is impervious to select necrosis-inducing effectors. In this study, RNA-Seq analysis was performed with a focus on the events occurring through the early (1 hour) to the middle (48 hours) stages of infection to reveal the gene expression patterns during the course of S. sclerotiorum infection on B. napus. The differentially expressed genes including those encoding hydrolytic enzymes, secreted effectors, enzymes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites or their detoxification, signaling, development, as well as oxalic acid and reactive oxygen species production. This investigation provides a broad overview of ...
Synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) are an important component of the breeding programs of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). CIMMYT germplasm is the most important source of genetic resources for wheat breeding programs in Iran, but their utilization has to be examined prior to their incorporation into breeding programs. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 128 CIMMYT SHWs to septoria tritici blotch (STB), a destructive wheat disease caused by Zymoseptoria tritici. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with Z. tritici spores in the greenhouse, kept at 20-22ºC and scored 21 days post inoculation by estimating the percentage of necrotic lesions bearing pycnidia. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers revealed that 11 Z. tritici isolates had high genetic variability. The isolates varied in their virulence towards SHWs. Among all interactions (n=1408), 304 resistance responses were identified. Of 128 genotypes, 60 synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes showed no
Infection of barley leaves by powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) causes increased dark respiration, par tof which is associated with active host responses to infection, and a consequence of which is reduced plant growth. The pathogen cannot be grown separately from the host. Therefore, in order to examine those changes in respiratory activity peculiar to the host, attempts were made to isolate protoplasts from infected tissues, and from healthy controls. Isolation of useful numbers (, 106cm−6) of viable mesophyll protoplasts from infected tissues was possible with one among several batches of commercial Cellulysin tested; on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), this batch contained a low molecular weight protein at 20.1 kDa not found in other batches. In all isolated protoplasts, total respiration increased with the age of the source-leaf, but within 24 h of inoculation respiration was stimulated by infection. Protoplasts from ...
This study tested the effectiveness of single and combined applications of Trichoderma and rhizobacterial strains to control white root rot (WRR) caused by Rosellinia necatrix in avocado plants. Three Trichoderma, two T. atroviride and one T. virens monoconidal strains and four bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and two P. chlororaphis) were assayed to determine their compatibilities in vitro. In addition, the effects of the bacterial filtrates were evaluated against the Trichoderma strains and reciprocally; these filtrates were applied alone or in combination to determine their effectiveness against R. necatrix. Individual control agents or combinations of them were applied to avocado plants that were artificially inoculated with a virulent R. necatrix strain. Compatibility between the combined Trichoderma applications and the bacterial strains was observed and these combinations significantly improved the control of R. necatrix during the in vitro experiments. ...
The mycoparasitic efficiency of 28 strains/isolates of Clonostachys rosea f. rosea and Clonostachys rosea f. catenulata against the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was determined in dual cultures on Czapek-Dox nutrient agar. Strains with low and medium efficiency were antagonistically inhibited by B. sorokiniana, and inhibitory zones were formed between the colonies of
There are few diseases of chestnut trees in North America. However, the one disease chestnut trees have, chestnut blight, is still thought of as one of the worst tree diseases in history.. Chestnut blight has killed more chestnut trees around the world than any other forest disease. The fungus that causes chestnut blight can be traced from China and Japan where it did not cause much disease when compared to North America and Europe where it killed several billion trees. More recently it was found in Australian chestnut orchards and they destroyed several orchards and thousands of trees to hopefully eradicate this disease.. Chestnut blight has the deserved reputation of being impossible to manage when growing chestnut blight-susceptible trees, such as American chestnut. The only species with resistance to the blight fungus are Chinese and Japanese chestnut trees. In Michigan, we primarily grow Chinese trees or European X Japanese hybrid cultivars. While the Chinese trees are chestnut ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize a wide range of microbial pathogens and pathogen-related products, play important roles in innate immunology. Macrophages have a variety of TLRs, and pathogen binding to TLR resulted in the activation of macrophages. R-848, an immune response modifier, is an analog of imidazoquinoline derivative and binds to an endosome-localized TLR to exert an anti-viral response on leukocytes. In the present study, we verified that co-treatment of R-848 with other TLR agonists would enhance immune response. The culture supernatant of Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans, which contains predominantly soluble β-glucan), which binds to cell membrane-localized TLR, and to C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1, was treated together with R-848 to THP-1 macrophages. Compared to R-848 treatment alone, co-treatment of R-848 with A. pullulans culture supernatant significantly augmented TNF-α and IL-12p40 cytokine expression. Next, we investigated whether or not apoptotic cell uptake
The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a major pathogen of wheat worldwide, causing the leaf spotting disease tan spot. To best inform approaches for plant genetic resistance, an understanding of the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungal pathogen is essential. Here, intracellular and extracellular proteins of P. tritici-repentis were extracted, and peptides analysed via high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our objective was to generate a useful proteomics resource for P. tritici-repentis. A survey of proteins secreted by the pathogen into culture filtrate is especially useful, as these are likely to come in direct contact with the wheat host and may play important roles in infection/pathogenicity. The peptide data presented herein, has also been used to successfully verify and refine in silico predicted P. tritici-repentis gene annotations, through the validation of alternative splicing and reading frame shifts. The data sets presented consist of peptide spectra of the extracellular and
Management of M. phaseolina involves a combination of cultural practices and chemical methods. Cultivars differ in their susceptibility to charcoal rot: Strawberry Festival is highly susceptible, Florida Radiance is moderately susceptible, and Sweet Sensation® Florida 127 is moderately resistant. New cultivars developed by the University of Florida breeding program are tested for their susceptibility to M. phaseolina every season. Pre-plant soil fumigation is the standard method employed by growers to reduce inoculum levels and control charcoal rot. Methyl bromide was highly effective in controlling the pathogen. Since its phase-out, strawberry growers have transitioned to alternative broad-spectrum fumigants. Studies performed at the UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (GCREC) in Balm, FL, at the Florida Strawberry Growers Association in Dover, and on commercial farms demonstrated that Telone®, K-pam®, Vapam®, Paladin®, and Dominus® applied through shank or drip tapes ...
Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC ® 9348™ Designation: F-44 [CBS 621.80, DSM 2404, IMI 145194, QM 3090] Application: Bacterial resistance testing adhesives Degrades plastics Fungus resistance testing Fungus resistance testing adhesives Fungus resistance testing lacquer Fungus resistance testing paint Fungus resistance testing plastics Fungus resistance testing textiles Fungus resistance testing varnish Produces inulosucrase fructosyl transferase Produces pullulan Testing
Chestnut blight is a serious disease of chestnut trees caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The fungus does little damage to host trees in its native range in Asia, but has devastated American chestnut when it was accidentally introduced to the USA more than 100 years ago via infected planting stock. The disease was introduced into Europe in the 1930s where it affects species such as the European or sweet chestnut. It has since spread to most parts of the continent, causing serious damage in orchards and forests. Chestnut blight was detected for the first time in Britain in 2011 on planted imported trees, but is now considered eradicated. However, annual surveys and vigilence are needed to ensure that the UK remains free of the disease ...
RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. Nevertheless, RNA silencing machinery in the important oil crop Brassica napus and function in resistance to the devastating fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are not well understood. In this study, gene families of RNA silencing machinery in B. napus were identified and their role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum was revealed. Genome of the allopolyploid species B. napus possessed 8 Dicer-like (DCL), 27 Argonaute (AGO) and 16 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes, which included almost all copies from its progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea and three extra copies of RDR5 genes, indicating that the RDR5 group in B. napus appears to have undergone further expansion through duplication during evolution. Moreover, compared with Arabidopsis, some AGO and RDR genes such as AGO1, AGO4, AGO9 and RDR5 had significantly expanded in these Brassica species. Twenty-one out of 51 DCL, AGO and RDR
Microbial beta-glucosidases have been used for the enhancement of wine aroma. Nevertheless, few enzymes are active in the conditions of winemaking. in this work, the production of a beta-glucosidase by an Aureobasidium pullulans strain (Ap-beta-gl) isolated from grape ecosystems was evaluated. the maximum enzymatic synthesis using submerged fermentation was after 96 h of growth in complex media containing 20 g/L of cellobiose as the sole carbon source. the crude enzyme (Ap-beta-gl) showed optimal pH at 5.5 and two peaks of optimum temperature (at 45 and 70 A degrees C). It showed a wide range of pH stability, stability at low temperatures, and tolerance to ethanol, showing suitable characteristics for winemaking conditions. the hydrolysis of glycosidic terpenes by Ap-beta-gl was studied, and its ability to efficiently release free terpenols was demonstrated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. the enzymatic treatment notably increased the amount of monoterpenes, showing good prospects for ...
Macrophomina phaseolina is one of the major yield limiting factors of melons in tropical and subtropical regions. For eco-friendly and effective management of the disease, 24 gamma induced mutants from Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated against three isolates of the pathogen representing three geographically different regions viz. Khorasan (isolate 1), Garmsar (isolate 2) and Khuzestan (isolate 3). The isolates of Trichoderma (mutants and wild type) were evaluated against the pathogen in dual culture and through production of volatile and non-volatile inhibitors. Maximum growth inhibition was observed in Th1, Th4, Th15, Th9 and Th22 mutants after three days. In greenhouse evaluation against M. phaseolina (isolate 1) among the inoculated treatments minimum plant infection was observed in Th9 treatment (28% disease reduction) as compared to infected control and among the uninoculated treatments Th1and Th9 mutants resulted in maximum growth of roots and shoots of melon plants as compared to uninfected
Enzymatic ethanolysis of oils (for example, high oleic sunflower oil containing 90% of oleic acid) may yield two different reaction products depending on the regioselectivity of the immobilized lipase biocatalyst. Some lipase biocatalysts exhibit a 1,3-regioselectivity and they produced 2 mols of fatty acid ethyl ester plus 1 mol of sn2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) per mol of triglyceride without the release of glycerol. Other lipase biocatalysts are completely non-regioselective releasing 3 mols of fatty acid ethyl ester and 1 mol of glycerol per mol of triglyceride. Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) adsorbed on hydrophobic supports is a very interesting biocatalyst for the ethanolysis of oil. Modulation of TLL regioselectivity in anhydrous medium was intended via two strategies of TLL immobilization: a. - interfacial adsorption on different hydrophobic supports and b.- interfacial adsorption on a given hydrophobic support under different experimental conditions. Immobilization of TLL on supports
Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs are commonly found on the leaves of Myrtaceae, many of which are defoliated by these pathogens. The taxonomy of these fungi has been based on minute morphological differences, and virtually nothing is known regarding their relatedness to each other. In this study, we present a phylogeny of 30 species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs from myrtaceous hosts, based on sequence data from the ITS regions of the ribosomal RNA operon. Fifteen of the species were also analysed for the 5′ end of the large subunit (28S), which produced a phylogeny similar to that obtained for the ITS data set. The Mycosphaerella species included in this analysis are all regarded as representatives of section Plaga, and appear to represent a monophyletic assemblage. Mycosphaerella lateralis was the only species shown to have a wide host range. In general, species clustered together based on their anamorph genera. Species with Colletogloeopsis and Stenella anamorphs always ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Virulent ¤Blumeria graminis¤ infection induces penetration susceptibility and suppresses race-specific hypersensitive resistance against avirulent attack in ¤Mla1¤-barley. AU - Lyngkjær, M.L.. AU - Carver, T.L.W.. AU - Zeyen, R.J.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Leaves of near isogenic barley lines containing the race-specific resistance alleles. Mla1 or mla1 were subjected to double inoculation treatments with virulent and avirulent Blumeria graminis isolates. Attack by the avirulent isolate alone frequently caused hypersensitive death of individual Mla1 epidermal cells, but underlying mesophyll cells survived. Virulent and avirulent B. graminis isolates Were inoculated sequentially (inducer followed by challenger) in all possible combinations. As shown previously, where a papilla formed due to inducer attacks, the attacked epidermal cell, and to some extent its neighbours, showed highly increased resistance to challenger penetration. When epidermal cells died in response to ...
Diaporthe species are significant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes, with comprehensive host association and geographic distribution. These fungi cause severe dieback, cankers, leaf spots, blights, and stem-end rot of fruits on different plant hosts. This study, explored the occurrence, diversity and pathogenicity of Diaporthe spp. associated with Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa in the main kiwifruit production areas of China. Diaporthe isolates (284) derived from 106 diseased leaf and branch samples were examined. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and morphology of 43 representative isolates revealed that seven Diaporthe species were obtained, including D. alangii, D. compactum, D. eres, D. hongkongensis, D. sojae, D. tectonae, and D. unshiuensis. Pathogenicity tests were performed on kiwifruit fruits, leaves and branches. Kochs postulates confirmed all species were pathogenic. D. alangii and D. tectonae were the most aggressive species, followed by D. eres, D. sojae, D. hongkongensis, ...
There has been a long-standing interest in understanding geographical distributions of lichen-forming fungi and the factors that shape these distributions. Given our limited ability to make generaliza
The Mla locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare) conditions isolate-specific immunity to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) and encodes intracellular coiled-coil (CC) domain, nucleotide-binding (NB) site, and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)- containing receptor proteins. Over the last decades, genetic studies in breeding material have identified a large number of functional resistance genes at the Mla locus. To study the structural and functional diversity of this locus at the molecular level, we isolated 23 candidate MLA cDNAs from barley accessions that were previously shown by genetic studies to harbor different Mla resistance specificities. Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene expression assay. Sequence alignment of the deduced MLA proteins improved secondary structure predictions, revealing four additional previously overlooked LRRs. Analysis of nucleotide diversity of the candidate and validated MLA cDNAs revealed 34 sites of positive ...
Once an important hardwood timber tree, the American Chestnut is highly susceptible to chestnut blight, caused by an Asian bark fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) accidentally introduced into North America in the early 1900s. Although the tree still exists in the eastern US as stump sprouts, it is nearly non-existent a
The American chestnut tree, Castanea dentata, once covered the eastern United States. They were the dominant tree in the forests and grew to large and majestic size. They were prized for their fruit (which could often be found roasting on an open fire) and for their beautiful decay-resistant wood. However, due to the influx of the chestnut blight, large trees as you see to the left are no longer found in the natural range of chestnut. ---but there are several areas where chestnuts can still be found. The tree you see with me to the left is the Wisconsin state record American chestnut tree-- something more then 3 ft (1m) in diameter. It is on the farm of Ron Bockenhauer near West Salem Wisconsin, about 20 miles east of La Crosse. This tree was planted about 1885, along with 9 or 10 others. Their seeds propagated a forest of a couple hundred acres containing more than 3000 (three thousand!) American chestnut trees. Up until about 10 years ago the trees were free from the blight because of their ...
Aim The relative importance of long-distance dispersal versus vicariance in determining the distribution of lichen-forming fungi remains unresolved. Here, we examined diversity and distributions in a cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species complex, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma sensu lato (Ascomycota), across a broad, intercontinental geographical distribution. We sought to determine the temporal context of diversification and the impacts of past climatic fluctuations on demographic dynamics within this group. Location Antarctica, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. Methods We obtained molecular sequence data from a total of 240 specimens of R. melanophthalma s.l. collected across five continents. We assessed the monophyly of candidate species using individual gene trees and a tree from a seven-locus concatenated data set. Divergence times and relationships among candidate species were evaluated using a multilocus coalescent-based species tree approach. Speciation probabilities were ...
Chromoblastomycosis treatment market overview Chromoblastomycosis refers to a fungal infection which is caused by different fungi such as cladophialophora carrionii, rhinocladiella aquaspersa, fonsecaea pedrosoi, fonsecaea compacta, phia
The sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis field isolates to inhibitors of the cytochrome bc1 complex at the Qo site (QoIs) was characterised at the molecular, biochemical and physiological level, and compared to other respiration inhibitors. Comparison of a sensitive and a QoI-resistant isolate reveale …
The effect of the fungal mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans applied as a spray to crops infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (causal agent of white mold) on contamination of soil with S. sclerotiorum sclerotia was studied in a 5-year field experiment. Sclerotial survival also was monitored during two subsequent years, when the field was returned to commercial agriculture. In a randomized block design, factorial combinations of four crops and three treatments were repeated 10 times. Potato (Solanum tuberosum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), and chicory (Cichorium intybus), which are all susceptible to S. sclerotiorum, were grown in rotation. Plots were treated with C. minitans or Trichoderma spp. or were nontreated (control). Crops were rotated in each plot, but treatments were applied to the same plot every year. After 3 years during which it showed no effect on sclerotial survival, the Trichoderma spp. treatment was replaced by a single spray with C. minitans during the ...
Since September 2002, Catalpa bignonioides trees heavily infected with powdery mildew have been observed in five localities in Hungary. Infections appeared and spread rapidly on both young and older Catalpa trees planted as ornamentals in parks and along the streets. White mycelia principally covered the upper surfaces of the broad Catalpa leaves but were also found on the lower surfaces. Both young and older leaves were infected. Sporulating powdery mildew colonies were also found on the fruits. Conidia were produced singly on the conidiophores and measured 22-35 × 8-15 µm. Appressoria were simple or lobed, opposite or spread along the hyphae. Ascomata were produced in abundance on some leaves, mostly on the upper leaf surfaces. These measured 96-128 µm in diameter and bore five to nine 115-420-µm-long appendages. The appendages terminated in dichotomously branched, knob-like or slightly recurved tips. The ascomata contained four to seven stalked or sessile asci. Based on these ...
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection assays showed that CpkA was not required for lesion development but was essential for sporulation at the ...
By Karen P. Abella. Aureobasidium is a widely distributed fungal genus usually found in soil, fresh water, dead plant material, marine estuary sediments and wood. There are approximately 15 accepted species in this genus with the most commonly known being A. pullulans. This genus has also been observed to grow on textiles, foodstuffs, fruits and painted surfaces. In the indoor environment, Aureobasidium growth is commonly found in moist places such as bathrooms and kitchens, especially on shower curtains, tile grout and windowsills. The spores are usually disseminated by wind (when dry) and water.. Aureobasidium spores are difficult to identify on spore traps because of morphologic variation. Its most distinguishing feature is the production of primary blastospores (spores produced by a budding process) arising directly from pigmented, vegetative hyphae on short denticles (protuberances in the hyphae). The spores may be hyaline or pigmented, variable in size, one-celled, ellipsoid or ovoid, and ...