Since chemosensory genes play key roles in insect behaviour, they can potentially be used as new targets for pest control. The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, is a serious insect pest of cruciferous vegetables in China and other Asian countries. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes expressed in the antennae has not been reported. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of C. bowringi by using Illumina sequencing technology and identified 104 candidate chemosensory genes by analyzing transcriptomic data, which included transcripts encoding 26 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 43 odorant receptors (ORs), nine ionotropic receptors (IRs), and ten gustatory receptors (GRs). The data obtained are similar to those found in other coleopteran species, suggesting that our approach successfully identified the chemosensory genes of C. bowringi. The expression patterns of 43 OR genes, some of which were
Very few people recognize an ichneumon fly when they see one. But ichneumon flies are quite important. They are among our insect helpers. By laying their eggs in or near the eggs or caterpillars of harmful insects, they help us get rid of these insects. The larvas of the ichneumon flies, as soon as they hatch, begin to eat up the eggs and caterpillars that are near by ...
Adult Description: Adults are 6-12 mm long, chestnut brown color, the entire body is thinly covered with long grayish setae. The head and thorax have shallow pits and square-shaped frons. There is a transverse ridge between the brownish-black antennae. The male antennae are slightly longer than the body, whereas the female antennae are about two-thirds of the body length. The scape of the antennae are coarsely punctured. The prothorax is wider than its length, and the two sides are rounded with no lateral spikes. The prothorax has some hardly visible raised tubercles. The ventral portion of the thorax and the femur of all appendages are brownish-red and thickened.. Larva Description: Larvae are about 10 mm long, light yellow in color, and the body is slightly flat. The mouthparts are blackish-brown. The pronotum has a pair of brown markings.The thoracic legs are receded. Pupae are 7-10 mm long, oval shaped, and cream colored. Antennae are kept close to the sides of the body and bend back near ...
An extendable and retractable antenna installed on a body housing of a portable radio apparatus includes a helical antenna having an antenna cap protruding from a top portion of the body housing, a helical winding disposed within the antenna cap, a rod antenna extending through the antenna cap, and a feeder disposed at a bottom portion of the helical antenna. The helical antenna is operated when the antenna is retracted. The rod antenna is insulated from the helical antenna when retracted, and passes through the helical antenna to protrude from the body housing when extended. The feeder operates the rod antenna when the rod antenna is extended and operates the helical antenna when the rod antenna is retracted.
From an overcast day back in early September, an ichneumon wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), I have no idea of the genus nor the species.. Photo taken in Whiteknights Park, Reading University grounds, Reading, UK, on 2009-09-05.. ...
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Olfaction presents the ultimate challenge to molecular recognition as thousands of molecules have to be recognized by far fewer olfactory receptors. We have presented evidence that Drosophila readily distinguish odorants based on their molecular vibrations using a battery of behavioral assays suggesting engagement of a molecular vibration-sensing component. Here we interrogate electrophysiologically the antennae of four Drosophilids and demonstrate conserved differential response amplitudes to aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, nitriles and their deuterated isotopologues. Certain deuterated odorants evoked larger electroantennogram (EAG) amplitudes, while the response to the normal odorant was elevated in others. Significantly, benzonitrile isotopologues were not distinguishable as predicted. This suggests that isotopologue-specific EAG amplitudes result from differential activation of specific olfactory receptors. In support of this, odorants with as few as two deuteria evoke distinct EAG amplitudes ...
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An ablation treatment apparatus has a multiple antenna device with a primary antenna and a secondary antenna. The secondary antenna is positioned in a lumen of the primary antenna as the primary antenna is introduced through tissue to a selected tissue site. At the tissue site the secondary antenna is deployed from the primary antenna in a lateral direction relative to a longitudinal axis of the primary antenna. At least a portion of a distal end of the secondary antenna is structurally less rigid than the primary antenna. The primary antenna is constructed to be rigid enough to be introduced and advanced through tissue. A cable couples the energy source to one or more of the antennas.
Table_2_Differential Expression Analysis of Olfactory Genes Based on a Combination of Sequencing Platforms and Behavioral Investigations in Aphidius gifuensis.DOCX
Here is the practical method. I just scribbled it on my iPad. You may download it as a PDF file. :-)" - Thierry. Thierry, I have seen something similar to this (The EPE-2008 theremin had a on-board circuit to assist tuning) - but, in playing with the EPE circuit, I found the operation of this circuit unsatisfactory.. My understanding (and my experiments) indicate that maximum loading on the oscillator occurs at the resonant frequency of the antenna circuit (coils + antenna capacitance).. and that one wants the hand capacitance "seen" by the antenna to be at the position one requires for the null point (about 60cm from the antenna). The resistance inserted between the oscillator and antenna circuit allows the oscillator frequency to be adjusted without being effected by the antenna loading - so one can find (by looking for peak current) the resonant frequency of the antenna circuit.. However, as soon as the 100k (or whatever value is used to isolate the antenna from the oscillator) is replaced ...
Here is the practical method. I just scribbled it on my iPad. You may download it as a PDF file. :-)" - Thierry. Thierry, I have seen something similar to this (The EPE-2008 theremin had a on-board circuit to assist tuning) - but, in playing with the EPE circuit, I found the operation of this circuit unsatisfactory.. My understanding (and my experiments) indicate that maximum loading on the oscillator occurs at the resonant frequency of the antenna circuit (coils + antenna capacitance).. and that one wants the hand capacitance "seen" by the antenna to be at the position one requires for the null point (about 60cm from the antenna). The resistance inserted between the oscillator and antenna circuit allows the oscillator frequency to be adjusted without being effected by the antenna loading - so one can find (by looking for peak current) the resonant frequency of the antenna circuit.. However, as soon as the 100k (or whatever value is used to isolate the antenna from the oscillator) is replaced ...
An electrical device configured to install within a wall mounted electrical box includes an antenna bezel frame, an antenna element, and a radio frequency circuitry component. At least a portion of the antenna bezel frame is configured to protrude through an opening in a faceplate. The antenna element is mounted to the antenna bezel frame such that the antenna element is located a distance forward of a plane that contains a front surface of the faceplate when the field configurable electrical device is installed. The radio frequency circuitry component is in electrical communication with the antenna element and is configured to receive a control signal from the antenna element.
Wildlife Sanctuary protecting wombats, birds, reptiles, fauna & flora. Promoting conservation, wildlife education and understanding
A passive reflective antenna located near an active receiving antennas is used to change the energy at the receiving antenna. The change in energy may be such as to remove a null created by multipath or to provide directionality, or both. The receiving antennas is permanently connected to a single receiver. When the receivers output signal degrades below an acceptable level of quality, the reflective phase of the passive antennas load is changed to change the phase of the reflected energy and achieve a desired effect (remove a null, change directionality, etc.) at the receiving antenna. In the simplest embodiment, the termination of the passive antenna is switched from an open circuit to a short circuit, or vice versa, to invert the phase of the reflected energy. The use of reflective elements in antenna designs, usually to achieve directionality, is well known (see the common Yagi or corner reflector antenna designs, for example), but these use passive reflector elements. The present invention, in
The stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides is an important pest of maize in the Mediterranean Basin. Like other moths, this noctuid uses its chemosensory system to efficiently interact with its e...
Wilson (1964) - Syntype: HW 0.43 mm, HL 0.58 mm, SL 0.59 mm. Antenna 10-segmented. Mandible typical in form. Clypeus feebly convex, entire, dentate. Parafrontal ridge distinct but only 0.1 mm long. Propodeal junction acutely angulate. Subpetiolar process a low, right-angular lobe projecting anteriorly. Pilosity overall sparse, longest pronotal hairs only about 0.10 mm long. Head smooth and shining. Mesosoma smooth and shining except for mesopleuron and propodeum, which are microreticulate and feebly shining. Also, there are short longitudinal rugae distributed along the propodeal junction. Concolorous clear yellow. Jaitrong et al. (2010) - (10 non-type workers): TL 2.6-2.7 mm; HL 0.55-0.58 mm; HW 0.43-0.45 mm; SL 0.55-0.58 mm; ML 0.85-0.88 mm; MTL 0.55-0.58 mm; PL 0.25-0.28 mm; CI 74-82: SI 122-135. Head in full-face view clearly longer than broad, with its sides and posterior margin slightly convex. Antennal scape long, extending beyond posterior corner of head; antennal segment II slightly ...
A list of 10 letter words that begin with I in the enable uncensored word list. 939 words: iatrogenic ibuprofens iceboaters iceboating icebreaker ichneumons ickinesses iconically iconoclasm iconoclast iconolatry iconoscope icosahedra idealising idealistic idealities idealizers idealizing...
ANTENNA APPARATUSES AND APPROACHES THEREFOR | METHODS AND APPARATUSES FOR VERSATILE BEAMFORMING | SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PHASED ARRAY BEAM CONTROL | PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD PRODUCT WITH ANTENNA STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR ITS PRODUCTION | ANTENNA MODULE |
I have a 2015 RT 170V. It has a Sole digital tv antenna. I use a hotspot and stream tv & internet. Therefore, tv antenna not used & Id like to replace with a cell signal booster. The best
A method and system are provided for testing antenna systems using position determination, orientation determination, test pattern analysis using a variety of factors and equipment including positions and orientation of antenna(s) under test at specific points and signal processing systems.
Abstract: Biomolecules are a topic of interest to many individuals and organisations including; • Medicinal research groups looking at patient treatments focused on rare or underfunded diseases • Pharmaceutical companies looking to target particular diseases with smaller toxicological side effects. Click to read more...
The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna. Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates.. In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory neurons in other parts of the body) from where the sensory neurons carry the information about the odorant molecules impinging on the antenna to the antennal lobe.[1] The antennal lobe is composed of densely packed neuropils, termed glomeruli, where the sensory neurons synapse with the two other kinds of neurons, the projection neurons and the local neurons.[1] There are 43 glomeruli in the Drosophila antennal lobe; in Aedes aegypti there are 32;[1] locusts and social wasps may have over 1000.[1] The projection neurons project to higher brain centers such as the mushroom body and the lateral horn.[2] [3] [4] The local neurons, which are primarily inhibitory, ...
姜晓静.,宁超.,郭浩.,贾岩岩.,黄玲巧.,...&王琛柱.(2015).A Gustatory Receptor Tuned to D-Fructose in Antennal Sensilla Chaetica of Helicoverpa armigera.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,60,39-46 ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Hymenoptera - Ants, Bees, Wasps, Sawflies, Horntails, Ichneumons, Mud daubers, Cow killers, Cicada killers -- Discover Life
A system and method are described for using RFID tags to track and monitor personnel and equipment in large environments and environments that are prone to multipath fading. The system scans the environment by selecting local interrogation zones where RFID tags may be located. Multiple antennae are used, each transmitting a portion of an activation signal, such that the activation signal will be formed in the selected local interrogation zone. Different subsets of the antennae are successively selected, each targeting the selected local interrogation zone, to repeat the activation signal for each subset of antenna. RFID tags in the local interrogation zone will receive the portions of the activation signals and process them to determine whether the full activation signal was destined for that local interrogation zone for each of the subsets of antennae. An activated RFID tag will transmit its tag information, including any data collected from sensors connected to the tag, back to the system. The systems
An antenna circuit to be used in conjunction with a chip transponder such that the antenna circuit serves for both the reception of interrogative signals intended for the transponder as well as for response signals that ape to be transmitted by the transponder. The antenna circuit has at least one magnetic circuit of high μ material, and is formed of ceramic core means, that have been built into a depression in a thick-walled surface intended to receive the chip transponder. This thick-walled surface may be of metal. The ceramic core means comprise at least a ceramic core resonator and half a ceramic core that functions as an antenna with its open side facing outward. In one aspect, the ceramic core resonator and the half ceramic core antenna are coupled by means of one or more secondary coils of the closed ceramic core, which also form the coils of the half ceramic core antenna. In another aspect, the secondary coil forms a resonating circuit with at least one capacitive element in series. In yet
Citation: Byers, J.A. 2013. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 39(8):1081-1089. Interpretive Summary: Semiochemicals are released by organisms that when perceived by another organism cause it to change behavior. Insects use semiochemicals for communication, to find mates, or to locate or assess host plants. Many insect species have been studied to determine the relationship between concentration (dose) of a specific semiochemical and the corresponding insect behavioral response. Although it is generally recognized that these dose-response relationships are not linear, little information exists to indicate the true functional relationship between semiochemical dose and insect response. A computer simulation using a hypothetical insect antenna and a wide range of semiochemical doses indicated a family of mathematical equations, or functions, described the dose-response relationship nearly ...
A device and method is disclosed for creating a lesion in nerve-containing tissue spaced from a body lumen while protecting tissue forming and adjacent to a wall of the body lumen from injury. A catheter carrying a microwave antenna is positioned within the body lumen. Cooling fluid is circulated around the microwave antenna in thermal contact with the wall of the body lumen. Power is supplied to the microwave antenna to cause microwave energy to be emitted omnidirectionally from the microwave antenna. The power supplied to the microwave antenna and the cooling fluid circulated around the microwave antenna are controlled to cause the nerve-containing tissue spaced from the body lumen to be heated to a temperature sufficient to cause thermal damage while the tissue forming and adjacent to the wall of the body lumen is maintained at a temperature where thermal damage does not occur.
The other problem is the science. Every year we are told that eating foods containing nutrient X is really, really, bad for us, and its a wonder our ancestors survived long enough to reproduce. And then a year or two later, we find out that, fancy that, nutrient X is actually necessary for optimal functioning and we have to start adding it back in. This years must eat food also turns out to be next years you-really-need-to-cut-back-on food. Look at butter vs. margarine. Unless you have a lactose issue, butter has no more calories, and not having tons of weird chemicals, its much, much healthier. I admit we still have some "I cant believe its not butter" or some Olio in the fridge, but thats because its so much easier to spread than butter. But we dont use much, and I do all my cooking with lots of butter. I eat lots of meat, and Im discovering that as I cut carbs, the fat is actually starting to taste really good. And guess what? My blood pressure is back where it was 20 years ago, ...
The antennae are 11 segmented (including the scape). In side view, the petiole and postpetiole are either low and rounded or barrel-shaped, or the petiole is armed above with 1 to 3 small spines or teeth. The middle and hind legs with greatly swollen femora (and often tibiae as well). The modified petiole (low and rounded or armed with teeth above) and the swollen femora will separate these ants from others in the subfamily Myrmicinae. Heterick (2009) - Medium-sized ants with rather long, low petioles, which are sometimes armed with small spines or denticles. The swollen tibiae, the 11-segmented antenna and the form of the petiole typically distinguish this genus from similar- looking myrmicines. ...
A stacked patch antenna has a first element having a feed thereto spaced above a ground plane and one or more spaced apart parasitic elements spaced above the first element. The first and parasitic elements may be tuned to a fundamental mode for radiation of a specified frequency. The geometric centers of the parasitic elements are offset from one another and from the geometric center of the first element along the same direction. The stacked patch configuration provides increased gain and bandwidth. The offset configuration determines the direction of maximum gain for the antenna. The first and parasitic elements can be single antenna elements and may be microstrip antenna elements. The elements can also be arrays of microstrip antenna elements. The phasing of the arrays of microstrip elements can be controlled to determine a gain sensitivity direction.
A helical antenna for use with small portable wireless devices as disclosed which includes a magnetic tuner including a magnet adapted to move in a direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the antenna whereby the impedence of the antenna can be varied greatly by displacement of the magnet only a short distance. The antenna preferably further includes a variable capacitor for reducing any mismatching between the input impedence of the antenna and the characteristic impedence of an associated feeder which can be caused by adjusting the magnetic tuner.
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AAP - Automated Antenna Positioning. Looking for abbreviations of AAP? It is Automated Antenna Positioning. Automated Antenna Positioning listed as AAP
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
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Biologists are finding that most normal vertebrate cells have cilia, small hair-like structures that protrude like antennae into the surrounding environment
I sort of remember my electronics theroy on SWR and the importance of having an antenna length in specific divisions of the wavelength, from eons ago....
Consider that you may have a card putting 15dBm (32mW) into a 2.2dBi antenna (on the AP), and thatyour card probably has an effective 2dBi gain antenna on it. Operating at 2.4GHz, at 1m, thereis 41dB of path loss between the two units. At 2m, youll have another 6dB of path loss, for 47dB.So the signal leaves at 17dBm (from the AP), you lose 41dB due to LOS (Line of Sight) path lossat 1m, and the signal arrives at the antenna in your laptop at perhaps -24dBm, and is raisedto -22dBm by the antenna.This is quite close to the maximum signal level of 802.11g ...
ITELITE MRA24014E - 2.4Ghz 14 dBi panel antenna with integrated small Weatherproof Enclosure, MMCX or UFL Pigtail included product description
Proxicast: Antenna & Extension Cables For Cellular 3G/4G/LTE & Wi-Fi Applications for Proxicast LAN-Cell and PocketPORT cellular 3G/4G Routers and other 3G routers, 4G routers and LTE routers. - page 2
Slashback tonight with more words on printable, organic transistors; the off-screen saving-Farscape saga, wireless schools, Gobe Productive, and 802.11 antennae to extend you connection. Read on for the details.
Nov. 26, 2014\Your entire existence...all matter, all life, all experiences--everything owes its existence in the physical world to frequency. Absolutely everything is frequency. You cannot have an ex...read more
Antenna with 5 segments; segment 3 and 4 subequal in length or 4 longer than 3. Ring organ on basal 1/4 of segment 1. Blade subequal in length to flagellum. Lauterborn organs distinct, from 1/2 to about as long as segment 3. Style well developed, usually as long as segment 3.. ...
Desaturation of fatty acids is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of moth sex pheromones. The main component of Spodoptera littoralis sex pheromone blend is produced by the action of delta11 and delta9 desaturases. In this article, we report on the cloning of four desaturase-like genes in this species: one from the fat body (Sls-FL1) and three (Sls-FL2, Sls-FL3 and Sls-FL4) from the pheromone gland. By means of a computational/phylogenetic method, as well as functional assays, the desaturase gene products have been characterized. The fat body gene expressed a delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1:4.5) ratio, whereas the pheromone gland Sls-FL2 expressed a delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1.5:1) ratio. Although both delta9 desaturases produced (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid from myristic acid, transformed yeast grown in the presence of a mixture of myristic and (E)-11-tetradecenoic acids produced ...
Insect antennae are multimodal sensory structures that provide olfactory, mechanosensory, hygrosensory and thermosensory information to the insect nervous system (Schneider, 1964). These sensory inputs guide insect flight in several ways. On the shorter (approximately single wing stroke) time scales, antennal mechanosensory feedback is thought to be of key importance for flight control in both non-Dipteran (e.g. Gewecke et al., 1974; Sane et al., 2007; Sane et al., 2010) and Dipteran (Gewecke and Schlegel, 1970; Mamiya et al., 2011) insects, whereas on the longer (of the order of multiple wing strokes) time scales feedback from other modalities such as vision and olfaction also influences their overall flight trajectories (Kennedy and Marsh, 1974; Willis and Arbas, 1991; Willis and Arbas, 1998; Verspui and Gray, 2009; Vickers, 2000). The central processing of mechanosensory and olfactory inputs is clearly separated within the insect deutocerebrum. Whereas the olfactory input is primarily ...
Antenna gain-to-noise-temperature (G/T) is a figure of merit in the characterization of antenna performance, where G is the antenna gain in decibels at the receive frequency, and T is the equivalent noise temperature of the receiving system in kelvins. The receiving system noise temperature is the summation of the antenna noise temperature and the RF chain noise temperature from the antenna terminals to the receiver output. Antenna temperature (Tant) is a parameter that describes how much noise an antenna produces in a given environment. Antenna noise temperature is not the physical temperature of the antenna but rather an expression of the available noise power at the antenna flange. Moreover, an antenna does not have an intrinsic "antenna temperature" associated with it; rather the temperature depends on its gain pattern and the thermal environment that it is placed in. Antenna temperature is also sometimes referred to as Antenna Noise Temperature. To define the environment, well introduce a ...
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